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Proceedings of ASME of FEDSM03

4THthASME_JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference
4 ASME_JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference
Honolulu, Hawaii,USA,
July 611,
6-10, 2003



Laboratoire dEtudes Arodynamiques (UMR 6609)

Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Tlport 2, BP 30179
Tl : (33) 05 49 49 69 27
Fax : (33) 05 49 49 69 68
e-mail :

Velocity measurements by PIV are realized in order to
compare a slot jet and round jets impinging a curved surface. A
statistical data processing allows us to obtain the mean velocity
fields and the Reynolds stresses. For the two jet geometries, the
flow structure is described. Some velocity distributions
according to different axis are extracted of the mean velocity a) slot jet b) row of 5 round jets
fields and are also described.
Figure 1: Scheme of the different jet geometries.
Jet impingement cooling has been widely used to cool NOMENCLATURE
elements exposed to high temperatures. Indeed, the impinging b: slot jet height (10 mm)
jets can produce strong heat and mass transfer rates in the d: jets diameter (10 mm)
vicinity of the stagnation point of the surface to be cooled. p: spacing between two jets (40 mm)
This cooling technique is used in particular by the H: impinging height
manufacturers of aeroplane engine to cool the turbines blades. Dc: curvature diameter
Some "fresh" air come to impact the internal wall of the blade U, V, W: velocity components along the x, y, z directions
and by conduction the heat of the blade is thus "pumped" by the Uj: jet mean flow velocity
fluid. For the leading edge of the blade, the jets impact a
concave wall. Few studies were carried out on impinging jets a
curved wall and mainly related to the thermal aspect (Gau &
Chung (1991), Lee et al. (1999), Metzger et al. (1969)).
However the dynamic field and the thermal aspect cannot be
completely dissociated. Moreover, the heat transfer
characteristics can be affected by the geometry and the
configuration of the impinging jets (Brahma et al. (1994), Yang
et al. (1999), Tabakoff & Clevenger (1972)).
Thus we chose to study and compare the dynamic field of a
slot jet (cf Figure 1-a) and of a row of five round jets (cf Figure Figure 2: Test geometry
1-b) impinging a curved wall according to the following
parameters: the Reynolds number, the impinging height and the EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
curvature diameter of the curved surface. The impingement surface consists of a half-cylinder and
two plane plates used as higher and lower boundaries. All these
elements of the impingement surface are transparent (Altuglas
of 3 mm) in order to make the visualizations and measurements
by laser velocimetry easier (cf. Figure 2).

