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How to Buy Best

Series # 1
SMARTPHONES
Each & Everything you want to know about your smartphone.
How to Buy Best
Series #1
Smartphones
By J. A. Khanzada
Copyright 2016 J. A. Khanzada

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License Notes
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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Copyright 2016 J. A. Khanzada


The Right of J. A. Khanzada to be identified as the author of the work has been asserted him in
accordance with the copyright. Designer and Patents Act 1988.
All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or otherwise, without written permission from the author.
About The Author

Jamil Ahmed Khanzada is a professional Engineer, working in a leading National Industry. Member
of National Technology Association. Khanzada received his B.S. in Industrial Engineering from the
University of Illinois in 1994.
Since 1994 he served in a particular Engineering and Manufacturing Industries.
J. A. Khanzada is author and co-author of Books, several Research Papers and hundreds of professional
journal articles on Industry development and Energy Conservation. These Papers were presented in the
Annual Conventions and printed in several National and International Journals. His most recent books is
How to buy best series 1: Smartphones (November 2016 publishing at Amazon).
Living happily with his family in his home country.
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Buying a Smartphone
1.2 Why Did Smartphone call Smartphone
1.3 Mobile Phones
1.3.1 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
1.3.2 Smartphones
1.3.3 PDA Phones
2.0 Mobile OS (Operating Systems)
2.1 Android OS
2.2 Apple iOS
2.3 Windows OS
2.4 BlackBerry
2.5 Sailfish OS
2.6 Tizen OS
2.7 Ubuntu Touch
2.8 Symbian OS
2.9 Windows CE kernel OS
2.10 Bada OS
2.11 Firefox OS
2.12 Palm OS
2.13 webOS
2.14 Maemo/MeeGo
3.0 Smartphone Features
3.1 Smartphone Hardware Processors
3.2 Smartphone Processors
3.2.1 System on a Chip (SoC)
3.2.2 Ranking According to GPU Performance
3.3 The Qualcomm Chip Processors
3.3.1 Snapdragon 821
3.3.2 Snapdragon 820
3.3.3 The Snapdragon 820 with Kryo
3.3.4 Snapdragon 820 and LTE Networks
3.3.5 DSLR Like Photography
3.3.6 Qualcomm Spectra
3.4 Apples A10 Fusion Chipset
3.4.1 What is The A10 Fusion?
3.4.2 How faster it is?
3.4.3 iPhone 7 Performance
3.4.4 The Apple A9 Chipset
3.4.5 The Apple A9 Cupertino
3.4.6 Resulting The Density
3.5 Exynos 8 Octa-Core (8890) Chipset
3.5.1 Enhanced Performance & Better Power Efficiency
3.5.2 Power & Play
3.5.3 Multimedia Experience
3.5.4 Connectivity With the LTE
3.5.5 Product Specification
3.6 HiSilicon Kirin 955 Chipset
4.0 Smartphone Graphics
4.1 The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
4.1.1 Qualcomm GPUs
4.1.1.1 Imagination Tech PowerVR GPUs
4.2 ARM Mali GPUs
4.3 NVIDIA ULP GeForce GPUs
5.0 Storage & Memory
5.1 RAM or Random Access Memory
5.1.1 The Bigger The Better
5.2 ROM & Internal Storage
5.3 User Removable Storage
6.0 Smartphone Displays
6.1 LCD Type Display
6.1.1 Twisted Nematic (TN) LCD
6.1.2 IPS or In-Plane Switching LCD
6.1.3 LCD Panels
6.2 AMOLED Type Display
6.2.1 AMOLED Panels
6.3 The Subpixel Matrix
6.4 The Pixel Density
6.5 Adding Touch Screens
7.0 Smartphone Connectivity & Sensors
7.1 Smartphone Connectivity
7.1.1 The 2G, 3G and 4G Networks
7.1.2 Bluetooth
7.1.3 Wi-Fi and Its Usage
7.1.3.1 Wi-Fi Direct
7.1.3.2 Wi-Fi Hotspots/Tethering
7.1.4 GPS Smartphone Navigation
7.1.5 Triband, Quad-Band Roaming
7.1.6 HDMI Connectivity
7.1.7 DLNA Connectivity
7.1.8 NFC Connectivity
7.1.8.1 How NFC Work?
7.1.8.2 Use of NFC
7.1.9 Femtocells
7.1.10 USB C Connectivity
7.2 Smartphone Sensors
7.2.1 The Accelerometer
7.2.2 The Gyroscope
7.2.3 The Magnetometer
7.2.4 The Proximity Sensor
7.2.5 The Light Sensors
7.2.6 The Barometer
7.2.7 The Thermometer
7.2.8 The Pedometer
7.2.9 The Heart Rate Monitor
7.2.10 The Fingerprint Sensor
7.2.11 Radiation Detector
8.0 Smartphones Batteries
8.1 Battery Life
8.2 Battery Bag
8.3 Squeezing In Run Time
8.4 The XYZ of Cells
8.5 Need to Keep Cool
8.6 Building a Smartphone
8.7 Chemistry
8.8 Conclusion
8.9 Advancement in Battery Technology
9.0 Smartphone Cameras
9.1 Camera Hardware
9.2 Megapixel Count
9.3 Sensor Size
9.4 Pixel Size
9.5 RGBC Filter, Stacked CMOS, ISOCELL & BSI
9.6 Focal Length
9.7 F-Number & Aperture
9.8 Image Stabilization
9.9 Shutter, White Balance, ISO, Metering & Focus
9.10 Video Capturing
9.11 Manufacturers
10.0 New Smartphone Features
10.1 Always Listening
10.2 Active Display or Always On Screen
10.3 Double Tap to walk
10.4 Paying With Phone
10.5 Location Based Reminder
10.6 Shake To Redo
10.7 Pin Screen
10.8 Reachability Mode
10.9 Handoff
10.10 Fast Charging
10.11 Water Resistant
10.12 Using While Driving
10.13 IR Blaster
10.14 Wireless Charging
11.0 Latest Smartphones
11.1 Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge
11.2 Samsung Galaxy S7
11.3 iPhone 7 Plus
11.4 iPhone 7
11.5 Google Pixel
11.6 Google Pixel XL
11.7 Motorola Moto Z
11.8 ZTE Axon 7
11.9 HTC 10
11.10 OnePlus 3
11.11 iPhone SE
11.12 Huawei Nexus 6P
11.13 LG G5
11.14 Microsoft Lumia 950
12.0 Conclusion
13.0 13.0 Glossary
About The Author
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BUYING A SMARTPHONE


Your smartphone is right up there as important as your wallet - in reality, it might be sometimes
double as your wallet. As phones have increased more features, they've become an unavoidable fellow,
assisting you to stay on top of your email and social network updates, take, share and enhancing photos
and videos, play your favorite games and music, and do a lot more. So we certainly don't have to help you
that selecting the best phone for you is a great deal.
This smartphone purchasing book covers everything in detail you wish to aware before you purchase,
from the camera, the carrier, the operating system and screen size. Use this advice to make certain that
you can get the best smartphone device best fit to your budget and needs. Deciding between Apple's and
Samsung, Huawei, Windows, HTC, Sony's latest flagships?
But before starting about newly available smartphones we discuss first some important aspects
relating to a smartphone, so you would understand and enjoy your new smartphone properly.
1.2 WHY DID SMARTPHONE CALL SMART?
You certainly hear the term "smartphone" threw around a lot. But if you have ever questioned
precisely what a smartphone is, Ok, you are not alone. So how is a smartphone different to a cell phone,
and whats causes it so smart?
When you see at Mary Meeker's Internet Trend Report for the Internet, anyone can see that the future
of personal computing relates to smartphones and tablets. Beginning in 2010, their sales left Personal
Computer sales behind. By 2013, over four times as many smartphones were being sold as PCs, both
laptops and Desktops. Tablets were right behind smartphones. Looking forward, Meeker smartphone and
tablets only raising their lead.
Normally, a smartphone is a mobile device that lets you make telephone conversation, but also having
the features that, in the near past, you would see only on a personal digital assistant (PDA) or a computer,
like to receive and send e-mail, edit and see office docs, for instance. The devices falling under the
category of mobile, there are four basic and popular devices are Mobile Phone, PDA Phone, Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA) and Smartphone. The similarities and differences between these products are
briefly discussed here;
1.3 MOBILE PHONE

Courtesy by Nokia
More frequently called a cellular phone or cell phone. Mobile phones linked to a wireless
communication network via radio waves or satellite transmission. Most of the mobiles provide voice
conversation, SMS (Short Message Service), MMS (Multimedia Message Service) and latest phones may
also facilitate to Internet Service like Web Browsing and emails.
1.3.1 PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT (PDA)

Courtesy by Motorola Droid 3 Global GPS Android


This is small handled devices that combine computing, telephone/fax, internet and networking
features. Normally PDAs have not had fax or phone service.
1.3.2 Smartphone

Courtesy by Lenovo K900


A smartphone is basically a combination of PDA and Cellular phone with a main focus on Cellular
Phone part. Smartphones allow users to store information, e-mail, install applications, taking Pictures,
Recording sounds, Audio Video players and much much more. There is no industry standard to define
a smartphone device, therefore, any device that provides more than fundamental cell phone features can
generally be categorized under the smartphone category.
1.3.3 PDA PHONE

Courtesy by Samsung WiMAX


Years ago, many peoples differentiated cell phones and PDA simply by looking at it. If the device
has a touchscreen was called PDA and if didnt it was a cell phone. Then Sony Ericsson, for example,
offered the user a smartphone having both the features a touchscreen and QWERTY Keyboard. Despite
manufacturer called it a smartphone device, the general term for a PDA-oriented device which have
cellular phone abilities can called a PDA Phone.
2.0 MOBILE OS (OPERATING SYSTEM)

In general, a smartphone is based on an operating system that allows it to run apps. For instance,
BlackBerry smartphones use the BlackBerry Operating System and iOS runs on Apple's iPhone. Some
other smartphones run HP's webOS, Google's Android Operating System and Microsoft's Windows
smartphone.
Many people have enough factual information about distinct smartphones and their manufacturers,
but a few of them know something about (OS) operating systems. It is absolutely necessary to learn about
different Mobile Operating Systems (OS) used by major companies so that you can know that what is
behind your smartphones smooth and colorful touchscreen.

