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International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163

Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com

Design and Fabrication of Multi-Purpose Farming Tools


Equipped Mobility Cycle
M. Kamaraj1, Akshay Kumar Chhabria2, Kartick Kumar3, Nishant Kumar4
Assistant Professor (Sr. G.)1, Final Year Students 2.3.4
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SRM University, Chennai, India -603203

Abstract - As until now most of implemented ideas for cultivation were found out of reach or unaffordable for poor farmers
or small scale cultivation. But now a days Indian government is focussing more on new techniques and technologies to
boost up agricultural activities in cheaper way basically up till now for any type of fast cultivation techniques farmers had
to depend on tractors or any other fuel consumable devices or vehicles, which by the side increases air pollution, just to
speed up the process. We found a cheapest and easy way for poor farmers and cultivation on small land. The design of
multi-purpose farming tool equipped mobility cycle was done after consider some major factors i.e. decreasing cost of
cultivation, making cultivation pollution free.
Keywords - cultivation, cheap, pollution, poor farmers, techniques, cycle

I. INTRODUCTION
We saw many existing designs of similar vehicles or cycle but their designs lags in one or other major perspectives like some
designs have similar feature but are costly or their operating cost is unaffordable for poor farmer. Some other design which we
found as affordable ones but they lags in some features unlike our concept. This Paper basically focuses on the problem and
solution for existing design of agricultural based mobility cycle. Design and fabrication of this multi-purpose farming tool
equipped mobility cycle was done after considering special demand of decreasing cost of cultivation, making cultivation
pollution free in our society. So we designed a vehicle whose motion is based on the cycle concept and its function or
application is based on other farming based tractors or other farm based machinery. Basically our designed vehicle can be used
for ploughing, seeding, covering soil at same time without consuming any type of fossil fuel.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
In reference [1] we can clearly observe that authors made the equipment only to facilitate seeding. And in reference [2] authors
worked for sowing, spraying fertilizers, cultivation. But in these both works the basic operational power is obtained either by
towing or by pushing through hand. So irrespective of above mentioned works we designed and fabricated a system which can
be used for all the things simultaneously like ploughing, seeding, covering and would not be in the need of much efforts to
operate it because we used a chain and gear transmission system .The prototype is designed, fabricated, tested successfully but
with limitations like type of soils and some other. This system can bring agricultural revolution and would be accepted with a
glare in the eyes of poor farmers. For the selection & study of the type of frames and type of materials (Refer [3]). For the
selection & study of the type of balancing procedure and method (Refer [4]).
In reference [5] authors emphasized on the design and development of manually operated seed planter machine, which was
cheap and fabricated using local components. By using of their machine they achieved flexibility of distance and depth
variation for different seed plantation is possible. Their system is also manually hand driven but we made our system as chain
driven system. In reference [6] authors focussed on Solar operated automatic seed sowing machine to fulfil the tasks like
digging, seed sowing, water pouring and fertilizing by using non-conventional energy sources. They investigated that solar
operated automatic seed sowing machine will help the farmers in remote areas of country where fuel is not available easily and
can perform their regular cultivation activity as well as saves fuel up to larger extent. They highlighted by using solar energy
environment pollution can also be reduced and aimed to save the revenue of government & also most demanded fossil fuel. In
reference [7] authors focussed on the foot operated reciprocating pump is strictly designed taking into consideration all the
mechanical term that are related to design of pump. They stated some facts that foot operated reciprocating pump is mounted
on trolley and thats why they can be transported easily. It is purely manually operated & not a bulky one.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -15
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163
Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com

Their systems pump is a light duty component capable of sprayed high pressure liquid through nozzle. It reduces man power
for operation. The mechanisms that are complicated and costly to lubricate overall system hence it is strictly avoided in
designing of pedal operated reciprocating pump. Maximum quantity of liquid can be carried (up to 20 lit. depending on tank
size) and also can be utilized. It can spray on tall trees with adjustable nozzle.
In reference [8] authors focussed on multipurpose agricultural equipment for faster operations, Low cost of operations and low
investments, light in weight, low cost durable with minimum repairs which saves time during operations. According to their
investigation all cultural operations (intercultivating, ploughing, laddering goods carrying etc.) for year round cultivation done
with the help of NCET kissan all in one. They stated slipping of tires was very common problem when moisture content was
more, Hence farming is recommended to be done in 1015 percent moisture content lands. Ladder can be tilted from 900 to
2000, but best load withstanding range was noticed at 1200.position of ladder. So based on the similar study of all the existing
work we did a design and fabrication of different type of combined system of all the above mentioned references but our
design doesnt exist till yet. We focussed on the combined study of all the reference and tried to make a system which can
overcome the same problem and similar situation so that our farmers can follow the green plus a user friendly mobility vehicle
to boost their annual profit and decrease their efforts.
III. TYPES OF FARMING TOOLS USED IN PROPOSED SYSTEM DESIGN
This system is different because of the presence of some unmount able and dismantle able height adjustable tool, combinely
which is unavailable in any of the system till yet.
A. HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE PLOUGHER
This concept is basically selected to make system adaptable to different level of land or soil. This tool can be mounted and un-
mounted on basic frame by nut and bolt. So it can be separated from the system to make vehicle motion easy.

