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Ecotourism

GUIDELINES
Ecotourism: Places and Traditions
Funded by the European Union (Interreg III C)

Strategic and Methodological Guidelines


for the Development of Ecotourism
Prepared by all partners in the project:
Leadpartner: Province of Teramo (Italy)
Rapporteur: Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH (Germany)
Partners: Sviluppo Italia Abruzzo SpA (Italy)
County Council of Malaga (Spain)
Andalusian Heritage Foundation (Spain)
Technological Institute of the Canary Islands (Spain)
West Sweden (Sweden)
Municipality of Geroskipou (Cyprus)
Council of Penacova (Portugal)
Municipality of Alonissos (Greece)
Environmental club “Zvejone” (Lithuania)
Region of Istria (Croatia)

2005
Partnership

Provincia di Teramo (IT)


Sviluppo Italia Abruzzo S.p.A. (IT)
West Sweden (SE)
Diputación de Málaga (ES)
Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias (ES)
El legado Andalusí (ES)
Camara Municipal de Penacova (PT)
Demos Alonissou (GR)
Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH (DE)
Ekologinis klubas ”Zvejone” (LT)
Demos Geriskipou (CY)
Istarska Zupanija (HR)

© Eco Tourism: Places and Traditions

Editor: Christine Penzlin

Design: Danilo Furia

Print: Edigrafital s.r.l.


Table of Contents

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Chapter 1 Ecotourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
a. The Definition of Ecotourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
b. Sustainable Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
b.1 Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
b.2 WTO and Sustainable Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
b.3 EU and Sustainable Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
c. Ecotourism and Mass Tourism Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Chapter 2 Ecotourism Demand Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


a. Ecotourism Market Analysis: Trend for the Next Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
b. The Ecotourist Segmentation and Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
c. The Ecotourist: Needs and Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
c.1 Activity Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
c.2 Motivations and Reasons for Trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Chapter 3 Ecotourism Supply Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


a. Places: A Definition of Potential Eco-destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
a.1 Natural Resources Analysis to Preserve and Exploit the Territory from an Economic Point
of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
b. Tradition: A Definition of the Cultural and Historic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
c. A Definition of the Potential “People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
c.1 Local Public Authorities Commitment to Ecotourism Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
c.1.1 Legislative Tools: Financing, Resources Reallocation, Resource Consumption and Pollution
Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
c.1.2 Encouragement of Voluntary and Informative Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
c.2 Local Communities Commitment to Ecotourism Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
c.2.1 Children and School Involvement for Nature Respect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
c.3 Economic Operators Commitment to Ecotourism Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
c.3.1 Hospitality Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
c.4 The Role of Private and Public Transportation into the Tourism and Travel Industry . . . . 42
c.5 Codes of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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Chapter 4 How to Promote the Ecotourism Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
a. Co-ordinated Promotion and advertising by the Public and Private Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
a.1 The Ecotourism promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
a.2 The Importance of Co-ordination and Collaboration between Public Organisation and
between Them and Private Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
a.3 Brand Image Creation and Promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
b. Customised Tour Packages Aimed for the Ecotourists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
c. Ecotourism Packages Distribution: Tour Operators or Individual Tourists? . . . . . . . . . 55
d. New Technologies for Ecotourism Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Chapter 5 Technologies for Ecotourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
a. A Definition of the Potential “Technologies” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
b. Technologies Needed to Plan the Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
c. Technologies to Improve the Management of the 78 Natural Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 60
d. Utilisation of Mobile Services and Virtual Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Conclusions ................................................................. 66
Appendix 1 The Pilot Project Results in the Partner Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
a. Pilot Project of the Province of Teramo (Italy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
b. Pilot Project of the Malaga County Council (Spain) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
c. Pilot Project of the Council of Penacova (Portugal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
d. Pilot Project of the Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH (Germany) . . . . . . . . . . . 76
e. Pilot Project of the Municipality of Alonissos (Greece) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
f. Pilot Project of the Municipality of Geroskipou (Cyprus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Appendix 2 Comparison of the Marketing Plans of the Pilot Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Bibliography ................................................................. 92
Webliography ................................................................. 95

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Executive Summary

Purpose and Scope of the Document nine different countries from April 2003 through
October 2005 in a modular system. The smooth
This document is a result of the project “Ecotourism: accomplishment of the project was organised in five
Places and Traditions” which was conceived and modules with different working groups. Sub-projects,
funded within the programme of the European so called pilot projects, were implemented and the
Union Interreg IIIC. outcomes of the working groups were put together in
The initiation of the project was based in the com- the findings of this document. The document was
mon interest of the involved partners to minimise written and assembled by the Rapporteur and the
negative impacts on landscapes and social and cultur- Leadpartner with the aid of all other project partners.
al environment by tourism. The intention was to sup-
port the preservation of natural areas as well as the Findings
stimulation of economic benefits for the local people, The findings display the results of the work of the
local organisations and local authorities. Hence, the partners in the different working groups. They
overall aim of the project was to give recommenda- include the facets that have to be taken in considera-
tions and to provide guidelines for the further devel- tion when implementing Ecotourism in destinations.
opment of Ecotourism in Europe.
The project included the implementation of six pilot Chapter 1 - Ecotourism Definition
projects in different partner countries. The description The first chapter deals with Ecotourism and its defi-
of the pilot projects and the marketing plan is also added nitions and policies. The review of the different defi-
in the appendixes of this paper in order to show how the nitions of Ecotourism showed that an officially
findings were elaborated in the different regions. accepted definition and standards for Ecotourism are
still missing. There are many different definitions but
The final paper has been supervised and assembled by the main obstruction detected was, that not all of the
the lead partner and, after being discussed and approved organisations and institutions necessarily consider to
by all partners was disseminated and advertised through the same ecological and social aspects.
the ad hoc Ecotourism web site and book. The chapter also displays the different approaches of
the EU and WTO in the case of sustainable tourism.
Method Hereby a clear differentiation between Ecotourism
The accomplishment of the project focused on the and sustainable tourism was aimed at. Moreover, the
exchange of experiences and information about the first chapter points out the tension between
different approaches to Ecotourism adopted within Ecotourism and mass tourism. This led to a discus-
the European territory and its neighbouring countries. sion of the importance of Ecotourism and the princi-
The project was conducted with twelve partners from ples for the development.

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Chapter 2 - Ecotourism Market Analysis The development of the Ecodestination is investigat-
ed in the first section of this chapter. Hereby the
Chapter 2 of the document deals with the Ecotourism
importance of defining the potential of an
market and its target group. It was found that recent
Ecodestination was highlighted. An Ecodestination is
research indicates that Ecotourism including Eco-edu-
characterised by possessing a rich cultural heritage or
cation, cultural and adventure travel is now the fastest
special natural and environmental “capital”. The val-
growing segment of the tourism industry. Also, the
orisation and rising of awareness of the natural and
number of tourists itself will increase by 50 percent
cultural “capital” was found to be essential.
until 2020 as experts of the WTO believe.
By looking at the actually target group it was found When looking at traditions the existing culture and
that the Ecotourists have a high level of environmen- historic resources are the key success factor of a region
tal conscience and believe that nature must be pro- as they are offered as the main product of the region.
tected and celebrated within a natural context. Their It was found that the authenticity is the most impor-
environmental philosophy is well developed and is a tant character of a cultural touristy offer and therefore
guide to their travel decisions. The findings also the core content of Ecotourism.
showed that the needs and expectations of the In the third section of this chapter the role of people
Ecotourist could be segmented and profiled in the in the development of Ecodestination was investigat-
following way: ed. People are found to be the key resource to make
• Important elements of a trip for Ecotourists are: sure that Ecotourism initiatives and resources do not
wilderness setting, wildlife viewing and hiking/ remain isolated and disconnected. Especially public
trekking; authorities are obliged to communicate the co-ordi-
• Quality guides are important for Ecotourism; nation of initiatives among the stakeholders. Hereby,
• The accommodation is not the critical determinant the integration and co-ordination of all stakeholders
for Ecotourists; were found to play a fundamental role. Therefore the
• The Ecotourism traveller tends to be more interest- methods used for involving and integrating people
ed in outdoor-related activities. should be carefully considered and balanced.

The chapter also looks at the motivations and reasons As a result of the investigation of the suppliers of
for trips of the Ecotourist and points out the bene- Ecotourism, it shows that the development of
fits sought. In difference to the mass tourism the Ecotourism necessitates a clear strategy. The existence
benefits sought by the Ecotourist were found to of potential demand for Ecotourism is not sufficient
very much related to nature and environmental alone to convince businesses that there will be profit.
concerns. However, all Ecotourism initiatives have to comply
with the existing environmental requirements, which
Chapter 3 - Development of Ecotourism means a control of the numbers of tourists so as not
overload certain areas.
In chapter 3 the supplier of Ecotourism are examined.
Here, the four main topics of the project; places, tra- Chapter 4 - The Promotion of Ecotourism
ditions, people and technologies are discussed thor-
oughly in a common way supplemented by suitable Chapter 4 highlights the importance of promotion
examples. for Ecotourism. The investigation of promotion in

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Ecotourism showed that tourism promotion must be tial tourist. Information about Ecotourism offers, the
preceded by a thorough analysis of market needs and settings they are developed in, the social and eco-
desires in order to define the goal for Ecotourism pro- nomical situation of the regions can be spread in an
motion. efficient and direct way.
As for the Ecotourism destinations, the investigation
showed that they have to create and to promote an Conclusions and Recommendations
individual image, that the potential tourists can In the conclusion the main findings of this document
recognise it with its particular traditions, cultures, are displayed. Recommendations for the further
tastes and peoples. Thus, the importance of co-ordi- development of Ecotourism are withdrawn. Among
nation and collaboration between public organisa- other minor points these findings are seen most
tions and private operators was found fundamental. important to highlight.
In order to obtain the goal of efficient communica-
tion the use of modern information & communica- For the progressing of the development of
tion technologies was pointed out to be necessary. Ecotourism in Europe, European regions which want
to implement Ecotourism in order to foster sustain-
Further, the creation of brand image and promotion able development of their destination need to take the
tools was examined. The best tools found for promot- following points into consideration:
ing Ecotourism destinations are word-of-mouth, spe-
cialized press and websites. The use of new technolo- 1. Implementation of the concept of sustainability
gies for Ecotourism marketing offers a large amount of with an installation of
information to the potential tourist. Information • Management of environmental aspects;
about Ecotourism offers, the settings they are devel- • Monitoring and information system and;
oped in, the social and economical situation of the • Development of strategic and objective targets
regions can be spread in an efficient and direct way. according to the ecological balance.

Chapter 5 – Technologies for Ecotourism This should be accomplished in collaboration with


the different stakeholders (e.g. nature conservation
Chapter 5 evolves the importance of technology to
associations, hotels, travel agencies, tourist service
plan, inform and promote the implementation of
providers, local authorities).
Ecotourism. Technologies are needed when planning
the implementation of an Eco-destination, as so do 2. Agreement and compliance on indicators for a bet-
geographic information systems (GIS), for example. ter environment
It can give stakeholders adequate information about • Transport;
the Eco-destination in question and makes it possible • Load limits by land use, biodiversity and tourism
to plan the sustainable development according to the activities;
characteristic of the territory. Another aspect for the • Energy and water consumption, waste manage-
use of technologies in the development of Ecotourism ment.
is the use of renewable energy systems. This can offer
3. Agreement and compliance on social and cultural
the tourist industry a positive community image for
performance indicators.
attracting more potential clients.
The use of new technologies for Ecotourism market- 4. Agreement and compliance for the economical
ing offers a large amount of information to the poten- capability.

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Introduction

Background of the Project “Ecotourism: Places and The European Union’s most important tool for
Traditions” achieving sustainable growth and full employment is
the Lisbon Strategy with its three-pillar approach. It
Sustainable Development
includes:
The environmental, social and economic dimension
• Economic reforms that will improve the internal
of sustainable development needs to be pursued in a
market and promote growth;
coherent manner, both within EU and in our rela-
tions with partners around the world. The resources • The modernisation of the labour market and the
we have that form the basis for sustainable develop- social welfare systems will help to increase labour
ment include: natural resources, human health, skills supply and sustainable public finances;
and expertise, infrastructure and the built environ- • Environment-related action will help to break the
ment. To protect and to improve the environment link between growth and environmental damage.
and thereby quality of life for people, the countries of
the world are working together within the UN, the The Environmental Efforts
EU and many other organisations. Therefore, the
The environmental dimension of the Lisbon Strategy
European environmental policy is of major signifi- is an important instrument for achieving a strong
cance, not just for EU’s environment, but also for the environmental policy at EU level. The EU must also
countries international actions. continue to lead the way and take initiatives to devel-
Sustainable development is the overall goal of EU op international co-operation in the climate area. The
policy. This means that all political decisions must be EU is seeking to initiate discussions on the next com-
taken into account of long-term economic, social and mitment period after 2012 and to consider emission
environmental impacts. The goal is to modernise the goals in the medium and long term. Effective legisla-
European Union to make our society more resource- tion is needed against the use of chemicals that are
efficient. This is a process of change that will drive hazardous to health. Regulations for the use and
innovation, new jobs, growth and welfare. approval of pesticides should be stricter. The phasing
out of environmentally hazardous heavy metals must
The use of new technology, construction and plan- continue. Specific problems affecting the Baltic Sea
ning as well as the persuasion of an active energy and need to be highlighted in work on a strategy to pro-
environmental policy will reconcile good economic tect and preserve the marine environment.
progress with social justice and protection of the envi- Environmental considerations, in particular the
ronment to our own benefit and the benefit of future preservation of biological diversity, should be integrat-
generations. Success requires the integration of envi- ed into the Common Agricultural and Fisheries
ronmental policy into all sectors of society. Policies. Energy efficiency within the Union should be

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increased with the help of low- and non-waste tech- an Eco-touristy context are booked. Nearly half of the
nology. Economic policy should be used to integrate travels are in Europe, particularly in the
environmental considerations into economic policy.
Alpine and in the Mediterranean region. Despite the
The EU is also pursuing an active environmental increase of the Ecotourism, many different private
agenda on a global scale. Sustainable ecological devel- and public certificates for Ecotourism still exist in
opment can only be achieved through global collabo- Europe. Therefore, the goal of the United Nations is
ration. Something has to be done about the exces- the co-operation of the governments in order to
sively high consumption of resources. While support improve international and regional organisations and
still must be given to the poor to improve their qual- NGOs and also to explain a uniform definition of
ity of life, it is still necessary to preserve natural Ecotourism.
resources. Ever since the EU took the initiative for the
sustainable development, the member states have A certification of providers of the Ecotourism,
played a leading role in the United Nations according to standardised criteria and the integration
Environment Programme (UNEP). The EU is also of the principles of the sustaining development of the
taking an active role in the drafting of conventions to tourism industry, should be implemented as fast as
protect the environment. These are binding regula- possible. This is required to support the traveller, for
tions to, for example, combat climate change, protect making a clear decision for certain tourism offers, and
biodiversity and phase out hazardous chemicals. for defining a clear trend for the sustainability in the
tourism. The participation of civil society and busi-
The EU and Ecotourism ness in the definition of environmental problems
gives different stakeholders and voluntary organisa-
As a reaction to the mass tourism, the "soft tourism" tions a greater chance of participating in negotiations
was developed in the 80's. The conceptual approach and decisions (1).
of soft tourism fitted in the same niche of the con-
tents of "social and environmental compatible The Project “Ecotourism: Places and Traditions”
tourism", "ecological tourism" ("Ecotourism") or
"fair travel". According to the world tourism organi- Facts about the Project
sation, travelling under Eco-touristy aspects shows The project “Ecotourism: Places and Traditions” was
the worldwide strongest growth within the tourism conceived and funded within the programme of the
industry. While the traditional tourism shows a European Union Interreg IIIC. As for the pro-
growth rate of annual 7.5%, the rise of rural tourism gramme, the overall aim of the project is to encour-
or Ecotourism is around 20% per year. It already con- age inter-regional co-operation within the whole
stitutes 5% of the worldwide tourism. For the next European territory and its neighbouring countries.
decade a portion of 10% of the worldwide tourism is
expected to increase. The quantitative data to the The countries involved in this project are: Italy,
Ecotourism from the same source is even more spec- Spain, Portugal, Germany, Sweden, Cyprus, Greece,
tacular - yearly more than 600 million stays of more Lithuania and Croatia.
than one night abroad (both vacation and business The execution period of the project was from April
trips) and more than 2 billion in the inland travels in 2003 until October 2005.

(1) A Framework For Multi-stakeholder Processes 09/06/2005 http://www.earthsummit2002.org/msp/

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The Realisation of the Project Ecotourism. It is to outline strategic and methodologi-
The initiation of the project was based in the com- cal guidelines for the future and to increase the inter-
mon interest of the involved partners to minimise regional co-operation as an instrument, which can
negative impacts on landscapes and social and cultur- effectively contribute to the Ecotourism development
al environment by tourism. across the different geographic areas.

The intention was to support the preservation of nat- Resultant sub-objectives of the described overall objective
ural areas as well as the stimulation of economic ben- were:
efits for the local people, local organisations and local • The development of a large-scale common and
authorities in regions with the natural and tradition- shared vision on the promotion of sustainable
al potential to develop Ecotourism. tourism associated with traditions
• To test a new approach related to Ecotourism devel-
The results of the project should contribute to the opment in selected sites of the participating regions
advancement of the management according to the through the implementation of pilot sub-projects,
following objectives:
• To jointly elaborate common innovative strategic
• Preserve natural environment,
and methodological guidelines for the development
• Generate extra income for stakeholders,
of sustainable tourism in areas that have an inter-
• Awaken the public opinion for environmental
esting heritage of traditions
problems
• To pursue the transfer of knowledge and the imple-
• Preserve traditions
mentation of operational results in other regions
The main objective of the project is to promote the done by establishing relations with regional admin-
strategy and implementation of sustainable tourism istration departments in charge of tourism develop-
development policies, particularly in those “minor” ment policy of additional areas not represented by
areas. With the intention to develop of methodologi- the operation partners.
cal guidelines, the effort within the project focused
on the following four topics: The project implementation focused on the four main
topics of the project: places, traditions, technologies
• Places: how to promote “minor”, less visited areas
and people and consisted of a five Module process.
in connection with major places by creating and/or
revitalising tourist routes;
Module 1: Management and Co-ordination
• Traditions: how to preserve and to utilise the terri-
The main task of this module was to ensure an efficient
tory and its particular historical and cultural her-
and effective management of the operation. This meant
itage and traditions in focus of sustainable tourism
to maximise the co-operation and co-ordination among
development.
the partners and to guarantee a correct financial and
• Technologies: how to increase the application of
administrative management. The lead partner the
Eco-compatible technologies in up-market tourist
Province of Teramo led the module.
services and how to improve telecommunication
tools for the tourist industry.
Module 2: Information Exchange and Experience
• People: Means how to better involve residents and Sharing
operators in tourism development activities.
The module “Exchange of Experiences” dealt with
The project aimed to encourage the exchange of expe- the exchange of information, experiences, best prac-
riences and information about the different approaches tices and ideas that the partner countries already have
adopted all over Europe concerning the development of adopted for the development of Ecotourism. This was

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mainly to the four main topics: places, traditions, The pilot project and their results are described in
technologies and people. detail in Annex 1.
The final goal was to produce a complete paper on the
partner countries’ different approaches about the Module 4: Elaboration of Strategic and Methodological
implementation and exploitation of Ecotourism. The Guidelines for the Development of Ecotourism
first step of this task started at the meeting in Penacova, The module 4 focused on the jointly elaboration of a
held in November 20th-21st 2003. There, each partner paper on the partner countries with common innova-
reported in an in-depth presentation about its own best tive and strategic methodological guidelines for the
practices of Ecotourism. The second step consisted of development of sustainable tourism in areas having
the building up of 4 working groups (WG) one for an interesting heritage ^ and local traditions.
each of the four topics according to their own interest.
Each partner took part and contributed their output in The first step of this task consisted in the formation of 5
working groups under the lead of a supervising partner.
the writing part of this final paper.
According to their interest each partner took part and
contributed to this paper. The paper was thoroughly dis-
Module 3: Planning and Implementation of 6
cussed and approved by all partners on the conference in
Ecotourism Pilot Pprojects in Selected Regions
Geroskipou / Cyprus from 6th to 10th July 2005.
This module was implemented in order to test a new
approach to the development of Ecotourism in select- The guide was disseminated and advertised through the
ed sites of the participating regions. The intention operation web site, 400 printed versions and CD-copies.
was to obtain feedback and further elements useful to
elaborate joint methodological guidelines within Module 5: Results Dissemination
module 4. In order to reach this aim 6 pilot project The main task of this module was to transfer the
ideas were generated and approved. The following knowledge and results of the project to a large public.
project partners and regions were involved: Therefore a multi-lingual website was developed
Partners name Project region Project town (www.interreg-ecotourism.net). This website
Province of Teramo Abruzzi Cortino describes the partners, activities and outputs of the
County Council of Malaga Andalusia Malaga
Camara Municipal de Penacova Penacova Penacova operation, makes relevant documentations, is easily
Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge accessible, promotes operational events and ensures
GmbH Erzgebirge Annaberg two-way communication with target groups, which
Municipality of Alonissos Alonissos Patitiri
Municipality of Geroskipou Paphos Geroskipou are interested in providing their outputs with respect
to Ecotourism development. Further actions were the
All selected sites are interesting due to their heritage organisation of a kick off meeting, a final conference
and traditions. They all were “minor” tourist areas so and five more Interreg-conferences. All partners con-
far. All projects differed regarding the used potentials ducted additionally ad hoc meetings and small-scale
of the areas. All collected feedback from visitors and seminars in order to reach well defined target
local residents/service providers and gained valuable groups/people in the different partner areas.
experiences determine these guidelines. The project was finalised in October 2005. The
The common objectives of all pilot projects were to results were disseminated by a final conference held in
increase the awareness and interest of local residents Teramo/Italy under participation of all partners, their
and service providers in respect of sustainable tourism guests from the different involved countries and rep-
development. resentatives of the European Commission.

12
Chapter 1
Ecotourism

a. The Definition of Ecotourism to the social and economic deterioration and loss of
population.
The most common definition of Ecotourism is that
The potential for Ecotourism can be defined by the
used by the IUCN (1), which defines it as:
following characteristics:
“... environmentally friendly trips into nature in order to – Environmental and scenic value of the natural and
enjoy and care for the natural habitat (and whatever rural areas
other cultural resource that may be encountered, be it – Cultural values: tradition and rural uniqueness
past or present), that promotes conservation of the sur- – Local economy and traditional activities
roundings, has little negative impact on behalf of those – Low impact infrastructures and tourist services:
who participate in it and boosts the social and economic accommodation and transport
development of the local population”. – Capacity of load on the cultural and natural
Using this definition, Ecotourism can be defined as a resources
complex tourist activity, which promotes sustainable – Degree of fragility of the local society
economic exploitation of the Eco-destination. This – The establishment of low environmental impact
tourist activity has two unique aspects: transport infrastructure to and from the Eco-desti-
1. The diversification and flexibility of the activities. nation (green routes)
Multiple activities or integral services with the – Respect for the culture and local identity
chance for the tourist him/herself to design his/her – The educational aspect regarding the good use of
own customised package, which is then integrated the environment implicit in these activities, both
into the reality in the place they visit. for the Ecotourist and the local inhabitants.
2. Its microeconomic aspect and the rather dissemi-
Among the characteristics of Ecotourism the most
nated nature of the offers. Small-scale businesses,
important ones are found to be:
normal family matters or sole proprietor set-ups
that provide the diverse Ecotourism services • Responsible tourism. The different agents that
(accommodation, food, information, activities) in interact in the Eco-destination from the promoter
different surroundings. to the tourist are especially sensitive to the local cul-
ture and the diversity in the natural habitat they
An Eco-destination can be defined as “a place, not move around. This awareness is combined with an
necessarily a tourist resort”, which has a high poten- attitude of respect and social responsibility regard-
tial for Ecotourism. Not every place can aim to devel- ing which impact their actions may have on the
op these kinds of initiatives simply to seek solutions environment and social life in the local community.

(1) IUCN (“International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources” also known as “World Conservation Organisation”).

