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EE 301: Experiment No: 4

TRANSMISSION LINE 1

Instructed by: Miss. I. T. Hettiarachchi

Name : R. T. Liyanage
Index No : 040218K
Group : EE-1
Course : B.Sc. Engineering
Field : Electrical Engineering
Performed on : 22/05/2007
Submitted on : 05/06/2007
EXPREIMENT: Transmission Line 1

OBJECTIVES: To determine the general parameters of a transmission line from


1. Open circuit test
2. Short circuit test

APPARATUS: Transmission Line model


Variac (0-230V, 8A) 1 No.
Wattmeter 1 No.
Rheostat (100Ω, 8A) 1 No
Capacitor (4μF) 1 No.
A. C. Voltmeter (0-150V) 2 Nos.
A. C. Ammeterers (0-5A) 2 Nos.

TRANSMISSION LINE DATA:

3 phase 50 Hz transmission line of 25 km length with following line constants per phase.
R = 0.3Ω/km
L = 2.0 Ω/km
C = 0.256 μF/km
G = 0 (negligible)
The line is to supply a load of 50MW at unity power factor, the line voltage being 132kV.

Scale factors:
Voltage scale: 1000:1
Current scale: 200:1

THEORY:
Es = Er cosh (γL) + Ir Z0 sinh (γL) =A Er + B Ir
Is = Ir cosh (γL) + Er / Z0 sinh (γL) =C Er + D Ir

In the matrix form,


Es = A B Er
Is C D Ir

For passive circuits, AD-BC = 1


For symmetrical circuits, A=D

Characteristics Impedance Z0 = r + j ωL
g + j ωc

Propagation Constant γ = ( r + j ωL) (g + j ωc)


Where r, L, g and c are resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance per unit length
respectively

The complex impedances Zoc and Zsc can be determined from the open circuit and short circuit
tests. (Show how these are obtained from those tests).

Then,
Zoc
A=D=
Zoc – Zsc

B = A Zsc

C = A/ Zsc

Note: A, B, C and D are complex quantities.

CALCULATIONS:
Data given for transmission line
-3 phase 50 Hz TL of 25 Km
-constants per phase are
R = 0.3 W/ Km
L = 2.0 W/ Km
C= 0.256 mF/ Km
The line is to supply a load of 50 MW at unity power factor, the line voltage being 132 kV.
Scalar factors:
Voltage Scale 1000 : 1
Current Scale 200 : 1
Finding A, B, C, D parameters theoretically.
r = (0.3 x 25)/5
= 1.5 W
l = (2 x 25)/5
= 10 mH
c = (0.256 x 25)/ 0.2
= 32 mF
Propagation constant: γ = (r + jωl )( g + jωc) ω=100π ω=2πn
γ = (1.5 + j × 2π × 50 ×10 × 10 −3 )(0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 ×10 −6 )
γ = − 0.0316 + 0.0151 j
γ = 0.035∠154.48
γ = 0.187∠77.2
Characteristic impedance:
r + jωl
Zo =
g + jωc
1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 −3
Zo =
0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 − 6
Zo = 312.5 − 149.2 j
Zo = 346.3∠ − 25.52
Zo = 18.6∠ − 12.76

Then we can find A, B, C, D parameters by


Es = Er cosh(γL) + IrZo sinh(γL) = AEr + BIr
Er
Is = Ir cosh(γL) + sinh(γL) = CEr + DIr
Zo
A = cosh(γL)
A = cosh(0.187 × 2)
A = 1.071∠0

B = Zo sinh(γL)
B = 18.6∠ − 12.76 × sinh(0.187 × 2)
B = 7.12∠ − 12.76

1
C= sinh(γL)
Zo
1
C= sinh(0.187 × 2)
18.6∠ − 12.76
C = 0.021∠12.76

D = A by above equation
D = cosh(0.187 × 2)
D = 1.071∠0

Finding A, B, C, D values using experimental values


Open Circuit Test
Ir = 0
E = AEr + BIr
I = CEr + DIr
then we can obtain
Eoc = AEr
Ioc = CEr
Eoc =A = Zoc
Ioc C
W= R/Z VocIoccos(ϕoc-θ)
Z=(R2 + (1/ωc)2)1/2
Z=(11.32x103)2+ (1/(8πx 10-6))
Z=41.37 kΩ
Cos(ϕoc-θ) = (5x41.37x103)/(11.32x103x75x0.9)
Cos(ϕoc-θ)=0.27
(ϕoc-θ)=cos-1(0.27)
(ϕoc-θ)=74.360
Zoc= (75V/0.9 A) ∠74.36 0
Zoc= 83.33 ∠74.36 0
Short Circuit test
Er = 0
Es = BIr
Is = DIr
E cs =B = Z cs
I cs D
50 MW
Rated current of the model = = 1.1A
3 x132kVx 200
W = Z sc I sc cos Φ
5
cos Φ = = 0.86
5.29 x1.1
Φ = 30.68 0
5.29
Z sc = ∠30.68 0 = 4.81∠30.68 0 Ω
1.1

AD − BC = cosh 2 (γL) − sinh 2 (γL) = 1


AD − BC = 1

A B
Z oc − Z sc = −
C D
Z
Z oc − Z sc = oc2
A
Z oc
A2 =
Z oc − Z sc
83.33∠74.36 0
A=
83.33∠74.36 0 − 4.81∠30.68 0
A = 1.02∠ − 1.19 0

D = 1.02∠ − 1.19 0

A
C= = 0.012∠ − 75.55 0
Z oc
B = DxZ sc = (1.02∠ − 1.19 0 ) x(4.81∠ − 30.68 0 ) = 4.91∠29.49 0

DISCUSSION:

REFERENCES: