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1.1 measurement in physics

1 Taking the diameter of a proton to be order 10

15

m we find

10

15

3 10

×

8

=

0.3 × 10

23

= 3 × 10

2 The mass of the Earth is about 6

6 10

×

24

2 10

×

27

= 3 × 10

51

10

51

.

×

10

24

k g and the mass of a hydrogen atom about 2

× 10

27

3

10

17

10

43

= 10

60

24

10

24

s .

k g so we need

4

A heartbeat lasts or 1 s so 75

×

365 24

×

×

3600 ≈ × × × ×

8

4

2

4 10

1

7

2.6 × 10

9

9

10 .

5

6

10 41

10 30

10

= 10

21

1.5 10

×

11

11

10

10

7

There are 300 g of water in the glass and hence 300

18

is 15

× 6 × 10

23

=

90 × 10

23

10

25

.

300

20

= 15 moles of water. Hence the number of molecules

×

10

4

g of water in the body and hence 6

×

10

3

× 6 × 10

23

=

18 × 10

26

× 10

4

18

10

27

.

8 There are 6

number of molecules is 3

0.3 ×

10

4

= ×

3

3

10 moles of water. Hence the

9 The mass is about 1.7

× 10

27

1.7 10

×

27

1.7 10

×

27

4

π

3

× (10

15 3

)

4 10

×

45

=

0.5

×

10

18

5 10

= ×

17

kg m

10

21

3 10

E

=

×

10

8

0.3 × 10

13

2.5 1.6 10

×

×

11 a

= 3 × 10

12

s

19

=

4.0 × 10

b

12 V

E =

8.6

×

10

18

1.6

×

10

19

=

2 3

(2.8 × 10 )

=

= 54 eV

2.2 × 10

5

3

m

5

10 yr

19

J

13 a

=

( 588 × 10 )

9 1/3

=

8.38 × 10

3

m

15

3

.

m so the density is

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 1  2
 14 200 g a b 1 kg c 400 g

15

30

10

30

4

π

3

×

(6.4 10 )

6 3

≈ ×

9

kg and the radius is 6.4

10

8

9

10 kg m

3

.

×

10

6

m so the density is of about

16

17

10

3

10

5

100 ×

3600

=

4 10

×

3

10

2

In SI units the acceleration is

2

0.7g .

4

4

16

×

=

6.25

4

10 g

m s

Assuming a mass of 70 kg made out of water we have 7

of water in the body and

hence 7

× 10

4

18

0.5 10

×

4

= ×

5

3

10 moles of water. Hence the number of molecules is

× 6 × 10

for a total of 10

5 × 10

3

23

=

2

×

30 10

3 × 10

10

28

9 × 10

26

27

. Each molecule contains 2 electrons from hydrogen and 8 from oxygen

19 2

)

9 × 10

9

× 3 × 10

38

7 × 10

11

×

81 × 10

62

3 10

×

44

10 44

≈ ≈ 5 ×

63 20

10

42

.

× 3 × 10

ke

=

27

electrons.

9

×

18 The ratio is F

e

(1.6 × 10

F

g

Gm

2

=

6.7 × 10

11

×

( 9.1 × 10

31 2

)

19

f

=

x y

cm k

.The units of m is kg i.e. M and those of k are N =

kg m s

2

m m

=

kg s

2

=

M T

2

. Hence

T

=

M (M T )

x

2 y

=

M

x y

+

T

2 y

.

From this we deduce that

 x + y = 0 1 1 2 y = 1 ⇒ y = 2 ⇒ x = − 2 Thus, f = c k . m 1.2 9.81 5.55 × × 1 20 P = = × 2.6667 10 W 2.450 1.2 9.81 5.55 × × 1 P = = 2.7 10 W × . 2.450 1 2 2 21 E K = 2 × × 5.00 12.5 = 3.9063 10 J × 243 ≈ 250 22 = 5 a

43 50

b 2.80 × 1.90 3 × 2 = 6

c

×

312 480

×

300 500

160

150

= 1000

.The answer must be given to 2 s.f. and so

.The answer must be given to 3 s.f. and so E

d

e

8.99 10

×

9

7 10

× ×

16

7 10

× ×

6

2 2

(8 10 )

×

10

10

×

50 10

×

22

60 10

×

4

6.6 10

×

11

6 10

× ×

24

(6.4 10 )

×

6 2

50 10

×

13

40 10

×

12

10

10

16

K

=

3.91 × 10

2

J .

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

1.2

Uncertainties and errors 23

sum

dif

=

(180 ± 8) N

=

=

(60 ± 8 ) N

2

(1.8 0.8 ) 10 N

=

(6.0 0.8) 10 N

±

±

×

×

1

24

a Q 0 =

b Q

c Q

0 =

0 =

d Q

0 =

a

20

Q

Q

0

= + =

a

b

a

b

1

20

+

1

10

=

b

×

1.00

×

= 2 ;

=

0.15

⇒ ∆ =

Q

 2.0 × 0.15 = = ± 85 13 ≈

0.30 . Hence Q = 2.0 ± 0.3 .

(8.5 0.1) 10 1

±

×

2

=

0.06

×

10

2

.

10

2

50 2 24

− ×

20 3 15

+ ×

=

; Q = 1 + 2 × 1 = 3. Hence Q = 2 ± 3

85

; Q = 2 × 2 + 3 × 3 = 13. Hence Q

=

2

× = ×

a

2

0.3

=

6.00 × 10

2

2

Q

=

Q

0

a

10.0

2

10 ;

⇒ ∆ Q =

100 6.00 10

×

×

Hence Q

=

1.00 × 10

2

±

0.06 × 10

2

=

(1.00 0.06) 10

±

×

2

100

2

;

Q

Q

0

=

2

× + 2 × =

a

b

a

b

2

×

5

2

20

e Q

0

=

20

2

=

25

+ ×

2

=

3.0 × 10

1

⇒ ∆ Q =

25 3.0 10

×

×

1

=

7.5

A

+

2

=

×

×

2

2

14

1

+

0.2

8.0

×

R

=

100

0.3464

0.1

=

2.4

=

2

×

Hence Q = 25 ± 8

F

0

=

×

8.0

2

2.8 14

= 68.6 N

25

F

= + × + =

m

2

v

r

m

Hence F

F

0

=

v

±

r

A

0

= π

R

2

=

18.096 cm

2

.

0.1

2.8

±

A

0

⇒ ∆ F =

68.6

×

0.3464

=

23.7

20 N

.

( 68.6 20) N ( 7 2 ) 10 N

R

26 a

0.0833 ⇒ ∆

A

=

18.096 × 0.0833 = 1.51

2 cm

2

.

Hence A

b S

2 R

0 = π

=

=

(18.096 ± 2) cm

15.08 cm

.

S

2

(18

R

±

2 ) cm .

=

0.1

2

=

=

0.04167

S

0

R

2.4

⇒ ∆ =

S

15.08

×

0.04167 = 0.628 cm

2

.

Hence S

0 =

(15.08 0.628 ) cm

±

(15 1) cm

±

.

27 A

0

=

ab

=

Hence A

37.4 cm

2

.

A

= + =

a

b

0.2

A

0

=

( 37.4 ± 3 ) cm

2

a

b

0

0

4.4

.

( 37 ± 3) cm

2

+

0.3

8.5

=

0.080749

⇒ ∆ =

A

37.4 × 0.080749

=

3.02

3 cm

2

.

8

28

29

P 2( a

0 =

T

+

1 L

b )

=

T

0

2 L

0

=

25.8 cm . P = 2 × ∆a + 2 × ∆b = 2 × 0.2 + 2 × 0.3 = 1.0 cm . Hence P = ( 25.8 ± 1) cm ( 26 ± 1) cm .

(assuming g is accurately known). Hence

T

1

=

T

0

2

×

2%

=

1% .

V

V

0

=

2

×

R

R

0

+ =

h

h

0

2 4% 4%

×

+

=

12%

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 3 30 The line of best-fit does not go through the origin.There is a vertical intercept of about 4 mA. Lines of maximum and minimum slope give intercepts of about 0 and 9 mA implying an error in the intercept of about 4 mA.The intercept is thus (4 ± 4) mA .This just barely includes the origin so the conclusion has to be that they can be proportional. 100
linear t
for:
data
set: current
/ mA
y =
mx
+
b
80
m(slope): 209.0
b(Y-intercept): 5.000
correlation: 0.9976
60
40
20
0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
x
Current / mA

31 The vertical intercept is about 10 mA. No straight line can be made to pass through the origin and the error bars unless a systematic error of about 10 mA in the current is invoked. 100
linear t
for:
data
set: current
/ mA
y =
mV + b
80
m(slope): 169.0
b(Y-intercept): 10.00
correlation: 0.9998
60
40
20
0
0.0 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Current / mA

Voltage / mV

However, a line of best fit that is a curve can also be fitted through the data and that does go through the origin. (However, it may be objected that this particular functional form is chosen – at low voltages we might expect a straight line (Ohm’s law). So a different functional form may have to be tried.) 4 100
auto t for: data set: current /
mA
y =
AV^B
A: 158.4 +
/ – 7.459
B:
0.7878 + / – 0.03784
RMSE: 1.523
50
0
0.0 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Current / mA

Voltage / mV

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015 32 Let P the common perimeter.Then the radius of the circle satisfies 2 π R P

=

R

=

P

2

π

square

smaller.