Worldwide operating system market share for Smartphones (Source by Gartner)


It is visible that Android is beating up all other operating systems, even the iOS. iOS might be
continued to compete with Android, and on the launch of Windows smartphones, we may see some
healthy competition in near future.
As we saw Android OS rules the market followed by Apple iOS. The real competition is for third
place. Who will take the number three position is still a clear question. Here is the real competitor. I've
placed all of the OS in the order to what I consider their potential of grabbing the third place.
There are some that are no longer in the competition at all. WebOS and Symbian, for instance, looked
like a rival at one time, but it was expelled from the world of mobile devices by its one-time owner HP
and Nokia respectively.
Now, with no further farewell, let's start with the mobile operating systems to make a splash in the
coming years.
Some brief introduction of most popular OS;
2.1 ANDROID OS

Android Smartphones
Google Inc. developed Android mobile operating system, it backed by an industry syndicate known
as the Open Handset Alliance. It is an open source platform with optional proprietorship components.
Plus a suite of leader software for Google services, and the content and application storefront Google
Play. On October 20, 2008, by the release of its first device the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1), Android
was officially brought in. As an open source product, Android has also been the matter of third-party
development. To develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system, Such
as Cyanogen Mod, Development groups have used the Android source code. To provide newer versions
of Android and add features to the OS, to devices that no longer receive official updates from their vendor.
Forked versions of Android have also adopted by other vendors, such as Amazon.com, who used its "Fire
OS" on a range of tablets and the Fire Phone. As it is a non-proprietary platform that has shipped on
devices capturing a wide range of market segments, Android has observed significant adoption. During
the fourth quarter of 2015, 325 million Android smartphones were sold as estimated by Gartner Research,
heading all other platforms. In the same period of time, Samsung Electronics, who produces Android
devices, was also the top smartphone provider across all platforms.
2.2 APPLE iOS

Formerly iPhone OS and renewed as iOS is a copyrighted mobile operating system developed
by Apple Inc. Basically, iOS used for Apples iPhone product line. The iPhone was first introduced in
January 2007. The device unveiled with numerous design concepts that have been followed by many
modern smartphone platforms, such as the use of multi-touch gestures for navigation, shunning physical
controls such as physical keyboards in favor of those delivered by the operating system itself on
its touchscreen (along with the keyboard), and the use of The practice of incorporating traditional
design elements even though not functionally necessary called skeuomorphism - bringing in features and
controls within the user interface appear like real-world objects and concepts in order to improve their
usability. Apple introduced the App Store in 2008, a wide-range storefront for purchasing new software
for iPhone devices. iOS can also incorporate with Apple's desktop music and podcast program iTunes to
synchronize media to a desktop PC and Laptop. With the introduction of iCloud on later versions of iOS,
the dependency on a PC was withdrawn. iCloud provides synchronicity of user data via internet servers
between multiple devices. The iPhone line's early dominance was credited with reshaping the smartphone
market, and aiding make Apple one of the world's most worthful publicly traded companies by 2011.
However, the iOS and iPhone have generally been in 2nd place in worldwide market share.
2.3 WINDOWS OS
Microsoft developed Windows Phone, its first release, Windows Phone 7, was a revamped version
of the previous, Windows CE-based Windows Mobile platform. The user interface of Windows Phone
planned to contrast with its rivals, utilizing a design language codenamed "Metro". Which distressed
iconography and skeuomorphism in favor of flat and text-based display. The platform also boasted
ideas such as "live tiles" on its home screen that can display dynamic content. Windows Phone also
incorporated with other Microsoft platforms and brands, including SkyDrive, Xbox, and Bing. MS Office
Mobile apps also bundled with the operating system.
Microsoft released Windows Phone 8 in 2012; it was not compatible with previous released but
replaced by a core system fixed on the Windows NT platform. It expanded the functionality and
platform's hardware support and added storage encryption as expanded enterprise-oriented
functionality. Windows 10 Mobile released in late 2015 by Microsoft. It is no longer promoted by the
Windows Phone family. As it aimed to provide greater consistency and integration with Windows 10 for
Personal Computers, by Universal Windows Platform it included cross-platform applications. And the
ability to dock supported devices like keyboard and mouse support to use a desktop interface.
The Microsoft Windows Phone series has had poor acceptance as compared to its rivals. Lack
of interest in the platform also decreasing in third-party applications, and some partners ended their
collaboration for Windows Phone altogether. The most important Windows Phone user was Nokia, who
solely adopted Windows Phone as its smartphone platform in 2011 as part of a large partnership with
Microsoft. The Lumia series by Nokia was the most famous series of Windows based Phone devices.
Representing more than 83% of total Windows based Phones purchased in June 2013, and Microsoft
gained Nokia's mobile phone business for just over 5.44 billion in April 2014, making the
subsidiary company Microsoft Mobile under Ex. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop.
I have no love for Windows Phone. I've always found it to be more disturbing than useful. Today,
though with a mere 0.6 % of market share, Microsoft Windows Phone is in third place.
And such a little percentage of it admirers, it is possible too for Windows OS Phone can fall to the
fourth position or even lower. On the other hand, Windows 8.1 looks more promising and more potential
than previous versions. Microsoft has never hit a home run on mobile devices, on the contrary, we must
give them credit, the Company keeps struggling, and this is their best attempt so far.
Or, maybe possible, Microsoft will give up, and go for Android. Seriously I am not joking.
Microsoft already makes most of its mobile OS earning from Android. Thanks to patent licensing, and
I'm not the only one who's observed that Microsoft, via its Nokia subsidiary, already making Android
phones.
So, I'm left imaging Windows based Phone the favorite in staying in third place, I can't even
conceiving the world where Windows Phone could rise to second, at odds of number one to two.
As I've written this, what really bangs me is, while Android and iOS are clearly on the top, there are
really all kinds of possibilities in how the competition for third will end up. I really could see my current
two favorites companies, Samsung and Microsoft, both moving to pure Android Operating System and
then the competition for third genuinely would become wide open. It's going to be interesting to watch.
Place your bets now!
2.4 BLACKBERRY

By facilitating secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices RIM released its
first BlackBerry devices in 1999. BlackBerry Messenger Services provide the integration of all
communications into a single inbox. RIM reported in September 2014, that the 200 millionth BlackBerry
smartphone was shipped. Until September 2014, there were more than 46 million active BlackBerry
service subscribers around the world. Most recently, RIM had had a platform transition, replacing its
name from BlackBerry and producing new devices on a quite new platform named "BlackBerry 10" and
released an Android smartphone, the BlackBerry Priv in November 2015.
2.5 SAILFISH OS

Perhaps the least well-known OS Sailfish is shepherded by Jolla, a Finnish company.


Sailfish-based Linux operating systems use an open-source Qt-based user interface. After Nokia
decided to abandon some Nokia engineers in favor of Windows Phone, they joined some software
developers had been working on MeeGo, a Linux smartphone operating system.
Sailfish OS is an appealing enough Linux-based system and it is getting some support from phone
companies. Still, at best, it seems like Sailfish will have to be satisfied with a minor share of the market.
I rank the odds as no better than one in a hundred that Sailfish OS can take the third position of market
share. As an opinion, I do think Sailfish OS will find a corner and sustained for at least a few years.

2.6 TIZEN OS
Tizen is a Linux-based OS is used for devices, like tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, in-vehicle
infotainment (IVI) devices, smart cameras, and laptops. Tizen projected within the Linux Foundation and
is run by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) a joint venture of Samsung and Intel with some others.
Samsung released the Samsung Gear 2 and then the Gear 2 Neo smartwatches in April 2014, running
Tizen Operating System.
Simultaneously, Samsung, after Apple, is the leading smartphone manufacturer in the globe and
the leading Android hardware company. The Samsung released Tizen Operating System based first
smartphone named Samsung Z1 in Indian market on January 14, 2015.
So why has Samsung, who made Tizen foundation for its Gear Smartwatch, just released its first Tizen
phone, when they're already doing so well with Android?
I don't know. It's not unlikely to twist Android operating system according to your own needs.
Samsung already doing that for years and Amazon also for their tablets, anyone can make his own
product-specific version of Android Operating System.
If it were some other company instead of Samsung, I'd rate Tizen's chances very low. But, Samsung
seems committed to it and with their share of the market, they can make carriers, independent software
vendors (ISVs), and users all must pay attention.
So, with some hesitation, I give Tizen odds of one in three to hit the bull eye or taking the third
position of market share. It might also be possible that Samsung would pull the plug on Tizen at any time.
How Tizen future plays out, let us wait and see.
2.7 UBUNTU TOUCH

Ubuntu Touch developed by Canonical UK Ltd and Ubuntu Community. It also known as Ubuntu
Phone, is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system.
Do you want to know a little secret that Canonical, Mark Shuttleworth and Ubuntu's founder, aware
about to develop a mobile operating system popular? Get the leading phone carriers and hardware
companies on board first, then release.
While I happen to consider Ubuntu Touch can be the next popular tablet and smartphone operating
system, its appealing interface and idea of making one operating system that will work on all platforms,
I know that plainly being technically cool is not enough to develop a product a hit. If it were, we did all
been using Betamax during the '90s in place of VHS on our VCRs at home.
No, what matters as well as market share is a concern is both technically good and powerful business
partnerships. Along with agreements in place with T-Mobile, Deutsche Telekom, Verizon and Vodafone,
I can think Ubuntu Touch has a one in four hit at taking the third position.
2.8 SYMBIAN OS

Nokia Symbian Phone


Psion as EPOC32 originally developed Symbian. Until 2010 quarter four, it was the world's most
widely used smartphone operating system. Though the platform never gains popularity in the United
States, as it did in Asia and Europe. In 2000 the Ericsson R380 touch screen, the first Symbian phone
released and was the first mobile phone marked as a smartphone. It was combined mobile phone and a
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Like MOAP, S60 and UIQ and other variants of Symbian OS starting
to develop, each supported by a different company. As Symbian Foundation created in 2008 and was
unified under the stewardship of Nokia Symbian OS. Nokia announced in February 2011, that it would
substitute Symbian OS with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of their future smartphones
devices, with the platform abandoned over the following few years.

2.9 WINDOWS CE KERNEL OS


First hit the market as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system, Windows Mobile was based on
the Windows CE kernel. The operating system was developed in both non-touchscreen and touchscreen
formats mobiles throughout its lifespan. It was designed to have appearance and features almost similar to
the desktop version of Widows, and Microsoft Windows API provided a suite of applications. Microsoft
did not impose a restriction on Third parties, who develop applications for Windows Mobile. During the
service's brief lifespan Software apps were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile. Like
Symbian OS Windows Mobile was eventually phased out in favor of Windows Phone OS.
2.10 BADA OS

Samsung BADA OS
Samsung announced Bada operating system, in November 2009 for smartphones. Samsung Wave
S8500 released in June 2010, was the first Bada-OS-based Mobile phone. In quarter 2 of 2011 Samsung
shipped 4.5 million phones running Bada Operating System. In 2013, Bada merged in Tizen having a
similar platform.
2.11 FIREFOX OS

In February 2012, Mozilla developed Firefox Operating System. Using open standards
and HTML5 applications, it was designed to a complete community-based system for mobile devices.
Alcatel One Touch Fire and ZTE Open was the first available Firefox OS phones. More companies have
partnered with Mozilla as of 2014, including Sony and Panasonic making smart TV with Firefox OS.
Mozilla is too serious to making Firefox Operating System a real competitor in the mobile Market
and wants to be a smartphone power. Mozilla's plan is to give users not so much a tablet or smartphone
experience as well as to give them a Web identity that they can access from a device powered by Firefox
OS. Device and its operating system are unimportant than what you can do with its access to Web services
in a way, it's similar from Google's Chromebook idea.
While Mozilla's taking on the growing smartphone and tablet world, Google, however, is going after
the moribund PC market. That said, Firefox OS already features thousands of apps, and is available in
multiple markets and claims having cleared the way to introduce a $25 smartphone with a chip partner.
All of this makes me consider Firefox Operating System has a potential to grow. Yet, I can only rate
its odds of taking the third position as no more than one in twenty.
2.12 PALM OS

Palm Continuous
Handspring established the Springboard GSM phone module with limited success in late 2001.
Handspring released the Palm OS Treo 270 smartphone in May 2002 that did not support Springboard,
with both featuring a full keyboard and touchscreen. The Treo had wireless web browsing, a contact
organizer, calendar, email, and mobile third-party app that could download or synchronized with a
computer. Palm Inc. purchased Handspring which launched the Treo-600 and continued releasing with
a few Treo devices using Windows Mobile. When Hewlett-Packard (HP) bought Palm Inc. in 2011, it
discontinued its webOS based tablet and smartphone and production.

2.13 WEBOS

Palm Unveil WebOS


Initially developed by Palm webOS, is a proprietary mobile operating system running on the Linux
kernel, which launched with the Palm Pre. In 2011, after being purchased by HP, a tablet the TouchPad
and two phones the Pre 3 and the Veer running webOS were introduced. HP announced on August
18, 2011, that webOS hardware was to be abounded but would continue to update and support webOS
and launched the webOS ecosystem. HP released Open webOS as open source and plans to update it
with some additional features. HP sold out WebOS to LG Electronics On February 25, 2013, who used
the operating system for its "smart or Internet-connected TVs," but not for smartphones. Qualcomm
announced in January 2014 that it has acquired technology patents from Hewlett-Packard, which includes
all the WebOS patents.

2.14 MAEMO/MEEGO

Nokia MeeGo
From the source code of Moblin and Maemo (produced by Intel and Nokia respectively) MeeGo
operating system was created. Nokia used Maemo before that on some of its internet tablets and
smartphones like Nokia N810 and N900. MeeGo has originally envisioned to power a variety of devices
from smart TVs to netbooks, tablets to smartphones. However, Nokia N9 and Nokia N950 was the only
smartphones which used MeeGo v1.2 Harmattan. Following Nokia's decided in 2011 to cease MeeGo
development and move to Windows Phone OS. Following Nokias decision in September 2011 the Linux
Foundation canceled MeeGo too in favor to develop the Tizen.
3.0 SMARTPHONE FEATURES
It's easy to take smartphones - and the ways in which they make our lives easier - for granted. The
very word 'smart' in a smartphone has an endless number of significances for what that little device in
your hand is capable of. 'Smart' means life management, GPS, web browsing, touch screens, and voice
controls. Appreciation to the creativeness of particular smartphones producers, it can also mean gesture
controls, television remotes, and heartbeat sensors.
Software frequently takes a back to play new hardware, but the exterior of a smartphone only tells one
side of the story.
It's also the characteristics of the device that can make or break this device. Like Android and iOS
continue to develop, we can see hardware and software ideas working altogether more unitedly with every
new update.
Somehow, all of these phone features aren't available on any one single mobile device. Dear
smartphone makers, we won't tell if you simply copy and paste.
It shouldn't take having a half dozen smartphones to glean the benefits of Active Display, quick
charging, shake to redo, knock to wake, reachability, always-listening.
Here are what we deem to be best features across all smartphones.
Regarding smartphone features, we can easily classify this section in two parts Hardware and
Software. We would see here how a smartphone work and what is the importance of hardware and
software to make a smartphone smart?

3.1 SMARTPHONE HARDWARE PROCESSORS


Almost all smartphones execute on processors. With processors, smartphones also have computer
chips that provide functionality. Smartphones with digital cameras equipped with high-resolution image
sensors, just like independent digital cameras. Other chips support complex functions such as sharing
multimedia files, playing music or browsing the Internet without the requirement of too great a need for
the phones battery. All Manufacturers produce chips that incorporate multiple functions to help minimize
the overall cost (fewer chips developed per phone help offset production costs).
The most important software in any phone is its operating system OS (as we discussed in earlier part).
The job of an Operating system is to manage the software and hardware resources of smartphones. Some
application developers provide the entire range of the software stack (see Software stack in Software
section). Others may only add the lower levels (typically the middleware and kernel layers) and depend
on additional software platforms to support a user interface framework.
With such a wide range of smartphone hardware on the marketplace today from a manufacturer such
as Apple, Samsung, Sony, Motorola, LG, HTC and more, it can be very baffling to keep up with what
exactly is warp up inside each of these smartphones. A smartphone consist of at least 10 different Central
Process Units (CPUs) inside, many different Graphics Process Units (GPUs), an apparently endless
combination of display hardware and a large variety of other bits and pieces.
This guide is aimed to provide the help you to know comprehensively each and every one of the vital
components in your smartphone and how they differentiate to other hardware on the market. Each section
is aimed to provide you all the important knowledge about the hardware, and even more for the technical
fanciers out there, so assume them all to be extended and filled with detailed points.
In this guide you will be reading about smartphone processors: their different types, brands, how they
execute and the vital differences between them.
3.2 SMARTPHONE PROCESSORS
3.2.1 SYSTEM ON A CHIP (SoC)
This is a term youve believably come across earlier, and for good reason. When experts are talking
about the processors inside a smartphone they are actually citing to the system-on-a-chip: a combination
chipset that features things such as the graphics chipset, the Random Access Memory (RAM) and
possibly Read-only Memory (ROM), the actual processor cores as well, interface controllers for things
such as voltage regulators, wireless tech and Universal Serial Bus (USB) and more.

The thought behind a system-on-a-chip, or SoC, is that all the vital components of a smartphone are
placed in a comparatively small area on the device. This minimizes the size of the mother or component
board required inside and also can assist make the smartphone itself faster and more battery efficient.
They also help minimize costs for setting up the product and can also be cheaper than an equable multi-
chip set-up.
I am more specifically seeing at the more vital parts of the processing inside the SoC as well as
obtainable SoC packages now a day, but you can see for the other parts of this section for more detailed
information on the memory, the graphics chip, and more.
Recently, many smartphone producers released their respective new devices, which doubtlessly
makes users feel deluged with options. Because of the release of new smartphones almost every week,
the smartphone ranking list based on processor chip performance has had the mind-blowing change!
Followed by HiSilicon Kirin 950, Apple A9 took the lead this time last year. And today, Samsung, Apple
and Qualcomm, and are competing for the enthronization. You must want to know which smartphone
processor chip is the most powerful one. Come, lets have a look at the leading performance smartphone
Processor chips.
??Results in the data are average scores, not the highest ones. The actual running results may
fluctuate, which is quite a phenomenon.
??3.2.2 RANKING ACCORDING TO OVERALL PERFORMANCE
??According to the most recent ranking of top performance smartphone Processor chips, Qualcomm
Snapdragon 820 processor has won the first position, which is higher than that of Apple A9 which is at
number two. The performance of Samsung Exynos 8890 is also well, and is already close to Apple A9.
??Smartphones using Qualcomm Snapdragon 820-powered are Letv MAX Pro, Samsung Galaxy S7
Active, Mi5, Sony Xperia X Performance, LG G5 etc. currently, only one smartphone Samsung Galaxy
S7 is powered by Exynos 8890 Octa-core.

??The Qualcomm Snapdragon 652 & 650 also performed outstandingly, and as well as processor
performance is concerned Qualcomm Snapdragon 652 is already close to the Qualcomm Snapdragon 810.
Qualcomm Snapdragon 650 has already beat Qualcomm Snapdragon 808 and brings new power to the
smartphone market of midrange devices. There is no MediaTek MT 6797-powered smartphone in the
market yet, MTk processor could not make it in the TOP-10 list.
??Samsung Galaxy A9 is the typical Qualcomm Snapdragon 652-powered mobile phone and Red Mi
Note3 is the typical Qualcomm Snapdragon 650-powered mobile phone.
??RANKING ACCORDING TO GPU PERFORMANCE
??Since the GPU performance is intimately related to the games performance and it has a direct
impact on users actual experience. Therefore nowadays, smartphones companies are attaching increasing
importance to the GPU performance. Currently, the Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 (Adreno530), is the GPU
with the highest performance. Apple A9 (PowerVR GT7600) is again at the second position. And the
GPU performance of Samsung Exynos 8890 (Mali-T880 MP12) closely equals Apple A9. The GPU
performance of HiSilicon Kirin 950 (Mali-T880 MP4) is not good enough, and the outcome is similar to
Qualcomm Snapdragon 652 (Adreno510) and Qualcomm Snapdragon 808 (Adreno418).
??In fact, the GPU performance is also directly proportional to the resolution of your smartphone
screen. As 2K screen resolution become a development trend of high-end smartphones, and the
mainstream resolution is 1080P currently, and if strong GPU support does not exist, even 2K resolution
will still produce to worse user experience.
??Certainly, the factors that determine the performance of a smartphone is far more than GPU and
CPU. We must be fully mindful that nothing but the great performance of the processor chips is the base
of a prominent user experience! And without the foundation of strong performance, any user experience
will be a palaver, as a proverb says, you can't make something out of nothing!
??From these results, we can easily find out that Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 is leading according
to its chip performance. Although Apple not yet released his new processors, but the Apple A9 overall
performance is still very powerful. Relying on Exynos 8890, Samsung is competing Apple A9 in
overall performance. No doubt, the performance of Samsung Exynos 8890 processor is making a strong
impression.
Here is some detail of most popular Chip Processors for smartphones you must know about.
3.3 THE QUALCOMM CHIP PROCESSORS
3.3.1 SNAPDRAGON 821

The Qualcomm announced his new processor named Snapdragon 821 is now official and ready for
smartphones of next-generation. Google seems set to launch its two new smartphones the Pixel & Pixel
XL in October, with the Nexus name being withdrawn. New Google smartphones could use the flagship-
beating new Snapdragon 821 processor.
Qualcomm had not mentioned so many details in their declaration for their newest high-end chipset
but claimed that it delivers a 10% higher performance (CPU speeds up to 2.4GHz) over the Snapdragon
820. Think of the 821 more powerful than 820, but one that must also assist welcome in Googles
Daydream (Virtual Reality) VR program.
Qualcomm further said to look for Snapdragon 821 powered devices in the 2nd half of 2016. And we
are already in the 2nd half, so we would see the first any day now.
3.3.2 SNAPDRAGON 820

You can and will see the Snapdragon 820 in a lot of tablets and smartphones in the year of 2016.
A long leap ahead from the Snapdragon 810, was facing issues from the beginning, the 820 is the most
powerful Processor chipset on market yet, clearing the floor with both Samsungs Exynos 8890 and
Apples A9 chipset and.
Despite this, all Qualcomm still remained the major holder of the smartphone marketplace.
Samsungs new 14nm LPP process provides up to 15% less power consumption and 15 % higher
speed over the previous 14nm LPE process through advancements in process optimization and transistor
structure. In addition, use of fully depleted FinFET transistors brings richer manufacturing capabilities to
defeat scaling restrictions.
Snapdragon 820 packs an Adreno 530 GPU, which predicts a performance uplift in the region of 40%
increase. It will also utilize the new LPDDR4 RAM memory standard and support a boat of new hardware
capabilities like DSLR-like photography and 4K video at 60fps.
Snapdragon 820 chipset also sees the reintroduction of Qualcomm's custom core architecture. And
they've even got a new name...
3.3.3 THE SNAPDRAGON 820 WITH KRYO
Not a great information revealed about this except it being 64-bit and part of Qualcomms Zeroth
cognitive computing program.
What is cognitive computing? Well, it is a bit full-on in very simple terms it is essentially an effort to
make a computer processor, in terms of efficiency, act just like the human brain. On a practical level, it
also has the potential to be more intelligent and to be able to better anticipate a users requirement.
For example, this can demonstrate you every photo featuring a specific person. In a theoretical
way, a system like this could be operated with a front-facing camera to permit a device to adapt to the
requirements of whoever is operating it, and this can be generalized to other always-on sensors connected
with software apps. There is been more than a hint that this technology is purposed at bringing the so-
called Internet of Things like household goods and smart appliances to life as a genuinely workable
proposition because it has the potential of reducing mundane user interaction for things (like logging into
accounts). If you enter into your home or switch on your smartphone and it just does all the things you
care, how much better is that? The company even referred the possibility of Zeroth recognizing facial
expressions, therefore in a theoretical way, if your smartphone starts playing a video or audio you dont
like it could understand straight away and skip it just from that grimace you make.
A report from ExtremeTech shows how this functionality will be transferred from one smartphone to
another via Zeroth:
Qualcomm is saying that the Zeroth program will have the potential to learn from its users actions
and can transfer that knowledge between different smartphone, even when the user upgrades this device.
The company is delivering Zeroth a bit like an intelligent administrator that knows your needs before
you do, and can leverage its own capabilities and measurements to take a better picture; switch smartly
between Bluetooth, cellular data, and WiFi depending on which signals are the greater. Zeroth is also
supposedly able to recognize faces, expressions, and gestures, and smartly sensing its own environment.
3.3.4 SNAPDRAGON 820 WILL SUPPORT 600MBPS LTE-A SPEEDS
You can anticipate, the Snapdragon 820 operates LTE-A. But unlike the previous chipset this version
will support up to 600Mbps, a mega uplift over previous years 450Mbps record. This becomes possible
by Qualcomms newly upgraded modem X12 LTE, which also blows uplink speeds to 150Mbps.
Snapdragon 820 is the first publicly announced chipset processor for use in smartphones to support
LTE Category 13 in the uplink and Category12 in the downlink, said company at launch, providing up
to 200 percent increase in uploading and 33 percent in downloading speed improvement over its previous
versions.
The processor also provided with LTE support for 4x4 Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO), will enable
double download output speeds on single LTE platform, meaning less waiting around and downloads
faster.
BUT THATS NOT ALL
The Snapdragon 820 also provides a stack of new technologies making your Wi-Fi and LTE
connections work more efficiently together. Qualcomm outlined the below at launch:
LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U). The Snapdragon 820 processor LTE-U support when paired with the
WTR3950, increasing mobile network throughput and user capacity by combining LTE in unlicensed and
licensed bands.
LTE and Wi-Fi Link combination (LWA). LWA is another procedure of aggregating unlicensed
and licensed spectrum. The processor is designed to permit smartphone operators to use their Wi-Fi
infrastructure to increase licensed LTE network throughput with unlicensed spectrum capacity.
Next-generation Wi-Fi calling. The modem X12 LTE supports next-generation HD Video over LTE
(ViLTE) and Voice over LTE (VoLTE) communication services applying the IP Multimedia Subsystem,
supporting for call continuity between Wi-Fi and LTE. Making use of the knowledgeable potentials of
Qualcomm Zeroth, the modem X12 LTE monitors real-time Wi-Fi quality to determine when and if
to shift the call from Wi-Fi to LTE or back.
Antenna sharing. The modem X12 LTE backs various antenna sharing schemes between Wi-Fi and
LTE, making easier to design for manufacturers to provide devices with advanced technologies like
2-stream Wi-Fi, 4x4 LTE MIMO, and LTE-U, with minimal performance impact and attractive form
factors on either technology.
3.3.5 DSLR-LIKE PHOTOGRAPHY
New 14nm Spectra ISP unit and new Adreno 530 GPU which the Qualcomm claims will deliver
DSLR-like photography to smartphones in 2016.
Qualcomms brand new Adreno 530 and Adreno 510 GPUs, which, according to the representatives,
represent a huge step forward in features, overall performance, and power efficiency.
There is two distinct Adreno 5xx GPUs released inside 2015/16, the Adreno 510 inside the
Snapdragon 620/618 and the Adreno 530 inside the Snapdragon 820 processors.
These new GPUs the most notable of which are as follows:
40% faster performance and 40% lower power consumption for both graphics and GPGPU compute
as compared to the Adreno 430;
OpenGL ES 3.1+AEP (Android Extension Pack) support, Renderscript, as well as the new OpenCL
2.0 and Vulkan standards (Vulkan, in case you were wondering, enables multi-threaded performance
and minimizes driver overhead on mobile devices; also support for 64-bit virtual addressing, intending
efficient co-processing and shared virtual memory (SVM) with 64 bit CPUs;
Fine-grain new rendering, power management, compression and compositing techniques to enable
higher performance, reduced DRAM bandwidth at lower power consumption; And 4K HEVC video
support at 60fps.
3.3.6 QUALCOMM SPECTRA: UNBEATABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR MOBILE
PHOTOGRAPHY?
By Launching Spectra a new Image Signal Processor it will bring in a lot of new capabilities
and features to smartphones, (Virtual Reality) VR devices and a whole stack of other Snapdragon
820-powered gizmos in 2016.
But the prime benefit will be DSLR-like photography on smartphone devices. It is a Big deal for
mobile consumers and makers. According to Qualcomm, Todays imaging technology on phones is
decent, but its not great. Spectra is designed to improve this and make the camera technology aboard
2016 flagship smartphones truly special.
Spectra will provide support for up to three cameras simultaneously i.e. two rear facing and one facing
the user, as well as with zero shutter lag sensors operating at 30 frames-per-second with a 25MP.
Improved photos with Qualcomm Spectra ISPs multi-sensor fusion algorithms and flexible hybrid
autofocus framework supporting next generation computational photography.
When compared to earlier versions it has higher throughput, better noise immunity and improved
power efficiency via latest compression technologies and use of the advance MIPI serial C-PHY interface.
Next-generation Computer Vision and further use cases via direct-to-DSP pre-processing capabilities
and raw Bayer data streaming.
You will enjoy the power of Snapdragon 820 chipset with a lot of tablets and smartphones this year.
Following are the most smartphones that are powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 processor.
1) Samsung Galaxy S7 & Galaxy S7 EDGE (Only in certain regions).
2) Samsung Galaxy S7 Active
3) LG G5
4) LG V20
5) HTC 10
6) OnePlus 3
7) Lenovo Moto Z & Moto Z Force (Droid Editions)
8) Sony Xperia X Performance
9) Let Le Max Pro
10) Xiaomi Mi 5 & Mi 5 Pro
11) ZTE Axon 7
12) ZTE Nubia
13) LeEco Le Max 2
14) ZUK Z2 & ZUK Z2 Pro
15) HP Elite X3
16) Vivo XPlay 5
17) ASUS ZenFone 3 Delux
18) Moto Droid Turbo 2
19) Samsung Galaxy Note 7
And may more.

3.4 APPLES A10 FUSION CHIPSET

What do you think of the new iPhone 7?


According to the September 7 speech by Apple representative, they made their brand new A10 Fusion
chipset Processor. New iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus are powered by this processor, claimed that it is 120
times faster than the original iPhone, apparently. That seemed seriously impressive, so you're probably
thinking how Apple arranged to stuff so much computing elevate into its new handset. More precisely, do
Apple's claims proved against what the benchmarks are telling us?
Here is a guide to all things A10 Fusion have.
3.4.1 WHAT IS THE A10 FUSION?
The A10 Fusion is a SoC, a stack of most important components are installed onto a single chipset. As
well as A10s Processor is concerned, you found a CPU, a RAM, GPU, an image processor, data caches,
a controller and M10 motion coprocessor.
The A10 is Apples first quad-core chipset offers a leap over to the dual-core A9 chip that launched
last year and powered to iPhone 6S.
All of the processor cores are not the same in Apples new A10 Fusion chipset, which is a most
special feature of this processor. Two processors are high-performance cores, handle needing tasks like
gaming. But the other two are low-power cores that handle normal, everyday tasks, and one-fifth less
power-consumer like the high-performance cores. Apple established a new performance controller that
chose which cores to use in a present scenario.
ARM already designed this technology in its big.LITTLE architecture and it appeared in most
Android flagship smartphones. Like Qualcomms very famous Snapdragon 820 processor is also built
on big.LITTLE architecture. Like The Snapdragon 820, Apples A10 Fusion is a quad-core chipset that
provides demanding tasks to high-power cores as well as menial jobs to low-power cores.
3.4.2 HOW FASTER A 10 IS?
Its no surprisal that the A10 Fusion chipset is faster. According to Apple, it is 40% faster than the
previously released versions A9 chip used in iPhone 6S, twice as faster as the A8 chip used in iPhone 6,
and 120 folds quicker than the original iPhone.
In A10 Fusion the new GPU also gets improvements. Apple claimed that the A10s graphical
performance is 50% higher than the A9 and three times faster than A8. Thats because of a new six-core
GPU uses two-thirds of the A9s and only half of the A8s power. Apple further says that the GPU is 240
times faster than the one used in the original iPhone.
The overall performance of the A10. Data by Apple.
3.4.3 IPHONE 7 Performance
It is clear that Apple has made substantial efficiency and performance improvements with the A10
chipset. That should interpret to a fantastic user experience, much better battery time, and expectedly
better gaming experience.
The A10 Fusion is a behemoth improvement over the A9 processor. It even reportedly still uses
the 14nm FinFET process, with the next generation of iPhone chip shifting to 10nm with thermal
improvements and resultant battery life.
3.4.4 THE APPLE A9: THE 14NM FINFET FOR THE CHIPSET
Apples A9 Chipset processor powered iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus, let us take a look what features
this processor has.
3.4.5 THE APPLE A9: WHAT IS CUPERTINOS MADE OF?
The chipset A9 is based on Samsungs 14nm FinFET, which was the latest multi-gate solution
available in the market before A10 Fusion. Introduced by the Korean manufacturing company with its
Exynos 7420 at the start of 2015, 14nm FinFET soon captured the market and left all other SoCs at the
tail end of the marathon. The introduction of a Fin from the Source to the Drain of a chip makes FinFET
different from the rest, which leads to the decrease of several occurrences that include electron hot carrier
injections, velocity saturation management, and current leakages.

In fact, the 14nm FinFET (Process by Samsung) is not a true 14nm process, it does constitute a die
shrink. For instance, taking the product off
(The M1 pitch X Gate pitch)/Poly pitch

3.4.6 RESULTING THE DENSITY


And Density is 33% greater for 14nm FinFET compares to 20nm. Only Intel has managed to produce
true processes in the industry along with the perfect gate fin and pitch sizes.
On the other hand, the mainstream market doesnt normally go into the complex technicalities and
just look that Samsung is physically competing Intel in its competition to the smallest process. As far as
productions are concerned, Intel undergoes a major production problem with 14nm, Samsung must be
able to do it directly the process when it starts risk production of its 10nm dies.
Because of the low threshold voltage of the designings, you get to see enhanced power usage on your
smartphone, as far as the 14nm FinFET goes, which is one of the benefits of the process. As per Apples
claims the iPhone 6s and the iPhone 6s Plus provided 70% enhanced CPU performance with the A9
chipset.

3.5 EXYNOS 8 OCTA-CORE (8890) CHIPSET

According to Samsung Integrating custom-designed CPU cores for unrivaled performance and
incredibly fast LTE Cat. 12/13 modem, the new Exynos 8 Octa will bring the most exciting mobile
experience to Galaxy S7 users.
The 64-bit custom CPU cores in the Exynos 8 Octa have been designed to deliver unparalleled
performance and power efficiency. Built on Samsungs 2nd generation 14nm FinFET process, the Exynos
8 Octa delivers improvements in performance by more than 30 percent and in power efficiency by 10
percent, compared to its predecessor, the Exynos 7 Octa 7420.
The Exynos 8 Octa also integrates the most advanced LTE Rel.12 Cat.12/13 modem for cutting-edge
speed in connectivity. It offers downlink speed of up to 600Mbps (Cat.12) and an upload speed of up to
150Mbps (Cat.13) with carrier aggregation, which will transform mobile user experience.
3.5.1 ENHANCED PERFORMANCE & BETTER POWER EFFICIENCY

Samsung Electronics, a world leader in advanced semiconductor technology, launched the Exynos 8
Octa, in Spain in February 2016. On 14nm FinFET technology it is Samsungs 2nd generation premium
mobile processor chipset, used in latest Samsung Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge.
Including Samsung custom-designed CPU core based on 64-bit ARMv8 architecture, Exynos 8 Octa
has eight CPU cores. Compared to its predecessor the Exynos 7 Octa it provides over 10 percent in
power efficiency and 30 percent improvement in performance. SCI (Samsung Coherent Interconnect)
technology, presented cache-coherency between Samsungs Cortex-A53 cores and custom CPU. The
processor fully utilizes benefits of big.LITTLE processing for offering the perfect balance of efficiency
and performance.
3.5.2 POWER & PLAY

As mentioned above Exynos 8 Octa is built on 2nd generation 14nm FinFET


LPP (Low-Power Plus) process for best-in-class efficiency and performance. In FinFET transistor, the
movable barrier is provided on several sides of each drain and source, capable of controlling the current
leakage more effectively. And carriers can proceed across the many surfaces of fins-shaped 3d design in
semiconductor providing fast paced of computing calculation.
3.5.3 MULTIMEDIA EXPERIENCE

Exynos 8 Octa engages ARMs latest GPU, Mali T880, for graphic-intensive user interface (UI), life-
like virtual reality experience and 3D gaming. With 4K UHD video playback and recording capabilities,
and up to 4K UHD (4096x2160) & WQUXGA (3840x2400) display resolution support, users can benefit
life like Visual experience.
3.5.4 CONNECTIVITY WITH THE LTE-ADVANCED MODEM

Exynos 8890 is an LTE-Advanced Category 12/13 Modem integrated one-chip result that supports
the uplink speed of up to 150Mbps as well as downlink speed of up to 600Mbps. Exynos 8 Octa supports
FDD-TDD joint carrier aggregation for more flexible network utilization leading in authentic connectivity
for seamless mobile network experiences.
3.5.5 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
CPU: 2.3 GHz Quad (Custom Core) + 1.06 GHz Quad (Cortex-A53)
GPU: Mali-T880 MP12
Process: 14nm FinFET Process
Camera: Front 13Mp/Rear 24Mb @30fps
Video: 4K Video Capture and Playback/Up to 1080p 320fps/H.265 (HEVC) Support
LTE: LTE Category 12 (600Mbps DL), Category 13 (150Mbps UL) / FDD-TDD
Joint Carrier Aggregation
Storage: eMMC 5.1/UFS 2.0
Memory: LPDDR4
Display: Up to WQUXGA (3840x2400) / 4K UHD (4096x2160) Support

3.6 HISILICON KIRIN 955 CHIPSET


The Kirin 955 is aARM-based high-end Octa-Core-SoC designed by HiSilicon for Android-based
tablets and smartphones. Together with the Huawei P9 smartphone, it was launched in the April 2016.
It bears 8 cores processors (4x Cortex-A53, 4x Cortex-A72), a dual-channel LPDDR4 memory and an
LTE Cat. 5 radio. In the start of 2016, it was one of the fastest ARM bases SoCs on the marketplace. The
HiSilicon Kirin 955 is an advance clocked version (A72 cores clock at 2.5 versus 2.3 GHz) as compared
to the older Kirin 950. It is one of the Intel SoCs that designed on the new Cortex-A72 architecture. The
A72 chipset offers a 15 % higher per MHz performance as compared to the A57 cores and it must be
more energy efficient. In the Kirin 955, the four Cortex-A72 cores are able to perform up to 2.5 GHz.
Furthermore, based on the Cortex-A53 architecture the processor includes four power saving cores that
are performed with 1.8 GHz (max.).
Kirin 950 employs ARMs latest GPU, Mali T880, like Exynos 8890 providing same features for
graphic-intensive user interface (GUI), 3D gaming and life-like virtual reality experience.
The HiSilicons Kirin 955 is designed in 16nm at TSMC (16FF+ process).
Series
Codename Cortex-A72/-A53
Clock Rate 2500 MHz
Number of Cores/Thread 8/8
Manufacturing 16 nm
Features ARM Mali-T880 MP4 GPU, 4x Cortex-A72 (2.5 GHz) + 4x
Cortex-A53 (1.8 GHz, big,LITTLE), LTE Cat. 6, 2x 32 Bit
LPDDR4-3200 Memory Controller (25.6 GB/s)
GPU ARM Mali-T880 MP4 (- 900 MHz)
64 Bit 64 Bit Support

"The processor is the brain of the smartphone," explains Nick Stam, director of technical marketing at
Nvidia. "Just like a regular desktop or laptop, these devices are, at the highest level, computers, and like
computers, they have a processor to do all the basic calculations and to execute code."
There are a lot of features to consider of when you are planning to buy a new smartphone, like camera,
screen size, keyboard or no keyboard, operating system. But one main and a very basic feature that more
buyers are starting to pay attention is the processor. There is, no doubt, in part due to the recent influx
of Octa-core, Snapdragon 820, Apple A10, Exynos 8890 and Kirin 955 powered smartphones like the
HTC One A9, Huawei Honor 7, iPhone 7, Sony Xperia Z5, Motorola Moto X Play, LG G5 and Samsung
Galaxy S7.
4.0 SMARTPHONE GRAPHICS
Where is the graphics processor located?
As found in Processor or SoCs section you would have come upon that the actual processing cores
are just the part of the overall system-on-a-chip that builds the basis of all modern smartphones. With said
other subsystems and processing cores in the SoC you can find the graphics processing unit, or GPU, in
very close propinquity to the processor chipset.
The processor is quite a tiny chip that is used on the motherboard of a device, and as the GPU is
actually built-in in this chipset, apparently finding the GPU while looking at the insides of a smartphone
is near to impossible.

The GPU is the "2D/3D Graphics Processor" part of the Tegra 2 SoC above
Of course, there is a reason as the two chips in a smartphone are built in the same chipset. First, youll
see that tablets and smartphones dont have a large amount of internal space to work, so having vital
elements bundled together gives the devices motherboard to be small in size and the larger space for the
battery. Second, building the both components as one keeps down the heat production of the smartphone
as its more concentrated in the internal environment and can utilize minimum power through fastened
tightly integrating the two. At last, it saves costs of production to build one chipset instead of two.
4.1 THE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT (GPU)
The utilization of the GPU depends on many factors: the operating system used and also the design
of the system-on-a-chip on the device. For the first one, if the SoC doesnt take place to have a specific
media decoding chip then the GPU might be used to handle high-resolution games and videos. There is
also be possible that compatible duties are off-loaded to the GPU so the huge power intensive CPU cores
able to clock themselves down.
Very first and foremost the graphics processing unit (GPU) utilize entirely for all 3D rendering in
applications and games. For instance, the Cortex processing cores are usually not manufactured to handle
these types of jobs and in all operating systems the GPU will take over from the CPU to cover the
rendering more efficiently. The CPU helps out for specific calculations while rendering 3D models on
display particularly for games, but the prime task will be done by the GPU.
Most of the graphics cores also support 2D rendering in specific areas: things like picture zooming
and interface animations are two good examples. The processor also can usually responsible for these
tasks so the use of GPU is usually up to the operating system used on the smartphone device.

Playing Asphalt 6: Adrenaline on this Galaxy Note would be very difficult without a GPU
The GPU has a major part in rendering the main interface and the other animation-heavy UIs, leaving
with a very smooth and fine experience for the users.
You must have discovered, iOS on the iPhone and iPod Touch is very smoth due to it renders most
interface components utilizing the GPU. Apple has to work only with a small choice of hardware, so
they can tightly integrate the OS to what is really available hardware wise, so there were fewer problems
achieving GPU acceleration to the task.
A lot of GPUs are available along with SoCs, some significant are as under;
4.1.1 QUALCOMM GPUs

Adreno GPUs are used exclusively in Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs


Qualcomm used the Adreno GPU is their graphics chipset SoCs. These GPUs were called Imageon
and ATI manufactured it. When Qualcomm purchased the company from AMD they renamed it to
Adreno. In Old Adreno 1xx series GPUs were installed in Qualcomm 7xxx SoCs, and the newer Adreno
2xx series GPUs are being used in the Snapdragon series.
Nowadays Snapdragon SoCs you can see in Adreno 2xx series GPUs: the 220, the 205 and the Adreno
200 for S3, S2 and S1 respectively. Qualcomm claim that each consecutive GPU is twice as fast as the
previous, implying the Adreno 220 is about four times faster than the 200.
Soon after launching the both processors Snapdragon 212 and Snapdragon 412, Qualcomm has
announced its next-generation GPU architecture dubbed Adreno 5xx alongside a new Qualcomm Spectra
ISP (Image Signal Processing) unit.
The first two GPUs are installed in Adreno 530 and Adreno 510 under the new architecture. And the
new GPUs is available within the processors Snapdragon 620/618 and 820. The Snapdragon 820-based
smartphones having Adreno 530 are now available in the market.
The manufacturers also explaines that the high-end Snapdragon 820 SoC will first appeared with the
new Qualcomm Spectra ISP unit which is designed to support enhanced computer vision and DSLR-
quality photography. The Spectra ISP unit also supports 14-bit sensors for more natural skin tones and a
wider range of colors.
The new Adreno 5xx GPU architecture provides enhanced efficiency and speed as compare to
the old generation GPUs. The newer Qualcomm's Adreno 4xx and 5xx family launches with a lot
of improvements. The Adreno 530 claims up to 40% faster performance and 40% reduced power
consumption for both GPGPU and graphics compute against Adreno 430 the previous generation.
The Adreno 530 supports Render-script and OpenGL ES 3.1+AEP and the Vulkan and OpenCL
2.0 standards. This new GPU supports virtual addressing (64-bit) and also features enhanced power
management (fine-grain), along with new rendering, compression and compositing techniques. To Record
2020 ultra-high definition (UHD) TVs and displays, via HDMI 2.0 it supports up to 4K HEVC videos at
60fps. The Qualcomm also explained that the new GPU features improved TruPalette and EcoPix support
for superior pixel quality and longer battery life.
On the announcement, Tim Leland, vice president, product management, Qualcomm
Technologies said, "We're significantly enhancing the visual processing capabilities of Snapdragon to
support next-generation user experiences related to computational photography, computer vision, virtual
reality and photo-realistic graphics on mobile devices, all while maximizing battery life. In addition, as
emerging growth segments such as automotive demand more immersive visual experiences, Snapdragon
820 will enable the next generation of infotainment, computer vision and advanced processing for
instrument clusters."
Further, Qualcomm revealed the successor to the popular octa-core Snapdragon 615 processor,
the Snapdragon 616. It is an upgraded chipset and provides connectivity with X5 LTE support, full-HD
(1080p) support including an HEVC (H.265) video codec alongside the Qualcomm Adreno 405 GPU.
This 64-bit chipset comes with quad-core 1.7GHz ARM Cortex-A53 + quad-core 1.2GHz ARM Cortex-
A53 processor. It holds up to WQXGA (2560x1600 pixels) resolution displays and up to 21-megapixel
cameras.
4.1.1.1 IMAGINATION TECH POWERVR GPUs