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Air flow is produced by a fan, regulated by a valve and Pictures are obtained using a Kodak MegaPlus ES 1.0w
measured by a flowmeter (cf. Figure 3). A heat exchanger is camera (768x484 pixels double frames) working in cross
used to control the jet temperature. correlation. The software FlowManager 2.22 pilots the
The slot jet is provided by a right-angle parallelepiped processor Piv2000 which converts pictures into velocity fields.
channel (955 mm long, 300 mm wide and 10 mm high). Thus For each jet geometries, measurements are obtained for the
the slot jet is a 10 mm high and 300 mm wide. same experimental parameters. 5000 independent samples of
The row of jets is made up of five identical round jets. measurement are recorded for the slot jet and only 3000 for the
Each jet is provided by a circular pipe (diameter of 10 mm and round jets. The samples are recorded per packages of 200
200 mm long). The distance between two successive jets is 40 recordings.
mm. The flow of each jet is regulated and measured From an initial velocity field, validation and statistical
independently by a valve and a venturi connected to a pressure process are carried out in order to obtain the mean field ( U, V )
sensor. Each jet have the same mean flow velocity Uj.
and the Reynolds stresses (RMSu, RMSv & u ' v' ).
To eliminate erroneous measurements during the recording
(zones of shade, wall reflections, bad seeding), the data are
filtered in each point of measurement, for each acquisition and
each velocity component. Thus each sample of measurement is
validated according to several criteria. Then the data processing
is carried out in two steps. In the first processing, each sample
is validated according to a significant value of the signal/noise
ratio (the threshold is fixed here at 2). This one corresponds to
the signal/noise ratio between the first and the second peak of
the correlation function used for the determination of the
velocity. Then starting from these validated values, a velocity
histogram at each point and for each velocity component is
built, smoothed and then thresholded. So the mean and
fluctuating values of the velocity are estimated ( U and RMS ).
In the second processing, the initial measurements are again
Figure 3 : Experimental apparatus filtered with a lower threshold than the first processing,
(signal/noise ratio at 1.5). Measurements are then filtered by
The three main parameters of this study are: bandwidth re-using the results of the first processing.
The Reynolds number is based on the jet mean Supposing that the velocity histogram is Gaussian, only the
flow velocity Uj and the slot jet height b or the jets
values included in the interval ( U K *RMS ) are validated. K is
diameter d: Reb = U j b or Red = U j d the confidence level, equal to 3. The mean values and the
fluctuations for each velocity component and each point are
(Re=1400, 3200 and 6400) finally calculated. Measurement precision has been estimated to
The impinging height (H= 30, 50 and 70 mm) be less than 1%, and the maximum bias at 3% for the mean
The curvature diameter (Dc= 52, 94 mm) values and at 6% for the RMS values. These include the
accuracy, the statistical bias and the position uncertainty. For
VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS BY PIV : the two jet geometries, the measurements are realized in and
The velocity measurements were carried out by the around the symmetry plane (z=0) of the jet. Moreover for the
particles imagery velocimetry (PIV) technique. When a LASER round jets, the measurements are carried out in the plan
illuminates a cross-section of the flow, beforehand seeded with (z/d=0.3) and the median plan of two jets (z/d=p/2).
particles, it is possible to visualize two successive moments
using a CCD camera. The two successive frames are shifted by RESULTS
a time interval t. Then these images are divided into In the case of a row of round jets and for the parameters
interrogation areas. The average particles displacement d in (Red=3200, H/d=7, Dc/d=5.2), we observe, in the plans (z/d=0)
the corresponding windows is determined by cross-correlation. and (z/d=0.3), that the jet comes to impact the center of the
Thus the mean velocity of the group of particles in each curved wall (Figure 4-a and b). Then the jet separates into two,
r r
interrogation window is given by the formula: V =d / t . and each part of the jet follows the curved wall, one part
A SPECTRA-PHYSICS Nd-YAG LASER source (2x200 downwards and the other one upwards. We also observe
mJ at 10 Hz and 532 nm) is used for measurements with the vortices at (x/d=5.1; y/d=1.8).
PIV system (DANTEC Technology) that allows us to obtain In addition, the strong RMSu values ( 1 m/s) are reached
several planes of velocity. A LASER beam (wavelength in the jet shear layer. These two zones located symmetrically
532 nm) penetrates by the bottom of the test rig by means of the from the x-axis meet in (x/d=5; y/d=0) and in the vicinity of the
"telescopic arm" ERROL allowing us to illuminate the flow in stagnation point (x/d=6.6; y/d=0). For the vertical component
the plane to observe. Seeding is obtained using a smoke (V), two zones of strong RMSv values ( 0.5 m/s) are located
generator (water & glycerine). The mean size of the particles is symmetrically compared to the jet axis at (x/d=6.5; y/d=0.5).
less than 10 m. Moreover, at the stagnation point, a part of the jet moves in
the z direction and form a wall jet. In the plan (z/d=p/2) (Figure

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4-c), the wall jets of two successive jets merge. Then the fluid
leaves the wall and moves towards the left.

a) RMSu values

a) plan z/d=0

b) RMSv values
b) plan z/d=0.3
Figure 5: Mean velocity field and the RMS values of the slot
jet. (Reb=3200, H/b=7, Dc/b=5.2)