13
The Ecotourist attempts to integrate and also “Nature tourism”, another often-used term, is also
actively contributes to the conservation of the envi- used as a synonym for Ecotourism. But in contrast to
ronment and the local traditions. Ecotourism, nature tourism is qualitatively different:
• Participation in the local area. There is a high level it does not have to fulfil the principles and criteria of
of participation in the local social life and the deci- sustainability and does not necessarily have to be eco-
sion-making processes, which aims at defining a logically orientated.
collective strategy for the protection and promotion
of the Ecotourism resource capital within the b. Sustainable Tourism
framework of sustainable tourism.
b.1 Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism
The detailed study of Ecotourism has revealed that
In the 1980s the increasing criticism on the negative
there is an enormous conceptual heterogeneity in the
impacts of tourism, especially of mass tourism,
sector. On one hand, there is a wide range of
began. As a consequence the concept of “soft
Ecotourism offers that vary depending on their terri-
torial and cultural scope. On the other hand, there tourism” was developed. Other terms like “environ-
seems to be an over-usage of the term Ecotourism mentally sound”, “responsible travel” and “sustain-
both on a social level and in the business sector. For able tourism” followed. Since the World Summit on
example, tour operators use the term “Ecotourism” to Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in
promote their nature trips and authorities use the 1992 the term “sustainable tourism” has become more
term extensively to promote their tourist centres and and more important and replaces other terms.
destinations. Not all of those organisations and insti- Sustainable tourism describes a kind of tourism, which
tutions necessarily consider the ecological and social treats people and the nature in a responsible way.
aspects, which should be paid attention to, in the case Sustainable tourism is an overarching concept, which
of Ecotourism. This problem of “green washing” has includes all types of tourism and is not necessarily relat-
undermined the significance of the term Ecotourism ed to the visit of natural sites only. It has a long-term
and lead to further misunderstandings. When the perspective and is ethically, socially, culturally appro-
United Nations declared the year 2002 as “The priate, environmentally and ecologically sustainable as
International Year of Ecotourism” it became obvious well as economically profitable and feasible.
that officially accepted definitions and standards were In the World Ecotourism Summit (2), hosted in Quebec
still missing. City in 2002, the participants recognised that
For environment and development organisations Ecotourism embraces the principles of sustainable
“Ecotourism” is considered to be a part of “sustain- tourism concerning the economic, social and environ-
able tourism”. This means that Ecotourism does not mental impacts of tourism. This means that Ecotourism
represent another niche within the commercial does not represent another niche within the commercial
tourism market, as the tourism industry would like to tourism market but belongs to sustainable tourism and
treat it. It describes a philosophy of travelling, which can be distinguished from the wider concept of sustain-
fulfils the criteria of sustainable tourism by promot- able tourism by the following principles:
ing a compatible and responsible way of travelling, • Contributes actively to the conservation of natural
especially in nature areas. and cultural heritage;

(2) Quebec Declaration of Ecotourism, 2002.

14
• Includes local and indigenous communities in its tions, including mass tourism and the various niche
planning, development and operation, and con- tourism segments”. The long-term view of achieving
tributing to their well being; sustainability in the tourist sector demands that these
• Interprets the natural and cultural heritage of the activities should:
destination to visitors; • Make optimal use of environmental resources that
constitute a key element in tourism development,
• Lends itself better to independent travellers, as well
maintaining essential ecological processes and
as to organised tours for small sized groups.
helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiver-
sity.
b.2 WTO and Sustainable Tourism • Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host com-
The WTO states that “Sustainable tourism develop- munities, conserve their built and living cultural
ment guidelines and management practices are appli- heritage and traditional values, and contribute to
cable to all forms of tourism in all types of destina- inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.

Box 1. Visions of sustainable tourism (3)

(3) Translated by creatours – Agentur für Marketing, Projekt- und Tourismusmanagement, Original by Müller (1999) and Baumgartner (2000).

15
• Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, pro- “…that is economically and socially viable without
viding socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders detracting from the environment and local culture. It
that are fairly distributed, including stable employ- means business and economic success, environmental
ment and income-earning opportunities and social containment, preservation and development, and
services to host communities, and contributing to responsibility towards society and cultural values three
poverty alleviation. facets that are interdependent.”
• Further more the WTO has identified the partici-
Furthermore the sustainability of tourism concerns
pation of the stakeholders as key actors in this area
particularly important aspects such as competitive
of work. Their participation, together with a strong
and socially responsible tourism enterprises, the pos-
political leadership will ensure a wide participation
sibility for all citizens to participate in tourism, good
and consensus building for achieving a sustainable
employment opportunities in the sector and benefits
tourism. This is however, a continuous process and
from tourism activities for local communities. It also
it requires constant monitoring of impacts, intro-
requires the preservation of cultural integrity, the
ducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective
incorporation of environmental issues and of the pro-
measures when necessary.
tection of heritage resources in tourism measures.
• A Sustainable tourist offer should also maintain a
high level of tourist satisfaction and at the same The importance of tourism as a local as well as a glob-
time ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists al economical factor is why it is necessary to make
raising their awareness about sustainability issues sure it’s a threat neither to the stakeholders nor to the
and promoting sustainable tourism practices environment. The commission suggests that
amongst them.
“...Sustainable tourism can contribute significantly to
b.3 EU and Sustainable Tourism achieving the objectives of maintenance of high and sta-
ble levels of economic growth and employment, social
Since the mid-1990s, the sustainable development of progress which recognises the needs of everyone, and effec-
tourism has become a priority for EU Institutions. In tive protection of the environment and prudent use of
November 2001 the Commission proposed to "pro- natural resources”(7).
mote sustainable development of tourism activities in
Europe by defining and implementing an Agenda 21”(4). The limits of the natural, economic, social and cul-
This issue received strong support from the European tural resource base, which define the economic sus-
Parliament, the Council, the European Economic tainability of the sector, would be unable to cope with
and Social Committee and the Committee of the indefinitely continuing expansion of European
Regions (5). tourism. However, with specific strategies, tourism
activities can be realigned to meet sustainability
In “Basic orientations for the sustainability of requirements, new challenges and demands from
European tourism” EU defines sustainable tourism as changing tourism trends and activities and increase
tourism(6): revenues.

(4) Working together for the future of European tourism “Working together for the future of European Tourism” (COM (2001)665 final).
(5) European Tourism Forum “Sustainability In the European Tourism Sector” (2002).
(6) “Basic orientations for the sustainability of European tourism” (COM (2003) 716 final).
(7) Ibidem.

16
c. Ecotourism and Mass Tourism Differences coastal regions, but also occurs in mountain areas
Tourism is the world's largest employer. The bulk of (e.g. for skiing), river valleys, wetlands, and deserts.
revenue generated from the tourism industry is Mass tourism can have a significant effect on both the
derived from mass tourism. Mass tourism is a large- cultural and the natural environment. A mass tourism
scale, well- developed industry with specific channels development can alter an area dramatically. It may
of communication and distribution, and an estab- require the provision of extensive accommodation
lished infrastructure of transportation, accommoda- and services (such as water, power and sanitation serv-
tion, and food service (8). In mass tourism, hosts gen- ices), as well as require the provision of associated
erally are of a lower socio-economic status than their infrastructure, such as provision of airports and access
guests. roads. More recently there has been a growing
demand for mass tourism in more exotic locations,
Mass tourism generally involves a large number of which has the potential to result in adverse effects on
people visiting a small area. It commonly centres in less developed areas and more sensitive environments.

Box 2. Example for connecting Ecotourism and mass tourism

The development of Ecotourism in Geroskipou/Cyprus


The Municipality of Geroskipou lies in West Cyprus adjacent to the much larger Municipality of Pafos. The main
economy of the area is tourism and there are a large number of quality hotels, hotel apartments and private apart-
ments for rental locally.
As the Pafos area is a popular coastal year-round tourism destination our aim was therefore to encourage tourists,
both foreign and Cypriot, to visit the cultural attractions of the Municipality for one day of their holiday, rather
than spending their holidays exclusively on the coastal strip or visiting many of the other major cultural attractions
outside the Municipality.
It was decided that the main tool for attracting people to visit the Municipality should be a website. This website
should provide the potential visitor with an overview of the history and archaeology of the Municipality, outline the
myths and legends of the area, provide information of the major and minor local cultural sites, demonstrate local
crafts and produce and provide the visitor with route maps and suggested trails. An important part of the website
would be the creation of links to and from other sites, thereby directing the potential visitor to the Geroskipou web-
site. For more information please see Annex 1 “The pilot project of the Municipality of Geroskipou” and in the
internet at http://www.geroskipoumunicipality.com/

In contrast to mass tourism Ecotourism aims to con- highly visited coastal zones and reduce seasonality of
nect the preservation of natural resources and cultur- the tourism sector and offers unique opportunities for
al heritage and to achieve economic effects (see fol- development of disadvantaged and marginal hinter-
lowing sections "The importance of Ecotourism" and land.
“Principles for the Development of Ecotourism“). By no means mass tourism is being pointed to as bad
Moreover Ecotourism can relieve the pressure on examples per se or should they be replaced across the

(8) J.D. Fridgen “The dimension of tourism” (1991).

17
board by other alternatives. Rather, the ways of han- trades and crafts that were in danger of being lost;
dling mass tourism should be modified, and other • The creation of stable employment.
alternatives such as Ecotourism or pro-poor cultural
tourism should be encouraged to complement the Principles for the Development of Ecotourism
current tourism industry. This means that those who implement and partici-
pate in Ecotourism activities should follow the fol-
The Importance of Ecotourism lowing principles:
Ecotourism has become an important economic • Minimise impact;
activity in natural areas around the world. It provides • Build environmental and cultural awareness and
opportunities for visitors to experience nature and respect;
culture and to learn about the importance of biodi- • Provide positive experiences for both visitors and
versity conservation and local cultures. At the same hosts;
time Ecotourism generates income for conservation • Provide direct financial benefits for conservation;
programs and economic benefits for communities liv- • Provide financial benefits and empowerment for
ing in rural and remote areas. Give economic value to local people;
ecosystem services that protected areas provide: • Ensures equal, effective and active participation of
• generate direct income for the conservation of pro- all stakeholders;
tected areas; • Promotes processes for indigenous peoples and
• generate direct and indirect income for local stake- local communities to control and maintain their
holders, creating incentives for conservation in local resources;
communities; • Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, envi-
• build constituencies for conservation, locally, ronmental, and social climate;
nationally and internationally; • Support international human rights and labour
• promote sustainable use of natural resources; and agreements.
• reduce threats to biodiversity. The following steps have been elaborated in order to
Among other benefits Ecotourism has medium-term promote Ecotourism in an emerging Eco-destination:
benefits for the local communities in the following ways: 1. Definition of the Ecotourism “capital” in the Eco-
• The protection and the increase in awareness of the destination;
environmental wealth; 2. Definition of sustainable uses for tourism;
• The suitable control of the number of visitors and 3. Definition of standards for the characteristics of
the percentage of the local inhabitants that depend the transportation infrastructures that are environ-
directly on tourism within the limits set out as the mentally respectful;
destinations healthy capacity (7); 4. Definition of the standard of tourist amenities
• The conservation of the natural rural habitat and within the size of the rural area and Eco-capital
the traditional urban development. Urban develop- availability;
ment limited to the village and town centres, as 5. Definition of the “tourist-load” capacity the destina-
opposed to tourist infrastructures that are integrat- tion can stand (sustainable tourist load, the growth of
ed into the rural landscape; tourism, then, is directly linked with the tourist-load
• The boosting of local manufacturing industries that considered to be acceptable, which in turn, helps to
is normally centred on traditional crafts and trades maintain the environmental standards and the
specific to the local area. The recovery of old-time amount of Eco-capital throughout long periods).

(9) WTO 2005.

18
Chapter 2
Ecotourism Demand Analysis

a. Ecotourism Market Analysis: Trend for the Next standards;


Future • Tourists are mobile and can travel across borders
and continent without barriers;
The tourism industry is expected to grow steadily
over the next three years. The WTO estimated that • The trend towards short trips increases;
almost 11% of the GNP is obtained within the • The interest in activities and the interest in the
tourism industry. Today over 200 Million people are experience of new topics will increase;
employed in the tourism business and it is assumed • The age-average in the European society increases,
that another 40 Million jobs will be created in the but the people are more active and mobile;
next ten years. Experts of the WTO believe that the • The conscious for ecological concerns and the
number of tourists will increase by 50% until 2020. search for authentic experiences increase;
The increase of travels with an ecological context will
• With the increasing acceptance of the internet the
even rise up to 20% in the next 20 years. The changes
bookings and information allocation will increase.
in society towards individualism are decisive factors
triggering this trend. The trends of the social development and the market
are interrelated with the characteristic of the
There are also changes in the type of travel experi-
Ecotourist. The following goes into detail to the
ences being sought with an increasing demand for
motives, the behaviour and the sociodemographic
speciality tours that cater to interests such as outdoor
features of Ecotourists.
adventure, culture, education and wellness. Indeed,
recent research indicates, that Ecotourism including
b. The Ecotourist Segmentation and Profiling
Eco-education, cultural and adventure travel is now
the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry. Characteristics and Motives of the Ecotourist
On the ITB (Internationale Tourismus Börse) in Traditionally, Ecotourism was considered to be a
March 2005 it was announced that the demand of niche market that was characterised by travellers who
Eco-oriented and sustainable tourism offers are had higher incomes, were well educated and well
increasing (1). travelled. It is now becoming a popular theory that
With the above described paradigm, different changes Ecotourism is moving from being a niche travel expe-
in the trends of the tourism business evolve(2): rience to more of a mainstream travel choice.
• The tourist’s choice for destinations is influenced The following graph displays who is the typical
by the desire for high quality and sophisticated Ecotourist and what are his/her motives.

(1) http:/www.oez-bonn.de/pages
(2) http:europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/services/tourism/studies/ecosystems/heritage.de.htm

19
Box 3. Characteristic of the Ecotourist, G. Janas, creatours, in accordance and evaluation of different studies of theWTO.

The Ecotourist

Motives for the Ecotourist Characteristics of the Ecotourist


• Nature experience; • Middle-aged (over 35, 50+)*
• Experience of „local life“ (people, traditions, pro- • Familieys are not so interesting for Ecotourism
ducts, catering); • Over-average income
• Environmental protection. • Higher social background
• Well educated
• Mostly individualist, that prefers to travel individual
Interest in • Interest in Topics such as „sustainability“, nature
and environmental protection “, regional aund cul-
Nature
tural Identities
• Seeking recreation
• Despite ecological interest no restriction in the tra-
vel distances = air traveller, than for 3 to 6 weeks
Interest in
using bus, tram, bike or on foot when on site
culture
• Quality orientated without consume orientation
and need for luxury
• Well informed of travel conditions aund customs of
the countries
• Prefers calm and authentic places for its destination
* Spanish and Italian Ecotourist are in average younger and have a
lower budget when travelling.

Moreover we can distinguish between two types of cast for tour operators. The quota of committed
Ecotourists – the committed and the interested tourists is rather small compared to the rest.
tourist. The difference between a committed and an
interested tourist is that the interested dedicates parts Box 4. Demand for Ecotourism on the example of Germany
of his/her time to specific topics while the committed (Source: WTO, Special Report - The German Ecotourism Market.
tourist spend most of his/her time with activities. The
categories for activities of the committed tourist can Example: Demand for Ecotourism on the example
be hiking, wildlife viewing, and working in nature of Germany
but also the participating in education. In contrary, “The typical German Ecotourist is between 30 and
hiking or biking and visiting of festivals or nature 59 years old with an net income from 1.534 to more
Reservation Parks are activities of the interested than 2.556 Euro, which is above average. The majo-
tourist. The interested tourist is to a high degree envi- rity of Ecotourists is female and is well educated.
57% of the travels are done outside Europe and the
ronmental conscious and stays longer at a place in
most popular destination of the German Ecotourist
certain seasons. The committed tourist instead is not is Costa Rica, according to the travel operators”.
banded to a certain season and offers profitable fore-

20
Time of Travel • Hunting and fishing;
The Ecotourist usually travels in the off-season. This • Authentic and individual adventure tours (climb-
ing, paragliding, orienteering hike, dog slide rac-
especially accounts for the group of tourists without
ing);
children. The age group of the 39 – 59 years especial-
ly prefers to spend their vacation experiencing nature • Visit of courses for nature preservation and creativ-
ity;
and culture. Given the fact, that the European socie-
ty grows older, the creation of offers in the off-season • Visit of educational programmes;
will be a chance for the tourism region within • Visit of festivals and theatres;
Europe. Nature tourism and Ecotourism activities are seen to
be very important components in the mix of so-called
Concerning the organisation of the travel the ecolog-
adventure product experiences. Although the
ical oriented tourist prefers to travel individual. If the
Ecotourist is interested in Ecotourism, they expect to
Ecotourist chooses a tour operator the decision is incorporate other experiences into their total trip.
influenced by the specialisation and certification of
the organisation. Important Element
The duration of stay differs and depends on the sea- When not travelling individual quality guides are
son. In Europe the average stay amounts to max. 7 extremely important for Ecotourism. For a quality
days. When travelling to farther regions the length of guide skills in language, natural and cultural history,
stays increases. There, travels with a duration from 4 environmental interpretation, communications, serv-
to 8 weeks are not uncommon. ice and ethical principles are required.

c. The Ecotourist: Needs and Expectations c.2 Motivations and Reasons for Ecotourism
c.1 Activity Preferences Most important motives for the Ecotourist are the
experience of the nature and scenery and the experi-
The general consumer tends to be more interested in
ence of the local culture and people. The interest in
culture-related activities, while the experienced
nature and culture reason also the activities sought by
Ecotourism traveller tends to be more interested in
the Ecotourist on land or water base. Vacationers who
outdoor-related activities. In the following examples are interested in nature- and culture orientated trav-
of vacation activities related to Ecotourism are dis- els, have the following motives:
played. The Ecotourist has a desire for multi-activity
1. Health and well-being is important;
and are interested in more than one type of activity
for their vacation. 2. They want to discover new topics and experience
education;
Activity preferences of the potential Ecotourist: 3. They enjoy untouched nature and beautiful land-
• Being active by walking, hiking, biking, cross-coun- scapes;
try skiing, horseback riding; 4. They search contact to people from different cul-
• Sightseeing tours, especially to view and enjoy land- tural background, in a different surrounding than
scapes; it would be possible in mass tourism;
• Visit of nature parks and nature reservations; 5. They like adventure and excitement.

21
The motives of the Ecotourist are different from Box 5. Expectations of nature and culture oriented tourists.
those of the „sun-beach-tourist“ or the „adventure
junkie“. For the Ecotourist travelling is a rather per- German vacationers, that are interested in a nature-
sonal experience with interest in environmental pro- and culture oriented vacations expect (3):
tection and integration in the cultural life of the • 50 % of the tourists expect small accommodations
Ecodestination. that are provided by locals;
• The appeal of houses are expected to be charming
Even under the aspect of the change in society the in the typical style of the region (Hotels that are
influences on the travel decision can be summarised: equipped with arts-and crafts are more frequented);
1. The decision on travel is not influenced significant • Personal service, comfort and quality are more
by emotions, moods, temporary fashion and trends; important than luxury;
• 45, 6 % want to hike by themselves, obtaining
1. People that have exhausting professional life prefer information from the host;
vacation in rural regions; • 41,2 % expect regional food with local ingredients;
1. People that are interested in offers of Ecotourism • 41,2 % expect authentic hospitality and want to
search for tourism with authentic products in feel welcome.
unspoiled countryside.

(3) Source: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/services/tourism/index_en.htm

22
Chapter 3
Ecotourism Supply Analysis

The importance of a sound tourism policy is crucial development are identified, the strategic approach
to maintain the generation of local employment and permits us to define the model to follow, identifying
economic welfare, surfing through unpredictable the key stakeholders involved in the achievement of
demands and offering distinguishing products to vis- local development’s targets.
itors. As a matter of fact, tourism planners and man-
agers must face negative externalities derived from The aim of the Ecotourism policy must be to pro-
tourist activities, mainly the environmental ones, due mote public-private synergies, to cope with quality
to the consumption and degradation of natural standards and to maintain the cultural and natural
resources and the development of land for residential heritage as the main tourist asset in these places. In
or transport infrastructure needs1. In spite of the fact this process, characterised by high levels of participa-
that social and cultural impacts are usually ignored an tion and feedback, the formulation of operative prin-
important “push effect” may be guessed from the for- ciples is crucial.
eign culture, media and languages over the local
lifestyle. The paradigm of sustainability arrives at the a. Places: A Definition of Potential Eco-destinations
tourism sector, too. Sustainable tourism is a complex
When it comes to defining potential Eco-destinations
activity that offers goods and services to visitors, with-
where Ecotourism can be implemented, the valorisa-
out compromising the viability of the natural, built
tion and rising of awareness about natural and cul-
and social systems which offer depends on. This
activity must lean on a sustainable model of urbani- tural “capital” is essential, as it is the existence of plans
sation, production and consumption. to protect it and Ecotourism promotional strategies.
Eco-destinations are characterised for being places
From this point of view, a holistic approach is needed that possess a rich cultural heritage or special natural
to analyse tourism phenomenon in a comprehensive and environmental “capital” (normally related to
way, integrating social, economic and environmental some kind of nature reserve or protected area). At the
dimensions in order to define a complete picture of same time, these destinations have maintained their
the tourist place. Complexity marks the relations typical rural urban layout (white-villages) and a rich
among the different operators, tourists and local resi- cultural heritage. Everything goes hand in hand with
dents, and the effects on the above-mentioned the territorial conditions (architecture based on cli-
dimensions in a territory (see § 3.c). To face this com- matic conditions). Both the cultural and the environ-
plexity and the uncertainty surrounding this kind of mental “capital” make up what can be considered as
analysis, strategic planning of tourism destinations is the Ecotourism “capital” of an area.
a strong element to sustain social and economic wel-
fare keeping both in value the quality of natural Eco-destinations are different from other tourist resorts
resources and the quality of tourist assets. Starting a or destinations where a lot of planning occurs and the
diagnostic where key factors in the actual path of management of the destination can be said to be “inte-

23
gral” or “Eco-management” in the way that it deals the acceptable tourist-load along with their application
with the Eco-”capital”. The overseeing role that local are the keys for a correct development of Ecotourism
administrations play is vital in order to orientate potential. Among the good practices that have been
tourism development and to avoid irreversible envi- analysed some unsustainable initiatives were found, for
ronmental, cultural, or patrimonial deterioration. The example: adventure tourism that had a high negative
experience shows that the development of local devel- impact on the environment and residential tourism
opment plans and strategies, local agendas 21, regula- that had no link with the local culture of way of life or
tions regarding tourist activities and studies to identify the protection and conservation of local surroundings.

Box 6. Potential for Ecotourism in the Province of Málaga


Source: Own resources; Legend: ☺ = outstanding;  = poor;  = non-existent

Ecotourism Capital Potential for Niches in the


Provincial regions
Nature Rural landscape Culture Ecotourism Ecotourism market

Antequera ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature


Axarquía ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature; Sports
Costa del sol occidental     –
Costa del sol oriental     –
Guadalteba ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature; Sports
Málaga capital     –
Nororma ☺  ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature
Serranía de Ronda ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature
Sierra de las Nieves ☺  ☺ ☺ Culture; Nature
Valle del Guadalhorce ☺    Nature; Sports

a.1 Natural Resources Analysis to Preserve and Exploit tection of the environment and reduce poverty
the Territory from an Economic Point of View through a sustainable development of the biodiversi-
ty as if it was a financial asset. Therefore, the use of
Ecotourism has a series of advantages over other efficient financial management portfolios when deal-
forms of tourism when it comes to developing a ter- ing with environmental assets and the biodiversity
ritory that is closely related to an important natural allow them to raise their considered “value” as
“capital” as a natural park or protected area are (1). In resources and therefore, their protection against
this way, Ecotourism helps to contribute to the pro- urbanity or other similar kind of pressures (2).

(1) WTO 2003.


(2) F. Figge “Managing biodiversity correctly...” 2002.

24
According to this theory, the sustainability will For example, the value of a Natural Park is estimated
depend in a large part on the management of the by using the Travel Cost Method, which is the
agents in charge. In order to manage natural and bio amount of money that visitors are willing to pay to
diverse “assets”, diversity should be sought in order to visit it;
reduce the possible risks of the future (drought, cli-
matic change, species disappearance, etc). In order to Methods based on the production of the resource.
launch such an initiative all the possible benefits Given that in economic terms environmental assets
should be evaluated (economic, social, cultural and are considered as “inputs” of the value for their use
aesthetic) for each of the natural assets. Such an within the specific activity itself can be estimated
analysis attempts to break down the total economic (tourism in protected natural park) by simulating the
value of the resources into: usage value (economic, effect a change in the “input” (degradation of the
agricultural), existential value (landscapes, environ- resource, loss of a part of the protected area) would
ment), optative value (this refers to the uncertainty have on the economic “output” (visits to the park).
that exists about the possible negative effects if it is
Using more modern tools of ecological economics, the
not correctly and adequately protected or developed)
question of the analysis of the natural resources in
and bequest value (refers to the intergenerational
tourism is focused on the adoption of an Eco-systemat-
question).
ic approach that sees the destination as a support of a
Using environmental and natural resources economic tourist Ecosystem, which produces flows of people and
rules there are several long-standing evaluation tech- services between the different elements that make it up.
niques when it comes to
analysing natural resources. Box 7. Tourism Ecosystem
These can be classified in the
following way:
Direct evaluation methods or
declared preferences evalua-
tive tools to simulate a market
with surveys and experiments
in order to determine people’s
preferences. By contingent
evaluations, information is
obtained in relation to the
willingness of the future
Ecotourist to spend money in
a specific Eco-destination;
Indirect evaluation methods
or of revealed preferences.
Similar related markets are
observed and the value of a
certain resource is deduced.

