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12 CHAP.

1 First-Order ODEs
1720 EULERS METHOD

16. CASPROJECT.DirectionFields.Discussdirection Thisisthesimplestmethodtoexplainnumericallysolving


fieldsasfollows. anODE,moreprecisely,aninitialvalueproblem(IVP).
(a) GraphportionsofthedirectionfieldoftheODE (Moreaccuratemethodsbasedonthesameprincipleare
(2)(seeFig.7),forinstance,5x2,1y5.Explainwhat explainedinSec.21.1.)Usingthemethod,togetafeelfor
youhavegainedbythisenlargementoftheportionof numericsaswellasforthenatureofIVPs,solvetheIVP
thefield. numericallywithaPCoracalculator,10steps.Graphthe
(b) Usingimplicitdifferentiation,findanODEwith computed values and the solution curve on the same
thegeneralsolutionx29y2c(y0).Graphitsdirection coordinateaxes.
field. Does the field give the impression that the
solution curves may be semiellipses? Can you do
similar work for circles? Hyperbolas? Parabolas?
Othercurves?
(c) Makeaconjectureaboutthesolutionsofyr x>
fromthedirectionfield.
1
(d) Graphthedirectionfieldofyr 2 yandsome
solutionsofyourchoice.Howdotheybehave?Why
dotheydecreasefory 0?
17. yr y, y(0) 1, h 0.1
18. yr y, y(0) 1, h 0.01
2
19. yr (y x) , y(0) 0, h 0.1
Sol.y xtanhx
20. yr 5x4y2, y(0) 1, h 0.2
Sol.y 1>(1 x)5

g(y) (2)

1.3 yrf
(x) Ontheleftwecanswitchtoyasthevariableofinteg

Separable by (3)
ODEs. pure
ly
Modeling alge
brai If f and g are continuous
c
functions, the integrals in (3)
man
Man exist,andbyevaluatingthemwe
ipul
y obtain a general solution of (1).
atio
prac ThismethodofsolvingODEsis
ns.
tical The calledthe methodof separating
ly n variables, and (1) is called a
usef we separable equation, because in
ul can (3) the variables are now
OD inte separated: x appearsonlyonthe
Es grat rightandyonlyontheleft.
can eon
be both E X A M P L E 1 Separable ODE
redu side
ced s
to with TheODEyr
2
1y isseparablebecau
the resp
form dy
ect 2
dx. Byintegr
to x, 1 y
obta Itisveryimportant tointroduceth
(1) inin Ifwewrotearctany x,theny
g isnotasolution(whenc0).Verifythis.
14
6C(made
SEC. 1.3 Separable ODEs. Modeling 13

EXAMPLE 2 Separable ODE


x 2 2 x
TheODEyr (x 1)e y isseparable;weobtainy dy (x 1)e dx.
Byintegration, y
1
(x 2)e
x
c, y 1 .
x
(x 2)e c
EXAMPLE 3 Initial Value Problem (IVP). Bell-Shaped Curve
Solveyr 2xy,y(0) 1.8.
Solution. Byseparationandintegration,

dy 2
y 2xdx, lny x c, y ce x2.
0
Thisisthegeneralsolution.Fromitandtheinitialcondition,y(0) ce c1.8.HencetheIVPhasthe
x2
solutiony 1.8e .Thisisaparticularsolution,representingabellshapedcurve(Fig.10).

x
2 1 0 1 2
Fig. 10. Solution in Example 3 (bell-shaped curve)

Modeling
TheimportanceofmodelingwasemphasizedinSec.1.1,andseparableequationsyield
varioususefulmodels.Letusdiscussthisintermsofsometypicalexamples.

