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Distal Stimulus: Objects and events out in the world about you
o Object which reflects light waves is a distal stimulus with respect
to eye
o Energy given off by lightbulb
Proximal Stimulus: Patterns of stimuli from these objects and events
that actually reach your senses (actually act on your nervous system)
o Effect of light waves on the retina of the eye
o Energy of lightbulb falling on a receptor surface in your eye

Motivational salience
o Regulate intensity of behaviors that facilitate:
The attainment of a particular goal
Amount of time and energy that you are willing to expend
to attain the goal
Amount of risk willing to accept to attain it
Incentive salience
o desire or want attribute -> includes rewarding stimulus (a

Word Association Test
o answer as quickly as possible with the first word that comes to
Psychophysical discrimination testing (influence/relationship
between physical stimuli and sensation/perception)
o Vary physical stimulus slightly and observe effect on subjects
experience or behavior in order to better understand perceptual
o E.g. change size slightly between two objects until subject
notices different
o Relates perception of stimulus to true physical properties
o Method of Limits
1. Measure subjects perception of stimuli by determining at
what level is a change perceived (continual change)
o Method of constant
1. Stimulus presented randomly instead
o Method of adjustment
1. Subject control stimulus level and is asked to alter it until it
is barely there (or vice versa)
Operational Span Testing
o Test to see capacity of working memory
o E.g.
1. read/verify simple math problem
2. read a word
3. do series of problem
4. recall the word
o Flashbulb memory
o Highly detailed, exceptionally vivid snapshot of moment and
circumstances in which a piece of surprising/consequential (or
emotionally arousing) news was heard
o Autobiographical memory
o System consisting of episodes recollected from an individuals
life (episodic + semantic memories)

o Motivation for operant conditioning? deprive subject of stimulus
for long period of time beforehand (e.g. dont feed for some time

o Place theory
o Perception of sound depends on where each component
frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane

Vision: Depth cues

o Monocular
o Interposition (occultation): Partial blocking of a more distant
object by a nearer object
o Motion parallax: as observer moves, relative motion gives more
o Far items -> move less quickly
o Proximal items -> move fast
o Relative size
o Familiar size
o Texture gradient
o Closer -> more detailed
o Lighting/Shading
o Accommodation
o Ciliary muscle change
o Only effective for distances < 2 meters
o Stereopsis (binocular parallax, retinal/binocular disparity)
Obtain information from both eyes -> put together to
triangulate distance
o Convergence (< 10 meters)
During stereopsis -> two eyeballs focus on same object ->
converge -> stretch extraocular muscles

G factor (general intelligence (factor))
o Summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks
o Reflects the fact that an individuals performance on one type of
task tends to be comparable to that of another task
Crystallized (Gc) intelligence
o Ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience
o Does not equate to memory -> but does rely on accessing
information from long-term memory
o E.g. vocabulary, general knowledge
o Increase gradually, peak later in adulthood, decline after
Fluid (Gf) intelligence
o Capacity to reason and solve novel problems (independent of
any knowledge from the past)
o Identify patterns/relationships
o Includes inductive/deductive reasoning
o Peaks in young adulthood, steadily declines
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
o Adults and older adolescents (16-90 years of age)
WISC (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children)
o 6-16 years of age
WPPSI (Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence)
o 2.5-7 years,7 months of age
All scales -> mean = 100, std = 15
o Decline
New episodic (old episodic are stable)
Processing speed
Divided attention
o Stable
Old episodic stable
o Improve
Semantic (until ~ 60)
Crystallized IQ
Emotional reasoning
Shadowing (speech shadowing)
o Immediately repeat (e.g. watch a video, listen to a line,
immediately repeat the line, and continue this process)
Context effects
o Influence of environmental factors on ones perception of a
o Part of top-down design
Feature detectors
o Individual neurons (or groups of neurons) in the brain which code
for perceptually significant stimuli
o Helps with ability to detect certain types of stimuli (movements,
shape, angles)
o E.g. without them -> harder to detect round object coming at you
Practice Effects
o Gains in scores on cognitive tests that occur when a person is
retested on same instrument (or very similar ones)
Economic capital
o command of economic resources (money, assets, property)
Social capital
o actual and potential resources linked to the possession of a
durable network of institutionalized relationships of mutual
acquaintance and recognition
Cultural capital
o person's education (knowledge and intellectual skills) that
provides advantage in achieving a higher social-status in society
o help make social distinctions
o Associated with differences in social status
Parallel processing
o Brain simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality
E.g. vision: color, depth, shape, motion
E.g. Stroop effect
Negative priming (experience stimulus, then ignore it)
o Implicit memory effect
o Prior exposure to a stimulus unfavorably influences the response
to the same stimulus
o Slow/error-prone reaction to a stimulus previously
Consistently/consciously choose a red pen from a holder
Then, try switching to a blue pen
There is a momentary delay of picking the pen out
Distractor stimulus -> target stimulus
Positive priming
o Speeds up processing
o Caused by simply experiencing the stimulus
o Thought to be caused by spreading activation
o Implicit memory effect
o Exposure to one stimulus influences the response to another
o E.g. NURSE recognized more quickly following DOCTOR than
Neuroleptics = antipsychotics
Verbal fluency
o Say as many words as possible from a category in a given time
(semantic or phonemic)
SG (Stress generation) hypothesis
o Depressed people might act in ways that keep making them
more stressed

Mead (how others affect how we view ourselves) (self = balance of I

and ME)
Generalized other (used in symbolic interactionism)
o Notion that a person has of the expectations that others have
about behavior/thoughts in society -> clarify relation to the other
as a representative member of a shared social system
Only certain people can influence perception of ourselves -> and only
during certain periods of life
The way others influence us changes over lifespan
Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage
o Interact via imitation
o E.g. play with pots while someone cooks
o More aware of social relationships
o Pretend play (mommy, daddy, firefighters, etc.)
o Mentally assume perspective of another person - > role-taking
o Act based on perceived point of view
o Children able to respond -> not just mimic, but can create them
o Can understand attitudes, beliefs, behaviors of the generalized
o Realize people dont always perform in ways based on what they
personally believe -> but also based on what society expects of
o People can take on multiple roles
o children realize people have opinions of them
Really only concerned with significant others (people you
are close to)
o Creation of the I and the ME
ME (societys view)
o Social self
o How we believe the generalized other sees us
o Learned from interactions with other
I (personal responses to what society thinks)
o Response to social self (response to the ME)
o Thinks about what the things from the ME actually mean
E.g. ME sees people go straight to college from high-school, the I
will think whether that is best or not

Cooley (see looking glass self)

Everyone that a person interacts with (in entirety of life) affects your
Looking-glass self -> development of ones self through ones
interpersonal interactions within the context of society

Cross-sectional Data
Type of data collected by observing many subjects at the same pint of
time, or without regard to differences in time
o E.g. measure current obesity levels

Cross-sectional Study
Analyzes data collected from a population, or representative subset, at
a specific point in time

Case-control study
Two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared
on the basis of some supposed causal attribute
Cases: those with the outcome
Controls: those without the outcome
You know the two outcomes first - > look back to see exposure
Cohort study
Longitudinal study/quasi-experiment
Sample a cohort (group of people sharing defining characteristic)
Perform cross-section at intervals through time
o Two groups (differ by exposure)-> follow to see the outcome
of each one
o Two groups (differ by exposure) -> Look back and see the
(panel study -> individuals do not always share a common

Primary reinforcers -> biological (food, drinks, sex)

Secondary reinforcers - > acquire power via history of association with
primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers (e.g. money)

Technological control

Thomas Theorem
If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
Interpretation of a situation causes the action (not objective)