25
From this platform a series of principles, which are toric resources was limited to a rather small elite in
described below are applied: society while the ordinary tourism utilised these
• The principle of precaution: the decision to develop resources mainly for commercial reasons. The
an area for tourism should depend on the degree of approach of Ecotourism or sustainable tourism con-
irreversibility of the environmental damage caused tradicts this development. Here, the existing culture
by it; and historic resources are offered as the main product
• The tourist capital: the collection of cultural, social, of the region. There are no artificial worlds created
historic and environmental resources that orientate which sell a certain culture. The authenticity is the
the profile of what kind of tourist production would most important character of a cultural touristy offer
be best in the locality. Its sustainability will depend and therefore the core content of Ecotourism. The
directly on the maintenance of this “capital”; more the globalisation is proceeding, the more pecu-
• The tourist-load capacity: the maximum number of liar characters of regions are of interest for visitors.
people (residents and visitors) that a tourist desti-
The cultural traditions that generally have been con-
nation can hold without endangering the viability
sidered as an integrated part of Ecotourism are linked
of the natural, economic and social systems within
a territory. This capacity depends on exterior factors to all living traditional cultural expressions in all its
(environmental and geographical conditions, land forms like costumes, construction (architecture), gas-
availability, etc) and internal or re-definable factors tronomy, popular feasts, religion, leisure activities,
(transportation infrastructures, tourist amenities local storytelling, etc.
and facilities, etc);
• The ecological footprint of tourism: this is the oppo- Approach towards Cultural and Historic Resources in
site concept of tourist-load capacity of a destina- a Region
tion, as it refers to the amount of productive terri-
The initial approach to cultural and historic resources
tory that would be needed to supply the population
related to Ecotourism destinations starts with the cat-
(residents and visitors) with goods and tourist serv-
ices in one specific destination. aloguing and dissemination of the very same
resources.
Finally, it should be mentioned that the elaboration
of a system of indicators to identify and evaluate sus- In the first place, this cataloguing helps to get to
tainable tourism allows a double function. On one know what are the cultural inheritance and traditions
hand, it helps to identify the natural and cultural that make up the unique resources, which need to be
resources and on the other hand, it permits an on- preserved and promoted through the development of
going oversight and supervision of the effects tourism Ecotourism in general.
initiatives have on the Ecotourism “capital” (depreci-
The dissemination of this information is normally
ation of the natural resources, over-exploitation of
conducted by the printing of some guidebooks that
certain places or resources, etc).
are disposed at the tourist information centres on a
regional and local level. There also is a quite large
b. Tradition: A Definition of the Cultural and
amount of information that exists about cultural and
Historic Resources
historic resources in digital form through websites.
Culture and tourism are closely connected to each Events like exhibitions help to conjugate dissemina-
other. Earlier the interest towards cultural and his- tion of the cultural “capital” with the promotion of

26
local products within the capital of the area, which is c.1 Local Public Authorities Commitment to
also the main centre for the consumers of the many Ecotourism Development
Ecotourism products.
Territory Planning, Preservation, Recovery and
Finally, the restoration and remodelling together with Promotion
the signing and identification of these historic, artis-
Ecotourism is a piece of the mosaic of attractions in a
tic and cultural evidences in each tourist destination
destination or the only and the main one. Public
encourages the setting up of special routes and walks.
authorities have a central role in Ecotourism develop-
This raises the value in the eyes of all in the area, the
ment, because only they have the power and the
locals or the visitors, thus stopping the inevitable
courage to choose and follow up a project for an alter-
process of abandonment and total disappearance.
native development of an area other than industrial
production.
c. A Definition of the Potential “People”
The goal of every local public authority is to follow
The inclusion of people is one essential component of
up the interest of the local population. So local pub-
Ecotourism. To be faithful to this definition, a form
lic authorities have to respect and to act according to
of tourism that claims to be sustainable and responsi-
what the local community wants. Despite the growth
ble has to consider how to better involve residents
in recent years Ecotourism is not yet very well identi-
and operators in tourism development activities as
fied by the “masses”, it is a niche product known by
part of all its main concerns in all its phases and
few tourists; so local population sometimes have no
objectives. This should not be conceived instrumen-
idea of what Ecotourism development means and
tally, as a way to smoothen the acceptance of tourist
which are the benefits and the opportunities linked
activities and to intensify them regardless of their
with sustainable tourism development. But also the
impact in consideration of the overall objective of
local public authorities do not know about
Ecotourism to reach a more balanced, comprehensive
Ecotourism, and the public authorities are the main
and equal development (3).
actor who should give the input for implementing
In particular, people are the key resource to make sure Ecotourism development and management. To
that sustainable tourism initiatives and resources do achieve Ecotourism development local public author-
not remain isolated and disconnected. This is why ities need to plan a strategy leading to the identifica-
‘People’ is one of the four main components of the tion, preservation, recovery and promotion of the
Ecotourism project. area.
Drawing on the several ethical codes formulated in The first path is to recognise and map natural areas
recent years with regard to sustainable and responsi- that could be attractive for Ecotourists. This first
ble tourism, as well as on the exchange of experiences step is based on a potential Ecotourism areas analy-
and best practices within the Ecotourism project and sis. Ecotourism is not just aimed to increase the
the pilot projects in particular, the following analysis value of a naturalistic area. Ecotourism products
of potential people has been formulated. can also include material and immaterial aspects.

(3) E. Boo, “Making Ecotourism Sustainable: Recommendations for Planning, Development and Management” (1991).

27
Material resources of Ecotourism products are the • Creating paths for sustainable sport practising, such
attractions like the coast, monuments, forests, as running, cycling, etc.;
mountains, lakes, oenogastromic, artistic expres- • Stimulating research and studies on local traditions;
sions etc. There are also immaterial resources such • Spreading an ethical codex for tourists and opera-
as traditional costumes, folk music, oral and writ- tors.
ten traditions (myth, legends...), religion and so on.
Public authorities and locals sometime are not The forth step involves the recovery of natural areas,
aware of the products that can be interesting for lost customs and cultural heritage. Recovery of cul-
tourists. tural and natural territory resources can be obtained
through several initiatives:
After having recognised resources the second step is to
• Forestation;
sensitise the locals to consider their culture and their
territory as a resource. This is the path for creating the • Waste removing;
responsiveness and involvement of the population to • Deindustrialisation initiatives;
the Ecotourism development process. The aim is to • Restoring of pre-existing building;
create the awareness of the value of local traditions • Building small structures for accommodations
and customs but also the respect of the natural areas according to the traditional architecture and to the
in which the communities live. This goal can be environment;
achieved by organising several meetings between the
• Restoring archaeological or “forgotten” monuments
population or its delegates (if it is a big community), and ruins;
tourist operators (if there are any), public authorities
• Workshops for young people for teaching customs,
and Ecotourism development experts in order to cre-
jobs and traditions of the place;
ate a certain awareness of the potential opportunities
related to Ecotourism development. • Stimulating researches and studies on local tradi-
tions (oral and written).
The third step is the preservation of natural environ-
ment and cultural heritage of the community. This c.1.1 Legislative Tools: Financing, Resources
goal can be achieved by legislative tools such as Eco- Reallocation, Resource Consumption and Pollution
taxation, financing and building a set of indicators for Control
quality Ecotourism development and management. It
is also important to involve the local community. Financing
Some proposals for natural and cultural environment European regions have at their command several EU
preservation are: financing programmes, which fit the
• Information campaigns to improve locals awareness
on the importance of the natural and cultural patri- safeguard of nature and rural areas, traditions, cultur-
mony; al heritage and involvement of the local communities
to the economic growth. These financial tools some-
• Founding a group or association for monitoring the
times are unknown by the local authorities, so the
territory;
first effort is to make aware EU Regions of their exis-
• Creating naturalistic and didactic paths; tence. Regions have to adapt these general guidelines
• Setting up paths for vine and food products; proposed by the EU, in order to create a set of leg-

28
islative tools needed for Ecotourism development and opment, for getting short-term advantages. This is
management (4). true for tourism destination, if tourism is not planned
and managed carefully, it can overwhelm the very
Resources Reallocation assets with which it attracts visitors to the destination.
The conclusion is that the different bodies at differ-
While the cultural heritage and naturalistic interest-
ent levels involved in the Ecotourism developing have
ing areas create a foundation for tourism growth, it is
to co-ordinate their actions.
evident that tourism has the power to generate
resources in term of funds. The result is the material- Ecotourism is an initiative aimed to solve the prob-
isation of the value of immaterial products as culture, lems caused by seasonal tourism in some destinations.
tradition and unpolluted naturalistic interest areas. Especially the coastal destinations suffer from mass
tourism, even if, often, in the inland they present
Public authorities have to think that Ecotourism
beautiful attractions and landscape. Ecotourism
could be the way for the economic growth of the area
focuses on increasing the value of the less known
and one of the main sectors of the local economy. So,
tourism attractions presented in a destination or in a
it is important to reallocate resources, especially in
town that could become a destination.
order to prevent cultures and traditions in areas
threatened by extensive industrial development. Then it is very important to draw up a package of
These funds are important to show that there is an economic measures intended to stimulate:
alternative way of development that can produce • The forestation and recovery of natural areas;
long-term economic growth and wellness of the soci- • The promotion of less known tourism products
ety. In fact, the principal receiver of the funds should such as rural, natural areas;
be the local community. Public authorities do not • The safeguard of nature, a never-ending monitor-
need to spend much money for implementing big ing of the state of preservation of natural areas;
infrastructures, like motorways or for stimulating the
• The stimulation of locals to pursue traditional
building of big resorts, standardised hotels, golf activities such as festivals, religious or traditional
greens in order to develop Ecotourism. celebrations…;
It is very important to prevent all actions that can • The passing of customs and traditional jobs from
cause destruction of the natural landscape. In order to generation to generation;
do this, it is important to integrate the Ecotourism • The creation of local associations for Ecotourism
policies into broader government policies to create development and management;
responsiveness among other public sector, such as the • The promotion of sustainable agriculture and food
authorities for urbanity, transportation and infra- production and the availability of a variety of high
structures, that are involved indirectly with their quality typical food products;
actions to the destruction of fragile Eco-systems, • The organisation of workshop learning new tech-
coastal regions and local cultures. Sometimes author- nologies’ advantages for Ecotourism;
ities are not aware of producing long-term irreversible • The renovation of old or traditional building aimed
damages that precludes every kind of tourism devel- to be used as accommodations.

(4) For further information consult the EU server: http://www.europe.eu.int/.

29
Resources Consumption biodiversity and sustainable use of biological
Ecotourism as all tourism products is a perishable one. resources, in particular through land-use or physical
The advent of globalisation and the homogenisation planning. Local authorities and communities have
of cultural differences, the request of technological taken a major interest in developing Local Agenda 21
professionals, the damages caused by mass tourism, initiatives and they also can dispose of EU Life pro-
the changes in the passing cultural customs and tradi- gramme financing. Extensive farming, agriculture
tions from generation to generation can blunt the gen- practices and climate change produce the desertifica-
uine tradition and the customs of a population. tion and drought. This causes the reduction of the
power of ecosystems.
In the same way acid rains, deforestation, extensive
urbanisation and consequent reducing of green areas, Forests are one of the most important attractions for
discharge of every kind of wastes in natural environ- Ecotourists. Industrial development has given rise to
ment, big natural disaster, arsons of forests to build the indiscriminate destruction of all forests. In a post-
accommodations and so on can provoke irreversible industrial society forests are a scarce resource. Public
damages. All these cases must be known by the pub- authorities have to protect and to increase their value
lic authorities, which have the obligation to build a
through Ecotourism development. In order to pre-
regulatory framework to prevent the production of
vent the damage of the forests also done by tourists
these phenomena.
groups of forest safeguard must be created, educated
and financed.
Pollution Control
The production of waste is one of the signs of con-
The control of pollution is important if a destination temporary society. The growth of product and service
wants to be recognised by potential tourists and be
consumption is associated the growth of waste, which
reminded by actual tourists as an Ecotourism destina-
is not only a quantitative growth. In fact, today’s
tion. In particular, for a destination involved in an
Ecotourism programme development, it is important wastes are more dangerous for the environment and
to study and plan tools in order to control atmos- social health than in the past. If our society does not
phere pollution, biodiversity and forests safeguard, manage this growth, waste can undermine the prima-
desertification, drought and the production of waste. rily resources for human life as water, air, ground.

The pollution of the atmosphere is caused primarily These effects on natural environment can deteriorate
by carbon dioxide produced by vehicles, coal heating, the attractiveness of a destination, especially an
industrial air pollution and so on. The main instru- Ecotourism destination. Therefore all stakeholders, in
ments for reducing carbon dioxide emissions could be particular hoteliers, involved in the Ecotourism devel-
the energy carbon taxation, the programme for ener- opment and management have to be aware of all
gy efficiency improvements and increased utilisation damages, physical and immaterial, caused by unsus-
of renewable energy sources (5). tainable resource consumption. In this case the nega-
Biodiversity is another important asset of the tive impact on nature is easy to quantify, but the neg-
Ecotourism product. Local communities and munic- ative impact on the image of the destination is very
ipalities have a responsibility for the conservation of difficult.

(5) see chapter 5.

30
Consequently, local tourist operators have to know Informative tools are aimed to raise awareness among
everything about renewable resources, waste recy- private operators and other stakeholders of what
cling, biodegradable detergent, etc. Many Ecotourists Ecotourism means. Informative tools are also all the
have a green attitude. At home they recycle their meetings, workshops and learning initiatives for pass-
newspapers and bottles, take public transport to go to ing traditional jobs, customs, oral and written culture
work, buy locally produced fruit and vegetables and from generation to generation. Population must be
stopped using aerosol sprays years ago. On holidays informed about the status of Ecotourism development.
they want to be in an environment with the same atti-
tude. Therefore it is important that the private hote- Internal and External Public Communication
liers, but also for the community as a whole act in an
Public authorities are obliged to communicate for co-
environmental friendly way in order to avoid disso-
ordinating initiatives among the stakeholders.
nances between tourists and locals.
Sometimes Ecotourism initiatives are systemic and
involve several villages or little towns. Natural envi-
c.1.2 Encouragement of Voluntary and Informative
ronments represent a barrier to the communication.
Tools
In the past these villages could not communicate to
Public authorities have to work for creating a group share knowledge or information and if it usually took
of voluntary people joined by the affection for their a long time. Today with the advent of the ICT (infor-
territory and for nature. This group has to work for mation and communication technology) this is possi-
Ecotourism sustainability respect, which means they ble, easy and quick. An intranet gives the possibility
have to awaken tourists on the importance of the to communicate to stockholders (owners of proper-
nature and the cultural heritage among the local pop- ties) and stakeholders (interests takers). Different
ulation. This group of people also has to be in charge interests, such as quality of life, investment possibili-
of the monitoring of the impact of tourists on cultur- ties, etc. drive these actors. Therefore information
al heritage and natural areas on the basis of guidelines and communication initiatives must be targeted
for activities related to sustainable tourism develop- according to the different needs.
ment in vulnerable terrestrial, marine and coastal and
Moreover, the organisation of a structured flow of
mountain ecosystems provided by international
communication between operators of the same pub-
organisations.
lic organisation and between different level public
In order to preserve culture and tradition and their organisations (such as regional, national, European…)
passing from generation to generation it could be is very important. In fact, it often happens that the
important to ensure the participation of the “old” lack of communication/co-ordination between differ-
(people) of the community. Especially these people ent authorities, such as the local authority and
incorporate a tacit knowledge that brings up so that tourism, can drive to irreversible damages in the ter-
these people, often considered useless by the society, ritory and preclude every kind of tourism develop-
can feel again alive and can help with enthusiasm to ment. So internal communication must be a tool for
reminders of history, oral legends, languages, and the improvement of knowledge sharing, communica-
almost forgotten maxims of the community as well as tion, information exchange and the co-ordination to
to pass old crafts and traditional techniques to the fol- the decision making process between different public
lowing generations. organisations at every level.

31
Furthermore the public authorities have to provide many tourists who would like these products do not
external communication and in this case the audi- even know about their existence. And external com-
ence are the potential tourists. Tourists are driven munication provided by Ecotourism tour operators
by different motivations to choose a vacation. The and also public authorities is the key-aspect that
Ecotourism package is chosen because it provides can decide the success or the failure of the project.
unforgettable nature experiences, which would be The best tool is again the Internet. Other impor-
more or less impossible to organise independently. tant tools for external communication are work-
This kind of tourism is still a niche product. In shops, fairs and meetings. The aim is not to create
order to get a critical number of tourists it is very a mass market but a critical mass for quality
important to make this product known, because tourism.

Box 8. An example of good practices of local authorities for Ecotourism development

The pilot project of Cortino: "The adopted route. The fruits of the wood"
The Province of Teramo is carrying out the pilot project along with the municipality of Cortino, the Gran Sasso-
Monti della Laga National Park Authority, and Sviluppo Italia Abruzzo. The Ecotourism pilot project "The adopt-
ed route. The fruits of the wood", is a part of "Ecotourism- places and tradition".
The aim is to increase local people’s wellbeing developing Ecotourism in a little town, rich in environmental
resources, history, traditions and territorial elements.
A basic peculiarity of this project is an active people’s co-operation and participation. Inhabitants will be involved
in the management of the main activities through short meetings and teamwork and with their knowledge con-
nected to the acquaintance of area and the cultural and natural richness. The active cooperation among the local
inhabitants in each step of the project is very important because nobody such as inhabitants know the resources,
traditions and natural places where they live. So public authorities organized a meeting started with the presenta-
tion of the enterprise: implementation of a tourist office, a didactic route so to understand the importance of the
wood and to find out the peculiarity of mushrooms; to create a centre that will be used for didactic research and a
traditional cuisine laboratory.
The economic progress of the little mountain town during the last years has been stopped for several reasons: the
depopulation, the collapse of some productive sectors in the area such as sheep-farming and the absence of demo-
cratic institution. The consulting are grateful to the project "The adopted route" and they hope to give an answer
to these needs.
In the future the purpose will be to create a "net with area offers", in order to "put in the net" tourist and economic
operators and to create a link between local economic and tourist operators who work on the territory. The project
includes some ideas for Ecotourist activities (bird-watching, trekking…) that, represent also an opportunity of jobs
for the residents.
For further information: see Annex 1 and the project’s official web site through the portal http://www.interreg-
Ecotourism.net

c. 2 Local Communities Commitment to Ecotourism a broad notion of stakeholders is to be the starting


Development point. The term stakeholder refers to the whole set of
individuals and groups who have a stake – that is an
When considering the definition of potential people interest and a say – in a subject or place. Stakeholders

32
can play a vital role in Ecotourism initiatives, with analytical and allows many overlaps between the two,
their involvement being crucial for better-informed as many people will belong to both. Not only the
projects, greater commitment to application and to range of people involved should be as broad as possi-
set up partnerships for ongoing work and follow up. ble and as representative as possible, but also the
range of roles given to this public participation
When speaking of the local community we can dis-
should be wide-ranging, confirming its substantial
tinguish it from the communities of interest. The lat-
import in the initiatives implemented. Local commu-
ter refers to the many different groups that have an
nity involvement can thus be aimed at:
interest in the development of (Eco) tourism from a
variety of perspectives. These include several actors • Gathering information;
such as local authorities (see chapter 3, § c.1), eco- • Consultation;
nomic operators (see chapter 3, § c.3) and also other • Joint decision-making;
forms of third sector groups and networks (NGOs, • Joint action;
environmentalist and other). These are defined as
communities of interest as they have some specific • Local community direct action.
interest being it environmental or more generally The plurality of roles implies the plurality of phases in
linked to the management of the local resources (6). which local community participation is relevant. This
By local community, which is the object of this sec- should not be confined to initial dissemination of the
tion we refer to the individuals who live and work in project or the final presentation of results, but should
a particular area or that visit it. In other words, those be an ongoing process that accompanies initiatives
that can be defined not so much as a community of from the beginning through to the end and after.
interest but as a community of place. Recently, the Finally, the methods for community involvement
increasing role of stakeholder involvement in devel- should be carefully considered. Rather than defining
opment initiatives has meant a more relevant role of a methodological grid once and for all, the best
local communities, conceived as those who have the methodological indication is that each case is specific
main stake in the local surroundings. However, the as each local community is different: Therefore, the
point of Ecotourism is to bridge the gap between the
methods to be applied, their sequence, role and range
separation of residents and visitors and to consider
will vary. However, the international experts in this
them both as a part of a local community or commu-
sector, as well as the experiences exchanged for the
nity of place. This is crucial to make tourists respon-
project Ecotourism, recommend the use of a set of
sible for their actions and locals aware of both the
different techniques, which can be differently com-
opportunities and constraints that tourism develop-
bined and balanced. In particular we should distin-
ment involves.
guish between traditional consultation techniques,
It is needless to say, the notion of ‘community’ should which should not be abandoned, but seriously inte-
not be taken too literally, as there is no homogeneous grate more interactive techniques. By traditional
community and one of the key points is precisely to consultation techniques we refer to forms of local
allow the different voices to be expressed and taken community involvement that is one-way. In these the
into consideration. Similarly, the distinction between typical situation is the professional or experts provides
communities of interest and local communities is information and projects of intervention.

(6) S. P. Drake, “Local participation in Ecotourism projects” (1991).

33
Stakeholders are granted just the possibility to voice The aim is precisely to combine them rather than
their view on these. As far as the providing of infor- simply juxtaposing them, trying to develop a proper-
mation is concerned, it can be achieved by using a set ly interdisciplinary approach.
of tools, such as publications, adverts, exhibitions in
order to collect the reactions of the stakeholders pub- Processes initiated with the best intentions can have
lic meetings, survey or interview responses. This is no results, or worse, perverse results. This can happen
still a rather passive process, in which local commu- for many reasons. Some of them are uncontrollable
nities do not take an active part or actively contribute and others can not be addressed. Probably the most
to shape the initiatives. important factors for failure or unexpected/undesir-
able results are the lack of communication, integra-
This is why the use of interactive techniques is rec- tion and follow up. This is why the role of profes-
ommended, as it is more constructive and effective. sional mediators and media should be central during
Usually, they involve the organisation of workshops, all phases. Mediators can ensure that the information
involving different types of subjects at one time or pass through are undistorted as possible, that differ-
instead a cross section of the population. The interac- ent agents working towards, that similar objectives
tive techniques involve the moderation of discussions are integrated and that consideration and resources
in small groups, or focus groups and also can include are allocated to follow up initiatives. We can define
some forms of practical activity. Some of these tech- the mediators as both the professional mediators that
niques are a recent development emerged from peo- conduct workshops, focus groups, interviews, etc.
ple’s involvement in the Local Agenda 21 process and the media themselves.
(Action Planning, Citizen’s Juries, Village Design
Statements, Local Sustainability Model, Age to Age, As far as the media is concerned relevance should be
etc.). As a key element for sustainable development given to: local and national mass media, old and new
tourism is one of the main sectors where these inter- (from local radios to the Internet), specialised press:
active methods should be profitably applied. from magazines to travel guides.

The choice of method to be applied is always case- The form can be chosen within a wide range such as:
specific and has to be based on careful background • Advertising;
research and possibly pilot initiatives. In these key ele- • Information;
ments are the role of experts, mediators and local • Forums;
associative forms. With reference to what is delineat-
ed in the previous paragraph (see chapter 3, § c.1), it • Document.
is clear that the experts that need to be involved This is also the level where the encounter between the
should reflect the multidisciplinary nature of local and the tourist should be addressed.
Ecotourism. What needs to be mobilised is the
expertise regarding: Moreover, as far as mediation is concerned, it should
be stressed that often the more feasible and effective
• The socio-cultural level: sociology, anthropology,
tourism and leisure studies, psychology; way to reach the local population is through the local
associations and networks, that constitute the fabric
• The economic level: economy, marketing and cor- of civil society, as an intermediate body between the
porations studies, media studies; public institutions and single individuals. Associations
• The environmental level: geography, environmental reveal which interests are already well established in
studies, planning. the local community, which are emerging or which

34
are absent or ignored. Moreover, many associations thus to be one of the main means to empower the lat-
and NGOs bear interests and values in synergy with ter and guarantee the project’s success.
those of Ecotourism initiatives. From a methodologi-
Finally, when considering the participation of the
cal as well as substantial point of view they should be
considered as social actor. They can be involved in a population at large a good way of conceiving and
variety of forms. In fact, they can support external planning it is to address the different needs and
experts, provide both disciplinary expertise (e.g. envi- potentialities of different age groups. Although other
ronmentalist associations) and mediation (e.g. they classifications would be possible this is the most com-
can act as mediators in focus groups, conduct inter- prehensive and universalistic. It can be used as a basis
views, etc.). As they can be defined internal experts and combined with other ones to be decided on the
they also can be fundamental in bridging the gap basis of the single project’s aims and of the back-
between the external experts and local community, ground research of the situation.

Box 9. Building of networks of all stakeholders

Example for the involvement of all stakeholders for the development of Ecotourism:
For the development of Ecotourism in the region Erzgebirge, implemented by the Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge
GmbH, the project aimed to develop offers for tourists by using the old trimmings tradition. For the development
and to ensure sustainability of the products was it necessary to built up networks in the field “Trimmings” in order
to achieve a co-operation between manufacturers, touristic service providers and tourist associations. So far single
actors and operations were connected and short stay offers for tourists in the field trimmings were developed. For
the promotion of the offers a travelling exhibition of trimmings was created.