For the vertical component (V) (Figure 5-b), only one zone
of strong RMSv values ( 2.6 m/s) is observed and located
close to the impingement surface (x/b=7 and y/b=0).
More complete analysis of the results revealed that the
mean velocity field corresponds to the superposition of three
distinct behaviors (cf Figure 6). Thus the jet comes to impact
the higher part (mode - 1), the center (mode 0) and the lower
part (mode + 1) of the curved wall and then separates into two.
For mode 0, each part follows the curved wall on both sides of
the stagnation point. At first sight, this mode seems to have the
c) plan z/d=p/2
same behavior as the round jets. For modes - 1 and + 1, a
significant part of the fluid follows the curved wall to the
Figure 4: Mean velocity field and RMSu values at different bottom or to the top respectively and a small part is evacuated
plans. (Red=3200, H/d=7, Dc/d=5.2) directly towards the left. These three flow patterns show the
presence of a jet flapping from the top to the bottom (mode - 1
to + 1) and conversely (cf Figure 6). Moreover a significant
In the case of the slot jet and for the same parameters modification for the fluctuations of the horizontal component
(Reb=3200, H/b=7, Dc/b=5.2), we observe on the mean velocity (RMSu) compared to the mean field are observed. Indeed for
field that the jet seems not to impact directly the center of the
the mode - 1 and + 1 (cf Figure 7-a and c), only one zone of
curved wall (x/b=7; y/b=0) (cf Figure 5). Moreover, the values strong RMSu values is observed. This zone is located at
of the maximum fluctuations of the horizontal (U) and the (x/b=2.2 and y/b=0.5) for the mode - 1 and at (x/b=2.5 and
vertical (V) components are considerably higher and have
y/b=-0.5) for the mode + 1. For the mode 0 (cf Figure 7-b), a
different location than for the round jets in the median plan
great zone of strong RMSu values is observed and is located
(z/d=0). Indeed, two zones of strong RMSu values ( 3.5 m/s) between (x/b=1.5 and x/b=5). The maximum of the RMSu
are observed and located symmetrically compared to the jet values (2.27 m/s for mode 0 and 1.98 m/s for mode - 1 and + 1)
axis at (x/b=4 and y/b=2.5) (cf Figure 5-a). are weaker than for the complete field (3.5 m/s) but higher than
the round jets (1 m/s).