4 a

= P

⇒ =

a

P

4

.The circle area is then A

c =

π

 

P

2 P

   =

2

2

π

4

π .The square area is A

33 The initial voltage V 0 is such that ln V

a

0

4

= ⇒

V

0

=

e

4

=

55 V

.

and the side of the

s = 

P

4

  

2

=

2

P

16

and is

b

c

When V =

V

0

2

27 V , ln V = ln 27 3.29 . From the graph when ln V 3.29 we find t 7 s .

Since V

=

V e

0

t RC

/

, taking logs, ln

V

=

ln

V

0

t

RC

so a graph of ln V versus time gives a straight

line with slope equal to

1

RC

.The slope of the given graph is approximately

1

RC

= −

0.10

R

=

1

1

=

0.10 × C

0.10 × 5 × 10

6

= 2 × 10

6

.

4

2

0 20

= − 0.10 . Hence

34 We expect L = k M α and so ln L = ln k + α ln M . A graph of ln L versus ln M is shown below.The slope is a. lnL
10
9
8
7
6
5
0
ln M
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
–5 Drawing a best-fit line gives:
lnL 10
8
6
4
2
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
lnM

Measuring the slope gives α = 3.4 .

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 5

1.3

vectors and scalars  6

35

36 a
 
A + B :

b

length 9 cm

F 18 N q  49 °
A + B
A – B
B
A
A − B :
scale:
1 cm ↔ 2 N
length 4.5 cm

F 9N

Θ 14 ° below horizontal.

c A 2 B :

length 6.1 cm

F 12.2 N Θ  50 ° below horizontal.
A –
2 B
2 B
A

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015 37 The components are:

 A = 12 × cos 30 ° = 10 39 B = 8 00 × cos 80 ° = 1 389 A x y = 12 × sin 30 ° = . 6 00 . x A y = 8 . . 00 × sin 80 ° = . 7 878 .

Hence

 a 10.39 1.389 A + B = + ( ) = 11.799 ( x ) A 6.00 7.878 + B y = + = 13.878

 

2

+

2

The vector A + B has magnitude 11.799 13.878

= 18.2

and is directed at an angle

θ = arctan

13

.

878

11

.

799

= 49 . 6° to the horizontal.

 b 10.39 1.389 ( A − B ) = − = 9.001 ( x ) A 6.00 7.878 − B y = − = − 1.878

  The vector A B has magnitude

9.001

2

+ 1.878

2

= 9.19

and is directed at an angle

θ = arctan

1

. 878

= − 11 . 8° (below) the horizontal.

9

. 001

c

(

A

2

B

)

x

=

− ×

10.39 2 1.389

=

7.612

(

A

2

B

)

y

=

= −

9.756

6.00 2 × 7.878

The vector A 2 B has magnitude

=

12.4

and is directed at an angle

θ = arctan

9

. 756

= − 52 . 0° (below) the horizontal. 7
2
38 2
a
4.0
+
4.0

. 612

4

. 0

=

5.66 cm in a direction θ = 180 +

°

arctan

=

225° .

4

. 0

39

b 2
2
124
+
158

= 201 km in a direction θ = arctan 2 2 0 + 5.0 c 5.0 m at θ = 270° or θ = −90°. = 2 2 8.0 + 0 d 8.0 = N at θ = 0°.

a

b

c

2

3.00

2

2.00 +

2.00

2

+

5.00

2

 = 3.61 at θ = arctan 3 . 00 = 56 . 3° 2 . 00 = 5.39 at θ = 180 ° − arctan 5 . 00 =

2 . 00 2
2
0
+ 8.00

=

8.00

at θ = 90°

158

124

112°

d

e

4.00

2

+

2.00

2

6.00

2

+

1.00

2

 = 4.47 at θ = arctan − 2 . 00 = − 26 . 6° 4 . 00 = 6.08 at θ = arctan 1 . 00 . = 9 46° 6 . 00

= − 52°.