35
c.2.1 Children and School Involvement for Nature workshops moderated by volunteers or other people
Respect involved in the Ecotourism initiatives the older
inhabitants of the interested area discuss their memo-
As stated in the Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism
ries with local children. This work can develop into
(2002) (7), one of the aim of Ecotourism is to:
story telling, crafts and plays. Teachers can also be
“promote and develop educational programmes involved. The memories encompass ways of life, evo-
addressed to children and young people to enhance cations of place and evolution. Children, can consid-
awareness about nature conservation and sustainable er how different their experience and surroundings
use, local and indigenous cultures and their relationship are. Then, the group is brought to reflect, which kind
with Ecotourism”. of development they would see as positive and which
role can tourism play in it.
Children and young people in general are the key in the
spread of awareness and sensibility for local resources, Family and extra-school activities can also be
respect for natural and cultural objects. Their involve- mobilised to raise children’s awareness on sustainable
ment should be addressed from the beginning and in a development issues. Considering children all the time
number of ways. Children and young people represent and not only in the activities specifically designed for
a substantial part of the local community. In that, they them can do this.
are not so much bearers of special interest but of a sense As stated above, the exchange between generations is
of place which is in progress and can thus be made more crucial. Moreover, with the ageing of European soci-
aware of the issues related to sustainable development ety and the increasing active life style including
and in particular, tourism. tourist activities, which characterises older genera-
As with other types of local actors, children’s involve- tions their role results emphasised. The age-to-age
ment should take different forms, with various roles approach suggested above is of course also relevant for
and in various phases of the initiatives being imple- older groups of the population. However, this could
mented. As school is the primary setting of children’s be conceived not only in terms of exchange of mem-
activity, and in particular of their education, it should ories, but also in terms of the exchange of traditions,
be the main mean and context where to realise the with reference to both traditional know-how, land-
participation of children in Ecotourism related activ- use and ways of moving around on the local area (e.g.
ities. Along with more traditional consultation tech- old paths through woodlands, fields, etc.).
niques, well adapted to a young audience, school
workshops and trips can be organised, combining Youth and Adult Awareness for Quality of Life and
the educational, awareness-raising element to that of Job Opportunities
play and encounter with other visitors and experts. Ecotourism, as stated in the best practice guide of the
Moreover, in order to increase the interactive aspect Ecotourism project (8), should be considered from an
of children involvement the Age-to-age technique economic point of view, although not exclusively. In
can be applied (first applied by the Mendip District particular, job opportunities related to Ecotourism
within Agenda 21 experimentation). This is an development should be combined with consideration
approach that involves the interaction of different age for the quality of life issues that Ecotourism specifi-
groups, older and younger in particular. During cally addresses as well. This regards both those who

(7) For more information see http://www.world-tourism.org/sustainable/IYE/quebec/anglais/quebec-eng.pdf


(8) Study within the Project “Ecotourism: Places and traditions” (funded by Interrec III C): “Best practices across Europe: places, traditions, people,
technologies” (2004).

36
are directly involved in the tourism industry, indi- in the context of the boom in sustainable tourism.
rectly involved (most local commercial activities) or The European Landscape Convention also states the
not involved. need to implement Training and education initiatives
(Art. 6) in order to promote multidisciplinary training
Higher education can play an important role here and in landscape matters for elected members and techni-
Ecotourism initiatives should always start from a con- cal staff of local, regional and national authorities and
sideration of the possible contribution that can be other relevant public and private sector bodies. The
taken from (and given to) local universities and aim here is to improve the technical expertise of bod-
research departments on related topics, as well as, ies with landscape responsibilities. Examples of such
from collaboration and awareness rising within sec- bodies are professional organisations concerned with
ondary schools. These can, in fact, foster the curiosi- regional planning, management of the environment
ty and awareness both for job opportunities in the or heritage, agricultural land use, tourism, industry,
sector and for a more responsible attitude towards construction work or infrastructure.
one’s own natural and cultural surroundings.
The concept of landscape can indeed be useful for
In this context it may be relevant to refer to the recent discussing Ecotourism, as it brings together cultural
European Landscape Convention (9). It recalls how and natural heritage and as it is increasingly addressed
the current concern for sustainable development by public policies with particular concern for people’s
makes landscape an essential consideration in reach- involvement in the definition, assessment and man-
ing a balance between preserving the natural and cul- agement. Approaches, such as the English Landscape
tural heritage as a reflection of European identity and Character Assessment, that involve extensive consul-
diversity. The sustainable development is used as an tation with stakeholders can be very fruitful also
economic resource capable of generating employment applied to the specific cases of Ecotourism venues.

Box 10. An example of interactive method for public participation in Ecotourism EASW European Awareness Scenario Workshop

A very promising interactive technique for Ecotourism initiatives are the recently introduction of EASW (European
Awareness Scenario Workshop), launched as an initiative by the European Commission DG XIII
(Telecommunications, Information Market and Exploitation of Research) in 1994 to explore new possible actions and
social experiments for the promotion of a social environment favouring innovation in Europe.
Their utility has in fact been stressed in particular for:
• Assessing the transferability of best practices between different cultural and political contexts, including identifi-
cation of conditions for success.
• Identification and further development of instruments and tools to support the know-how transfer processes.
Divided in the framework of Urban Environment, and with a focus on the local/regional context, the method is
based on the mobilisation of the main social actors in view of the formulation of a common vision for sustainable
development. Whereas their specific aim so far has been to enhance public debates and create a balanced relation
between society, technology and environment, this can be fruitfully adapted to Ecotourism, that, as the Ecotourism:
Places & Traditions project has shown, needs to develop and transfer best-practices that take into account technolo-
gies as well as places, people and traditions.
A series of guidebooks, reference texts and selftraining material to organise and lead an EASW are available on the
Internet at the site: http://www.cordis.lu/easw/home.html

(9) Council of Europe 2000.

37
c.3 Economic Operators Commitment to Ecotourism of fact, the hospitality sector covers a wide range of
Development accommodation services from all-inclusive luxury
hotels to bed and breakfast ones, inns, farmhouses,
In order to give a full analysis of the Ecotourism sup- all-suite hotels, etc. These establishments may be
ply it is necessary to study the role of the Travel & owned or run by independent operators, multina-
Tourism Industry such as: hospitality, transportation tional chains, governments or other investors.
and incoming/outgoing tour operators.
According to the European definition in Agenda 21,
Generally speaking, the Travel & Tourism Industry the hospitality sector deeply affects the three main
does not support any specific cost to finance the value assets of sustainable development. These include the
of its products, benefiting in this way of a large economic dimension, the social dimension and the
amount of positive external effects and not indemni- environmental dimension.
fying anyhow the rest of the local community. All the
negative tourist flows impacts, as a matter of fact, are According to the economic dimension, the hospitali-
on the public sector. ty sector is mainly made up of small and medium size
enterprises and is mostly composed of independent
Meanwhile, since the tourism industry has a great properties. They highly contribute to the gross
economic relevance and it is going to grow more in domestic output either in the developing or devel-
the future, it has to be managed according to an Eco- oped areas. This is mainly due to the profits earned
compatible development. That is why the economic and distributed to stockholders, taxes paid on sales,
operators, together with the other main actors of the wages, jobs creation and supplies and materials pur-
tourist supply, such as local communities, public chasing.
authorities, opinion leaders and media, are more and
more committed to sustainable tourism and, for the Furthermore, this sector has also a great “multiplier
matter of fact, to Ecotourism principles. To effect” which is almost equal to 2, this means that
each Euro spent in the hotel industry generates the
achieve this, a life style, cultural and consumption same amount of money in the induced activities. This
change is needed. is why the project “Ecotourism: Places & Traditions”
reveals that small businesses such as farm houses, shel-
Since 1970, when the first United Nation Conference
ters, family hotels which meet the Ecotourist’s
on Environment was held, a lot has been done in terms
demand, could be very important for minor areas
of laws, economic, informative and voluntary tools at
economy development.
international, European, national and local public
level. The Travel & Tourism Industry has been willing As far as the social dimension is concerned the hospi-
to acknowledge this new philosophy, especially if their tality industry still remains the most labour-intensive
economic activities insist on Eco-destination. one giving a lot of job opportunities especially in
developing areas. Most of the employees are women.
c.3.1 Hospitality Sector Nevertheless, it still remains the problem of tempo-
rary employment, especially due to seasonality and
The Hospitality sector such as hotels and restaurants
mass tourism. The application of sustainable
represent the milestone of the whole Travel &
Tourism Industry as far as importance, dynamic and tourism criteria in fact, such tourist flows re-alloca-
variety of services offered are concerned. As a matter tion, should aim to reduce this negative impact. In

38
consequence, the main purpose of tourism manage- • The involvement of the staff and the designation of
ment and territorial planning, practised both by the a person responsible for environmental activities;
public and private sector, should be based on the esti- • The development and publication of the environ-
mate of the tourist load capacity of a destination, mental policy (better if incorporated in the compa-
which could guarantee steady and gentle tourist ny mission statement);
flows. • The identification of the objectives for the environ-
mental programme;
According to the environmental dimension, the hos-
pitality industry is more and more interested in • The definition of priority areas for intervention.
investing in environment protection since it repre- In each above-mentioned area the procedure should
sents its key resource to business. So the criterion of consist in:
sustainable tourism is more and more accepted. A • Preparing the ground by communicating the objec-
part of this sector is going even further and is more tives to the staff;
Ecotourism oriented. This is reasoned by the intro- • Measuring current performance;
duction of new tools for Ecotourism policy accom-
• Defining priorities;
plishment, such as: Agenda 21, Emas II, Ecolabel and
the Integrated Product Policy by the EU. The hospi- • Developing plans for improvement;
tality sector mainly small hotels, farm houses, inns, • Setting targets;
etc. located in Eco-destination, has adopted a new • Implementing action programmes;
philosophy of management, that is Eco-hotel man- • Monitoring results.
agement and Eco-marketing.
What it is really important is the feedback to the
Eco-Hotel Management and Eco-Marketing management in order to communicate results within
the company and to stakeholders to reset actions if
According to Agenda 21, the Travel & Tourism not effective.
Industry and in particular the hospitality sector has to
implement systems and procedures which incorpo- On these premises, a new management philosophy
rate the economic, social, cultural and environmental has been acknowledged by the private sector, that is
the Eco-hotel management and Eco-marketing. In
criteria into the core business and point out all
fact, natural and cultural resources are the leading
actions needed to have Ecotourism development
tourist attractions of many countries or regions whose
rather than having some additional memorandum to
economy mainly depends on tourism. That is why
the company mission. Any company no matter what
nature and culture tourism (Ecotourism) and envi-
size, destination or structure can adopt the system
ronmental awareness is the core of the hotel adminis-
provided by the Agenda 21.
tration (Eco-hotel management).
According to this approach any management should
As a matter of fact Eco-hotel management consists
provide:
“in hotel administration oriented to ecology which
• A statement of the company’s commitment to the motivates and orients itself into raising its level of
sustainability criteria; environmental consciousness in its actions and in its
• An assessment of the impacts of the business on the collaboration with all the communities: local resi-
environment and local development; dents and tourists. This means that the entire hotel

39
activities along with all the employees (at all levels: to date of CEE n. 1836/93. As a matter of fact, since
owners, managers, supervisors, and workers), 2001 Emas has been applied to all economic sector
investors, architects, engineers, Ecologists and all oth- including private and public services and, in that
ers are interested in preserving nature”. occasion, it was also strengthened by the integration
of EN/ISO 14001 (12). The new Emas, gives the
Eco-marketing, instead, as a tool of management, is
opportunity to control and minimise the environ-
“marketing oriented to ecology, to the discovery of
mental impacts due to the hotels activities in tourist
natural resources, cultures and traditions, without
resorts on one hand, and on the other, to reduce some
disturbing or destroying the environment”. The Eco-
waste related to energy and water consumption and
marketing strengthens competitiveness on the market
garbage production. In a few words the Emas tool
and ensures the preservation of the major resources.
gives management the chance to strengthen the hotels
Tourists and stakeholders, both expect quality envi-
position on the market improving their image before
ronment inside and outside the hotel, in natural, flora
environment–oriented customers and stakeholders
and fauna protected areas, cultural sites, rural areas,
without reducing their service quality.
etc. So the basic philosophy of this new approach is
that profit should give way to the survival of The audit and monitoring of the environmental per-
resources, through environment preservation and formance by hotels provokes, also, a decrease in costs.
conservation, education, public opinions awareness The Emas tool is synonymous of modern environ-
and efficiency in energy, water and waste consump- ment management and is officially recognised by EU.
tion. All this is much more important and farsighted.
b) The Ecolabel, instead, is a European trademark
Today’s less profit is equal to a long-term investment
promoting tourist products and services, which
business wise and next generation’s future wise. This
respect environmental quality criteria. There are
aim can be also achieved thanks to the new technolo-
many local labels referring to Ecotourism. They are
gies which represent a primarily support to planning,
very different from one place to another as the stan-
management, use of voluntary tools and promotion
dards required. The Ecolabel promoted by the EU is
either inside or outside the private businesses as for
to be the one to refer to. This is the EU-flower, a great
example the “green hotel project” (10).
promotion and marketing tool, which guarantee
tourists meanwhile choosing their tourist destination.
Tools for Ecotourism Implementation
As a matter of fact, with regard to the hospitality and
Environmental Management and Audit Scheme
the tour operators sector, the EU- flower label guar-
(Emas II) and Ecolabel
antees at least 5 advantages such as: tourists awareness
a) The Environmental Management and Audit about high quality and environmental performance
Scheme (Emas II) (11) is one of the voluntary tools accommodation, costs reduction thanks to Eco-effi-
promoted by the European Union. It is based on the ciency, sense of well-being thanks to healthy lodgings,
CEE regulation n. 761/2001 which represents an up healthy nutrition and healthy environment, fulfil-

(10) See paragraph chapter 5. § c box n. 1201.


(11) http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas/index_en.htm.
(12) This tool itself concerns with environmental management and its aims are to minimise harmful effects on the environment caused by any compa-
nies’ activities and to achieve continual improvement of their environmental performance.

40
ment of guests’ expectations and effectiveness on the public policy oriented to avoid negative environment
market. Either the Emas or the Ecolabel tool repre- impacts due to production by analysing the life cycle
sents a new approach by the EU as far as the envi- assessment (LCA). The IPP gives the opportunity to
ronmental issue is concerned. As a matter of fact, the all economic operators and public authorities to come
EU is changing its traditional environment manage- to the definition of either voluntary tools or legislative
ment scheme approach into a new one based on the tools. Each Eco-destination can, then, have its specif-
integrated product policy (IPP). This consists of a new ic tools according to its potential „Eco-capital“.

Box 11. An example of good practice of Emas application

In the framework of the ETIV Project (EMAS Technical Implementation and Verification) funded under the
Leonardo da Vinci Program, the Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias (ITC, SA), developed the Case Study Manual:
implementation of EMAS in the tourism sector. The case was the Hotel Tigaiga in Tenerife Canary Islands Spain.
This Hotel dates from 1959 and stands out for the continuous improvements in quality and environment man-
agement, which have led the Hotel receiving numerous international awards. The System of Environmental
Management in accordance with EMAS was verified for Hotel Tigaiga in 2002 by ICICT-CERT (TÜV Group
Rheinland).
The case study concentrates on setting out the most important aspects which inform us about the experience of one
hotel in the implantation of a System of Environmental Management in accordance with the European Regulation
(CE) Nº 761/2001 EMAS.
The analysis of the case study on the Hotel Tigaiga stated the way in which this organisation dealt with the main
points demanded by the EMAS Regulation in the implantation of a System of Environmental Management, with
special emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hotel business. Reference is made to the methodological
approach which orients on some of the steps taken and the development of those steps in practice, adding real exam-
ples of how this organisation operates, which may serve as a demonstration. In this way, examples are included of
some of these steps, with twenty-nine typical records being added as an appendix and fifty slides are presented for
teaching purposes, which show the process of implementation of EMAS.
A section of evaluation and conclusions completes this study in which consideration is given to the experience accu-
mulated by the Hotel during the implantation of EMAS, with special emphasis on such aspects as the lessons
learned, the main difficulties observed and other matters of interest. The Case Study Manual and Slides can be
downloaded at the following web sites:
http://www.itccanarias.org/etiv/
http://idec.gr/etiv

Ecovillages it has been recognised by the United Nation, which,


in 1998, officially named “Ecovillages” as an excel-
Besides the new private and public approach to envi- lent way of sustainable living and as a best practice to
ronmental management, adopted either by the hospi- be disseminated. The aim of this approach is ecologi-
tality sector or the EU itself, a new philosophy focus- cal wisdom that consists of an ongoing, comprehen-
ing on human and Eco-centric values has been point- sive and deep inquiry into values, the nature of the
ed out and called Eco-philosophy. The importance of world and the self.

41
The mission of Eco-philosophy is to explore different live in an Ecovillage, means to provide mutual help
perspectives on Human-Nature contexts and interre- trying to integrate education and cultural expression
lationships. It aims to a deeper and more harmonious and share common resources. These last ones, such as
relationship between place, self, community and the food and building materials are generally provided
natural world. Ecovillages mean that the whole com- within the region. All activities strictly observe nature
munity, either urban or rural, tries to integrate all dif- preservation and conservation such as clean soil,
ferent aspects of ecological design, ecological build- water and air and waste consumption management.
ing, green production, agriculture, alternative energy,
community building practices, religion, education, In a few words living is carried out by understanding
mutual aid and much more. the interdependence of all the elements of life on
Earth and the community's place in relation to the
In fact, Ecovillages are usually based on three main whole and in creating of a peaceful, loving, sustain-
dimensions: the social, ecological and cultural one. To able world.

Box 12. An example of good practice in the hospitality field

The didactic Farm Houses


As far as accommodation is concerned, in Italy the didactic farmhouses represent the new trend. They are very small
enterprises owned by farmers who live on agriculture and integrate their income with some tourist activities. They are
usually located in minor areas, rich in natural sightseeing and seem to well meet the Ecotourist’s demand expectations.
The farmers’ main aim is to educate citizens and/or tourists, especially children, students and their families, to the folk
wisdom, the typical and wholesome products, the way they are grown, packed up and sold on the market.
In a few words the didactic farm houses aim:
• to improve the knowledge of the agricultural world and its products, mainly the typical and biological ones;
• to improve and awaken the new generation’s attention to the rural environment and the agricultural activities;
• to recover the cultural, traditional and environmental values of their own territory;
• to teach children at school in order to have well informed and well aware future consumers;
• to promote rural tourism.

c.4 The Role of Private and Public Transportation why its main aim is to reduce and control harmful
into the Tourism and Travel Industry emissions into the atmosphere and other environ-
mental effects. An underestimate of the transporta-
If the most adopted definition of tourism is to stay
tion sector might mean environmental damages and
overnight in a place different from home, transporta-
increased costs for travellers.
tion does it! As a matter of fact it represents an impor-
tant component of the Travel & Tourism Industry Unfortunately car and air mode of transport are the
and it has an enormous social, economic and envi- most important in the tourism industry but also the
ronmental influence, as the Agenda 21 reads, that is one generating the highest output of carbon dioxide

42
per passenger. Meanwhile new technologies, allowing • Promote sound way of arrival to destination by
travelling long distances in few hours, encourage bicycle, bus, railway when possible especially for
long–haul travelling which heavily contributes to the short distances;
increase of air transportation (13). • Promote travel to departure airports by public
Tour operators and travel agents find it difficult to transportation through incentives;
orientate their customers to use alternative modes of • Extend long-haul travelling stays;
transport even if they are cheaper. The reason why • Work with local authorities to make sure that coach
tourists and even local residents are not willing to use stops and pick-up or drop-off points are well located;
these last two modes of transportation is that public
• Work with suppliers and the public authorities to
buses and trains are not fast, clean, secure comfort-
avoid high peak seasonality and re-allocate tourist
able, on time and so on. The public transportation is
flows;
usually related to inefficiency. The public sector,
instead, should invest in this kind of mode of trans- • Work with local authorities trying to reduce con-
port and promote it because it, truly, represents the gestion and pollution and to integrate modes of
key to pollution and traffic congestion reduction. As transportation by decreasing the private mode;
a matter of fact, the transportation sector, in order to • Consider infrastructures and transport as one of the
promote Ecotourism criteria in accordance with major components of the urban development plans.
Agenda 21, should:
In a few words public authorities and transport oper-
• Generally use well-maintained and modern trans- ators should first of all, lay down a clear policy on
port technology, especially airlines should operate urban development and seasonality control in order
the most efficient fleet; to reduce pollution and congestion. Then, they
• Develop and run car pools, cycle and walk to work should educate, through appropriate means of com-
paths for employees and pay incentives to guarantee munication and support, residents and tourists to use
success; public shuttles for in town mobility for in and out
• Provide information to customers to help them use transfers to airports and for bus rides excursions to
public transport, cycle ways and footpaths; interesting natural and cultural sites.

Box 13. An example of good practice in the transportation field

Network for Soft Mobility


NETS represent a good evidence of sustainable transportation: Network For Soft Mobility in European Tourism (14).
NETS is composed of enterprises, travel and mobility service providers, public institutions, ministries, NGO's as well
as other networks aiming to promote an environmentally friendly mobility in tourism. In order to become a member
of NETS certain quality criteria must be met, such as soft and sustainable mobility, in particular European railways.

(13) E.g. in Italy, the car transport is the first of the list with 80,27% increase in the decade 1990-200023, followed by the air transport with 63,30%.
The bus and rail transport, even if the most sound modes of transport, continues to drop.
(14) http://www.soft-mobility.com/

43
The Tour Operator Industry tination and promoting safety and cultural preserva-
tion. They expect, then, suppliers themselves, to
The tour operator industry is composed of outbound deliver high quality services and to rely on a very close
and inbound or to better say outgoing and incoming relationship with local residents working within the
tour operators. supply chain to make tourists at home.
The outbound or outgoing tour operators main activ- According to environment dimension, they have to
ity is to tailor promote and distribute leisure travel to agree with stockholders and stakeholders to positive-
consumers. Tourists all over the world, which decide ly drive the process of nature, culture, traditions
to go on vacation in other countries request informa- preservation and conservation in tourist destinations.
tion about tourist destinations and tourist services
reservations. Tour operators gather information from The inbound or incoming tour operators are the ones
local tourist boards, make contracts with the whole who, in the destination area, make contracts with
supply chain, assemble the different services into a hotels, coach and rent-a car companies as well as
tour package, publish their packages on brochures major attractions companies, putting them all in a
and sell them directly to customers through their network. In a few words, they provide all logistical
point of sales (pos) or the new selling system that is support as well as local knowledge on what can and
the e-commerce. Tour operators, as a matter of fact, cannot be done. These tour operators, usually, assist
have great relevance in deciding the future of new and tourists in their holidays delivering services brought
already known resort areas. Trying to meet con- from the outbound tour operators or delivering cus-
sumer’s needs they are able to influence and direct tomised tours onsite. Very few incoming tour opera-
tourist flows from one destination to another. That is tors have been acquired by outbound Thus, the
why the activity of tour operators has great impact on majority still remains independent. The incoming
economies. tour operators play a significant role in tourism devel-
opment that is why they should, together with the
According to the economic dimension, although they local public authorities, settle clear policies and pro-
do not employ directly a large number of staff neither cedures for tourist and outbound tours as far as
in the origin countries nor in the destination, they do nature preservation and social exploitation.
induce a huge network of activities and jobs across
other countries economy, which mainly depends on Outbound and inbound tour operators, actually, play
tourism. The marketing efforts put up by tour opera- a decisively role in Ecotourism promotion.
tors are what local governments and the supply chain Ecotourism, thanks to increasing co-operation in
rely on. Of course as far as Ecotourism is concerned, local networks and joint marketing, can truly be car-
outbound tour operators deal with niches of the ried out and this means more sustainability. A sus-
tourism market and not with the mass tourism seg- tainable tourist
ment.
product (tour package) implies more use of local
According to the social dimension, tour operators products such as food and building materials, less
have a great responsibility. They usually contribute to noise and carbon dioxide emissions, less garbage pro-
tourist resorts development, accelerating the process duction, more jobs opportunities, a better quality of
of modernisation and openness. They also act as a life for local residents and an improved quality of hol-
bonding agent among local suppliers, customers and idays for tourists. In a few words, more sustainability
local residents. They give information about the des- is equal to more quality. As a matter of fact, sustain-

44
ability and quality are the two sides of the same coin. the reduction of catalogue consumption and the
To achieve this aim tour operators should work out in improvement in the use of electronic communication,
5 key areas such as: environmental management and the aggregate performance data to support corporate
information system, product policy, communication annual reporting as well year on year up to date.
policy, and distribution policy, training activities.
Communication should focus also on the corporate
As said above, an environmental management should, principles and environmental activities of
first of all, point out its ecological objectives then set
out individual responsibilities, involve all staff at all the company which should be very social oriented by
giving the right environmental information about
level, make sure of a never ending implementation of
accommodation, tourist destinations, transport/traf-
environment protection both within the company
fic situation, leisure/sports/adventure/events, codes
itself and the products and services delivered by the
for in loco appropriate behaviour, enterprises with
company, guarantee that these goals are well integrat-
Ecotourism labels and environmental awards, tourist
ed within the company mission and the training pro-
offices location, etc.
grammes, finally, assure monitoring and reporting
both internally and publicly. Then it should concen- Finally, tour operators should put up training activi-
trate on the product, the distribution and the com- ties in order to keep the staff and the supply chain
munication policy. As far as the product and distri- partners either in origin destination or at the tourist
bution policies are concerned, the head office should destinations well informed on environmental protec-
strengthen its relationship with the incoming tour tion. In particular, the incoming tour operators
operators and the local public-private sector main should be encouraged by governments to play an
actors in order to support Ecotourism management important and co-ordinating role because they actu-
policies at destination and lead to an agreed upon ally should be able to assume a balanced and respon-
policy and to a true local partnership. sible approach in services delivering making sure that
these are provided within the context and possibilities
As far as the product is concerned, Eco-management
of their local destination. At last but not least, they
should also help to create job opportunities, support
should expect and work for their sub-contracted sup-
agriculture exploitation in order to promote local
pliers to adopt a similar balanced and responsible
food and typical cuisine among tourists, encourage
approach.
the decrease of emissions by promoting sound means
and inter-modular transportation, manage water,
c.5 Codes of Conduct: Voluntary Tools for
energy and garbage consumption, protect natural and
Ecotourism Promotion
cultural sites from mass tourism, encourage local tour
operators‘ awareness and residents about the social The Codes of Conduct are voluntary tools represent-
dimension of Ecotourism development, promote the ing line guides the Public sector and the Travel &
importance of the adoption of self-regulation and Tourism Industry refers to in order to learn about
appropriate codes of conduct specific for each desti- Ecotourism objectives and have a goal for measuring
nations and for their tourists in addition to laws and their daily activities. These codes, even if law does not
public regulations. introduce them, are having a great effectiveness as far
as tourist enterprise involvement because they repre-
The communication policy should be based on recy- sent a valid alternative to legislative tools in environ-
cled paper and the use of paper from renewable forests mental issues. As a matter of fact, the travel & tourism
for brochures, the Elimination of toxic paper coating, industry more and more realises that the physical, his-

45
torical, natural, social and cultural resources represent • Improvement of staff ’s efficiency and motivation
the primary inputs of their businesses. at all level;
a) The main objectives of these voluntary tools are: • Improvement of each enterprises image;
• Common goals the public Authorities, the Private • Reduction of management costs thanks to effi-
Industry and the Local Communities refer to as ciency and effectiveness with regard to energy,
far as sustainable tourism development; water, waste and emissions decrease;
• Public and private sector increased awareness • Improvement of local communities quality of life.
about environmental oriented policies; c) To achieve these objectives the most important
• Increased awareness among national and interna- thing is to awaken people to environmental prob-
tional tourists about the appropriate behaviour lems, that is why in school, education programmes
to keep when getting in touch with in-loco cul- concerning environment are taught.
tural, natural and social resources; d) Codes, in order to be effective, have to be promot-
• Local residents awakening to the importance of ed and advertised through publications, seminars
their natural, cultural and social resources when and conferences, pilot-projects, education, training
dealing with tourists. and technical assistance.
b) The main benefits coming from an appropriate use e) To agree on the codes of conduct content means
of the codes of conduct are: nothing if its results cannot be monitored. As a
• Improvement of the tourist resorts environmen- matter of fact, tourists must periodically monitor
tal quality and sustainable tourism which assure the companies’ daily activities. This is to measure
a long term development of the business itself; the codes rate of acceptance, to measure the rate of
• Improvement of the tourist resorts image gaining codes application, to identify new key areas where
in this way a competitive advantage with regard codes had disappointing results in order to make
to other tourist areas; changes to achieve the prefixed goal.
• Improvement of products and services quality Finally it is necessary that these codes, to really carry
both in a short and long term run; on its effects, have not to be vague but real and the
• Better possibilities to access public financial travel & tourism business has to commit itself to the
credits; code enforcement.