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values (1.3m/s for modes - 1 and + 1, 2 m/s for mode 0) is
weaker than the complete field (2.6 m/s) and still higher than
the round jets (0.5 m/s).
For the two jet configurations, some velocity distributions
are extracted of the mean velocity fields according to the
horizontal axis (y=0) and a vertical axis (x=50 mm). So, on the
velocity profiles, the differences between the two jet
configurations are also observed.
The Figure 8 shows the distributions of the mean and the
fluctuation values of the horizontal and vertical components of
the velocity on the horizontal axis (y=0) for the round jets and
plane jet (mean flow and the three modes). Thus for the round
jets, the horizontal component decreases slowly then decreases
rapidly starting from (x/d=6) (cf Figure 8-a). Indeed while
approaching the wall, the jet is deviated along the surface of
Figure 6 : Modal decomposition of the slot jet impact and thus the flow changes direction. We also observe,
due to the sudden drop of the component (U), that the
fluctuations of the horizontal component increase near the wall
(cf Figure 8-b). In the case of the plane jet, we can observe for
the mean flow and the three modes that the component (U)
decreases quickly from (x/b=0) and is equal to zero at (x/b=6).
In addition, we observe, contrary to the round jets, that the
RMSu values are maximum ( 2 m/s) at (x/b=0) and decrease
gradually with increasing x.
On the Figure 8-c, we observe that the vertical component
is very weak (< 0.1 m/s) for the round jets, the mean flow of the
slot jet and mode 0. Indeed for the configurations of the round
jets and mode 0 the flow on this axis (y=0) is primarily
horizontal. We can also see that starting from (x/b=4) the
a) vertical component increases quickly up to - 2.7 m/s for the
mode - 1 and 2.7 m/s for the mode + 1. Indeed in this zone the
flow is mainly vertical, it follows the curved wall upwards
(mode + 1) or downwards (mode - 1). So in the case of the
mean flow of the slot jet, the mean value of the component (V)
is weak because it corresponds to the superposition of the
vertical components of the three modes. Moreover this
difference of velocity between the two modes - 1 and + 1
induces a strong RMSv values ( 3 m/s) for the mean flow for
(x/b>4) (cf Figure 8-d). Also, for this zone (x/b>4), we observe
that the RMSv values are much more significant for the three
modes (> 1m/s) than for the round jets ( 0.24 m/s). Indeed for
the round jets the flow is mainly horizontal and thus the
b) fluctuations of the component (V) are weak but increase
slightly near the wall when the jet is deviated. For mode 0, we
also observe that the RMSv values increase strongly ( 2 m/s)
starting from (x/b=4). In the case of the modes - 1 and + 1, the
RMSv values presents two maximums at x/b=5 equals to 1.13
m/s and at (x/b=6.6) equals to 0.9m/s.
The profiles of the mean and the fluctuation values of the
horizontal and vertical components of the velocity on the
vertical axis (x=50 mm) for the round jets and the slot jet (mean
flow and the three modes) are shown on the Figure 9. Thus for
the round jets, we observe that the component (U) is maximum
( 4 m/s) at the center of the jet (y/d=0) then decreases on both
sides (cf Figure 9-a). Moreover we observe that the component
(U) is negative starting from (y/d=2), it corresponds to the
Figure 7: Mean velocity field and RMSv values for the three wall jet which turns towards the exit. On fluctuations profiles
modes. (Reb =3200, H/b=7 Dc/b=5.2) (cf Figure 9-b), we observe that the strong RMSu values are at
For each mode, we find for the RMSv values, the same the center of the jet (y/b=0) ( 0.82 m/s), on the edges of the jet
behavior as for the complete field. But the maximum of RMSv

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(y/d=1) ( 0.64 m/s) and close to the wall (y/d=2.2) In the case of the slot jet, we can see for the mean flow and
( 0.45 m/s). the mode 0 that the distribution of the horizontal component
(U) has the same shape as the round jets but the value of the
maximum is very weaker ( 0.6 m/s) than the round jets (cf
Figure 9-a). We find again that the jet is strongly decelerated
for the slot jet. And the component (U) is negative starting from
(y/b=1.3). So the wall jet is wider for the slot jet than for the
round jets. Because for the plane jet, the flow can not move
toward the z direction. For the mode + 1, the jet comes to
impact the lower part of the wall, the component (U) is positive
for (y < 0) and is thus reached 2.5 m/s close to the lower wall.
Then the flow follows the curved surface and sets out again
towards the left, so the component (U) is negative for (y > 0)
and is then reached 3 m/s close to the higher wall. Moreover,
on the velocity field we observe that the mode - 1 is the
a) symmetrical of the mode + 1 compared to the axis (y=0). Thus
for the mode 1, close to the lower wall the component (U)
reached 3 m/s and close to the higher wall + 3 m/s. So this
difference of velocity at (y/d=2) between the two modes -1
and +1 induces a strong RMSu values ( 2.5 m/s) for the mean
flow. These two strong RMSu values have been already
observed on the mean velocity field (cf Figure 5).
The Figure 9-c and d show the distributions of the mean
and the fluctuations of the vertical component along the vertical
axis. We observe for the round jet that the vertical component is
very weak (< 0.02 m/s) in the zone (1 < y/d < 1). However, in
this zone for the mean flow of the slot jet and mode 0, the
vertical component is positive for (y > 0) and negative for
(y < 0), which indicates that the jet starts to separate into two, a
b) part upwards and another downwards. In the case of the modes
-1 and +1, the vertical component is negative ( - 1.5 m/s) and
positive ( 1.3 m/s) respectively. Indeed for the mode 1 the
flow follows the curved wall downwards and for mode + 1
upwards. For the round jet we observe, on the Figure 9-d, that
the maximum of the RMSv values are in the jet (1 < y/d < 1)
( 0.24 m/s) and in the wall jet (y/d > 2) ( 0.21 m/s) and the
values are higher than the vertical component (< 0.02 m/s).
However for the mean flow of the slot jet and the modes, the
RMSv values are constant along the axis (x/b=5) but the values
( 1.8 m/s for the mean flow and 1.15 m/s for the three
modes) are more significant than for the round jet.
With the first sight, it seems surprising that the mode 0 of
the slot jet is so different from the three-dimensional
configuration. Especially when we look at the flow obtained for
a slot jet impinging a curved wall having a more significant
curvature radius (Dc/d =9.4). In fact, for this configuration, a
previous study (Gilard & Brizzi (2002)) shows that the jet
impacts the center of the curved wall in a way similar to the 3D
case, and that it did not exist for this configuration a modal
decomposition of the flow as in the 2D case. When we look
closer the curves of the horizontal and vertical velocity
components along the jet axis (cf Figure 8) we see that the
curves obtained for the 3D configuration are closer to the 2D
configuration (Large Curvature Radius) than of the 2D
configuration (Small Curvature Radius). This confirms the very
d) strong influence of the containment (and thus of the curvature
Figure 8: Distributions of the mean velocity and RMS radius) on the flow structure. It is flow containment induces the
values along the axis (y=0) for the round jets and the slot jet beating in the 2D case (cf. Figure 6). Moreover, a finer
jet. (Re=3200, H=70 mm, Dc=52 mm) examination of the horizontal velocity measurements in the
area (x/d>6) indicates the presence of negative velocity in great
number (this explains why in this place the mean velocity is