This is a look into the architecture of the PowerVR SGX 5XT series
Imagination Technologies is the second largest manufacturer graphics chipsets for smartphone, which
created the PowerVR line of smartphone GPUs. They designed many series of PowerVR GPUs, used
products from the PowerVR 5XT or SGX 5 series.
You can find PowerVR GPUs into a lot of smartphone devices because they are licensed to other
SoC manufactures. PowerVR GPUs used exclusively by TI OMAP chipsets, and you can see them
in the Apple A4 and A5 even in some older Samsung Exynos chipsets. Even in low-end notebook
computers you can also find them alongside Intel x86 processors.
On clock speed at 200 MHz, the SGX530 is able to 1.6 GFLOPS. The SGX535 used in the iPhone 4
and iPhone 3GS is a smaller version of the SGX530 it support DirectX 9.0c and the 530 does not, but
retains the same performance.
For smartphones PowerVr GT7XT is the fastest GPU series. It is used by many Apple product like
iPad Air 2, A9 and A10 SoC chipset which is placed inside Iphone 7 and 7 plus. It is part of a powerful
GPU series 7XT which is based on unified shader architecture with 6 clusters that integrate 192 (FP16)
/ 384 ((FP32) ALU cores upcoming model has 16 clusters and 512-1024 ALU cores. Compare to any
6XT GPU it is much more efficient and improved performance. It is more energy efficient thanks to 3D
transistors and improved 14/16 nm fabrication process.

Here are the quick specification;


Supports OpenGL ES up to 3.x, AEP, OpenGL 3.3, DirectX 10, OpenCL 1.2 EP
Supports DirectX 11.2
14/16 nm Technology
PowerVR Rogue Architecture
384 unified ALU
12 Cluster

4.1 ARM MALI GPUs


The Mali GPU is presently being used in one SoC only: the Samsung Exynos 4210 found in
the Galaxy Tab 7.7, Galaxy Note and Samsung Galaxy S II. The ARM own Mali range, so it must be an
ideal partner for the Cortex processing cores used in the Exynos chipset.
Despite the fact that on paper there are several Mali GPUs, the only one Mali-400 MP4, that in fact
has used is the quad-core in the Exynos 4210. ARM claims that the Mali-400 MP4 is quad-core while
like PowerVR SGX543MP4 it is not truly four processing cores, its normally four pixel processors put
altogether. This is the reason the Mali-400 MP4 does not match the graphical capabilities as compare to
PowerVRs which is a true quad-core GPU.

This is what's inside a Mali-400 MP4


The Mali-400 MP4 at 200 MHz is able of 7.2 GFLOPS, means it is faster than a single-core PowerVR
SGX543. The targeted clock speed 275 MHz for use in the Exynos 4210, resulting the GPU is capable of
9.9 GFLOPS and making it the fastest GPU available in an Android smartphone.
In the Galaxy S II the Mali-400 MP4 is about 75% faster as compare to Galaxy Nexus and twice as
faster as the SGX540 GPU in the Droid Razr. In other case, the iPhone 4S SGX543MP2 is about double
as faster as the Mali-400 and the Play-station Vita is even faster than that.
Samsung will continue to utilize the Mali GPUs in their Exynos Chips, while they will be made more
powerful GPUs than the existing Mali-400 MP4.

4.2 NVIDIA ULP GEFORCE GPUs

A Tegra 3 die image, with the GPU hidden inside somewhere


We discussed earlier in the processor section briefly of this NVIDIA series that for desktop graphics
card manufacturing giant, the GPUs in their SoCs used in smartphones arent especially superb. As mu
experience I feel the NVIDIAs ULP GeForce that is used in their Tegra SoCs is the slowest GPU from
the dual-core processors (first-generation).
The ULP GeForce is utilized in two main 2 chipsets, Tegra 250 T20 and Tegra 250 AP20H; the
first for tablets and the other for smartphones devices. The clocked speed at 333 MHz (T20), or 300
MHz (AP20H) and only capable of 3.2 GFLOPS at 200 MHz. Resulting the T20 at 333 MHz sees 5.33
GFLOPS (Gega Floating Point Operations Per Second) and the AP20H at 300 MHz sees 4.8 GFLOPS.
You can observed that the smartphone GFLOPS capability of the Tegra 2 is just like PowerVR
SGX540 clock speed at 300 MHz, and that is real. While, the peak clock speed of the SGX540 you can
observed in the Galaxy Nexus is 384 MHz, which is capable of 6.1 GFLOPS. At 333 MHz clock speed
of Tegra 2 it is faster than the tablet iteration, becoming the lowest capable GPU.
In fact many other factors affect the performance of a GPU display size and clock speed of CPU, but
if we say ask for a most capable GPU the Tegra 2 is certainly not on the top.
If we look into the Multi-Core Processors of 2nd generation, with their quad-core Tegra 3, NVIDIA
was first to deliver it to the market, as I mentioned earlier. We would hope that the Tegra 3 ULP
GeForce GPU would hit a jacjpot.
The Kal-El GeForce is at 200 MHz capable of 4.8 GFLOPS while you can observed the same
performance at less than 200 MHz in PowerVR SGX543MP2 and Mali-400 MP4. Its still only capable
of 9.6 GFLOPS if we runs it at 400 MHz, at this it is somehow close to the Mali-400 MP4.
As well as NVIDIA Tegra X1 is concerned with the architecture called Maxwell, it is the second
fastest GPU available in the market for smartphones and tablets. We can say it is an improved version of
Tegra k1. You can find a huge performance boost if you compare it with previous Tegra.
Here are the quick specification of NAIDIA Tegra X1;
Supports CUDA 6.0, AEP, OpenGL ES 3.1
Supports DirectX 11.2
20 nm Technology
Using shared Memory
64 Bit Memory Bus Width
32000 Mhz Memory speed
Core Speed 1000 Mhz
256 CUDA cores
Smartphones are not forcing the limits of computing at aground where NVIDIA would have a natural
edge. Smartphones are getting faster, but the truth is that compute density or performance isnt a prime
goal for this sort of product. Performance in Gaming was never a factor to buy a smartphone, and there
is no such device like a gaming smartphone.
Further, Tegra wasnt always the best option since the time of launching the Tegra handsets in the
market. Apple and Qualcomm, were never in a position where they would be weak by any difference in
performance in a sustained way. Beating NVIDIA GPUs at key standards they even went on the offensive
some times.
The reality is: compute performance has a supportive role in smartphones devices. Smartphones are
first and foremost communications devices and Qualcomm remains on the top in this market, because it
is first and foremost a communications company that has made itself relatively essential and convenient
to its OEM customers.
Therefore as now you know all about the different products of mobile GPUs available in the market,
it might obviously be easy to decide which GUP you want in your smartphone.
GPUs are built in a wide range of systems where external things like display resolutions, RAM types,
speeds and increased processor clock speeds, and more can affect the actual graphical performance of a
device.
5.0 STORAGE & MEMORY
Now the next part Ill be moving by the vital elements of a smartphone and reached at storage types
and memory as in RAM, observing which is fastest to use and how you can enhance your speeds.

5.1 RAM OR RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY


RAM is an abbreviation for Random Access Memory, is one of the critical part of the device along
with dedicated graphics and the processing cores. In absence of RAM in any type of computing system
like your laptop, smartphone or Tablet would fail to do basic jobs because accessing documents file would
be preposterously slow.
This sort of memory is like a middle man between the processing cores, doing any type of information
as quickly and the file-system, which is laid in or stored in the ROM. Vital files that are required by
the processor usually stored in the RAM, waiting to be approached. These files could be matters like
operating system components, game graphics and application data; or generally any file that needs to be
accessed faster than other storage can allow providing.
RAM that is equipped with smartphones devices is technically DRAM and the D stand for the
dynamic. The design structure of DRAM is designed like that every capacitor installed on the RAM chip
deposits a bit, and the capacitors expel charge and need continues refreshing, therefore the dynamic
nature of the Random Access Memory. It also intends that everything on the DRAM module can be
changed promptly and easily to store different data files.
The Benefit of the RAM not being static is that the storage can alter to handle with whichever tasks
the system is asking to perform. And if an operating system, say, 2 GB on disk, it would not be efficient
for the RAM to archive the entire operation, especially when a device with a low size of RAM like 512
MB, cant make to do that.
RAM is quietly different to the flash-style ROM storage chip installed on the device like as whenever
power supply discontinued from the RAM module, the contents on it are lost at once. This is what it knew
as volatile storage, and it helps to some degree the access times to the RAM to be so quick. It also explains
loading displays: information from the comparatively slower ROM must be passed to the faster RAM,
and the restricting factor in almost all cases is the read speed of the ROM. And so, when the system is
switched off, the containing of the RAM is dropped and at the next boot, the RAM requires to be stored
once again from the contents on the slower storage.

A package-on-package set-up. The upper die would be the RAM and the lower is SoC.
If you are thinking where the RAM normally can be found, youll locate it in almost all cases, at once
on the top of the processor or SoC and is known as a package-on-package (PoP) set-up. This gives up the
SoC close proximity means less power consumption, less heat output and direct access to the RAM. If you
cant find it on SoC because of not enough space on top, you can find the remaining RAM in neighboring
chips often.
5.1.1 THE BIGGER THE BETTER
First and the most important aspect when it comes to looking for to buy a smartphone is the size of
RAM. Its fairly straightforward to look the more is better, as the bigger is the capacity the more data
can be stored and accessed promptly by other subsystems. You shouldnt be worried about larger memory
using more power, consuming batteries fast, because when it does, this is only a small fraction of the
system power and is surpassed very easily by the processor and displays needs.
Along with a smart operating system, voluminous amounts of RAM isnt necessary. Smartphone
devises apps normally utilize a small amount of RAM i.e. around 50 MB, and therefore lots of these apps
can be run at the same time. The Operating System decides during multitasking to hang the applications
that are less important or not being used at that time, saving memory (or RAM) and freeing it up to
ready for use for other important applications. Thats why Windows Phones seem to be so responsive and
smooth when the smartphone it runs, have RAM of 512 MB only.
Nevertheless, thats not to say that large RAMs arent fruitful. Games that have 3D in particular,
can take large amounts of RAM, storing 3D models, game textures, sound and game graphics. While
bearing 512 MB may look smooth for operating the operating system and basic applications, it may not
be enough to store game data without frequent loading screens and falling back to annoying in high-end
high-resolution heavy data bearing games.