Box 14. An example of good practice in the TOI field

Tour Operators‘ Initiative for Sustainable Tourism (TOI): a special good practice
The Tour Operators‘ initiative (TOI) (15) is a network of tour operators who have admitted the importance and
urgency of incorporate the sustainable development principles in their company mission and, then, management.
TOI is a voluntary, non – profit organisation and open to all tour operators, no matter their size or their

(13) http://www.toinitiative.org/; Members: Accor Tours (FR), Atlas Voyage (Marocco), Aurinkomatkat-Suntours (Finland), Dicovery Initiatives (UK),
Dynamic Tours (Marocco)Exodus (UK), First Choice (UK-Ireland), Free Way Brazil (Brazil), Hotelplan (CH), Kel -12 (IT), LTU Touristik (D),
Premier Tours (USA), Sahara Tours International (Marocco), Settemari (IT), Studiosus (D) , Thomas Cook (FR), Travel Walji’s (Pakistan), Group (D),
Vasco Travel (Turkey), Ventaglio (IT).

46
geographical location. Members commit themselves to integrate sustainability in their business activities, to work
together to promote and disseminate methods and practices with regard to sustainable development. TOI is com-
posed of outgoing and incoming tour operators of all specialities and from countries across the world.
TOI was born thanks to the support of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the UNESCO and
the WTO/OMT. These organisations themselves are members and give partners guidance and technical assistance.
The meaning of being together for these tour operators consists in sharing a platform of ideas on strategies, actions
and mechanisms especially as far as three key areas are concerned: Supply Chain Management, Co-operation with
destination and Sustainability Reporting.

All the new approaches, regarding Ecotourism ture and infrastructure running, the territory plan-
exploitation, can be better carried on thanks to new ning and preservation and the promotion field such
technologies. These latter ones are very useful in two as the brand positioning, the customer relation man-
main sector: the management field such as the struc- agement, advertising, e-promotion and e-commerce.

47
Chapter 4
How to Promote the Ecotourism Product

a. Co-ordinated Promotion and Advertising by the and to decipher the feedback of their preferences,
Public and Private Sector (Local Brands Creation & needs, and desire. Nevertheless, this information is
Promotion, Certification of Ecotourism Activities) basic for tourism planning. So firms listen to the
hints and observe the signals emerging from the mar-
We state that tourism-marketing operators must con-
ket. This is the first and the most important function
sider that the economic and the social needs of local
for market-oriented firms. In fact, new forms of
communities are the most important factors in every
tourism are emerging and Ecotourism is one innova-
circumstance. In particular, for Ecotourism market-
tive way of doing tourism. If these new destinations
ing the most important rule is to promote regions
are not oriented to the market they cannot listen to
and communities. Thus, tourism products are con-
its signals and lose valuable opportunities to develop
ceived as instrumental to sustainable development.
they lack no Ecotourism products. As a result, the
primary question is why tourists choose Ecotourism
a.1 The Ecotourism Promotion
products? Or, why should they choose Ecotourism
The Target of Ecotourism products? Which kind of tourist do we have to deal with?
Is it elite tourism or do- it-yourself tourism? Only an
The analysis of the market is the primary step in the accurate analysis of target groups interested in Eco-
promotion of any product. Also tourism promotion tourism should give us an answer to these questions (1).
must be preceded by a thorough analysis of market
needs and desires. Before speaking of promotion and Ecotourism is an alternative way of doing tourism.
brand creation we have to know which is the image We can imagine that people who choose Ecotourism
perceived by the tourists. In order to accomplish this are looking for unspoilt and silent places, where they
goal the public tourism organisations need the help of would like to experience what it is unusual for every-
private operators: i.e. the hospitality managers as day life in developed countries, to relax in a beautiful
accommodations are the place where tourists live dur- and pure environment and to recover an harmonious
ing the vacation. In these situations the relationship relationship with nature. We can also imagine that
of customer/supplier is direct. They develop a close they would like to recover traditions, to experience
relationship, so it is very easy to collect valuable infor- different cultures, tastes, peoples, etc. Moreover,
mation about image perception and other strategic Ecotourism destinations have to create and to pro-
information. Public organisations instead have no mote an image that the potential tourist can recognise
possibility to communicate face-to-face with tourists the place, which includes all of these elements (2).

(1) see chapter 4. b.


(2) Kapferer “ Strategic brand management; new approaches to creating and evaluating brand quality” (1992).

49
The Goal for Ecotourism Promotion if the destination wants to exploit the value of its
environment during forthcoming years. Therefore,
The payoff of all advertising and promotion initia-
the role of the promotion is not to push the product
tives should be focused on the concept of
to tourism masses but to make it known to potential
Ecotourism; because before promoting Ecotourism
interested groups.
products we have to raise the awareness of tourists to
the fact that Ecotourism means a responsible way of Ecotourism products are cutting-edge products. They
travelling. This implies the safeguard of natural envi- attract media because of their imaginative force. So it
ronment and the wellness (not only economic) of is not interesting to pay for mass media advertising,
local populations. because mass media will be soon very interested to
these products for their programs. Specialized maga-
The goal of the destination brand manager for
zines are the tools to be chosen to create awareness of
Ecotourism product development is to create a posi-
Ecotourism destination among “professional”
tive image for destinations that are still quite
tourists. Personal relationships are the instrument
unknown in the tourism mass market. Anyway, we
needed to push elites interested in Ecotourism. Also,
have to state that Ecotourism destinations must
the Internet must be considered as the strategic tool,
avoid a mass tourism approach, which would be dis-
where potential tourists collect all information need-
astrous according to the Ecotourism rationale. The
ed before deciding to book a vacation. Researchers
objective of promotional initiatives is thus, to make
know that the best promotion tool in tourism is
tourist aware of Ecotourism product existence. This
word-of-mouth. Therefore should this be considered
is why the best tools for promoting Ecotourism des-
also for Ecotourism, but after the brand image of
tinations are word-of-mouth, specialized press and
Ecotourism products will be assimilated by potential
websites. These tools have some characteristics in
tourism.
common. They are personal, based on one-to-one
communication, interaction and offer more specific The Internet can play the role of promotion and
information. They don not speak to the tourism commercialisation tool. In this case it is important
masses, but to small groups of tourists really interest- not only to create a website and mailing list. It is
ed to an unusual tourism product such as more interesting to try also to create links with other
Ecotourism. specialized tourism website, who have a certain audi-
ence and credibility on the web.
However, one of the risks of these destinations could
be precisely the mass tourism attracted by elites and
a.2 The Importance of Co-ordination and
producing the so-called “imitation effect”, which is
Collaboration between Public Organisation and
when a destination is known to be a destination of
between Them and Private Operators
actors, stylists and in general, a place where you can
see ‘very important persons’, then mass tourism tends Ecotourism is a mix of natural and cultural attrac-
to imitate elites and to discover the destination. This tions. This product normally involves many small
creates a development based on economies of scale in and medium size destinations and several tourism
order to satisfy many tourists. This often results in the public organisations. So, if they want to promote
reduction of quality of accommodations, food, envi- Ecotourism destinations the co-ordination and col-
ronment, etc. This kind of tourism must be avoided, laboration with all actors involved in the promotion

50
of the same project of Ecotourism development is actors have a certain difficulty in co-ordinating any
fundamental. Public organisations are the most activity. These actors become more efficient and
important actors for Ecotourism development. They stronger if they create a club of product. One of the
and all other organisations at different levels must be outputs of club of product is the co-ordination. That’
able to communicate efficiently between themselves (3). is very important for the creation of a unique brand,
Another important perspective to approach this a sign or an icon suitable to describe all attractions
problem is to change the perception of the sector. present in the involved area. A club of product is also
Like every kind of tourism, Ecotourism can be seen open to suppliers of products and services for tourists.
as a system, as a whole composed of interconnected One of the most interesting activities of a club of
operators, interacting and communicating among product is to build a package or different packages for
them. A system is more than the addition of its parts. different targets in order to maximise the value of the
It needs its elements to survive and the efficiency in tourism resources present in the area and to offer a
a system is measured through the amount of com- wide range of opportunities to tourists. Another pos-
munication and the degree of interaction of its ele- itive aspect of club of product is the collaboration for
ments. decision-making and the co-ordination for imple-
mentation of projects, infrastructures and services for
In order to obtain this goal of efficient communica- tourism.
tion today we have modern information & commu-
Private sector and public sector cannot work separat-
nication technologies (see chapter 4 § d). For exam-
ed in the tourism planning, promotion and monitor-
ple, a simple economic and easy to use tool as the
ing. The logic of specialisation, compartmentalisation
intranet can provide: training employee activities, e-
and division of the tasks is like to be abandoned by all
mails, group-works, database accesses, newsletters,
firms in every market. In local tourism destination we
file transfers, information sharing and updates. A
have still the division between two important actors:
simple but powerful instrument is the club of prod-
the public tourism organisations and tourism suppli-
uct. It stands for an efficient and effective communi-
ers. There is a general agreement regarding the impor-
cation, for organisational improvement, for imple-
tance of a brand for destinations, in fact this range of
menting group work and for involvement of all par- attributes is often monitored and controlled by
ticipants. tourism brand managers who have the important role
Another instrument to improve organisation and co- of creating, reinforcing, monitoring, revitalising or
ordination is in fact the creation of a club of product, recreating the brand image of a destination through
considered the small size of populated areas interest- marketing tools. Before creating a brand for a desti-
ed in Ecotourism nation it is important to determine which is the
image that a destination can offer. Very often in
development. These small and often picturesque vil- tourism it is the private sector that organises promo-
lages share the same attraction. It can be a forest, a tion, advertising, brand image... overlooking the pub-
river, a lake, a mountain, a wine or a product. These lic organisations. These different initiatives create no
attractions often involve very big areas and all small homogeneity and the impossibility to create a unique,

(3) see chapter 3 § a.1

51
clear, characterised image of a destination. It is clear Ecotourism destination, because here the product is
that this kind of problem is even more dangerous for the whole region and co-operation is the main
Ecotourism destinations than for other tourist desti- instrument.
nations.
Power of Bad News
a.3 Brand Image Creation and Promotion Every destination has a certain image among
Brand Image Functions tourists. Every news, event and information broad-
cast by mass media can influence and set out the
The brand image is an example of intangible attrib-
image of a certain destination. The same destination
utes of a destination. A brand in general can also be
could have several types of images. In Ecotourism a
seen as the name of the destination, its logo, an
destination that preserves its cultural heritage and
ensemble of attributes mostly non tangible. A brand
natural environment – for example some places in
has different functions for end users: the guarantee
Canada, where its ancient inhabitants populate a
function (the more a destination is known by the
tourists the more actors invest resources to maintain wonderful and protected environment, the Indian
its reputation); the function to illicit imagination and tribes – has a positive image. A destination can have
to dream of the destination; a guidance function, also a negative image and this is very hard to change.
communicating the existence of certain attributes etc. For example, like in South Italy where industrial and
The brand image is composed by the typical elements urban development have eroded wonderful natura-
of a destination, the attractions that make the desti- listic areas. Moreover, destinations also can have a
nation unique and desirable for tourists (4). mixed image, characterised by the presence of posi-
tive and negative elements and a resulting contra-
Generally, the creation of the image of a destination dictory image where the destination can be appreci-
is very complex because it is subject to selective and ated for some aspects but criticised for others.
subjective rules. Thus, every potential tourist can Finally, a destination can have also a weak image.
have a different image of a destination or appreciate This tends to be in fact the image of most
different attractions. Moreover, if we have to create Ecotourism products. Ecotourism destinations are
a brand image for an Ecotourism destination the quite unknown among tourists. This is due especial-
specificity of both the destination and its visitors ly to the lack of promotion and for the small dimen-
are to be considered. The first one is characterised sion of Ecotourism destinations.
by its landscape, traditions, culture, economy and
product. The second is their desire to experience We know that a wide range of news can influence the
the above. Confirming the importance of building image of a place or territory. Often this news is very
a coherent brand image, tourism researchers state appealing for the mass media, which can change or
that the image of a destination is the most impor- reinforce the image of a destination present in the
tant factor of influence on the decision to choose a tourists mind. Of course, tourism brand managers,
destination. This is all the more relevant and suited who are charged to check the brand image perception
in the case of the creation of the image of an among tourists, cannot control the diffusion of bad

(4) L.B. Upshaw, “Building brand identity a strategy for success in a hostile marketplace” (1995).

52
news. However, they can try to limit their negative health and culture are potentially more dangerous for
impact. So any destination that wants to offer Ecotourism destinations than for other tourist desti-
Ecotourism products has to pay attention to the nations. Ecotourism destinations, in order to better
news, especially those that in the past have reached a characterise this peculiarity and to satisfy the
mass audience. It is clear that some kind of news, demand, need an image that recalls a pure, unspoilt,
especially those concerning the environment, public not over industrialised site and experience.

Box 15. Stimulating the demand for Ecotourism through a responsible and ethical promotion

Since UN’s declaration of 2002 as the year of Ecotourism, the awareness of public authorities and private operators
of tourism has increased. Ecotourism is niche tourism, however it is expanding and attracting the interest of glob-
al Tour Operators who have introduced Ecotourism packages in their products. As a specialized actor, the Tour
Operator creates a package made of attractions and a mix of services, as accommodation, transfer, transport, excur-
sions, etc., therefore they are a key target for awareness raising, in order to develop a new generation of Tour
Operators who respect the social, cultural and environmental peculiarities of the area and who are really interested
to involve local population to the tourism development and to share the economic advantages driven by the activ-
ity. They are at the top of a chain whose other main actors are the travel agents and the tourists themselves. In fact
Ecotourism also needs responsible travel agents in order to promote the product and to drive potential tourism
towards innovative products such as Ecotourism. So the intermediaries of the destinations have a social role, as they
can be made agents of the awareness rising of the tourist. Particularly relevant is the initiative of the UNEP to cre-
ate a platform of tour operators committed to the principles and practice of sustainable tourism (see chapter 3.d.3).
For more information: http://www.toinitiative.org/

b. Customised Tour Packages Aimed for the rest tourist products. This is due to the fact that
Ecotourists (the Importance of Price and Quality) Ecotourists show certain common patterns (following
TIES – The International Ecotourism Society (5):
As presented in the earlier chapters of this paper, the
adoption of Ecotourism strategies has to get past the • A high degree of awareness about and care for the
profitability threshold that guarantees net economic quality of the environment and wild life. They also
returns for whatever investment that has been made, tend to show considerable interest in the local cul-
seen from a purely business perspective. The profit ture and landscapes. Studies show that the North
analysis study should also be accompanied by a American Ecotourist’s motivation is in seeing wild,
study of the local market that demonstrates the exis- pristine areas whilst their European counterpart is
tence of a niche of demand to meet in the targeted similar but with a greater interest in cultural experi-
territory. ences and rural landscapes.
Overall it can be said that a potential demand is more • Most of Ecotourists are in the medium/high income
willing to pay for “Ecotourism services” than for the bracket and are college graduates.

(5) http://www.ecotourism.org/

53
With the above profile, a wide range of characters can are large differences in the amount of money that
be introduced in the Ecotourism package. In general needs to be invested to carry out different initiatives
terms, the demands of the average European and establish a business orientated in this field. For
Ecotourist are: instance, the initial investment in rural accommoda-
• The high-income earners expect to be able to sleep tion and facilities projects implies larger amounts of
and live in surroundings that are clean and com- effort when compared with what is required to set up
fortable if at all possible. That does not prohibit other initiatives orientated towards services like hik-
them ‘roughing it’ for short periods, but generally ing, sports and adventure tourism. Furthermore, the
they expect clean, well-furnished accommodation period of time that it is necessary before the invest-
where possible. ment can be recuperated is normally longer with
• Good food – with a range of options e.g. vegetari- Ecotourism initiatives, given that the number and
an, vegan as well as options for meat eaters. consistency of the users/visitors is considerably lower
than that experienced with mass tourism actions
• The packages must include an interpretation or
(large hotels, apartments).
learning experience.
• The experience must have minimal negative envi- The best business opportunities are, without doubt,
ronmental impact. related to the development of Parks and Nature
• The Ecotourist is interested in making a contribu- reserves or Beauty spots (nature tourism). However,
tion to local sustainability development. all Ecotourism initiatives have to comply with the
existing environmental requirements, control the
• The Ecotourist is extremely concerned to ensure
that all aspects of their holiday have a low con- numbers of tourists so as not overload certain areas
sumption of non-renewable resources. and be careful of the damage that may be done to the
surroundings by the infrastructures and activities they
• The Ecotourist is interested in the well being of
carry out.
local people and believe that it is they, and not the
major businessman who benefits from the tourist. Most of the emerging territories structure their
• Conservation of the environment is central to Ecotourism services in two levels. First, it is the cre-
Ecotourism thinking and therefore must be central ation of “main tourism packages” based on rural/nat-
to all activities. ural products with accommodation (houses, rural
• Where possible Ecotourism should contribute to farmyards), together with some kind of experience
biodiversity. with the natural habitat in the area (i.e. visiting
nature reserves or landscapes). Secondly, there are
• Whilst demanding quality (of all aspects but espe-
“satellite tourism packages”, which are made up of a
cially experience) the Ecotourist is willing to pay to
series of sub products like sports, adventure or cul-
achieve his / her Ecotourist experience – including
tural tourism. These are not always demanded by the
a contribution to environmental and ecological
tourists in function of their preferences or economic
research.
or term limitations. Upon the base that recreational
The existence of potential demand for this kind of services are characterised by a travel cost to the site
tourism is not sufficient alone to convince businesses considerable higher than the costs at the site, option-
that there will be profit. All projects should carry out al packages of facilities and programs are offered in
a cost/profit analysis as well. Experts agree that there direct proportion to that gap. This flexibility in

54
adapting to the needs of the tourist and his/her pur- tion, depending on the quality of the service, which
chase capacity leads to a “scalability” regarding can be tailored to fit all pockets: low, medium or
Ecotourism supply, the first step in market segmenta- high- earners.

Box 16. An example of good practice of customised packages

Ecotourism in the MAB Biosphere Reserve of “Sierra de las Nieves” at Malaga (Spain)
The Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de las Nieves” is located in the core of the province of Málaga, nearby Ronda.
Biodiversity and natural landscapes are the key factor of this mountainous area where the Spanish fir and the wild
goats are distinctive elements (http://www.sierranieves.com/engl/).
The proximity of the mass-tourism area of “Costa del Sol” suppose an increasing pressure over the natural resources
of the area. Tourism activities are just flourishing in the Biosphere Reserve through “Costa del Sol” promoters. The
recent Sustainable Development Plan of “Sierra de las Nieves” fosters different economic activities and good prac-
tices in the local community oriented toward forms of ecological agriculture and Ecotourism. The majority of the
tourism operators located in the area offer a main package consists of rural accommodation, local gastronomy and
hiking activities. In fact, hiking is the main activity in this natural area with 15 marked routes.
Starting from the fact that Ecotourists show a high level of previous information about the places they visit, in the
“Sierra de las Nieves” they may design their own package over the base of a wide supply of natural, rural, ethno-
graphical and cultural resources. Tourism entrepreneurs usually propose satellite packages in collaboration with
other promoters in more specialised activities, mainly horsing, touristic walks, climbing, speleology and canoeing.
This business practice improves and diversifies Ecotourism market in the area oriented to tourists with a wide range
of acquisitive power and activities (sports, nature, local traditions and culture). Other times, the entrepreneurs act
as real tourist information office about other informal activities without direct profits for them (e.g. bird and sci-
entific watching).

c. Ecotourism Packages Distribution: Tour interested enough to set up their activities in this
Operators or Individual Tourists? field, but rather some co-operatives of businesses.
The offering of Ecotourism “packages” is charac- As for whether it is desirable or not for these large
terised by the high degree of fragmentation and diver- tour operators to enter the Ecotourism market, it
sification throughout the territory and in the activi- should be said that the effects are seen as an increase
ties on offer. This reality favours the entrance into the in the size of the market (more demand, more supply)
market of small businesses. Almost all of them are and more competitive pricing.
only owner or family concerns, who restore old farm- Given that, there is a decided-upon tourist-load
steads, mills, rural houses, buy the necessary equip- capacity that is admitted in order not to overload and
ment, design and prepare routes, units of environ- damage the environment or resource, the entrance of
mental education, etc. large tour operators, who by trade try to attract the
Regarding the offering of tourist products in certain largest number of visitors possible as the tendency is
regions and doing certain things (mainly rural to emphasise the maximum net profit of an activity,
tourism), there have been no large tour operators would create a risk of market saturation. This is at the

55
expense of the very destination it is promoting, which ICT’s provide a large amount of information about
is really dispensable depending on the fluctuations in Ecotourism offers, the settings they are developed in,
the prices (competition form other areas), the quality the social and economic situation of the regions and
of the environment of the destination prices and areas of the Eco-destinations in question and the tra-
labour costs and the costs to cover the carrying out of ditions and cultural resources on site, etc. All this
the activities. information can be made available to possible
Ecotourists. This means that they can learn a
Another effect is the setting up of some homogeneous
quality standards (everyone finally ends up offering lot about their destination, even before they arrive
the same), also detracts from the quality and eventu- there. Furthermore, it allows for a higher level of
ally the complementary offers. The price becomes interaction between the tourist and the tourism busi-
almost the only reference point sought out to alter nessmen, which means that very specific and person-
prices. However, this competitiveness over prices can- alised “packages” can be elaborated for each tourist.
not reach a perfect state due to the fact that
Ecotourism offers tend to be quite rigid, as the enjoy- ICT’s also reduce the intermediation costs (travel
ment of certain landscapes, ecosystems, popular tra- agents) as the tourist delays directly with the promot-
ditions is not possible in any other tourist place. er of the tourism on offer. In some cases, the promot-
ers have united together to form business associa-
Using the experience carried out in Andalusia, it is tions, which, in turn set up rural tourism and
clear that the solution to the problem of how to dis- Ecotourism reservation centres.
seminate efficiently these Ecotourism “packages” is
the setting up of regional Ecotourism networks, that There are two points that make the development of
use the latest communication technologies to be able new information and communication technologies
to connect Ecotourism products together from dif- applied to tourism so important: tourism is an interna-
ferent sources as well as complementary activities. tional business with a very big necessity of quick, secure
More detailed information is also required by users and reliable communications which allow the promo-
who see how they reduce costs by cutting out the tion and commercialisation of products from places far
costs of the intervention of an agent to make the hol- away from the customers. The second point is common
iday reservations. to the entire leisure sector, the necessity of demonstra-
tion and promotion tools based on virtual images.
d. New Technologies for Ecotourism Marketing
E-business
Advances in technology and information and com-
munication technology (ICT) have brought up sig- Information provision starts a long time before some-
nificant developments and carry many potentialities one may visit a site or location. New technologies, or
for the Ecotourism. Therefore it is necessary to pro- rather, the new multimedia systems represent an
mote technological innovations especially on the absolutely necessary tool in the tourist industry. They
booking and information systems if we want to be allow you to communicate with the tourist market
able to attract tourists to Ecotourism destinations. targets not reachable otherwise, and mainly to pro-
The advantages of these technologies with a compet- mote, book and sell tourist products directly on line.
itiveness increase, mistake reduction and building of Many tourists prefer to organise their vacation on its
new functionalities are unquestionable. own so, to them, the main important things to know,

56
are information about tourist areas, kinds of tourist of these technologies and the emerging of on-line
products supplied, prices and quality. Nowadays even marketing and information services on the Internet
the consumption of services for vacation and spare are changing tourism intermediation affecting the
time and the way of buying them have changed. As a way in which tourism is marketed, booked and sold.
matter of fact, during vacation and spare time tourists The tourism sector is highly dependent on the
look for new emotions, which don’t begin, and end Internet in terms of distribution of information, sales
just in the tourist resorts but which begin already in and services performed via the Internet. Most of
the information research. The Internet is having a tourists use yet tourism sites for exclusively informa-
greater impact on the marketing of travel and tourism tion purposes (travel, accommodation, destinations,
than any technology since the invention of television. places of interest) since later these customers contact
The New Information Technologies are providing the traditional travel agency to book and buy the
destination-marketing organisations with a cost effec- product. This has made an increase in the access to
tive channel without the high distribution costs of tourism sites and this trend is being translated into a
other media. significant business increase in the on line sales.
In order to promote those places that are outside the
Some of the main e-business applications in the
traditional tourist destinations, it is even more neces-
tourism industry are:
sary to make use of the Internet and the information
Sales, E-marketing and Customer Related Services
technologies, allowing the potential visitor to know
The Ecotourism actors need to develop new ways of each place in depth and to contact with the different
working in the Information Society, the deployment local agents for travel planning.