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quite null (cf Figure 8-a)). The observation of the instantaneous
fields confirms this phenomenon (cf. Figure 10) which proves
the existence of a transverse instability (in the Z direction).

Figure 10: Instantaneous velocity field (Re=3200; H/b=7;

a) Dc/b=5.2)

In conclusion, this study highlighted the different behavior
of the flow between a slot jet and a row of round jets impinging
a curved wall. In the case of a row of three-dimensional jets,
the spreading of the jets in z-direction makes the flow more
stable and simplifies the flow structure. Indeed in the case of a
two-dimensional jet, the presence of a jet flapping is observed
and thus makes the flow unstable and more complex. Owing to
the jet flapping, the "turbulence" values are modified. So the
maximum values of the velocity fluctuations are much higher
and have different locations than for the round jets. This
b) difference in the flow pattern will involve certainly a
modification of the heat transfer rate in the vicinity of the
leading edge of the blade.

BRAHMA, PADHY & PRADHAM : Experimental
studies of heat transfer by slot jet and single/triple row of round
jets impinging on semi-cylindrical concave surfaces. Heat
Transfer Engineering, vol.15 n4, pp 66-74, (1994).
GAU & CHUNG : Surface curvature effect on slot-air-jet
impingement cooling flow and heat transfer process. Journal
of Heat Transfer Transactions of ASME, vol.113, pp 858-864,
c) LEE, CHUNG & WON : The effect of concave surface
curvature on heat transfer from a fully developed round
impinging jet. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.42, pp
2489-2497, (1999).
cooling of concave surfaces with lines of circular air jets, J. of
Eng. and Power, pp. 149-158, (1969).
TABAKOFF & CLEVENGER : Gas turbine blade heat
transfer augmentation by impingement of air jets having
various configurations, J. of Eng. and Power, pp. 51-60,
YANG,CHOI & LEE: An experimental study of slot jet
impingement cooling on concave surface : effects of nozzle
d) configuration and curvature. Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer, vol.42, pp 2199-2209, (1999).
Figure 9: Distributions of mean velocity and RMS values GILARD & BRIZZI: "Slot jet impinging a curved surface"
along the axis (x=50 mm) for the round jets and the slot jet. Proceeding of ASME FEDSM'02 Montreal n FEDSM 2002-
(Re=3200, H=70 mm, Dc=52 mm) 31270

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