Figure-1 Plougher Concept


B. SEEDING MECHANISM
The type of seeding mechanism concept is selected so that due to gravity seeds will get collected near lower part of tilted
seeder. So the collected seed at lower level of the box would get picked by holes of the rotating circular acrylic sheets, and the
collected seed will be taken to the topmost level of the seeder box from where it will drop the seed towards the drilled wooden
wedge, which allow the seed passage from seeder box to seeding pipe and finally towards soil through plastic pipe.

Figure-2 Seeder concept

______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -16
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163
Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com

C. HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE LEVELLER


This concept of height adjustable leveller is mounted at the last or backside of vehicle frame. After the process of digging by
using plougher and seeding the final step of covering the soil is to be done by the use of this leveller. Design of leveller is done
in such a way that a v type structure made of strips is welded strongly by the use of height adjustable bars, which is mounted
by bolt & nut on the basic frame. This main objective of this different type of design for this system is to solve the problem of
costly cultivation process for small land cultivation and to make cultivation affordable and profitable for poor farmers, who
cant afford to hire or buy costly tractor and other farming based machines. Up till now farmers had only few options like
either to hire a farming machine to save time and energy or to go for a manual cultivation process. But from now due to this
system farming would become cost efficient, time saving because its operational speed is gear controllable, affordable and
even ecofriendly because it doesnt need any kind of fossil fuel.
IV. STEPS INVOLVED IN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN & FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE
Some of the basic steps involved in design and fabrication of the system are as follows:-
A. VISUALIZATION OF PROBLEM IN LOCAL SOCIETY & PROPOSING A DESIGN FOR ITS SOLUTION-
This is the first and prime most step in this case of product designing because visualising existing problem in the society and
finding the solution for it is the most basic step of designing. Similarly we observed a most awaited unsolved problem of
farming society i.e. if farmer want to save their time and energy then first of all they need to spend money to hire a farming
based machine and secondly they need to even spend on fossil fuel which is used to operate it. But in many region farmer faces
a large waiting list for even pre booking machines to hiring it for the required season. And if the vehicle is not available on
time then many of them have to face irrigation season problem and have to face several debts on not delivery of cereals or
pulses or vegetables on time.
B. PRESENTING A MODELLED DESIGN USING ANY OF THE MODELLING SOFTWARE-
This is the most satisfying and time taking step because designing of the prototype need to under through many calculations
and many assumptions according to available standards. Each and everything in design has to be calibrated according to
several national and international standards. Similarly we first opted for some standard calculation of Balancing of mass,
possible speed ratio required, possible effort and torque required. After these all type of calculation we modelled a basic
expected design of the required prototype.
C. PLANNING FOR THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE-
After the basic procedure of modelling our project completes up to 40% of total work. Now basic fabrication is to be followed
which consist of following steps
1) Selection of material:-We selected a basic material as M.S. because of some of its basic factors like easily availability,
easily machining, easily weldable .Even in M.S. basic grade is selected for frame, mounting supports and several other
things but for shafts and axle we selected Bright Mild Steel just to provide it additional strength against several possible
failures.
TABLE-1 MATERIAL SELECTION ON BASIS OF APPLICATION

2) Machining according to the required design and calculation:-Several machining processes were done like cutting of
rectangular M.S. pipe, turning of axle shaft, turning of seeder shaft, machining of universal joint several drilling processes
also. Some of the calculations are as follows
TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
If, Driver Teeth (T1) = 40
Driven Teethes (T2) = 14, (T3) = 16, (T4) = 18, (T5) =20, (T6) = 24, (T7) = 28
We Know That,
( 1/ 2)= (N1/N2) = (T1/T2)
1=Angular Speed of Driver Sprocket
2= Angular Speed of Driven Sprocket
T1 & T2 are Teeth of Driver & Driven Sprocket Respectively.
So the gear ratios obtained are 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70

______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -17
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163
Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com

TORQUE CALCULATIONS
We Know That,
Torque Required = Force*Perpendicular Distance
But In this case torque depends on many other factors like Gear Ratio, Total Mass Acting, Length of Crank arm,
Wheel radius, Effort Required, Torque on Pedal
So the final calculation is like
Gear Ratio = 0.35
Total Force acting toward down = 823 N
So total mass in Kg = (823/9.81) = 84 Kg (approx.)
Length of Crank arm = 0.20 m
Wheel radius = 0.20 m
So required effort = 29.4 Kg (approx.)
Torque on paddle = 57.62 N-m
SEEDING CALCULATIONS
Diameter of Tyre= 40cm
Gear Ratio (bevel gear) = 0.625
Circumference of Tyre= 125.6cm
As number of holes on Rotating disc of seeder= 8
Each seed will fall at the interval of= 9.8cm
BALANCING CALCULATIONS