Box 17. An example of good practice of Ecotourism packages distribution

Ecotourism opportunities in the province of Malaga (Spain)


Two elements characterise the Ecotourism offer in the province of Malaga: the atomisation and the virtualisation.
Due to the lack of Ecotourism’s entrepreneur culture in the rural sphere, most of the enterprises show a small dimen-
sion and a family-base employment. This fact supposes an important economic weakness in the tourist markets,
even known the idea that Ecotourism demand mainly comes from regional and provincial areas. From the point of
view of the public administrations, this business atomisation derives in misunderstanding of the local reality and a
bad allocation of economic incentives and subsidies due to the black economy. These entrepreneurs overcome that
situation adopting a dual strategy of creating “places” or “activities”. Starting from the rehabilitation of windmills
or farmhouses, the first ones create the accommodation support to arrange Ecotourism activities and collaborate
with the other entrepreneurs specialised in “activities”. The distribution strategy in the narrow market of Ecotourism
in the province of Málaga is implemented directly by the entrepreneurs, because of the inexistence of real tour oper-
ators in the strict sense of the term. Despite of this, travel agencies show a raising interest in this tourism offer and
they are beginning to create their own packages and offices (e.g. www.ruralandalus.es). Sometimes, the lack of
dimension is sorted out with the integration in a net of rural accommodations and tourist services. In any case, most
of the promoters distribute their products in an internet-based media, entering into agreements with web develop-
ers and hosters as a central part of the advertisement and distribution strategy (e.g. www.webmalaga.com; www.eco-
turismo.com; www.toprural.com; www.agendarural.com; www.acentorural.com; etc.).

57
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) the marketing efforts. On a local level, local commu-
The Internet is gradually gaining ground in the trav- nities have experienced advantages by operating in
el and tourism industry as a distribution channel that networks and co-operative relationships with each
offers direct and interactive communication with another. It requires significant resources for the indi-
final customers allowing for more targeted distribu- vidual enterprise to promote their products and serv-
tion of information at a lower cost. The application of ices, but by forming networks with one other, the
e-business methods in Customer Relations individual player experiences economies of scale.
Management provides such an opportunity. CRM In the local tourism webs tourists can find:
involves the translation of existing techniques for • Information about places they are going to visit:
finding customers in the electronic environment, gastronomy, places of interest, cultural heritage,
providing them with products and services cus-
handicraft, etc.
tomised to their needs, retaining their loyalty, and
attending to their needs for information and support • Access to database of public and private sector:
in the use of these products. maps, useful phone numbers, emergency services,
public transport, commerce, …
Partnerships and Relations with External Players in • On Line Services: hotel booking, rent a car, restau-
there supply Chain rants, theatres, …
The new trend within Eco-Tourism is the growing The Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) permits
tendency to create relationships among players on a users to access to all the information and services of
given destination in order to optimise the outcome of different systems in a better and transparent way.

58
Chapter 5
Technologies for Ecotourism

a. A Definition of the Potential “Technologies” In general, the implementation of actions for holi-
day destinations involves a process of rationalisa-
Taking into consideration the trends in international
tion of decision-making: incorporating elements of
tourism it is necessary to design and to apply new
sustainability and development in the medium and
instruments to incorporate technological innovation
long run. This approach requires on the part of the
into this sector, including information, promotion,
principal agents involved in the development of an
land-use planning, renewable energy and environ-
area for tourism, a new conception of expected
mental tools.
results, an attitude of constant improvement and
The main objectives related to technology when of recovery and evaluation of the territory. The
developing an Ecotourism Project should be to actions must be directed toward quality of infor-
extend the application of friendly environmental mation and the procedures and methodologies to
technologies in the provision of services to the local obtain and manage it. The starting point for mov-
community and visitors in order to increase the access ing forward to the Ecotourism must be the plan-
and use of the Information and Communication ning of a sustainable tourism and this needs a base
Technologies. line of adequate information (population, water
resources, land planning an so on). These data are
b. Technologies Needed to Plan the Territory the raw material and need to be presented in a
In the complex interplay of different forces and pres- right way to be comprehended by the stakeholders,
sures, which give rise to environmental problems, the which means the use of Information Technologies,
role of land-use planning and management is critical. such as the Geographic Information Systems, to
This covers a wide range of decisions, usually made at graph and cartographically shape the data neces-
local and regional level, determining the character sary to carry out a planning of the territory and the
and intensity of land use and activities, which may activities that allow a sustainable tourism develop-
often have a major impact on environmental condi- ment.
tions. A Geographic Information System is a system (com-
Such impacts are direct such as the destruction of puter hardware, software, and geographic data) for
habitats and landscapes or indirect such as influenc- management, analysis, and display of geographic
ing the generation of additional traffic and hence knowledge, which is represented using a series of
contributing to congestion, air pollution and green- information sets such as maps and globes, geographic
house gases. These impacts are of particular concern data sets, processing and work flow models, data
in urban and coastal areas where the greater pressure models and metadata.
and conflict for land use and development is taking GIS is a technology that is used to view and analyse
place. data from a geographic perspective. It links location

59
to information and layers that information to give You can choose what layers to combine based on your
you a better understanding of how it all interrelates. purpose.

Box 18. An example of good practice in the territory planning

CEFIRO PROJECT: (SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE ATLANTIC


REGION) was developed in the framework of the INTERREG IIC “Atlantic Space” initiative.
This project was promoted by the Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias, S.A. and has Aquitaine Europe
Communication as a trans-national partner. The principal objective of this project was the production of thematic
inventory cartography relevant to the matter in hand on a suitable scale and the generation of software tools to unify
the information, taking the concepts of tourism and sustainability as
guidelines.
The execution of the Work plan included creating a GIS application
based on ArcView, with thematic cartography in the spatial ambit of
the island of La Gomera and the French region, located in Aquitaine,
Bassín d’Arcachom, as well as the publication of the results on the
Internet.
This project simply applied knowledge, experience and methodology
to a new field of work, sustainable tourism, especially in the geograph-
ical ambit of an island in the Canarian Archipelago, La Gomera. The
actions were directed towards quality of information and the proce-
dures and methodologies to obtain and manage it adding new tech-
nologies as a further tool for territorial analysis. This enables us to rep-
resent the model analysed and a friendlier environment for the poten-
tial users of both the methodologies and the thematic maps derived
from the work.The final result has been a further tool for decision-
making on sustainability of development for tourism. Further informa-
tion can be found on the site of the project http://cefiro.itccanarias.org/

c. Technologies to Improve the Management of the tion and air conditioning systems present low effi-
Natural Resources ciency. The fresh water availability and storage is
sometimes deficient. Tourism is also an activity that
Energy, Water and Environment are a strategic frame-
produces important amounts of waste, which is a big
work for Ecotourism. A sustainable model in tourism
problem in close ecosystems. The actions to be imple-
must be based on the planning of activities related to mented in this context should develop and introduce
these areas, oriented to the preservation of the envi- an integrated efficient system for energy and water
ronment and an effective use and management of the production, as well as for wastewater treatment and
available resources. solid waste management.
The energy and water demand for tourism is high, The new technologies associated to Energy-Water-
mainly during the peak season when cooling/heating Environment have experienced a high development
and water needs are very important. Energy produc- in the last years with a great maturity level and cost

60
competitiveness, which allows the expansion of this Photovoltaic
market. The worldwide demand for solar electric power sys-
The advance experienced by these emerging tech- tems has grown steadily over the last 20 years. The
nologies together with the social interest in their need for reliable and low cost electric power in isolat-
application, represents an excellent opportunity for ed areas of the world is the primary force driving the
the Ecotourism sector. In addition to the advantages worldwide photovoltaic (PV) industry today. Typical
for the environment and sustainability of the tourism applications of PV in use today include Off-grid uses
activities, the innovation in these areas plays a vital for solar electricity (communities that have no access
role in enhancing the attractiveness of an Ecotourism to grid connection, repeater stations for mobile tele-
destination. phones, traffic signals, marine navigation aids, securi-
ty phones, weather monitors) and Grid-connected sys-
The energetic model of the destination must be ori- tems (represent the market segment that has been
ented to the saving of energy, the diversification of growing most rapidly over the past few years).
the energetic sources and the use of the renewable
energies. This is especially relevant for those Biomass Heating
Ecotourism destinations in rural areas far away from Biomass heating systems burn plant or other organic
the cities and in a nature environment. matter–such as wood chips, agricultural residues or
There are many different innovation opportunities even municipal waste–to generate heat. This heat can
related to energy which can be introduced in any be transported and used wherever it is needed.
Ecotourism destination:
Solar Thermal
Wind Energy ( )6 Solar thermal technologies on the market now are
The kinetic energy in the wind is a promising source efficient and highly reliable, providing solar energy
of renewable energy with significant potential in for a wide range of applications – from domestic hot
many parts of the world. This energy being captured water and space heating in residential and commer-
by wind turbines is highly dependent on the local cial buildings, to swimming pool heating, solar-assist-
average wind speed. Regions that normally present ed cooling, industrial process heat and desalination of
the most attractive potential are located near coasts, drinking water.
inland areas with open terrain or on the edge of bod-
ies of water. Some mountainous areas also have good Passive Solar
potential. Studies have shown that houses designed using pas-
sive solar principles can require less than half the
Small Hydro heating energy of the same house using conventional
Hydroelectricity is one of the most mature forms of windows with random window orientation. Passive
renewable energy, providing more than 19% of the solar designs can also provide a better use of natural
world’s electricity consumption from both large and daylight for lighting purposes, not to mention a
small power plants. It must be taken into account the pleasant living environment and the proper selection
potential negative local environmental impact in spe- of shading devices (e.g. overhangs, trees) can result in
cific cases. reduced cooling loads.

(6) Some descriptions are based on the RETSCREEN® ENGINEERING & CASES TEXTBOOK.

61
Many places for Ecotourism activities are found in energies, besides the fact of reducing the polluting
remote places far from the cities and therefore from emissions and the consumption of resources, can
the traditional sources of energy. This is the reason serve to sensitise visitors. Renewable energy systems
why the use of renewable energies could be an appro- can offer tourist industry a positive community image
priate option. On the other hand, the use of these that can be attractive to potential clients.

Box 19: Example of good practice

Technology for Ecotourism – Nature Conservation Centre Annaberg


The Nature Conservation Centre Annaberg is a non-commercial organisation and is a centre for environment edu-
cation and at the same time a touristy institution. It is located in the middle of the Erzgebirge surrounded by the
typical nature of the Erzgebirge, like woods, moors and mountain grasslands. In addition to the environment edu-
cation also the centre offers holiday camps for students. These camps will be arranged in the own summer resi-
dences, which are also possible to rent by tourists. Furthermore premises for conferences, different excursions to
nature adventure trails and project days for schools are possible to provide.
The Nature Conservation Centre is managed by environmental principles. Solar electricity and earth-coupled heat
pumps for the heating as well as the water heating are used technologies of the centre based on renewable energies.
In addition the Nature Conservation Centre Annaberg has a waster water treatment system, where all incidental
effluents will be cleaned.

One specific problem of isolated areas is the load dia- tal respect with water supply in optimum conditions
gram management. Usually, there are large differences for daily use. By returning water to nature in the best
between peak and off-peak hours. The low consump- conditions, the cycle is closed.
tion during off-peak hours constitutes the main con- Even the landscape can be designed in the manner to
straint to higher penetration of renewable in the elec- provide shade (trees) and atmospheric conditions
tric generation system. Solutions to overcome this that could complement building design and con-
constraint basically consist in the transfer of con- struction for excellent interior comfort, while min-
sumption to off-peak periods and storage systems
imising energy and water consumption. Some of the
(energy or water).
results foreseen with the commented systems are to
Another important resource to take into account is
decrease the local environmental impact, reduce the
the water. The integral water cycle management must
take into consideration the catchments, transport, environmental costs and thus preserve the ecosystem
treatment and distribution of drinking water. It is also by reducing emissions, increase public awareness by
responsible for the collection, the treatment, the reuse demonstrating the socio-economic and environmen-
and the return of wastewater to the natural environ- tal benefits, contribute to the local socio-economic
ment with the minimum environmental impact. A development by increasing the use of local resources,
correct water management must be assured from the encouraging local enterprise and creating new job
start of this process by combining deep environmen- opportunities.

62
Box 20. Green Hotel Project

Green Hotel is a demonstration project supported by the 5th Framework Programme for RTD of the European
Commission. The project Consortium is composed by 12 European Organisations, including universities and
research centres on energy and
water. AREAM (AG NCIA
REGIONAL DA ENERGIA
E AMBIENTE DA REGIÃO
AUTÓNOMA DA
MADEIRA) is the Green
Hotel project co-ordinator.
The project was designed to
provide solid technological
solutions to increase the use of
environmentally friendly tech-
nologies from a diverse mix of
new and renewable energy
sources, thus setting an appro-
priate framework for integrat-
ing self-supply into end use
and increasing public aware-
ness of cost effective and envi-
ronmentally friendly tech-
nologies in a sustainable com-
munity.
The action will develop and
introduce an integrated effi-
cient system for energy and
water production, as well as
for wastewater treatment,
waste management and mobility plan to meet the needs of a new hotel resort, including also a new marina and relat-
ed services, to be built in Madeira Island, Portugal.
Further information can be found on the site of the project http://www.aream.pt/greenhotel/

d Utilisation of Mobile Services and Virtual Reality Mobile access can be used to the usual Internet web
site. It is just a different terminal. Using wireless
Mobile Services
access to Internet means more instant help for the
Mobile services have a high potential to improve the users. Wireless environment will enable entirely new
quality of many tourism services, with user-oriented type of services.
value added services for trip planning/route guidance, The different solutions that are of use in the tourism
integrated reservation/ payment, security/emergency, industry cover a wide area of technological develop-
etc. ment.

63
• Mobile phones were originally used for speech. munication between mobile phones, laptops and
Today, mobile messaging is an important part of other portable devices.
the usage. From SMS to MMS with static images it • When it comes to localization services, navigation
is now usual to watch streaming video and to see and advanced map functions, it is the GNSS (global
our interlocutor and the surroundings. navigation satellite systems) that gives the position.
• Wireless technology makes the information and Through the use of on-line positioning services and
services on the Internet accessible to mobile hand- GIS (Geographical Information Systems) a map or a
sets almost anywhere anytime. W-Lan (Wireless voice can guide us wherever we want to go or drive.
Local Area networks) is a technique that can give • M-commerce: the ability to charge an account
access to local networks at a distance up to a few through mobile devices will be a driving force for
hundred metres. Bluetooth is a new technology for many applications in the tourism sector.
short-range wireless connectivity. Bluetooth gives • Reservations: every system that handles reservations
wireless access in much the same way as W-Lan but for travelling, hotels and all types of events should
at a much shorter distance. It allows wireless com- be accessible through mobile devices.

Box 21. An example of good practice going from e-services to mobile services - E2M

Tourism is an important business sector in Southern


European countries. Hotels, car rental agencies, ferries and
airlines all have customers who need access to travel infor-
mation 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for making reser-
vations, buying tickets, getting prices and timetable infor-
mation, directions or related assistance.
The aim of the E2M project is to demonstrate the poten-
tial of speech recognition for providing multilingual voice
interface to an e-commerce portal, operational within the
tourist sector. Voice automated services can reduce call cen-
tre costs and have the potential to increase customer satis-
faction.
The project was co financed by the European Fifth
Framework Program, and has been developed by a consor-
tium with the participation of the University of Patras, the
technological enterprises Indra Sistemas S.A and
Knowledge S.A., the shipping enterprises Fred Olsen S.A.
and Hellas Flying Dolphins, and the Technological Institute of the Canary Islands. A trial was carried out within
an existing ferryboat information service, to provide tourists access to travel information in their native language
through a voice-based query facility to a web site. A dialogue system enabled users ask questions concerning timeta-
bles, routes and ticket availability using natural speech. The system responded with a mixture of synthetic speech
and pre-recorded messages. The user was also able to make cabin and parking reservations. The system supported
multilingualism. During the trial, Greek and Spanish language was used for accessing the two services.

64
Box 22: The GPS - Project

This project is being developed in Sweden, in the Region of Halland (Hylte Municipality, www.hylte.se), and it is
examining the possibilities of using the GPS-technique to enhance the quality of different tourist attractions. The
project is focusing on tourist companies working with sportive fishing in the area. The main outcome of the proj-
ect is to give unguided tours with the same information and possibilities as guided tours. The GPS will provide
information on “good fishing sights” as well as tourists attractions along the path.
The impact on the environment is hoped to be decreased due to the possibility in monitoring individual tourists
and their choice on where to fish – vulnerable places could be avoided. Hopefully this could be extended to
include information on both places of particularly interest and fauna along the chosen path. The obstacles encoun-
tered are more related to copyright and access to technologies than finding new ways of using the ICT as a tool
in this tourist offer.
The developers of this tool are today investigating an extended area of use for example; follow by foot a historical
person from the area/town and the places he used go to.

• The integration of multilingual Voice Portal or Virtual Reality


SLDS (Spoken Language Dialogue System) to the
The multimedia and virtual applications started in
web services provided by the enterprises, permits the industrial areas, both civil and military, but now
user to have access to services like timetables, avail- they can be found in any sector and with a low cost.
ability information and ticket reservation 24 hours Virtual tours and computer-aided images help the
a day. This system allows access through the spo- public in understanding the geography, traditions,
ken language to any web information using the culture and monuments in a destination. Computers
most natural way, speaking, through the most can allow the public to place themselves in the posi-
spread and easy-to-use device, the telephone, fixed tion of, for example, a miller and to understand the
or mobile. processes involved in milling.
• Cross border roaming will enable all services we get Computers can be used to help the public understand
in one country to continue when we cross the bor- where to position a castle and why it was built at a
der to another country and/or move from one particular spot, where the raw materials came from,
telecommunication provider to another. how long it took to build it and where the different
artisans came from, what the castle looked like in the
The services to be developed in this area are based on 15th century, what the Great Hall was used for, etc.
the definition of wireless connectivity architectures, The virtual reality can help in the planning of infra-
which represent an appropriate platform for services structures and activities: evaluating esthetical
to be given to the enterprise and to customers, and impacts, selecting different options, emergency plans,
where the security will be an important subject. ergonomic studies, environmental impacts.

65
Box 23. An example of good practice of virtual reality - La Palma Virtual Tour

This Virtual Tour, with an


scale 1:5000, has been devel-
oped by using different aeri-
al photographs, it allows to
see the municipalities,
buildings, nature and places
of interest of the island of La
Palma from a different per-
spective. This innovative
experience of virtual reality
will allow the planning of
activities and infrastructures
showing the environmental
impact on the landscape.

Conclusions and clear standards concerning the development


of Ecotourism is found inevitable. The acceptance
The central aim of the project and therefore this doc-
of all stakeholders should be the overall goal. As
ument was to make up a guideline for the develop-
this is a high aim to reach a specific body that
ment of Ecotourism in Europe. Drawing from the
accounts responsible for the establishment of min-
wide spectra and different approaches of the partici-
imum standards, their monitoring and revision
pating partners towards Ecotourism a number of should be implemented across Europe.
decisive factors were investigated. The findings of the
• In the study it was found that Ecotourism including
accomplished project and this document are reason-
Eco-education, cultural and adventure travel is now
able to give recommendations to people in charge of
the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry.
the development of Ecotourism.
In order to foresee the development of the market
• The investigation of the different definitions of and different streaming continuous market analy-
Ecotourism showed that an officially accepted defi- sis should be undertaken.
nition and standards for Ecotourism are still miss- • The investigation of the Ecotourist revealed that the
ing. Meanwhile still 48 different private and public target group has clear expectations and perceptions
certificates for Ecotourism exist in Europe, which of their Eco-vacations. Consequently, a steady
reasons that organisations and institutions not nec- monitoring of the needs and wants of the
essarily consider to the same ecological and social Ecotourist is of importance in order to arrange the
aspects. Consequently, an all-embracing definition touristy offers according to the expectations.