Rendering a game like Dungeon Defenders needs a lot of RAM


As per my experiences monitoring and playing the game on my smartphone (Android) has a 2
GB RAM, I have seldom seen games utilizing not more than 500 MB of RAM. However, when you
operate this game with important operating system elements, like home-screen application, dialer and the
messaging which always run in the background, youll observe that more than half of your 2 GB of RAM
is being used. On a device with just 1 GB RAM monitoring the same game, performance could be bad.
RAM speed is something that is often missed by the buyer when evaluating the performance of a
smartphone device and builds up the other vital part of how well the memory executes. Obviously, bearing
large RAM is fine, but its only fine when it can be accessed rapidly and this is where the pace or speed
comes in.
As with your laptop computer, there are three major fields of the memory that impact on its speed:
type of RAM, the amount of channels and the clock speed. How precisely these all three components
affect the performance is difficult to understand and confusing to explain as well, but fundamentally you
are in search for a relatively higher clock speed on multiple channels.
As the clock speed directly affects the input and output (I/O) speeds of the RAM modules, but with
a high clock speed showing that the module has potential to bringing more data to the memory chips
or RAM per second. To save the power smartphone RAM does not attain huge clock speeds generally
300-500 MHz, but for smartphone apps, this is more than sufficient.
As well as performance is concerned, the type of RAM affects multiple things, such as how much
quantity of power per MHz the chipset consumes and how effective each clock cycle is at bringing up
information to the module. Just like with laptop and desktop computers, memory comes in the form
of Double Data Rate (DDR) and Synchronous Dynamic Random Access memory, which is a large and
mouthful.

The iPhone has LPDDR2 (yellow) embedded inside the SoC.


Current generation PCs use the fourth version of DDR SDRAM (DDR4), while smartphone SoCs
mostly use LPDDR3 or LPDDR4, the LP abbreviated for low-power. LPDDR4 is almost similar to
standard DDR4 apart from that it consumes less power (hence the name LP) which does drop down
the performance. DDR4 or MDDR interfacing potentials will be brought in new upcoming smartphone
devices SoCs.
To enhance the speed of a RAM set-up, memory channels work little in real-world performance,
basically the more channels your smartphone have the fewer chances there will be for an obstruction in
the memory controller. Dual-core processors are comparable to dual-channel RAM, as two RAM modules
can intercommunicate to the CPU bus in parallel.
As there is seldom an obstruction caused by the RAM the channels can be a bypass in general
circumstances, in terms of speed, with the clock speed being far more important.
And the last matter that must be addressed about smartphone devices RAM is that there is no
exclusive video RAM for the graphics chip, means any RAM the smartphone bears is shared between the
GPU and the processing cores. Because of the system-on-a-chip structure that incorporates the GPU and
CPU on the one die, this shouldnt be a problem in terms of performance.

5.2 ROM & INTERNAL STORAGE


Just like RAM, internal storage is also vital for the operation of a smartphone; without no place to
store the critical files and the operating system, the smartphone could do nothing. Even if a mobile-phone
has no storage accessible for its user, there will also be some sort of internal memory storage that stores
the operating system of that mobile-phone.
Depending upon the operating system installed on the smartphone device, and the device itself, there
are several storage chips built-in inside the device. For different purposes, these chips may then be
partitioned into multiple areas, such as system files, cache and application storage. Generally, the system
files stored on the chip called the Read-Only Memory (ROM); but this is a misnomer as the memory here
can really be altered as the system updates, not by the end user.
Like Samsung Galaxy S, Series, some smartphones have a multi-ROM set-up. One memory chip is
smaller capacity like 512 MB, but faster, and stores the main system files, application data and cache in
separate divisions. The other chip is bigger and is generally a 1 to 2 GB partition for the user storage
space that is comparatively slower but permits for storage of apps.
In these systems bearing a full 2 GB of fast access memory might be too costly to add, so minimizing
the size to just fit the operating system and utilizing the more inexpensive user storage for the rest of non-
user-accessible data is the best option. It makes a good balance between the cost for the manufacturer and
performance.
Mainboard of Motorola Droid; 16 GB storage marked in red and 1 GB RAM in orange
Generally speaking, the performance of internal storage chips are better than would attain with
External Micro SD Cards. As the chips are directly built-in to the motherboard of a smartphone and can
be constructed to particularly interface with the System on the Chip (SoC) used, the write and read speeds
achieved are normally quite effective.
On certain occasion smartphone companies betray and dont build user-accessible internal storage to
the motherboard, alternatively placing a microSD card in a concealed slot that cant be generally accessed
by the smartphone user. This was especially common on early generation of Windows Phones like the
HTC HD7 and HTC Trophy and has some benefits.

5.3 USER REMOVABLE STORAGE


Generally, user removable storage is called External Memory storage because of the fact that it
can be removable, but this is somehow goofy as the card inserted into the slot of the smartphone and
is more internal than it is external. As of today, all smartphones devices that bear removable storage
utilize microSD cards, and a few manufacturer offering full-sized SD card slots for Tablets.
Among the three leading smartphone device operating systems (iOS, Android, and Windows OS),
Android is the only one that in fact properly supports removable storage. With iOS smartphones and
tablets such as the iPhone, Apple does not provide any procedure to expand the storage, instead
bighearted their users an ample internal storage can be used for music, videos and apps and so on.

Windows Phone is uncommon in that field as there are few devices with a user accessible microSD
card slot. Nevertheless, any cards put in the phone slot bear heavy security features activated
automatically resulting the card cannot be read in other smartphones, other devices or in your laptop,
allowing management software as the only procedure to replace what is on your smartphone. But Proper
removable storage support for users is to be launching in a future Windows Phone updates.
As well as Android phones are concerned there are two effectuations of user removable storage: it is
either an extension to the internal user accessible storage or the only user accessible storage. If it extends
what is already provided, there must be a split system partition for the external SD card such as /mmc or
/sd-ext that few apps, such as video players and music can approach. Frequently, apps that download files
to the External SD card will in fact download to the internal storage in places where there both storages
available, unless there is an option provided by the operating system.
Standard SD and MicroSD cards are accessible in different size classes. For example, the original SD
design appropriated cards up to 2 GB in capacity, and then SDHC (SD High Capacity) enhanced the limit
up to 32 GB. And recently SDXC (SD Extended Capacity) further increases the capacity limit all the way
up to 2 TB, but SDXC cards are not supported in most of the new smartphones devices, resulting in the
maximum expansion of storage rests at 128 GB.

Apart from capacity or size, the other significant feature to count when buying a microSD card for
your smartphone device is the speed, is declared as a Class on the package. Fortunately, the class
number is easy to interpret as it directly represents the minimum writing speed of the specific card in
Megabyte per Second or MB/s. A card that rated as Class 6 will be able to write at a minimum speed of 6
MB/s, and Class 10 at 10 MB/s.
Classes may go as high as the maker need to, within the specifications of the card, and normally the
higher class results the card will be more costly but the performance will be better.
6.0 SMARTPHONE DISPLAYS
In this section well take a look at the all-important display on smartphones; the differences in
resolution and subpixel, which technology is best, layout and so forth.

6.1 LCD TYPE DISPLAY


There are two major types of display that are utilized; the first one is LCD abbreviation of Liquid
Crystal Display. While I'm not going to explain the complex structure and designs of LCD panel circuits
and how it work, I'll explicate the different components of an LCD display and precisely what the crystals
display do.
LCD panel has four main layers: First the outer protective layer, the backlight, the liquid crystal layer
and the polarizing layer (or layers). Basically, the outer protective layer is to Shield the other components
from being damaged, and it's usually made of clear glass or plastic. The other polarizing layers support
the crystal layer provides your eyes the perfect light, or no light when black or off.
The prime significant part is the liquid crystal layer, which is what controls ultimately the picture
displayed when colors passed through the layer. Liquid crystal cells coupled with filters of red, blue and
green when an electrical current is run through the crystalline layer, accordingly to the subpixels in the
display, "twist" to let back-light via at different intensity level. The crystals filter the neutral backlight
within specific color strengths, and blended with adjacent crystals of different colors, creating the full
range of millions of colors.

A basic diagram of a TFT LCD panel


The backlighting layer always LED backlight, and there are dissimilar types of LED backlighting the
one used almost always is white LED backlighting. It is where solid and thin white light-emitting diodes
(LEDs) are located backside the liquid crystal layer to furnish a base light to the crystals to alter. RGB
LED backlighting also present, permits better color recreation, but this is more costly and rarely used in
smartphones devices, as far as I know.
LCDs used in smartphones devices are all active matrix, which mentions to the procedure the pixels
are covered, and they all are also used Thin Film Transistor (TFT) technology. TFT are the components
that support with more accurate, responsiveness, contrast and color reproduction. Beneath the TFT
banner, there are two different types of LCD you can get.
6.1.1 TWISTED NEMATIC (TN) LCD
Smartphone manufacturers seldom used the term Twisted Nematic or TN LCDs, alternatively
preferring to call their displays plainly "TFT LCD". It denotes to the procedure in which crystal cells are
twined in the display screen to recreate the colors and normally used in low-cost smartphone displays
because of their simplicity to manufacture.
As compared to In-Plane Switching (IPS), the other type of LCD, TN LCD panels have more limited
viewing angles, color, and contrast reproduction, hence why they are using this in cheaper devices. It
means your old computer monitor or older LCD TV is most likely going to be used a TN panel, therefore
they are not all the time bad, just there is better technology available out there.

The Sony Xperia S features a standard TN TFT LCD, but it's one of the better ones
The outclass type of TN LCD panel used by the Samsung/Sony-made S-LCD or Super LCD, which
has substantially better color reproduction and contrast levels as compared to the standard TN panels.
These displays types started coming along in the HTC Desire as an alternate for AMOLEDs when supply
became short in the market and superseded by Super LCD 2 displays type.
6.1.2 IPS OR IN-PLANE SWITCHING LCD
Higher end smartphones preferred using IPS LCD panel type of display. Because it uses a more
coordinated procedure of crystal cell twining, which provides a better quality display. IPS LCD
panels have the main advantages over TN panels which are a significantly truer color reproduction
and better viewing angles because the fashion the panel acts minimize off-angle color shift. Advanced
generation IPS panels also provide much better contrast ratios than TN panels, which make them in some
examples, competitive with AMOLED technology.
Super LCD 2 display on the HTC One X is an IPS-type TFT LCD
Most IPS panels used in smartphones devices are technically either Advanced Super IPS (AS-IPS) or
Super-IPS (S-IPS) and in few cases proprietary technology that betters on different features of IPS panels.
From time to time smartphone fabricators will specify their panels as "TFT IPS LCD", or "IPS LCD" but
in some cases they will use a particular brand name like Apple and Sony.
6.1.3 LCD PANELS: PROS AND CONS
It's appropriate to demonstrate that what the good and bad features about TN and IPS LCD type of
panel.
Good Features
Low cost to manufacture
IPS panels provide exact color reproduction
Low chance of color shifts or color tinting
Can be clearly readable and bright outside
Bad Features
Because of the requirement for a backlight, solid black levels and huge contrast ratios are difficult to
attain
TN panels provide bad viewing angles
In few cases, they are physically thick and more power consuming

6.1 AMOLED TYPE DISPLAY


A variety of different layers that all work all together to bring forth a picture in LCD panels, with
AMOLED displays it's much simpler. AMOLED abbreviated for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting
Diode, as the name shows, the display, in fact, emits colors directly from organic diodes rather than
needing backlights, crystals, and polarizing filters. There are a number of benefits as compared to LCD
technology.
The manner an AMOLED display acts is very simple: In these type of display has a lower transistor
layer that governs the power moving to the organic upper layer; organic diodes emit light when power is
supplied to it, the color of which belongs to the molecular structure of the diode. The strength of the light
can be more or less by the power forced by the transistors, which in turn brings millions of colors just like
the twisting of liquid crystals in LCDs.

