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Physical Fitness 03 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to the author's
conclusion, the time you spend exercising is:
Physical fitness can help you live longer, feel
healthier and cope with life's problems. Various
activities can help you keep fit: from running a) useless
marathons to climbing mountains to lifting heavy b) not worthwhile
weights. For the average non-sporting person c) a waste of time
without much time to spare, activities like these d) worthwile
are not very practical and, to be frank, they are a e) too consuming
waste of time. It is much better in my view to
devote no more than a half an hour every other ------------------------------------------------------------------
day to doing exercises. The important thing is to
stick to a routine so that you don't say to yourself, 04 (ESAF/AFTN/96): Which of the following
"I won't bother today!" or "I'll do it later!". If you sentences does NOT express what is in the text?
haven't got the willpower to establish a routine like
this, a sport like tennis or golf might suit you
better. Your partner will help you remember to a) Keeping in shape should be part of our weekly
play regularly and you'll be able to get your routine
exercise outdoors, too. b) Physical exercise should be avoided by those
who do not enjoy it
Taking exercises can be time-consuming but the c) Physical exercises improve our quality of life
feeling of being fit and healthy makes up for the d) Exercising can relieve many of our daily
few minutes a day it takes. tensions
e) Regular exercise may be time-consuming
01 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to paragraph 1,
physical fitness: ------------------------------------------------------------------

a) is not important The microchip revolution

b) should not be taken into consideration
c) may result in an increase in longevity The microship revolution is based on size and
d) does not make any difference in terms of cost. Microchips give us cheap computing power
health in a tiny space. As the cost of microchips
e) is irrelevant in our every day routine continues to fall, it becomes economically
worthwile to use them in more and more ways.
We have to accept the microchip, or face the
alternative of opting out of the free world market.
02 (ESAF/AFTN/96): In the author's opinion:
Accepting the microchip brings benefits and
problems. The benefits include greater efficiency
in finding and using information; the possibility of
a) We do not need to exercise every day higher living standards through increased
b) We should devote an hour every day to doing productivity; greater control over pollution and the
exercises use of natural resources; help for the sick and the
c) We should devote thirty minutes every day to disabled; and a whole range of "smart" machines
physical exercises to inform, entertain and serve us.
d) We need to exercise from Monday to Friday
e) We should exercise at least two hours a day

We can guard against some of the problems. We computer files
can, for example, be alive to the danger of the
misuse of information held on computer files. ------------------------------------------------------------------

There is the problem of alienation: people who Breeding Superbrains

cannot find a place in the technological world of
the future. To guard against this problem, we Edoardo Boncinelli directs the molecular biology
need education and training schemes, and of development laboratory at San Raffaele
machines which are easy to use. Finally, there's Hospital in Milan. He is being interviewed about
the problem of people whose skills are made his latest discovery:
redundant by machines. Again, there's a need for
education and retraining. The wealth needed to Interviewer: It's hard to think of intelligence as the
pay for schemes like these is more likely to direct result of brain mass. What about the role of
appear if we use the microchip. experience?

05 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to paragraph 1, Edoardo Boncinelli: No one knows what

the economic aspect of the microchip revolution: intelligence is. In all likelihood, about 50 percent of
it will be determined by genetics, and the other
portion determined by environment and
a) is one of its two main advantages experience. Genes by themselves cannot
b) is not relevant at all determine intelligence. But they can determine
c) shows the constant increase in the cost of stupidity. When certain human genes go bad, it is
microchips inevitable that the person will suffer a mental
d) is a disadvantage in financial terms deficiency.
e) reflects its inconsistency
Interviewer: Wouldn't a man who had a large part
------------------------------------------------------------------ of his brain regenerated lose most of his
knowledge and memory?