66
• In the project it was found that an overall study of • Technologies are needed when planning the imple-
the Ecotourism in Europe is missing. Single coun- mentation of an Ecodestination. It can give stake-
tries have their own market research, but there is a holders adequate information about the
lack of a European market analysis. Therefore, a Ecodestination in question and makes it possible
thorough study of the “European Ecotourist” to plan the sustainable development according to
should be achieved. the characteristics of the territory.
• Moreover, the individuals have a high level of envi- • The use of new technologies for Ecotourism mar-
ronmental conscience and believe that nature must keting offers a large amount of information to the
be protected and celebrated within a natural context. potential tourist. Information about Ecotourism
Eco-destinations should operate this attitude and offers, the settings they are developed in, the social
provide economic and social incentives that further and economical situation of the regions can be
the environmental protection of their region. spread in an efficient and direct way. Therefore the
• As a result of the investigation of the suppliers of utilisation of modern technologies should be inher-
Ecotourism, it shows that the development of ited.
Ecotourism necessitates a clear strategy. The for- • The use of renewable energies, besides the fact of
mulation of operative principles is crucial. reducing the polluting emissions and the con-
However, all Ecotourism initiatives have to comply sumption of resources, is recommended as it can
with the existing environmental requirements, serve to completely integrate the ecological char-
which means a control of the numbers of tourists so acteristic of the region. Renewable energy systems
as not overload certain areas. can offer the tourist industry a positive community
• When developing an Ecodestination the valorisa- image that can be attractive to potential clients.
tion and rising of awareness of the natural and cul- • The Travel & Tourism Industry does not support
tural “capital” was found to be essential and any specific costs to finance the value of its prod-
should be done by every potential Ecodestination. ucts, benefiting in this way of a large amount of
• When looking at traditions the existing culture and positive external effects and not indemnifying the
historic resources are the key success factor of a local community. As this is dangerous to the forth-
region as they are offered as the main product of the coming of an Ecodestination there has to be an
region. It was found that the authenticity is the agreement to balance the impacts and costs.
most important character of a cultural touristy • As stated in the Québec Declaration on Ecotourism
offer and therefore the core content of Ecotourism. (2002), one of the aims of Eco-tourism is to: “pro-
• People are found to be the key resource to make sure mote and develop educational programmes
that Ecotourism initiatives and resources do not addressed to children and young people to enhance
remain isolated and disconnected. Especially public awareness about nature conservation and sustain-
authorities are obliged to communicate the co-ordi- able use...”. These programs therefore should be
nation of initiatives among the stakeholders. implemented. Also programs to educate, through
Hereby, the integration and co-ordination of all appropriate means of communication and sup-
stakeholders were found to play a fundamental role. port, residents and tourists to use public shuttles
Therefore the methods used for involving and for in town mobility for in and out transfers.
integrating people should be carefully considered • The success of a promotion and the choice of pro-
and balanced. motion tools depends on the desires of the target

67
group. Therefore, the promotion activities in the most frequented form of recreation. Under these
Ecotourism should be preceded by a thorough aspects, ecological compatible vacation would only be
analysis of market needs and desires. As for possible in the home country or region. This does
Ecotourism destinations, the findings showed that neither correspond with the demand of the market,
they have to create and to promote an individual nor with the economical intentions of the tourism
image or brand image, where the potential tourists industry.
can recognise the destination with its particular
For the progressing of the development of
traditions, cultures and peoples.
Ecotourism in Europe, European regions which want
• The use of modern information & communication implement Ecotourism in order to foster sustainable
technologies are seen as a key success factor when
development of their destination need to take the fol-
promoting an Ecodestination. Hence, when plan-
lowing points into consideration:
ning the marketing concept it should be embedded
within the possibilities of the modern technology in 3. Implementation of the concept of sustainability
order to present itself and give information to the with an installation of:
potential tourist as contemporary as possible. • Management of environmental aspects;
• Thus, the importance of co-ordination and collabo- • Monitoring and information system and;
ration between public organisations and private • Development of strategic and objective targets
operators was found fundamental for the success of according to the ecological balance.
the development of Ecotourism. Therefore all ini-
This should be followed through in collaboration
tiative should focus on facilitating the management
with the different stakeholders (e.g. nature conserva-
and communication between the particular part-
tion, Hotels, tourist bureau, tourism service
ners. Consequently, the installation of a manage-
providers, local authorities).
ment for the development of Ecotourism in the
region of question is recommended. 4. Agreement and compliance on indicators for a bet-
ter environment:
• Transport;
To summarise:
• Load limits by land use, biodiversity and tourism
How can the Ecotourism be developed within activities;
Europe? Recapitulating, seen from different aspects • Energy and water consumption, waste manage-
that play an important role a possible development ment.
scenario was developed. Reasoned by the complexity 5. Agreement and compliance on social and cultural
of the individual framework between the single
performance indicators;
dimensions and the individual framework of the
6. Agreement and compliance for the economical
region no general accepted development scheme
capability.
could be recommended. From the example of the
touristy offer of transport it becomes obvious in
These following principles are guidelines for the
which area of conflict the development of Ecotourism
responsible who implement and participate single
lies. On one hand it appears logical and correct to
Ecotourism activities:
abandonment the transportation with cars and planes
in order to secure the sustainable tourism. On the 1. Build environmental and cultural awareness and
other hand, the changes in society bring short trips as respect;

68
Box 24.Deduction of a development scenario for Ecotourism in Europe (Source: G. Janas, creatours)

2. Provide positive experiences for both visitors and 5. Ensures equal, effective and active participation of
hosts; all stakeholders;
3. Provide direct financial benefits for conservation of 6. Promotes processes for indigenous peoples and
the nature; local communities to control and maintain their
4. Provide financial benefits and empowerment for resources;
local people; 7. Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, envi-
ronmental, and social climate.

69
Appendix 1

The Pilot Project Results in the Partner Countries

a. Pilot Project of the Province of Teramo in Cortino the following project divided into 2 parts:
Under the Interreg IIIC “Ecotourism: Places & the tourist centre “The fruits of the wood” and “The
Traditions”, which foresees the implementation of 6 adopted route”.
pilot projects in 6 different partner countries, the The town of Cortino, is situated in the Province of
Province of Teramo as lead partner has implemented Teramo, in the middle of the Gran Sasso and Monti
della Laga National Park.

The tourist centre “The fruits of


the wood” is actually located in
Padula an hamlet of Cortino.
Tourists, through a sequence of
tools and information about the
wood and fauna, will be able to
find out the importance and the
value of trees and woods and to
understand better the need to
protect them.
The tourist centre will be useful
for schools, youngest and adults
and it is composed of 3 main
rooms. One room is used for
didactic activities: there, anyone
can learn about plants and
nature through pictures or smell
and colours using his/her senses
or even learn about animals
through their tracks. The second
room is used as a meeting and
picture room. The last one is
used as an exhibition room full
of daily tools such as the ones to
make cheese since in Cortino
Picture 1 - The Gran Sasso National Park. people used to live out of sheep-

71
farming and mushrooms harvest. As a matter of fact, tre of the town. The route which is very suggestive is
until some decades ago, sheep-farming was the most easy to run. The route permits to link two bigger
important activity for local inhabitants giving a pecu- hamlets in the municipality and tourists will be able
liar imprint to shepherds’ and their families life. to visit both by walking and running through old
In the tourist centre, some activities, to be carried road.
out, concern those typically of best practices of
Ecotourism with low environmental impact and high Characteristics of path:
regard for nature: excursions, bird watching, moun- Difficulties E (adapted for excursionists)
tain bike, animals and their tracks watching as well as Length: 5 Km
naturalistic picture taking. Maximum height: 1364
Time for the walk: 2.30 hours
This project gives tourists the opportunity to live the
Drinkable water: enough (fountain Fonte Spugna
mountains thanks to a slow, sweet and deep relation
1200 meters)
to nature and its traditions.
Map: IGM table F 140 IV NO Cortino, scale
1:25000 – CAI Ascoli Piceno Monti della Laga – map
The Adopted Route
of itineraries scale 1:50000.
Itinerary: “The adopted route” Cortino 1001 meters
above sea level; Fonte Spugna 1200 meters; The project main feature is the participation of the
Monte Bilanciere Peak 1363 meters; Macchiatornella local residents and economic operators. The imple-
- Padula. mentation of the exhibition inside the centre had
been possible thanks to locals’ suggestions, informa-
The environment is always the same: the hard and tion and storytelling.
delightful place of the Laga mountains, that gives evi-
dence to the naturalistic value of the wood where the The project itself has been composed of 3 steps.
prominent species is the white fir forest. The first step consisted of a first meeting at the
The route starts over the built-up area of Cortino, Mayor presence in order to give an institutional evi-
and goes on to the Fonte Spugna place (1200 meters dence to this event. His presence was also very impor-
above sea level) towards the white fir forest. Here it is tant to put together the Province of Teramo, the Gran
possible, if you are lucky, to meet deers that live in Sasso Monti della Laga Park Authority and the local
this faunal area. Going on through the wood made community. In a second meeting the project was pre-
out of fir and beech trees you will arrive at an old sented to the economic and tourist operators who at
fountain (1364 meters). Not too far, there is a won- the end decided to add at their usual package a gas-
derful clearing, where it is possible to watch a mar- tronomic offer in order to revitalise their local typical
vellous landscape of the highest mountains in the cuisine. Other seminars were thought in order to
Laga Park: the Gorzano and Pizzo di Moscio moun- invite all residents and to try to meet their needs.
tains. Heading for the pick of the mount Bilanciere The second step consisted in the discovering of the
you will cross a muleteer; going on through pastures, appropriate building housing the centre for exhibi-
clearing and brooms you’ll arrive at the build up of tions and didactic activities. The park authority was
Macchiatornella. In a couple of minutes you will very helpful into taking the decision since it placed
arrive at the Mill of Padula and therefore to the cen- one of its building at the project disposal.

72
The third step consisted of a meeting just for tour ural elements (rivers, lakes). These preparations will
operators and specialised press interested in knowing be part of a set of initiatives aimed at stimulating and
the area having and exchange of experiences and, increasing the value of Eco-tourism in the north-east-
eventually, organising with the local economic opera- ern areas of the province of Malaga. In addition, the
tors tour packages for Ecotourists. project contemplates other initiatives such as:
• A study of the current state and the need of repair
b. Pilot Project of the Malaga County Council of springs, fountains, public watering places, locat-
The participation and initiatives carried within the ed in rural areas and their relation to the life of the
province of Malaga under the umbrella of the people in the surrounding area.
European Ecotourism Project can be broken down • A study of the relationship and repercussion of the
into two main blocks: the initial idea/concept and old traditions as far as they were related to this pri-
launching of the AGUA pilot project, and the mordial life-giving water source.
Ecotourism dissemination and promotional activities • Signpost routes and access to the surrounding areas
as a strategy that was integrated into the actions car- around the fountains and watering places.
ried out by Malaga County Council. • Organise a Dissemination Day for the project to
The pilot project in Malaga focuses on the boosting discuss the importance of the conservation and pro-
and promotion of Ecotourism by means of strategic motion of the cultural and natural heritage related
actions which are all related to one specific basic nat- to water as a resource.
ural element in the province: Water. • Publish a guide of the springs, fountains, and pub-
lic watering places located in rural places.
The AGUA project sees this resource as the main
backbone of a series of Ecotourism initiatives, which • Dissemination and promotion of the AGUA proj-
are all connected in some way to the different aspects, ect through tourist brochures and special bulletins.
and value it has in the province: The watering places to restore and repair are the fol-
• As a Natural resource and source of life, needed for lowings:
subsistence and used in different ways by man in his • “The Panantonio and Piletillas water fountains”.
development. (The Padre Antonio water fountain). The
• As a Ecosystem support, both physically and as a Municipality of Archidona. A natural-sourced
means by which other life forms develop. water fountain; as the water flows down from a
• As a Part of landscapes, giving shape to landscape mountain spring. It is located in a magnificient nat-
structures and providing a unique attractiveness. ural setting in a beauty spot known as the “Olla de
Archidona”. It is also known by some as the
• As a cultural element.
“camino de rey” (the King’s way), as it is located on
• As an educational and research element. the old Royal Highway that joined Seville with
The AGUA project seeks to set up a new approach for Granada. Up to the seventies it was a resting place
sustainable tourism development by promoting those for travellers who used this important highway
places that have a rich natural and cultural heritage. It thanks to its abundant vegetation and the fact that
will do so by restoring and repairing three watering the water fountain never dried up.. It is like a gar-
places and fountains located in a rural area, the areas den surrounded by olive trees and is, indeed, a place
around the villages, and the integration of other nat- of great natural beauty. It is, however, in a terrible

73
condition and the access road to it is also in very and although this practice still goes on today, it is
bad shape, as it is covered with weeds. The actions being lost. It is part and parcel of the history and
that are planned include the clearing away of the culture of this village because it was, as we said ear-
weeds, an extensive clean-up operation of the whole lier, the main source of drinking water for the vil-
area, and the construction of an enclosure for the lagers. Nowadays, it is used as a recreational area. It
fountain. is not in the best of conditions and requires a
• “The El Cuartel water fountain”. The municipali- detailed and important restoration to its original
ty of Villanueva de Tapia. Located near the bed of condition. The overgrowth and weeds need to be
a stream and, although of old on the outskirts of the removed and the area needs to be made more
village, today it is actually inside the village limits.. attractive and then signposted.
It is full of tradition and cultural wealth as it was
used as a public washing place by the village women The preliminary results obtained in the qualitative
for many years. It was, therefore, a meeting place evaluation of the cultural and environmental capital
for the village women, who would go up to it daily related to the optimising of the use of water sources
to get the water they would use at home and to are really quite incredible. The majority of
wash their clothes. Nowadys it has lost its original Ecotourism projects that are carried out in the
use, although it is still a popular meeting point for province are related to water as a resource, which
village people. The water flows from the Chorrillo makes the revitalising of rural areas near rivers or
source. The fountain has one jet and one column, springs, reservoirs and lakes extremely important.
which is in bad condition.
• “The Fuente Alta water
fountain”. The Municipality
of Cuevas de San Marcos. It
is situated on the outskirts of
the village on the road to San
Marcos and the Iznájar
resevoir. It is and has been for
some considerable time one
of the village’s most impor-
tant sources of drinking
water. It is, in reality, a trian-
gular-shaped ancient water-
ing place, with two incoming
jets of water and only one
outflowing jet. There are
washing slabs on either side
of it where women used to do
their washing. Traditionally it
was also a place where farm-
ers would buy and sell cattle, Picture 1 - Watering place.

74
c. Pilot Project of the Council of Penacova Second part: Circuits
The pilot project of Penacova is divided into two Regarding the part of the circuits it was considered
main parts: events based on local traditions and cir- the following aspects:
cuits across the mountains and valleys of Penacova • River Boat Circuits: this activity consists in short
and their traditions. boat trips in traditional boat from the region,
between Penacova and Coimbra. During the trip
First part: Events the participants have a meal that consists in tradi-
From the first part of the pilot project, regarding tional aspects and dishes from the region. This
events, it were considered the following events: activity provide to participants more information
• Sweet Food Fair in Lorvão: This activity has as about the aspects of workers lives in the river. The
main objective to promote the traditional and old- activities take place just during the summer espe-
est sweet food from the region. To revitalise this cially because of the weather.
kind of activities is also an important objective, The activity involved 5 people in the organisation
because for some investors this could be a good and during the period of 2 months it was registered
chance for business. the participation of 250 participants, divided in
In the total this event attracted more or less 500 groups of 25 people.
people to Lorvão, including local inhabitants. • Donkey Circuits: the activity consists in short
Among them it involved the participation of 7 walks across the mountains in donkeys. The aim is
sweet producers during 3 days of a week-end. also to contemplate the wind and water mills cir-
• Honey Fair in Penacova: this event is important for cuit. This activity wants to revitalise traditions and
the minor investors and self producers of local demonstrate aspects of the way of living of rural
honey and traditional products based on local populations.
ingredients. This is the opportunity that minor In this activity were involved 4 people in the organi-
investors have to show their products and work. sation and was registered a participation of 25 people.
In this event 10 local producers participated and • Pedestrian Circuits: the pedestrian circuits consist
the number of visitors was around 600 people dur- in the major investment of this pilot project. It was
ing a week-end. prepared 4 circuits to contemplate aspects from the
• Festival of Lamprey: this festival is the biggest event entire municipality.
from this pilot project not only because of the The results from the pilot project are valid for our
resources involved but mainly because of the aver- approach to Ecotourism issues. It is important to
age number of participants. This festival involved understand that some of the most important objec-
11 restaurants in a total of 120 people involved in tives of Ecotourism in a global level are the respect
the organisation, had the duration of 3 days and and conservation of natural aspects of some regions,
attracted more than 5000 participants to Penacova. the revitalisation of traditions in a way that tourists
The main objective of this event is to make strong could experience a product that make them to be
the image of Penacova as an Ecotourism destina- conscious of the environmental problems, a product
tion, based on gastronomy. In terms of projection that could teach them something more and that put
the results could be expected at local, regional, tourists in contact with the local traditions so pure as
national and even international level. they could be.

75
This way and about the experience of Penacova in interesting for tourists. Usable potentials for tourism
this matter it is possible to say that the objectives are the beautiful landscape, leisure facilities and many
described above were reached because the product old traditions with a high show value. But in
was based in environmental issues but also comple- Germany exist 29 low mountain ranges, similar in
mented with traditions. In the final the result was a landscape, competing with different offers for the
product based on nature and landscape but comple- interest of potential visitors. Therefore it is necessary
mented with the traditions component. to use potentials of the region for attracting guests
which are unique and offer the opportunity for a sus-
Concerning about to propose these approaches to a
tainable development in nature and economy. In the
large scale it makes all sense because in our region
Erzgebirge we have a wide range of traditions, some
there are some other destinations that work with a
of them are widely known. So the Erzgebirge is well-
similar product, but not involved in projects like this
established as the “Land of Christmas” with its tradi-
one. The results of Penacova’s pilot project could be a
tional potentials wood art, carving, lace making and
good help to these destinations that are able to work
skiing. These potentials have already being used for
on the Ecotourism area.
tourism. But the brand name as “Land of Christmas”
is not the only potential of the Erzgebirge and some-
d. Pilot Project of the Wirtschaftsförderung
times this brand name is a disadvantage for the region
Erzgebirge GmbH
because it associates tourism only with Christmas
Within the Interreg IIIC project “Ecotourism: Places time and restricts it to one season only. The urgent
and Traditions”, which has foreseen the implementa- need to develop further offers and attractions for
tion of 6 pilot projects in 6 different partner coun- tourists shows also the decline in visitors of the region
tries, the Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH, as during the last years. E.g. the accommodations
partner in the project, was responsible for one of the decline amounts to 5% since 2000, with an increas-
pilot projects. The activities were carried out in the ing trend since 2004. Now we have an capacity of
project region Erzgebirge under the title “Tourist some 40%. Our ambitious aim is an capacity of some
marketing of the old trimmings tradition and the 50%. Also some of the statistics of traditional muse-
medication of healing resources of our region”. The ums in our region show a decline in visitations. So the
project was divided into two parts: the “Tourist mar- most important aim for our work within the pilot
keting of the old trimmings tradition” and “The med- project was to establish additionally new attractive
ication of healing resources of the region” with differ- and interesting all-season offers for tourists by using
ent actions in each field. of old traditions and potentials of our region under
Objective of the project was the development and consideration of Ecotourism standards.
promotion of Ecotourism in the upper area of the The basic principles for the use of such traditions in
Erzgebirge and causing an economic effect on the our pilot project were as follows:
basis of old traditions in our region and the trends • to reach an economic effect for the touristic service
nature and healthy way of life. providers and the stakeholders of the traditions;
The Erzgebirge, a territory of 130 km?, is a low • Thereby the level of the offers should meet high
mountain range in the South of the German Free demands and the uniqueness of the offers has to be
State of Saxony at the border to the Czech Republic. visible under the motto “viewing-experiencing-
It is an area of industrial importance and, as well, buying”;

76
• The traditions should be act as a supporting ele- The results of the pilot project of the
ment in a tourism region rich on potentials in Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH:
nature and culture; Establishment of networks for co-operation
• Already used potentials should be connected with • two networks were established to co-ordinate and
less touristic marketed places and traditions to cre- support the work in both parts of the project;
ate diversified offers in order to attract more guests.
• the networks analysed necessary steps and ensure
Thereby the right balance between history and
sustainability by co-operation and marketing of the
modernity in the presentation of the traditions
developed offers also after the end of the project;
should be considered in the interest of the customer;
• development of two logos for both parts and com-
• Furthermore it is important for ensuring the sus-
mon marketing of the products under this logos to
tainability of the activities to create networks of
increase the recognition effect.
former single actors like producers, tourist compa-
nies and service providers to make them co-operat- Travelling exhibition of trimmings:
ing in joint action for a better marketing of the • provides information about the trimmings tradition
region; and support offers for tourists, which include activ-
After extended analysis concerning traditions in our ities in the field trimmings;
region we found two suitable important traditions
which we decided to use:
– trimmings, as tradition in the field craft and indus-
try and
– the different use of the healing resources herbs,
water and air as components for health tourism.
The trimmings are a traditional craft of our region
but threatened to fall into oblivion, manufacturers in
this craft are very seldom in Germany and mainly set-
tled in the Erzgebirge. The trimmings have a very
high show value, meet the tourists demands of “view-
ing-experiencing-buying” and that’s why they are very
suitable for using in tourism. In the health segment
we decided to use the natural potentials herbs, water
and air of our region and the tradition for using them
for health treatments. Still existing potentials of our
region therefore are e.g. herb gardens, health baths
with wellness areas, water paddling basins for pad-
dling in cold water as therapy, healthy galleries in for-
mer mines, events like herb weeks and nature markets
and last but not least an unspoiled countryside with
extensive forests, romantic river valleys and mountain
hiking paths. Picture 3 - Pictures of the opening of the travelling exhibition.

77
• consists of 5 plates, which contains information ilies, interested in culture and education, traditions
about the trimmings tradition, 1 platform which is and technology;
separable in 3 parts, 3 dummies for each segment of • developed as short stay offers one week at the most
the platform and 2 show-cases; (coach tours) under consideration of sustainable
• Will be shown nationwide in the next two years and criteria’s and in respect of countryside, environment
then get its permanent location in the rooms of a and protection of culture and tradition;
local museum. • Distribution channels: internet, fairs, travel agen-
cies, tourist associations, brochures;
Days of trimmings
• Supported by the travelling exhibition, the “Days of
• Established as annual event with exhibitions, show trimmings”, some additional exhibitions and the
workshops, presentations about the trimmings network of trimmings.
industry, presentations, work-shops to learn the
handicraft of trimmings and to make trimmings Development of touristic offers in the field healthy
fashion accessories... relaxation
• In order to maintain the old tradition and to sup- • collection and analysis of all offers – profit as well as
port their use for touristic offers in the field non profit offers in the segment health - like herb
Ecotourism. gardens, healthy galleries, health baths, water tread-
ing basins and wellness areas;
Two regional exhibitions • development of offers under the motto “active and
• One themed “Trimmings - craft and fashion”, healthy by herbs, water and air” as short stay offers
• Product show under the title: „Presentation of lasting 1 week at the most;
Trimmings by Textile Companies”. • target groups are individualists interested in nature
and health relaxation as well as groups like sports or
Development of touristic offers connected with trim- hiking associations, leisure associations, music asso-
mings ciations, tourism and culture societies;
• To attract more guests by addressing new target • Marketed by 3 different brochures, each themed to
groups by unique offers under the motto: “viewing a special motto;
- experiencing - buying”; • Distribution channels: internet, fairs, travel agen-
• target groups are especially elderly people and fam- cies, tourist associations, brochures.

Picture 4 - Layout of the brochures with healthy offers

78
The main achievement of the created offers is the Something to the History of Wine Production in
connection of previous partial solutions, the high Alonissos:
quality, information and entertainment value.
The vine cultivation and the wine production are
Important measures to ensure sustainability was the
dated back to the prehistorical times and are closely
development of the corporate identity and the pro-
related to the Mediterranean Culture. Since the pre-
motion material. They were also basic requirements
historic times, the wine constituted an important part
for the marketing of the developed products of the
of people’s meals, and due to this, Dionysus, the god
pilot project and ensured a common corporate iden-
of vegetation and rebirth of nature acquired his deity.
tity for all products of trimmings in the region, a
From then on, the vine cultivation and the wine pro-
common appearance of the so far single actors and
duction expanded to all Mediterranean civilisations.
the increase of publicity.
Through time and while many changes took place,
With the end of the project we are at the beginning the wine-production continued to possess the same
of the touristic value-added process for the next years. importance to these Mediterranean populations: for
Thanks to the project we were able to develop new many of them, the wine-production constituted the
touristic offers by integration of existing traditions, main source of income in their economy. The econo-
potentials of our region in order to push forward the my of Alonissos or "IKOS," up to the 1950s, was
development of sustainable tourism. based to a large extend of the wine production. It was
The created networks in the field trimmings and known from the ancient times, that Alonissos had
health helps to assure the sustainability of the project qualitative and aromatic wine which was attributed to
and are a new quality of co-operation in our region in the white grounds, the altitude and the sunny places
order to attract more tourists. where the vines existed and grew up. Until the recent
years, tradesmen were buying all of Alonissos wine-
e. Pilot Project of the Municipality of Alonissos production and they were mixing it with wines of
other regions in order to achieve better aroma and
Under the framework of the European Project: high quality wine. The high quality divine product
Ecotourism: Places and traditions, financed by the were put in containers called amforeis carrying the
INTERREG III C, the Municipality of Alonissos title "IKION" and it was exported to the regions of
implemented the following pilot project: Black Sea, Egypt and to all the ancient world.
Representation of the traditional wine making proce- The procedure of the wine production included the
dure with an annual three-day festival, which is called crushing of grapes in specific manufactured places,
TA PATITIRIA. The annual festival take place in which were called "KAROUTES" or "PATITIRIA”.
Patitiri, the harbour of Alonissos. The festival has a In the island, there exists the place called "Karoutes"
folklore character, and elements of customs and tra- where there is evidence of the wide use of the grape-
ditions of the wine- making procedure will be crushing places. Also, "PATITIRI", the main harbour
revived. of the island took its name from the many patitiria
Furthermore we developed an exhibition place with located in the area. Patitiri all these years continues to
folklore materials and photographs. In the exhibition exist constituting the testimony of the great wine pro-
place, the preserved materials and traditional tools duction in the island. The use of Karoutes or Patitiria
will portrays old customs and the traditional old life constitutes part of the traditional way of making wine
of Alonissos. in Alonissos.