40 The displacement has components 41 A diagram is:
change

nal

initial

∆ =

r

x

4

− =

2

2 and

∆ =

r

y

8

2

=

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

6

.

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 7  8

The magnitude of the change n the velocity vector is with the horizontal as shown in the diagram. 2
2
10
+
10

= 14.1 m s

1

.The vector makes an angle of 45° 42 A diagram is:
change
initial
nal
30˚

1

The other two angles of the triangle are each 2 (180° 30° ) = 75°. Using the sine rule we find

 ∆ p p sin 30 ° sin 30 ° = sin 75 ° ⇒ ∆ p = p × sin 75 °

=

0 . 518

p

0 52 p .

43 The components of the velocity vector at the various points are:

A:

B:

C: v

Hence

a

v

v

Ax

Bx

= −

= +

0

4.0 m s 4.0 m s and v

1

Cy

1

and v

and v

=

Ay =

By =

0

1

0

Cx =

4.0 m s

From A to B the change in the velocity vector has components v v

v

By

Ay

=

0

0

=

0

.

Bx

b From B to C the change in the velocity vector has components v

Cx

v

Ax

v

Bx

= +

− −

4.0 ( 4.0)

=

8.0 m s

1

= 0 4.0

= −

4.0 m s

1

and

and

c

v

Cy

v

Cy

v

By

v

Ay

=

=

4.0 0 =

4.0

0 =

4.0 m s

1

.

From A to C the change in the velocity vector has components v

4.0 m s

plus the change from B to C.

= 0 ( 4.0)

4.0 m s

1

v

Ax

= +

and

Cx

1

.The change in the vector from A to C is the sum of the change from A to B

44 A x = −10.0 cos 40° = −7.66 and A y = −10.0 sin 40° = +6.43

A

B

C

D

E

A x = −10.0 cos 35° = −8.19 and A y = −10.0 sin 35° = −5.74

A x = +10.0 cos 68° = +3.75 and A y = −10.0 sin 68° = −9.27

A x = +10.0 cos( 90° − 48° ) = +7.43 and A y = −10.0 sin( 90° − 48° ) = −6.69

A x = −10.0 cos( 90° − 30° ) = −5.00 and A y = −10.0 sin( 90° − 30° ) = −8.66

45 The vector we want is

C = ( A + B ) .The components of A and B are:

A x = 6.0 cos 60° = +3.0 and A y = 6.0 sin 60° = +5.20; B x = 6.0 cos 120° = 3.0 and A y = 6.0 sin 120° = +5.20. Hence

C

and is directed along the negative y – axis.

x = − +

( 3.0 3.0)

=

0 and C

y = − +

( 5.20 5.20)

+

= −

10.4

.The magnitude of the vector C therefore is 10.4 units B
A
C B
A

C

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

46

a

A x = 12.0 cos 20° = +11.28 and A y = 12.0 sin 20° = +4.10; B x = 14.0 cos 50° = +9.00 and A y = 14.0 sin 50° = +10.72. Hence the sum has components:

S

+

x = +

11.28 9.00

+

=

20.28 and S

y = +

4.10 10.72

=

14.82

.The magnitude of the sum is thus

20.28

2

+ 14.82

2

 = 25.1 . Its direction is θ = arctan 14 . 82 = 36 2°. . 20 . 28

b A x = 15.0 cos 15° = +14.49 and A y = 15.0 sin 15° = +3.88;

B x = 18.0 cos 105° = −4.66 and B y = 18.0 sin 105° = +17.39. Hence the sum has components:

S

x =

14.49 4.66

=

9.83 and S

y = +

3.88 17.39

+

=

21.27

.The magnitude of the sum is thus

9.83

2

+ 21.27

2

=

23.4

. Its direction is θ = arctan

21.27

9 . 83

= 65 2°.

.

c A x = 20.0 cos 40° = +15.32 and A y = 20.0 sin 40° = +12.86; B x = 15.0 cos 310° = +9.64 and B y = 15.0 sin 310° = −11.49. Hence the sum has components:

S

x =

15.32 9.64

+

= +

24.96 and S

y = +

12.86 11.49

= +

1.37

.The magnitude of the sum is thus

24.96

2

+ 1.37

2

=

25.0

. Its direction is θ =

arctan

1.37

24.96

= 3.14° .

physics for the iB Diploma © camBriDge University press 2015

ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 9