E X A M P L E 4 Radiocarbon Dating2

InSeptember1991thefamousIceman(Oetzi),amummyfromtheNeolithicperiodoftheStoneAge
foundintheiceoftheOetztalAlps(hencethenameOetzi)inSouthernTyrolianeartheAustrianItalian
14
border,causedascientificsensation.WhendidOetziapproximatelyliveanddieiftheratioofcarbon 6Ctocarbon
12
6Cin
thismummyis52.5%ofthatofalivingorganism?
PhysicalInformation.Intheatmosphereandinlivingorganisms,theratioofradioactivecarbon
12 14
radioactivebycosmicrays)toordinarycarbon 6Cisconstant.Whenanorganismdies,itsabsorptionof 6C
bybreathingandeatingterminates.Henceonecanestimatetheageofafossilbycomparingtheradioactive
14
carbonratiointhefossilwiththatintheatmosphere.Todothis,oneneedstoknowthehalflifeof 6C,which
is5715years(CRCHandbookofChemistryandPhysics,83rded.,BocaRaton:CRCPress,2002,page1152,
line9).
Solution.Modeling.RadioactivedecayisgovernedbytheODEyr ky
14 12
separationandintegration(wheretistimeandy0istheinitialratioof 6Cto 6C)

dy kt
kdt, lny ktc, y y0e
y
2
MethodbyWILLARDFRANKLIBBY(19081980),Americanchemist,whowasawardedforthiswork
the1960NobelPrizeinchemistry.
14 CHAP. 1 First-Order ODEs

NextweusethehalflifeH5715todeterminek.Whent H,halfoftheoriginalsubstanceisstillpresent.Thus,

kH kH ln0.5 0.693
y0e 0.5y0, e 0.5, k 5715 0.0001213.
H

Finally,weusetheratio52.5%fordeterminingthetimetwhenOetzidied(actually,waskilled),

ekte0.0001 213t 0.525, t ln0.525 5312. Answer: About5300yearsago.


0.0001213

Othermethodsshowthatradiocarbondatingvaluesareusuallytoosmall.Accordingtorecentresearch,thisis
duetoavariationinthatcarbonratiobecauseofindustrialpollutionandotherfactors,suchasnucleartesting.

E X A M P L E 5 Mixing Problem
Mixingproblemsoccurquitefrequentlyinchemicalindustry.Weexplainherehowtosolvethebasicmodel
involvingasingletank.ThetankinFig.11contains1000galofwaterinwhichinitially100lbofsaltisdissolved.
Brinerunsinatarateof10gal>min,andeachgalloncontains5lbofdissovedsalt.Themixtureinthetankis
keptuniformbystirring.Brinerunsoutat10gal>min.Findtheamountofsaltinthetankatanytimet.
Solution. Step1. Settingupamodel.Lety(t)denotetheamountofsaltinthetankattimet.Itstimerate

ofchangeis
y
Saltoutflowrate

5lbtimes10galgivesaninflowof50lbofsalt.Now,theoutflowis10galofbrine.This
(1%)ofthetotalbrinecontentinthetank,hence0.01ofthesaltcontenty(t),thatis,0.01y(t).ThusthemodelistheODE

(4) yr500.01y 0.01(y5000).

Step2.Solutionofthemodel.TheODE(4)isseparable.Separation,integration,andtakingexponentsonbothsidesgives

dy
0.01dt, lny 5000 0.01tc*, y 5000 ce 0.01t.
y5000

Initiallythetankcontains100lbofsalt.Hencey(0) 100istheinitialconditionthatwillgivetheunique
0
solution.Substitutingy100andt 0inthelastequationgives100 5000 ce c.Hencec 4900.
Hencetheamountofsaltinthetankattimetis

0.01t
(5) y(t) 5000 4900e .

Thisfunctionshowsanexponentialapproachtothelimit5000lb;seeFig.11.Canyouexplainphysicallythaty(t)shouldincrease
withtime?Thatitslimitis5000lb?CanyouseethelimitdirectlyfromtheODE?
Themodeldiscussedbecomesmorerealisticinproblemsonpollutantsinlakes(seeProblemSet1.5,Prob.35)ordrugsinorgans.
Thesetypesofproblemsaremoredifficultbecausethemixingmaybeimperfectandtheflowrates(inandout)maybedifferentand
knownonlyveryroughly.

y
5000
4000
3000

2000
1000
100
0 100 200 300 400 5
Tank Salt content y(t)
Fig. 11. Mixing problem in
Example 5
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