79
Around the old village of Alonissos, hundreds vive The traditional Patitiri in the form that was used in
guards exist which testify the old wine-productive Alonissos was called “Karouta,” and it was just a
glories. Also, the big importance that the wine had in hovel in the countryside near the vine guards.
the economy of the island is testified with the anfor- Usually, it was separated in to two parts. Half of it
eis, which were found in archaeological sites of the was a tank and the other half it was just a regular
island. The anforeis were containers intended to stor- house where people were staying during the vintage
age and transport mainly the wine and other products or during other vine-cultural work. From the tank,
such as oil. they were removing the pan tiles from above during
the grape crushing procedure and they were placing
In 1965 together with the earthquakes, phylloxera,
planks on which they were loading uncrushed, whole
the deadly virus of the vine guards came about and grape clusters directly on to them and they were step-
sunk in despair the economy of Alonissos. Within a ping over them, which led to a juice with the lowest
year all the vine guards dried out-died and many of possible phenolics: the must. The juice was dropping
the residents of Alonissos immigrated in other places into the tank and it was left in there for fermentation.
of Greece of even in other countries. Today in During the fermentation, people were not living in
Alonissos the production of wine is very limited and the hovel because it was dangerous from the vapours.
it is enough only for local consumption.
Today we can manufacture a flat level of about 50-60
cm, with small bent to the opening from which the
The Traditional Way of Wine Making in Alonissos
must can flow. Its area will depend from the needs of
The harvest of the grapes (or else Vintage) and the the producer. For domestic use, a manufactured
production of wine in Alonissos constituted pleasant Patitiri of 1-3 m2 area and with height of 60-70 cm of
teamwork activities that were realised each year in is big enough. The Patitiri should be covered with
autumn. The Vintage was a seasonal work, which cement in order to be waterproofed. Further, in order
required lots of hands, therefore, most people of the to take the must from the grapes we can use a manu-
island were participating in the procedure helping al press. Using one of the above manufactured pati-
each other to harvest the grapes and then make the tiria, people one after the other they were stepping
wine. The landlord should have ensured workers, bas- over clusters of grapes so as to produce the juice or
kets, animals (usually donkeys and horses) for the must. During the breaks or in the intervals of waiting
transfer. Also, he should have prepared the tools, and each one for his/her turn, food and wine were offered
attended for food and wine for his workers. The and teases were flowed abundantly in the company.
attendance of most of the people in the island to the The must after the crushing was collected in small
wine making procedure turned out it to be a pleasant wooden buckets (Mastela) and afterwards was poured
work that often took the character of a festival. After in big wooden barrels, where the fermentation was
the vintage, the grapes were transported with animals taking place. After the fermentation, the wine was
to the Patitiria or Linous, where traditionally from transferred carefully so as the solid residues (mud) to
the ancient times; the crushing of the grapes was tak- remain in the barrel and the wine to become cleaner.
ing place. The crushing was done by stepping over For the production of red wine, after crushing the red
the grapes. Besides that’s where the name of Patitiria grapes, the must together with the crushed grapes
came from; Patitiri is a place where you step over. In (stefla) were left in the tank or barrels for fermenta-
terms of its form and its capacity, the Patitiri was dif- tion, this way they were taking all the colouring sub-
ferent from region to region. stances from the skin of the grapes.

80
After last fermentation the wine was taken out of the so as to produce the best quality of wine. In the
tank or barrels and the stefla remained in them. Then decade of the 1950s however, as it was mentioned
the stefla were distillated and tsipouro was produced. earlier in the document, phylloxera, a horrible vine
Tsipouro is a strong local drink which is made from guard virus hit the region and unfortunately people
the residues (stefla) in Patitiria after the must is were not able to confront it on time and effectively
removed. and in a short time it destroyed the largest part of the
After the crushing of grapes, the must was transport- vine guards. Since then, the wine producers of
ed and it was usually stored in big wooden barrels Alonissos were just a few; however, they kept the cul-
that had been washed and disinfected. In there the ture and tradition of the wine making procedure. The
fermentation of the must was taking place and it grapes kept for personal use are processed with the
became wine. For improving the quality of wine there same old traditional way. In other words, they use the
were used various substances and for its maintenance patitiria and the old traditional mechanism in order
and various practices was applied. Usually, the barrel to produce the wine.
remained open for forty days and the density of the The Municipality Alonissos under the framework of
wine was checked out regularly. After the forty days, the project Ecotourism: Places and Traditions, and util-
the barrel was sealed so as the air does not penetrate ising Alonissos as one of the most important islands
it. Then the wine was ready!! In general, the locals of the N. Sporades in wine production, wanted to
dedicated a lot of time in the wine-making procedure revive the traditional procedure of making wine; thus,
offering not only to the locals but
also to the visitors, the opportu-
nity to get to know the tradition.
Along with the revival of the tra-
ditional wine making procedure
an annual three-day festival was
orgainsed, which is called TA
PATITIRIA and it will be cele-
brated every year at the end of
August. The festival will take
place in Patitiri, the harbour of
Alonissos. The festival will have a
folklore character, and elements
of customs and tradition of the
wine- making procedure will be
revived. During the festival, tra-
ditional dancers and Greek folk-
lore musicians will be host, and it
will be accompanied with wine
and local food. In the process of
crushing the grapes tourists will
Picture 5 - wine making in Alonissos. be able to participate.

81
Additionally an exhibition place was created, where The aim was therefore initially to attract the visitors
folklore materials and photographs will be displayed. to the Municipality and then to convince them that
The exhibition place portrays the old customs and Geroskipou has sufficient sites of cultural interest that
the traditional old life of Alonissos with preserved they should spend some time, and money, within the
materials and traditional tools. Municipal boundaries – and more specifically those
areas away from the coast.
For the implementation of the project was it impor-
tant to build the infrastructure: the traditional wine- We looked carefully how we might best achieve our
making settlement according to the ancient design, so aims and following much local discussion (initially
as the traditional procedure of wine making festival to within the Municipality and later with colleagues on
take place. Further, the exhibition place had to be the Ecotourism project) decided that we had to sepa-
equipped with the necessary facilities in order to dis- rate our aims and use a variety of tactics to achieve
play the tradition and customs of the old life in success.
Alonissos. It was decided that the main tool for attracting peo-
The Patitiri was build in the premises of the ple to visit the Municipality would be through the
Municipality of Alonissos. The visitors have now the creation of a website. This website should provide the
chance to see the traditional wine making procedure potential visitor with an overview of the history and
and to participate if they want. Besides the wine, archaeology of the Municipality, outline the myths
many other products of must will be produced, such and legends of the area, provide information of the
as must cream, soutzoukia. major and minor local cultural sites, demonstrate
local crafts and produce and provide the visitor with
Within the lines of the pilot project was it possible to
route maps and suggested trails. An important part of
give the tourists and locals the opportunity to come the website would be the creation of links to and from
closer to the local tradition. Therefore, the pilot proj- other sites, thereby directing the potential visitor to
ect elected not only the traditional activities which are the Geroskipou website. Local people were inter-
within the lines of Ecotourism activities but also the viewed and played a major part in the creation of the
local products. section of the website relating to folklore.

f. Pilot Project of the Municipality of Geroskipou In order to gather information, to publicise the proj-
The Municipality of Geroskipou lies in West Cyprus ect and also heighten local awareness, the
adjacent to the much larger Municipality of Pafos. Municipality of Geroskipou held a number of local
The main economy of the area is tourism and there seminars. The project was also publicised on a nation-
are a large number of quality hotels, hotel apartments al stage by being highlighted, as an example of good
and private apartments for rental locally. practice, in a series of conferences on Rural Cyprus
As the Pafos area is a popular year-round tourism des- sponsored by the British High Commission and the
tination our aim was therefore to encourage tourists, EU delegation to Cyprus.
both foreign and Cypriot, to visit the cultural attrac- A number of portable stands were also produced to
tions of the Municipality for one day of their holiday, enable the Municipality to promote the area in trav-
rather than spending their holidays exclusively on the elling exhibitions as well as allowing us to use them
coastal strip or visiting many of the other major cul- within the Municipal building to draw the attention
tural attractions outside the Municipality. of all those who entered to the project. Several per-

82
manent fixed-boards were also created to allow visi- posters to help market the Ecotourism possibilities
tors to the minor sites (where there were no guides) in Geroskipou;
the opportunity to gain an explanation of the sites by • The creation of a number of interpretation boards
putting the site into an historical context, noting in relation to the ‘lesser sites’;
which other local sites were of a similar period, and • The creation of a walking map to guide the inde-
providing an outline of the site noting its key features. pendent Ecotourist around Geroskipou;
As work progressed we decided to create a simple • The creation of 3 walking routes in Geroskipou;
walking / cycling map of Geroskipou. This map was • The creation of signage in association with the
essential for two reasons, as it firstly helped to guide walking routes;
visitors around the sites which may be considered • Raising awareness of the cultural heritage of
more minor and secondly to show visitors at a glance Geroskipou amongst the local population and visitors;
that Geroskipou has a great deal more to offer than
• Raising general environmental awareness in the
the majority of visitors had previously believed.
Municipality of Geroskipou;
Therefore three different walking routes were created, • Increased awareness locally of the traditions and
taking into account levels of physical difficulty and folklore associated with Geroskipou, and especially
groupings of monuments. To link with the map sig- the cult of Aphrodite;
nage on the ground was considered essential and will
• The creation of a learning experience for both locals
form an integral part.
and visitors;
The pilot project results to date. • We hope and expect our efforts to result in
increased visitor numbers which should benefit the
Our achievements are as follows: local economy;
• The creation of Ecotourism web pages for the • We hope that we have encouraged a responsible
Municipality of Geroskipou; approach to tourism through the web pages and
• The creation of a number of portable pop-up through all local tourism materials.

83
Appendix 2

Comparison of the Marketing Plans of the Pilot Projects


Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

Promotion of the Touristic market- Promote its Promote and Recuperate and Organise didactic All the projects
old traditions ing of the old- cultural heritage preserve histori- promote tradi- activities to have in common
1. Introduction

related to the trimmings tradi- through the cal water tions through understand the the respect and
wine production tion and the website resources and to special events importance of sustainability of
and the organisa- medication of old make people the wood and natural resources
tion of events ad healing regional conscious about local traditions and traditions as
hoc resources the importance through a territo- an important
of this resource. rial net economic factor.
To recuperate old To create an To promote and Revitalize rural To involve local To highlight local Locals concern
traditions related unique offer by disseminate the areas to promote population in the traditions for the about the impor-
to wine produc- finding a balance cultural heritage activities that recuperation and implementation tance given to
tion and its influ- between history of Geroskipou as provide some preservation of of a territorial the preservation
ence in the econ- and modernity of a complement to complementary their traditions of net, integrating of nature
omy, culture and the presentation the existent income for the old to be able to inhabitants as resources and
2. Mission

social cohesion of the traditions. tourist offer. local population share with the first performers traditions.
of a remote To ensure the in less developed visitors those to promote and Participation of
island. sustainability of areas by promot- experiences act- protect the area. locals as actors
the activities to ing the natural, ing as agents by preservers and
create networks cultural and his- providing them promoters.
of actors (pro- toric heritage with some spe- Creation of net-
ducers, tourist related to water cific training works.
companies, serv- as a resource. according to
ice providers, Eco-tourism phi-
etc.) losophy
To revitalise tra- To vitalise the To protect the The revaloriza- To revitalise old To promote To promote and
ditional arts and relationship to the archaeological tion of important traditions related tourist actions protect natural,
handicrafts, gas- residents of this monuments, and components of with the ancient for its area with historical and
tronomy and old traditions, in to demonstrate the natural and aspects of the the purpose to traditional
embed them into order to stimulate the long and cultural heritage way of living in realise the com- resources are the
local residents the turnover of diverse history of as the fountains, Penacova. petence of public common chal-
everyday life. the still existing the area. To pro- water mills and To promote natu- offices and serv- lenges of all the
craft enterprises mote cultural different routes ral areas by ices, identifying project.
3. Objectives

and the tourism tourism and tra- in the search of designing pedes- specific respon-
industry. ditional arts and water are part of trian circuits sibilities between
To increase the crafts by design- a set of initiatives across the offices and units,
share of tourism ing a tourist/cul- aimed at stimu- mountains and but identifying
in the gross tural strategy. lating and rivers. the separation
domestic product increasing the between politics
by means of the value of Eco- and administra-
creation of new tourism in the tive actions.
target groups, area.
increase of
employment, etc

X X X X X X All the projects


4.Tourist Demand

have as target
group the domes-
tic tourism: local,
regional and
national. So no
world-wide analy-
sis is needed.

85
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

X X X X X X Idem as above.
4.a. World-wide
analysis

X X X X X X Idem as above.
4.b. National
analysis

X X X X X X Idem as above.
4.c. Regional
analysis

X X X X X X By knowing what
4.d. Local analysis

kind of accommo-
dation the visitors
prefer, i.e, we
may be able to
know if they are
interested in
Ecotourism or not.

X X X X X X All the projects


may be proposed
5. Structure of
ourist offer

as a complemen-
tary option to the
existent tourist
offers in their
areas.

X X X X X X Idem as above.
5.a. Nazional
analysis

X X X X X X Idem as above.
5.b. Regional
analysis

X X X X X X Idem as above.
5.c. Local
analysis

X X X X X X This analysis
6. Qualitative analysis

should be done
by providing
studies
a posterior, once
the different proj-
ects are imple-
mented or
launched.

86
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

X X X X X X Idem as above.
entrepreneurs
6.a. View of

X X X X X X Idem as above.
intermediaries
6.b. View of

X X X X X X Idem as above.
opinion leaders
6.c. View of

X X X X X X Every project
should provide an
7. Analysis of

exhaustive list of
resources

their resources
(natural -as land-
scapes, forests-
monuments, cul-
tural traditions, etc)

X X X X X X In case there may


be local competi-
8. Analysis of
competition

tors, differential
elements should
be provided so as
to propose a
unique offer.

Promote To create an Three routes cre- To create a series To create two To carry out “the All the projects
9. Product policy (SWOT)

Alonissos Image unique offer for ated for cultural of itineraries main different fruit of wood”, a have the same
as a destination tourists under tourists within the area, products. One tourist centre, pursuit concern-
where a different, the motto “view- connected to based on events and “the adopted ing the imple-
more spiritual ing-experiencing- water resources, and another route” to under- mentation of
way of life can be buying”. in order to inte- based on activi- stand the impor- networks or pro-
experienced To develop pack- grate them in a ties in natural tance of the grams to carry
ages offers for global landscape. wood and its out their
both trimmings Ecotourism offer resources. activities
and health
tourism

The unique natu- The network - Strong infra- - Good communi- -The richness of The richness of
ral environment character (links structure in cation and strate- natural land- nature with an
(National Marine with museums, local hotel gic location. scape. important biodi-
Park), the tradi- trimming pro- industry. - Important nature - Important cul- versity located in
tional way of life, ducing compa- - Experienced parks of high tural sites includ- an important
9.a. Strengths

the willingness of nies, show work- local tourism ecological value. ing some nation- area of a National
local community shops, and industry. - The importance al monuments. Park.
to preserve its tourist services - Cultural officer of an enormous - The richness of
cultural heritage
traditions, envi- providers). appointed to local traditions
in the area, as it is
ronment and the and it’s interest.
included in other
keep touristic Municipality. cultural tourist - Great develop-
development to initiatives as “The ment of river
human measures Routes of al- activities and
Andalus”. radical sports.

87
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

Distance from Concerning the - Current lack of Lack of develop- Lack of current Lack of struc-
the mainland, trimmings, the marketing. ment of the exist- marketing ture on the terri-
lack of always low experience in - Very strong ing resources. strategy. tory.
available gates marketing the local opposition Very little aware- Insufficient level Need of a spe-
(airport, port), product, as we - including World ness of the local of promotion cialized operator
lack of experi- have had not a Heritage sites population about activities and for creating
enced and skilful feedback so far their cultural her- weak knowledge tourist packages
itage.
personnel. and we don’t of the destina- for specific target
An insufficient
know the cus- level of tourism tion. and referred to
tomer reaction to promotion and High dependence the season
9.b. Weaknesses

the product knowledge of the on the regional


region/territory. tourist demand,
Very little sign specially
posting. Coimbra.
Very few comple- Reduced number
mentary activities of Tour
offered. Operators work-
Lack of apprecia- ing with the des-
tion of the value tination.
of the resources,
and of informa-
tion about them.
Lack of experi-
ence to create
new sources of
employment.

Substantial The increasing Use local tourism The forthcoming The increasing To increase the
increase on the interest in culture infrastructure to expansion of this interest on rural employment. To
share of tourism, and in advantage tourism sector. areas and disseminate cul-
Ecotourism (and old traditions and We are in time to mountainous ture of environ-
other complemen- handicrafts. act in favor of a destinations. mental protec-
tary alternatives Specially impor- sustainable Increasing tion. To increase
forms of tourism) tourism model.
tant is the gener- number of the economic
9.c. Opportunities

to tourism market The close prox-


The importance of al concern in radical sports sustainable activ-
sustainable imity of the coast enterprises ities.
Information tech- and the strategic
nologies to market tourism as a working in the
contribution for location The region centre of
Ecotourism world-
wide with economy protection of the recuperation of Portugal.
of resources, environment. the cultural and Tourism
Importance of natural heritage investment
keeping islands and to maintain a
increasing at a
social cohesion and model of sustain-
regional level.
initiatives available ability, in order
that can promote to raise the
sustainable awareness of the
development population.

Influence of The existence of - Continued No plan is settled The existence of Inhabitants have
mass tourism many destina- threats from to maintain or many destina- difficulties to
model to local tions with a high other local restore monu- tions with a high take part in the
entrepreneurs similar potential sites. ments on a short similar potential project.
and local as in our region - Majority of or long term as in our region.
9.d. Threats

authorities. tours concen- scale. Environmental


Transformation trated on major The progressive problems such
of traditions and sites only. loss of popular like fire in the
local special and traditional forests.
characteristics elements may Climatic condi-
into folklore create a conflict tions can difficult
events for those visitors the activities with
searching for tra- water.
ditional aspects.

88
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

Invite people that To attract people X To attract people X X Target: people


10. Positioning strategy

want to experi- to learn about from the tradi- interested in cul-


ence a human the health and tional tourist ture, in the recu-
life, into nature, handicrafts facili- offers in the peration of old
while experienc- ties in the region. area. traditions and the
ing interesting The positioning care for environ-
cultural aspects is competition- ment and nature.
inside the oriented and People with a
embrace of an focused on the medium-high
open, welcoming product cultural and eco-
local society attributes. nomical level.

Tour operators - Direct distribu- - Cyprus Tourism - Municipal Tourist - Local tour
Network with the tion. Offices initia- Office. operators
other North - Tour operators tives. - Collaboration with involvement.
Sporades islands - Tours media- - Municipal col- Regional Tourist - To link local
11. Distribution policy

(Skiathos, tors like local laboration with Office (RTC). economic oper-
Skopelos) tourism associ- other munici- - Tour Operators ators with a
Cultural Events ations. palities, espe- working in national
organisers - Regional cially Paphos. Penacova. enogastronom-
Natural Marine tourism associ- - Collaboration - Local and region- ic operators.
Park collabora- ations. with hotels in al hotel and hos- - Involvement of
tion the Paphos tels. other partners
Monastic area. - Collaboration like Mycological
Community - Signposting of with other Association,
routes. regional natural experts,
municipalities. etc.

Formulate the - Distribution ori- Web-based distri- - To create a To communicate


image of ented on events bution to link tourist image of the high social
Alonissos and (i.e. celebration tourist directly Penacova based value of the proj-
place it in the of the “Day of with the entrepre- on natural land- ect, increasing
tourism market- Trimmings”, or neurs. scape and local the value of local
place. Revive “Herbs weeks”) Meetings and traditions as a traditions (local
associations
11.a. Strategy

other old tradi- - Distribution via regional differen- products,


(cooperatives) of
tions except pro- Internet (world- tiation product. recipes, etc)
local entrepre-
ducing wine, e.g. wide access and neurs to create
traditional pro- unlimited time) complementary
duction of bread, packages.
traditional mar- Collaboration with
riage and the Andalusian
celebrations regional adminis-
tration in terms of
the tourism pro-
motion of the area.

Internet based - Internet Formulated Web-based distri- All elements will - Public opinion.
marketing, - Participation in through the bution to link be available in a - Economic
National cam- touristic fairs, Cultural Officer tourist directly with web site. agents (tour
paign to tv-chan- and specific pro- of the the entrepreneurs. Each event will operators, local
11.b. Distribution plan

nels, radio sta- motional actions. Municipality. Meetings and be available for administrators,
tions, newspa- - Publication of a associations free for the etc.)
pers and maga- catalogue to be (cooperatives) of media. - Family tourism
zines that pro- distributed in tar- local entrepreneurs Invitation of all - Schools
mote Ecotourism geted points. to create comple- local and region- -Mycology
and alternative - Mailing address mentary packages. al partners to - Tourism for
cultural activities, to targeted peo- Collaboration with participate. experts
Cultural events ple. the Andalusian Invitation to tour - Local citizens
agents, regional adminis- operators, local, -Institutions
tration in terms of regional and - Media
the tourism pro- national.
motion of the area.

89
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

Complementary Medium pricing All activities will It must lie over Only the
activities to festi- segment, though be free. the base of quali- Lamprey Festival
val will be priced some selected ty criteria and was prepared to
at the low end package offers market competi- have a medium
(e.g. buying of will have a high tion. The total price because the
traditional price segment as expenditure may dish is specially
sweets). Main an exclusive offer be divided into expensive.
12. Pricing policy

activities will be for very small five components: All the other
free of paying groups and indi- - Travel cost events were free.
due to extended vidual tourists. - Accommodation
sponsorship pro- • Catering
gramme, volun- • Complementary
teer contribution activities
by locals, and • Others
financial contri-
bution of
Municipality of
Alonissos
13.Communicat

X X X X X Included in the
ion policy

Reference Guide
13.a. Strategy
and definition

X X X X X

The organisation The organisation The organisation Publish informa- Publication with
13.b. Creative defini-

of ad hoc event of ad hoc events of ad hoc event tion about local high quality
to promote the as referred above so as to promote historical sites graphic material
tion

project. (“the Day of the project. and traditions for and texts with
Trimmings” or the population stories about
“The week of and tourists local traditions
Herbs”) interested. and cultures.

Creation of a cul- To create a prod- To renovate the


tural, product ucts range of tourist image of
that will cover all the brand Penacova by pro-
aspects of an “Erzgebirge”, moting it’s his-
14. Plan of action

alternative way of with its corre- torical sites


life. Wine festival spondent corpo- through events
will be one rative image. based on local
dimension of this traditions.
product.

90
Pilot Alonissos Annaberg Geroskipou Malaga Penacova Teramo
Project (Greece) (Germany) (Cyprus) (Spain) (Portugal) (Italy) Comments

Participation in a Organisation of a - Web sites Web-based Web sites - Theme based


network of travelling exhibi- - Theme based Fairs Fairs exhibitions
places around tion of trim- exhibitions. Map and a virtual Media (with brochures
Europe with sim- mings, nation- - Posters. professional Brochures and catalogues
ilar philosophy in wide, during two - Magazine guide - Regional edition).
14.a. Promotion

touristic develop- years, together articles. Exhibition cata- Tourist - Websites


ment, with the produc- - Guides logues Magazines - Videos
Preparation of ers and manufac- - School activi- Exhibition Restaurants - Magazines
joint activities turing compa- ties. brochures Hotels - Guides
with these nies. This will be - Local guided Websites Posters - Posters
places, using all combined with trips. Videos - Press reports
available the products sell- - Selection of Magazines - Schools activi-
resources ing. cafes, restau- Guides ties
rants, etc. Posters
Reports
School activities

Cooperation with - Organisation of - Major openings - Local and - Local seminars


analogous profile openings and confer- regional - Forums
places through- (Travelling ences. Seminars - Public debates
14.b. Public relations

out Europe, (pri- exhibition, “day - Press reports. - Media (news- with citizens
mary in of Trimmings”, - Interviews. papers, radio and local
Mediterranean), etc). - T.V Programs. and television) administrators
Joint projects - Participation in - Opinion’s mak- Fairs
with famous and ad hoc events. ers point of
influencing - Media relations. view.
Organisations - Corporate
activated in brochures dis-
Culture and tribution with
Alternative Forms offers.
of tourism

Web site promo- - Mailing actions - Exhibitions in Signposting Mailing actions. - DVD.
tion as an on - Familiarisation local hotels. Web site promo- - Web in the
time source of and incentive - Travelling exhi- tion. Teramo site to
accurate infor- trips. bitions Contact with promote the
14.c. Direct marketing

mation, - Contact groups groups interested project within


Invitation to such a to participate in tour operators
major players in Ramblers. the events. and schools.
the touristic mar- - Educational
ket to visit programmes.
Alonissos and - Websites.
experience the - Conferences.
difference. - Press releases.
- Major events
on Feast days,
etc.

91
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Work group
Wirtschaftsförderung Erzgebirge GmbH Matthias Lißke
Christine Penzlin
Kristina Ackermann
Gloria Janas from (Agentur für Marketing
Projekt- und Tourismusmanagement)

Provincia di Teramo Loredana Tiburzi

Sviluppo Italia Abruzzo S.p.A. Annalisa Montani


Monica Sassatelli
Renata Ciavattini
Donatella Maltese

Camara Municipal de Penacova Mauricio Teixeira Marques


Luis M.S. Rodrigues
Luis Pedro Barbosa Antunes

Diputación de Málaga J. Marcos Castro (Univesidad de Málaga)


Enrique Riera

West Sweden Haleh Lindqvist


Daniel Wennerlund
Peter Jadesjö
Anita Tóth

Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias Iñigo Oramas González-Moro


Lucía Dobarro Delgado

El Legado Andalusí Ana Carreño Leyva

Demos Alonissou Eleni Anagnostou


Vaggelis Katsaros

Demos Geriskipou John Howells

96