Figure-3 Structure layout according to balancing of mass


CALCULATIONS OF THE WORKING STRESS OF THE MILD STEEL (FRAME)
Tensile stress or Yield Stress = 370 M pa
Assumed F.O.S. = 2
As We Know That F.O.S for ductile material,
F.O.S. = ( Yield Stress / Working Stress)
ws = 185 M Pa
According to the static law
H = 0, V = 0
From the above figure,
RA+RB = 49.44+22.11+98.1+588.6+24.72+39.24
Taking moment about A
RB*150 = 39.24*40+ (24.72(180-(x+35))) + (588.6(180-x)) + (98.1(180-75)) + (22.11(180-30)) + 49.44*40
x = 119.73 cm

3) Selection of Welding procedure:-According to the weld ability of M.S. we opted for MIG welding which gives strength to
the frame and whole system to bear human load.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -18
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163
Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com
4)

TABLE-2 SELECTION OF A TYPE OF WELDING TO BE ADOPTED AND ITS CONDITIONS AND REQUIRED RATIO OF DIFFERENT
TYPES OF GASES

5) Final Assembly:-Final assembled view somewhat looks like as below

Figure-4 Rear assembled side view


D. Final Check-up & Testing of Prototype: - Here any type of software testing is not required but check the wear out of
components we need its manual testing on field. Even though software oriented testing is available in the industrial
platform but due to lack of that platform in surroundings we have to skip it. But manual testing on field also gives enough
idea about the myths.
V. RESULT & DISCUSSION
Hence stated above all the three mechanisms ploughing, seeding and covering mechanism is achieved on Irrigated land.
Maximum achieved depth is 7cm using plougher.
Each seed will fall at the interval of 9.81cm.
The level of covering mechanism should be rigidly fixed 0.5cm deep inside the soil.
Height leveller mechanism of plougher, Seating and covering mechanism is achieved.
Maximum bearable weight of person is 65Kg.
Maximum working stress of the frame is 185M Pa.
Minimum Torque required to drive vehicle is 57.62N-m.
For final check-up & testing of prototype, any type of software testing is not required but to check the wear out of components
we need its manual testing on field. Even though software oriented testing is available in the industrial platform but due to lack
of that platform in surroundings we have to skip it. But manual testing on field also gives enough idea about the myths. As we
checked our system is performing 85% correctly as per our expectations. There is a lag of 15 % of working because of loose
fitting of seeder support and some machining defects due to cutting tools or tolerance negotiation. Our system is properly
moving but due to the meshing problem of bevel geared seeder is somewhat lagging in performance. This lag can be overcome
by using a straight shaft drive for seeder. Some of the real time analysing software are available to observe the chassis response
but those are possible only with some sensors oriented testing consultancies, which is not possible for us.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -19
International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163
Issue 05, Volume 4 (May 2017) www.ijirae.com

VI. CONCLUSION
Therefore concluding this research by stating some of precious points that
A. All the calculations are done on the basis of 50 to 60 kg human load.
B. This system can be used for easy cultivation but can be used as normal three wheeler towing cycle also.
C. In this system we can change the height of plougher or leveller by the help of bolt and nut. And we can even mount and
unmount these tools as per our convenience.
D. Paddle driven system can reduce the time to (1/3) rd. relative to actual cultivation.
E. This equipment self-weight is about 20-30 kg because of M.S.
F. This is the best ecofriendly cultivation equipment.

VII. REFERENCES

[1]. P. Vijay, K. V. N. Rakesh, B.Varun3, Design of a Multi-Purpose Seed Sower cum Plougher, ISSN 2250-2459, ISO
9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013.
[2]. M. V. Achutha, Sharath Chandra. N, Nataraj .G.K, Concept Design and Analysis of Multi-purpose Farm Equipment,
ISSN: 2349-2763 Issue 02, Volume 3 (February 2016).
[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
[4]. Er. R K RAJPUT, Strength of Material, S.CHAND Publications, ISBN: 8121925940
[5]. Kyada, A. R, Patel, D. B., Design and Development of Manually Operated Seed Planter Machine5th International &
26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR 2014) December 12th14th, 2014,
IIT Guwahati, Assam, India.
[6]. Swetha S., Shreeharsha G. H., Solar Operated Automatic Seed Sowing Machine, International Journal of Advanced
Agricultural Sciences and Technology 2015,Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 67-71, Article ID Sci-223, ISSN: 2320 026X.
[7]. Prof. Sumit D. Raut, Prof. Kamlesh R. Banarse, Prof. Roshan R. More, Fabrication of Pedal Operated Reciprocating
Pesticide Sprayer for Agricultural & Drainage Line use, ISSN: 2319-507X Sumit Raut, IJPRET, 2014; Volume 2 (9):
67-74, Published Date: 01/05/2014
[8]. R Jaffar Sadiq, Dr. S. G. Gopala Krishna, 3Dr.N.G.S.Udupa,Design and Fabrication of Multi-Purpose Agricultural
Equipment, ISSN: 2394-6202, ISSN: 2394-6210, Volume-1, ISSUE-1, 2015.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________
IJIRAE: Impact Factor Value SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 3.916 | PIF: 2.469 | Jour Info: 4.085 |
ISRAJIF (2016): 3.715 | Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2015): 47.91
IJIRAE 2014- 17, All Rights Reserved Page -20