06 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to paragraph 2, Edoardo Boncinelli: Memory is distributed

those who do NOT accept the microchip throughout the brain. If I destroy a piece of gray
revolution will: matter in a human, he probably won't lose all of
his memory. What he loses is a part of the velocity
with which he can retrieve his information. Of
a) be able to participate in the free world market course he won't reacquire his memories when I
in a more advantageous way put new cells in. But the new implant will assist in
b) certainly guarantee their presence in the free the recovery of his memory and in all his other
world market brain functions. What we are really talking about is
c) be naturally excluded from the free world to be able to reverse brain death. At present,
market when these cells die, there is no way to replace
d) be naturally incorporated into the free world them. An idea I find even more intriguing is the
market possibility to regenerate the spinal cord in cases
e) face a wider and more effective participation in of injury and paralysis.
the free world market
08 (ESAF/AFTN/96): When asked about "what
------------------------------------------------------------------ intelligence is", Edoardo Boncinelli states that:

07 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to paragraph 4, a) genetics probably determines half of it

we might have to face: b) the place where we live does not influence it
c) neither environment nor experience influence it
d) genetics determines it all
a) the lack of consistency in the information e) genetics has absolutely no influence on it
stored on computer files
b) the periodical updating of data on files ------------------------------------------------------------------
c) the incorrect manipulation of microchips
d) the improper use of data contained on
computer files
e) the meticulous manipulation of data held on

entrepreneurship, or that unemployment there
is more than twice ours.

09 (ESAF/AFTN/96): In his second answer,

Edoardo Boncinelli states that memory: 11 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - Which of the items below
are positively referred to in the text?

a) can only be found in one specific area of the a) the European taxes.
brain b) labour laws.
b) is concentrated in two areas of the brain c) welfare benefits.
c) memory is spread over many areas of the brain d) the new legal tender.
d) has already been found and measured by e) regulations.
e) is located on the left-hand side of the brain ------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------ 12 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - According to the author, a

Western European economic renaissance

10 (ESAF/AFTN/96): According to Edoardo a) may be at last set off.

Boncinelli, if new cells are inserted in the brain in b) is inhospitable to American-style companies.
order to replace damaged ones, the brain's: c) has been achieved over the last years.
d) may trigger higher levels of unemployment.
e) requires remarkable technological support.
a) previous capacity is immediately recovered
b) memory is lost ------------------------------------------------------------------
c) storage capacity is transformed
d) memories will remain the same 13 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - "For years, Europe has
e) functions will be helped been an economic backwater", means that
a) has been an economic and financial paradise.
b) used to be competitive and innovative.
Read the text below in order to answer questions c) has been both economically and financially
11 to 14. viable.
d) has not imposed enough taxes and regulations
The European Monetary Union for many years.
e) has been isolated from modern economic
On Jan. 1, 1999 the European Monetary ideas and influences.
Union (EMU) will come into full-blown
existence with 11 countries adopting a ------------------------------------------------------------------
continentwide currency called the euro. Coins
and notes will not be available until Jan. 1, 14 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - The EMU coins and notes
2002. Until that time, one can either use the
old currencies or conduct euro transactions a) will be available on Jan. 1, 1999.
electronically, or with checks or plastic cards. b) are called euro.
In 2002, EMU countries will use only the euro c) will cease to exist on Jan. 1, 2002.
as their legal tender, and the Deutsche mark, d) are already available.
French franc, Italian lira et al. will cease to e) will not be available until Jan. 1, 2001.
This new money may finally trigger a Western
European economic renaissance. For years
Europe has been an economic backwater
because of excessive taxes and regulations,
onerous labour laws and ludicrously lavish
welfare benefits. No wonder there is little high
technology in lands so inhospitable to
freewheeling, American-style

Read the text below in order to answer questions Read the text below in order to answer questions
15 to 17. 18 to 20.

Tax-free interest Tax Audits

Congress is finally making a move toward Although only about one out of every 100
school choice. The Senate approved a bill in individual tax returns will be audited in 1998,
April that would allow family members, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is very
charitable groups and employers to put up to good at selecting returns for audit that will
$2,000 per child annually into education yield additional taxes. Nevertheless, if your
savings accounts that would earn tax-free return is selected, it does not necessarily
interest. Parents could use the funds for mean you will incur any additional tax liability.
expenses related to elementary and If you do not agree with the examiners report,
secondary schooling, regardless of whether you can meet with the examiners supervisor
their children were in public, private, religious to discuss your case further. If you still do not
or home schools. The unused money and agree, you have the right to appeal the
interest could later be rolled over and used for findings through a separate Appeals Office.
college-related expenses. You can also appeal to the U.S. Tax Court.
We should not squander this opportunity!
18 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - The author states that the
15 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - According to the author, examiners report might be
Congress is at last contributing to
a) questioned.
a) the supremacy of public schools. b) unofficial.
b) tax increases on education. c) ambiguous.
c) the revival of family values. d) irrevocable.
d) a free choice of school. e) dishonest.
e) profits derived from savings accounts.
19 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - According to the text, when
you meet the examiners supervisor,
16 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - When the author claims that
"we should not squander this opportunity", he a) the two of you must reach a final agreement.
means we b) you have already accepted the examiners
a) must not conceal its effects on tax payers. c) you intend to discuss the examiners report in
b) should not advertise it. more detail.
c) should not waste it. d) additional taxes are charged.
d) might not alter any of its items. e) you wish to discuss the examiners liability.
e) should not welcome it.
20 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - The text implies that
17 (ESAF/AFTN/98) - The funds deposited in the
education savings accounts may not be used for a) audits rarely result in additional charges.
b) audits are an unnecessary practice.
a) secondary education. c) additional taxes must not be adopted.
b) non-educational expenses. d) audits will soon be abolished.
c) college expenses. e) additional taxes may be charged.
d) elementary education.
e) educational expenses.

Read the text below in order to answer questions d) August 1982 resembles todays reality
21 to 24.
e) Brazil has serviced its debt punctually
24 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - During the previous
August was coming to a close. The decade, financing had been
situation in emerging countries looked bleak. For a) subject to high interest rates
most governments, financing during the previous
decade had been cheap. But a lethal cocktail of b) a burden on public accounts
internal and external factors was being prepared. c) inexpensive for most governments
Fiscal accounts were not in good shape. Exports d) provided by the IMF
were falling, exacerbated by low commodity prices e) denied to emerging countries
that severely hit terms of trade. Interest payments ------------------------------------------------------------------
were an increasingly unsustainable burden on
public-sector accounts. To top it off, U.S. interest Read the text below in order to answer questions
rates were high and rising. The International 25 to 28.
Monetary Fund (IMF) and Wall Street bankers
I am talking about August 1982, but the
parallels with today are striking. Ecuador, not Like a countrys flag or anthem, money is
Mexico, teeters on bankruptcy; Alan Greenspan, a powerful emblem of nationhood that is instantly
not Paul Volcker, fights inflation; Colombia and recognized, understood and even cherished by all
Venezuela are in chaos; Brazil, Argentina, Chile citizens. But where economies are feeble, a
and Peru face difficult times. handsome bank note can be a hollow, and
expensive, symbol. We still confuse currency with
21 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - According to the author, the the national banner, says the Argentine
situation in emerging countries economist Aldo Abram. In fact, money is just an
instrument of economics. A badly managed
a) will certainly remain bleak
instrument, at that. Despite a decade of bold free-
b) has been favourable and prosperous market reforms and handsome money, Latin
c) had been bleak in the 1970s America is in the midst of its worst recession since
d) was not gloomy in 1982 the 1980s, the lost decade. According to the
International Monetary Fund, foreign-capital flows
e) seemed gloomy in August 1982
to the region were down 55 percent last year.
Poverty is deepening. There are plenty of reasons
for these travails. But wherever there is economic
emergency in Latin America, a crumbling currency
22 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - The author states that fiscal is not far away.
accounts were not
25 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - According to the text,
a) controlled by the IMF money
b) part of the lethal cocktail
a) is merely an instrument of economics
c) in good condition
b) must be seen as the most powerful symbol of
d) taken into consideration a nation
e) relevant factors c) might be an economic mechanism
------------------------------------------------------------------ d) is instantly cherished by developed nations
e) should replace the countrys flag or anthem
23 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - Which of the statements 26 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - According to the text, Latin
below reflects the content of the text? America
a) Ecuador has just gone bankrupt a) openly favours dollarization
b) In 1982, the external debt was forgiven b) has been facing its worst recession since the
c) Colombia and Venezuela have run surpluses

c) considers bank notes as a mere instrument of e) benefits from expensive bank notes
d) successfully overcame its worst recession in
c) a considerable surplus for the public sector
27 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - The text refers to the 1980s
d) a substantial change in the fiscal responsibility
as "the lost decade" because it was a period
e) a huge technological investment
a) fiscal surpluses
30 (ESAF/AFCE/00) - According to the text, the
b) rapid economic growth state employeessalaries
c) forgotten structural reform
d) virtually no progress a) must have been reduced
e) missing foreign debt b) have not been negotiated
c) must be taken into account
------------------------------------------------------------------ d) represent a 20% cut in the budget
e) have undoubtedly been neglected
28 (ESAF/AFCE/99) - A crumbling currency
refers to a currency which is -----------------------------------------------------------------

a) powerful
31 (ESAF/AFCE/00) - In connection to the
b) illegal budget for year 2000, analysts believe that it
c) solid
d) healthy a) ought to be designed by the Congress
e) battered b) might be achieved
c) is hardly attainable
------------------------------------------------------- d) will be increased by 20%
e) has been endorsed by the Congress
Read the text below in order to answer questions
29 to 31. -----------------------------------------------------------------
Read the text below in order to answer questions
Most analysts believe that the budget for the 32 and 33.
year 2000 presented by the government is
feasible, but many points used to design the
budget depend on negotiations with Congress. If NEW POLICIES TO FIT THE NEW ECONOMY
first impressions are confirmed, the budget
corresponds to reality, says former Central Bank Growing Prosperity: The battle for Growth with
President Affonso Celso Pastore. According to the Equity in the 21 Century, written by two liberal
Chief Economist for Citibank, the budget is economists, represents a breakthrough in the
feasible but not easy to accomplish. political debate over the New Economy. This is
Specialists say that the government would the first book that lays out a progressive economic
have to reduce monthly expenses immediately policy designed to encourage technology-driven
until the end of the year from R$ 3.5 billion to R$ growth, while ameliorating bad consequences
2.87 billion, which would correspond to a 20% such as widening income disparity and excessive
reduction. Its quite a tight budget, said former dependence on a volatile stock market.
Minister Malson da Nbrega. The main problem According to the authors, Barry Bluestone
is that state employees salaries have been raised and Bennett Harrison, Washington policymakers
and an extra R$ 3.1 billion will have to be paid have been excessively fixated on low inflation and
next year. a balanced budget. Bluestone and Harrison term
this the Wall Street model of growth. This model,
29 (ESAF/AFCE/00) - Analysts predict if carried into the future, will make it difficult to
sustain prosperity over the long run. For one
a) a necessary cut in the public expenditure thing, the drive to cut the budget deficit has
b) a further increase in state employees salaries constrained spending on research and

development, education, and infrastructure. Over exercisers displayed fewer of these effects than
time, they say, this will slow the rate of the nonexercisers did, and they showed no
technological innovation the equivalent of eating increase in blood pressure, which is a key
the seed corn. measure of stress response.

34 (ESAF/TTN/98) - The author claims that

32 (ESAF/AFCE/00) - The authors of the present regular exercise
book emphasize the need to
a) should be prevented.
a) reduce research on technology b) reduces stress.
b) have stronger trade unions c) must not be vigorous.
c) offer higher minimum wages d) is unhealthy.
e) might be harmful.
d) keep continuous technological innovation
e) maintain low consumer spending -------------------------------------------------------
35 (ESAF/TTN/98) - According to the text, self-
confidence and optimism are
33 (ESAF/AFCE/00) - One aspect which is not
approached by Bluestone and Harrison is the a) reduced by regular exercise.
b) negatively influenced by exercise.
a) volatile stock market
c) not al all affected by exercise.
b) income disparity d) illogical feelings.
c) balanced budget e) positively affected by exercise.
d) spending on research
e) tributary reform -------------------------------------------------------
36 (ESAF/TTN/98) - The extract
a) also includes the results of a study.
b) discourages the practice of physical exercise.
c) states that our problems are unsolvable.
d) persuades readers to lead a sedentary life.
People most often exercise for purely physical
e) proves that physical exercise increases our
reasons, yet many who exercise report that they
blood pressure.
feel goodafter vigorous exercise. Indeed, regular
exercise seems to be a powerful antistress
activity. Exercise has been shown in a number of -------------------------------------------------------
studies to reduce anxiety levels and feelings of
helplessness, depression and hostility. At the UNITED STATES MINT
same time, regular exercise seems to stabilize
personality and to increase self-confidence and The United States Mint was created by Act of April
optimism. 2, 1792, which established the national coinage
Even when exercise is not making you feel more system. Initially, operations were conducted in
relaxed, it may still be helping you to cope with Philadelphia, then the nations capital. Supervision
stress. A recent study at the Human Performance of the Mint was a function of the secretary of
Laboratory in San Francisco compared the effect state, but in 1799, it became an independent
of stress on two groups of students. One group agency reporting directly to the president. The
had participated in a 14-week aerobic exercise Mint was made a statutory bureau of the Treasury
program; the other had not. Each group was Department in 1873, with a director appointed by
asked to solve a set of problems, and, because the president to oversee its operations from
most of the problems were unsolvable, both headquarters offices in the Treasury Department
groups became frustrated and showed increased in Washington DC.
muscular tension and anxiety levels. However, the The Mint manufactures all U.S. coins and
distributes them through the Federal Reserve

banks and branches. The Mint also maintains 39 (ESAF/TTN/98) - According to the text, the four
physical custody of the treasurys monetary stocks Mercosur countries aimed at
of gold and silver, moving, storing and releasing
from custody as authorized. a) weakening their foreign-trade strategies.
b) adopting distinguishable foreign-trade policies.
c) following a mutual foreign-trade policy.
d) putting into practice an external tariff of 3%.
e) immediately adopting a common currency.

37 (ESAF/TTN/98) - According to the text, the U. 40 (ESAF/TTN/98) - The text states that Brazil
S. Mint and Argentina decided to raise external tariffs by
a) has already been created by an Act.
b) has recently been created by an Act. a) to strengthen the economies of Paraguay and
c) should be created by an Act. Uruguay.
d) will soon be created by an Act. b) a year ago.
e) was created by an American president. c) because the two are more dependent on
------------------------------------------------------- d) based on their own needs.
e) to answer requests made by Paraguay and
38 (ESAF/TTN/98) - The text does not mention Uruguay.
a) U.S. Mint.
b) Treasury Department. MOVING EXPENSES
c) storage of gold and silver.
d) Energy Department. Taxpayers who change jobs or are transferred to
e) treasurys monetary stocks. another job location during the year can deduct
part of their moving expenses. These expenses
------------------------------------------------------- include travel and the cost of moving household
goods to their new home. The cost of meals while
MERCOSUR moving is no longer deductible.
To qualify, the move must be a result of changing
The four Mercosur countries may be steadily job locations or starting a new job and must meet
stitching their economies together but their distance and time tests. The new job must be at
putative common market is fraying round the least 50 miles farther from the former home than
edges. For all the warm talk, that was the was the old job. Employees also must work full
evidence from their latest presidential meeting, in time for at least 39 weeks during the first 12
Montevideo, Uruguays capital, on December 14th months after they arrive in the general area of
and 15th. their new job.
In opting to go beyond mere free trade towards a Taxpayers no longer have to itemize on Schedule
customs union, Mercosurs founders intended the A to deduct moving expenses. These expenses
group to have a common foreign-trade policy, as are now an adjustment to income and should
the European Union does. That is proving hard to instead be reported on page 1 , Form 1040.
achieve. In 1995, when the Mercosur four began
to put in place a common external tariff (ranging -------------------------------------------------------
from zero to 20%, with an average of 12%),
several hundred products were exempted. Now 41 (ESAF/TTN/98) - According to the text,
even more will be. Last month, for reasons of their
own, Brazil and Argentina agreed to increase a) all moving expenses are deductible.
external tariffs by 3%. Paraguay and Uruguay, b) some moving expenses are deductible.
more dependent on imports, were unhappy. In c) no moving expense is deductible.
Montevideo, they reluctantly agreed to the rise - d) just travel expenses are deductible.
but each will be allowed to exempt up to 600 e) only moving household goods is deductible.
further items from it.

42 (ESAF/TTN/98) - Which of the options below 44 (ESAF/TRF/00) - Which aspect of the US
summarize the content of the text? economy is seen as worrying?

a) The importance of starting a new job. a) Its foreign policy

b) The high cost of meals. b) Its present account deficit
c) Travelling for business reasons. c) Its tax regulations
d) Illegal transfers.
d) Its stockmarket
e) Deduction of moving expenses.
e) Its present elections
43 (ESAF/TTN/98) - The text states that distance 45 (ESAF/TRF/00) - The author says that the US
and time tests economic expansion continues to stride
ahead, which means it continues to
a) can be required.
a) grow
b) will not be requested.
c) shall be postponed. b) shrink
d) have to be fulfilled. c) be analysed
e) have to be put off. d) affect the world
e) dominate

Read the text below in order to answer

questions 44 to 48:
46 (ESAF/TRF/00) - Paragraph 2 suggests that
DEFICIT SPELLS TROUBLE an expanding economy might be expected
to bring
The US economic expansion,
a) recession
which has already achieved an
unprecedented period of unbroken b) unemployment
growth, continues to stride ahead. But c) inflation
there could be trouble on the way. d) surplus workers
Robert Siddles, head of the US e) a trade deficit
equities at Gartmore, says: There has
only been one recession in the last 16 ------------------------------------------------------
years in the US, where there has been
strong growth and unexpectedly low 47 (ESAF/TRF/00) - According to Robert
inflation. Siddles, the government
He explains the economic picture a) must borrow less money
has been almost perfect: Murphys law is b) has increased interest rates
working in reverse, Siddles says about c) should lend more money
the US economy. He explains: If it can d) is lending much less
go right, it will go right. e) is bearing the deficit
But he is concerned about the level
of the current account deficit, which is -----------------------------------------------------------------
running out at about 5% of the gross
domestic product. But Siddles adds: The 48 (ESAF/TRF/00) - The overall picture the
problem with the current account deficit text gives of the US economy is one of
may not be quite as bad as it appears.
a) absolute euphoria
The government is borrowing less and
b) dark pessimism
the health of the economy is supporting
c) galloping inflation
the deficit.
d) qualified optimism
----------------------------------------------------------------- e) impending recession

a) Pension schemes
b) Pep investors
c) Pension funds
d) Individuals with low incomes
e) Individuals with high incomes

51 (ESAF/TRF/00) - The tax credit on dividends

has been

Read the text below in order to answer questions a) below 10%

49 to 53: b) decreased to 10%
c) increased by 10%
d) higher than 10%
Up until 5 April 1999, investors
e) above 10%
received dividends from stocks and
shares net of a tax credit of 20%. This -----------------------------------------------------------------
20% tax is paid by the company declaring
the dividend to the Inland Revenue as 52 (ESAF/TRF/00) - According to the author, the
Advance Corporation Tax. Inland Revenue
Until the July 1997 Budget, all
those who did not pay tax, such as a) receives dividends from stocks and shares
individuals with low incomes, pension b) might reclaim tax credit from the Federal
shemes and Pep investors, could reclaim
c) used to pay tax credits up to 5 April 1999
this tax credit from the Inland Revenue.
The 1997 measures immediately ended d) must declare its dividends
the right of pension funds to reclaim this e) collects taxes from non-taxpayers
tax, and in April 1999 non-tax payers -----------------------------------------------------------------
were no longer able to reclaim this credit
53 (ESAF/TRF/00) - The tax credit referred to in
Furthermore, from 6 April 1999, the the first sentence of the text is a
tax credit on dividends was reduced to
10% and Pep and Isa investors are only a) tax deducted at source before dividends are
allowed to reclaim this 10% tax credit, not paid to investors
the previous level of 20%. b) welfare benefit given by the government to
poor people
c) quantity charged by Corporate investors for
their services
49 (ESAF/TRF/00) - According to the text,
changes to Inland Revenue rules on the d) special allowance given to rural old age
taxation pensioners
e) discount tax rate for investors who declare
a) have been made their assets
b) have not been made
c) had to be postponed
d) will soon be implemented -----------------------------------------------------------------
e) might soon take place
Read the text below in order to answer questions
54 to 58:

50 (ESAF/TRF/00) - Which alternative below is FREE ZONE ARE NUMBERED
not mentioned as having once been eligible
for a credit rebate?

The sales tax, also known as the excise d) will not survive for much longer
tax, is one of the oldest, and therefore one of the
e) might soon be devised
most reviled, of all levies. Revolutions and
rebellions have been fought over it. But the battle
today over whether to tax Internet sales, while not
violent, is as heated as any. Even Republicans,
who almost never disagree about taxes, are at
each others throats on the issue.
Virginia governor Jim Gilmore opposes new
taxes on e-commerce as a way to spur the Net, 57 (ESAF/TRF/00) - Concerning the issue of
while Utah governor Michael Leavitt thinks online taxing e.commerce, a congressional
sales must be taxed to keep state and local commission
governments solvent. A congressional
a) was finally able to reach an agreement
commission that was supposed to settle the issue
ended in deadlock earlier this year. b) will soon be settled
Citizens have every right to grouse about c) was not able to reach an agreement
the ill effects of sales taxes on Net growth, but the d) may at last come to an agreement
right of governments to impose them isnt in
e) is now coming to an agreement
dispute. Whats more, lawmakers dont have
much of a policy reason not to apply a sales tax to
commerce over the Internet. Thus the surprise of
the Internet debate: Despite all the hyperbole
pouring out of the mouths of politicians lately, -----------------------------------------------------------------
cyberspace almost certainly wont remain a
(nearly) tax-free zone forever. For now, the
federal government has imposed a moratorium on 58 (ESAF/TRF/00) - When the author states that
new Internet taxes through October 2001. the sales tax is one of the most reviled of all
levies, he means that it
54 (ESAF/TRF/00) - In connection with taxation
a) is well-accepted by tax-payers
of e-commerce, the text does not mention
b) has not been legally enforced
a) Republicans c) is one of the highest of all tariffs
b) unions d) is one of the most unpopular taxes
c) legislators e) is one of the heaviest interest rates
d) citizens
e) a congressional commission


55 (ESAF/TRF/00) - In the present context,

levies are

a) issues
b) regulations
c) technologies
d) policies
e) taxes


56 (ESAF/TRF/00) - According to the headline of

the text, a tax-free zone

a) will surely remain untouched

b) may remain forever
c) is going to be implemented


01-C 11-D 21-E 31-B 41-B 51-B

02-A 12-A 22-C 32-D 42-E 52-C

03-D 13-E 23-D 33-E 43-D 53-A

04-B 14-B 24-C 34-B 44-B 54-B

05-A 15-D 25-A 35-E 45-A 55-E

06-C 16-C 26-B 36-A 46-C 56-D

07-D 17-B 27-D 37-A 47-E 57-C

08-A 18-A 28-E 38-D 48-D 58-D

09-C 19-C 29-A 39-C 49-A

10-E 20-E 30-C 40-D 50-E