A diagram of an AMOLED panel


The diodes expel light themselves, and they don't need any kind of backlight for the straining of
colors. This helps not only slims down the display but save power considerably also, which is an
advantage for smartphones that are advertising to be the slimmest on the marketplace. Further, the
deficiency of a relentless backlight allows high contrast ratios, because to show black screen the organic
diodes just switch off and display nothing.
Certainly, there are some disadvantages to AMOLED displays. As the uncommon red, green and blue
subpixels are applied to produce the full range of colors, different organic compounds necessary be used
to furnish each of the three colors. It's very difficult to acquire each diode emitting the same strength of
light at full power with the exact wavelength because the properties for each of these compounds varies
significantly.
This heads to a number of troubles. If a color of the specific diode is too intense than necessary it can
tint the display at screen slightly; normally the blue diodes are the perpetrator which is why white web
pages can frequently look somewhat blue. While AMOLEDs are very vivacious due to the diode strength,
color reproduction is not as precise as IPS LCDs, again because of the difficulties getting all colors on the
same playing ground.
The HD Super AMOLED on the Samsung Galaxy Note
The last problem is the lifetime of the different diode types: as each color has a different organic
compound, they will only "live" or produce light for a long time, and this lifespan of the diode varies for
different colors. In former AMOLED displays, it was common that the blue diodes died around twice as
compare to the green diodes, however in advanced display types the technology has developed to make
this without of an issue. We hope that the color accuracy problems will also be bettered as the technology
advances.
6.2.1 AMOLED PANELS: PROS AND CONS
It's appropriate to demonstrate that what the good and bad features of this type of panel.
Good Features
Very thin, and flexible sometimes
Because of the organic diodes high contrast and vibrant colors
Excellent viewing angles
In some situations Low power consumption
Bad Features
Mild color tinting and inaccurate color reproduction are sometimes present
Shorter lifetime than LCDs
Often PenTile subpixel matrices are used.

6.3 THE CONFUSION OF SUBPIXEL MATRIX


Since the presentation of the infamous "PenTile" subpixel matrix in smartphone device displays,
there has been a hell of talk in Media upon how this specific matrix is inferior to the traditional "RGB
displays". Certainly, it's right to say the PenTile matrix is worse, but we can see some websites in fact
explaining why this specific matrix provides a worse experience. Which is what, this section is about.
As many technical readers may know, to show an image a display uses a mixture of pixels; each pixel
most preferably being able to make each and every color. However as far as I know, there is no single
substance that provides for the making of every single color, therefore we betray and use a mixture of
smaller fixed-color subpixels that are very small to see with naked eye, at different strength levels to
produce color.

RGB stripe subpixel layout. Notice that each green, blue and red subpixel forms a square, and also
note the small black specs which are the transistors
Almost all personal computer displays have red, green and blue colored subpixels, which are
combined together employing the RGB color model to produce a big amount of composite colors. Every
subpixel must be able to 256 color intensity levels, 0 has the subpixel off, 128 stands for color half-
on and 255 is full strength. As there are three colored subpixels all capable of 256 levels, this resulted
altogether in producing 16,777,216 possible colors in every one pixel on display.
To produce these 16.78 million colors you require one of each of the three RGB subpixels, the
preferable method is all three of these formatted in a square or rectangle, and this rectangle or square
becomes a pixel. This is called the "RGB stripe" procedure, and it's globally used in LCD monitors as it
gives the highest level of clarity and the most accurate color reproduction.
There are some issues with the AMOLED technology that must be overcome like
the inconsistencies between the different subpixel lifespans and intensities. There is also one more issue:
it's presently much difficult to develop a high-density AMOLED display at a sensible price due to the
technology to manufacture extremely small subpixels isn't common there yet, on the other hand with
LCDs, manufacturing tiny subpixels is much easier and cheaper.
For instance Samsung's trademark PenTile subpixel matrix. Alternatively, to add combine all three
RGB subpixels into a pixel, the PenTile RGBG matrix combines a green subpixel with replacing blue and
red subpixels; resulting in that there are technically only two subpixels in one pixel in a PenTile RGBG
matrix as compared to three in an RGB stripe structure.
PenTile subpixel matrix; note that a single, square pixel has a green subpixel but alternating red/
blue subpixels
Due to the science of the human eye and its different sensibilities to different frequencies of light, a
PenTile matrix display is still able to deliver effectively the same colors as the conventional RGB stripe
using unique subpixel rendering. As it uses fewer subpixels in one pixel, this also provides the display to
be heavier than if it were created using the RGB stripe procedure, and in some scenario, it consumes less
power. At last, because of there being less blue subpixels, the display must last longer than a conventional
design AMOLED using the same organic blue-light-emitting diode.
Certainly, users who complain about PenTile matrices have a point. Actually, there are only two
subpixels in one pixel technically brings down the subpixel resolution of the display: for instance, a
1280x720 display employing the RGB stripe layout has 2.76 million subpixels, on the other hand, a 720p
PenTile display provide 1.84 million subpixels; 0.92 million lesser. In certain situations the difference
is obtrusive but most of the time subpixel rendering compensates for this.
On hard edges, like the edge of an interface element or crisp text, the PenTile matrix mostly has to
"borrow" subpixels from other existing pixels to make a picture that is of the exact color. This is most
detectable when looking at the left edge of a white text or icon display, where there seem to be tiny red
dots along the corner, or along high-contrast lines, where the line either appears not frosty or - in the case
of blue/red lines as compared to green lines - dotty.
Generally speaking, you have to give pretty much attention to the display to discover these
imperfections, but comparing a PenTile display to an RGB stripe display, the text furnishing on the
latter is perceptibly clearer at a normal reading distance. The good thing though is PenTile displays are
frequently today only used on smartphone devices along with a PPI (pixel per Inch) density of 250 or
more, and as you advance 300 PPI it will progressively hard to observe the problems.
It would obviously be nice to buy a high-density RGB stripe AMOLED, and Samsung even
acknowledges its Super AMOLED Plus displays are good, so in the near future, we'll probably see
components and technology make better so they can eliminate off the awful PenTile matrix.

6.4 THE PIXEL DENSITY


The discussion started with "Retina" displays launched by Apple, a 3.5-inch IPS LCD
panel advertising a 640 x 960 resolution. At this resolution and size, the display had a 326 pixel-per-inch
(PPI), a number rarely seen in other smartphone displays at that time and well over the magical 300 PPI
rating. Therefore, what does the magical 300 PPI mean and what is pixels-per-inch?
The count of how many pixels in one direction fit in a one-inch line called Pixels-per-inch; if you put
a ruler scale on the display screen, how many pixels you could count along the edge of the ruler when
it reaches the mark of one inch. Because of the fact that pixels are square, it doesn't matter whether you
count horizontally or vertically to get the resolution, fortunately, Wikipedia provided a handy formula on
their web page for pixel density, you can calculate the pixels-per-inch for any display without to do this
counting.
For a display to be better, most preferably you should be unable to see individual pixels at a sensible
distance from your eyes, leaving text and images to be demonstrated at the crispness and the highest
quality. With the print rating of 300 dots-per-inch (dpi), 300 PPI is the best level to attain because, at
30cm (12in) far from your eyes, the ordinary person will be unable to watch single pixels.

A 4.3-inch 720p display has a density of 342 PPI, Even magnified, individual pixels are hard to
determine.
As advancement in display technologies, precisely in the AMOLED case, it has a potential to deliver
high pixel densities in all positions. Most new coming high-end smartphones devices are using a high-
density display, as with few mid-range smartphones, but it's still obviously something to look for in new
tablets.
6.5 ADDING TOUCH
The last part of the display part in a smartphone device is the significant touchscreen, more correctly
known as the touch digitizer layer. Fortunately, pretty much almost all smartphones nowadays utilize
capacitive touch sensors, except for really cheap and terrible one, instead of the resistive touch sensors
used in earlier devices. There is no use to discuss the resistive touchscreens at this time as these are almost
disappearing from the market.
The capacitive sensing digitizer layer most often uses PCT (Projected Capacitive Touch) technology,
which looks the materials utilize in the sensing engraved into the layer as a grid. When a voltage is
applied that grid projects an electrostatic field, and when a human finger which is electrically conductive,
contacts the area occupied by this grid, the electrostatic field is changed. The controller then establishes
the position based on sensors, of the finger and other components.
Only conductive materials can affect the electrostatic field, so the things like human skin reacts on
capacitive touchscreens but plastic and cloth do not. Nevertheless, depending upon the strength of the
sensors and field, and the fact that the field is slightly three-dimensional, it is also possible on some
occasions to activate the touchscreen through thin cloth such as gloves and without actually touching the
screen.

how capacitive touchscreen works


The main element that provides the electrostatic field, generally indium tin oxide, is transparent, this
is why it is impossible to detect the capacitive electrode grid in the digitizer layer in most touchscreens.
Even though, sometimes you will be able to sense, when placed at a particular angle under direct light,
small dots across the face of the display: actually these are little capacitors at the intersections of the grid
allow for mutual capacitance, which in turn presents multi-touch.
The touch digitizer layer is placed above the liquid crystal layer in LCD displays but below the final
glass protecting layer, allows you to infrequently see some of the components as cited earlier. Some
AMOLED displays, particularly Super AMOLEDs by Samsung, the digitizer is in fact integrated into the
same layer as the organic light-emitting diodes, causing it essentially invisible and securing less space -
one of the main advantages of the AMOLED technology.
Often the protective glass like Gorilla Glass, display and digitizer itself are all bonded tightly together
in a panel to bringing down the chances of reflections and glare while saving space. Because of this, it is
near to impossible to exchange just one of the element if, say, the digitizer stopped working or the glass
was broken. In this case, you would require expending more money to replace the entire glass-digitizer-
display unit, and they are really very expensive.
7.0 SMARTPHONE CONNECTIVITY & SENSORS

7.1 SMARTPHONE CONNECTIVITY


It's wise to say lots of us take getting a mobile signal for granted today, precisely in our cities and
towns. It can be a rude conscious to lose a signal when driving out into the countryside or in a bus or train
tunnel!
But as smartphones devices become more common, their usages become more and more complex and
connectivity options more ample, how you connect can be a battlefield.
If you're just wanting to have a chat or send a text, any signal should suffice even GPRS works
well for the basic tasks. However, when it arrives at tasks that involve transferring files or data, like
social networking, emailing, using sat nav, and the web surfing you need a stronger and more reliable
connection.
Below we'll go through the different types of mobile network, before looking at Bluetooth, Wi-Fi,
'bands' when roaming, femtocells and GPS.
Few of the nomenclature used here may be new for you. Affairs must be relatively straight forward,
but we dont go into the detail like explaining what acronyms mean here, for some details on these
technical words, you can see the glossary at the end of this book.
7.1.1 THE 2G, 3G AND 4G NETWORKS
When you switched on your smartphone, it generally displays a mini phrase or a specific letter very
next to your signal strength icon to let you aware the quality or type of the network now you're connected
to. This will be either 4G for a 4G network, 3G or HSPA (3G, 'H' or 'H+') for a 3G network, 2G or EDGE
(often just an 'E') for a 2G network or GPRS.
In general terms of quality, 4G is best for today, followed by H, 3G, E and then GPRS/2G. Even so,
other things like if you're moving/in a building or anything from the weather, how many people are using
your specific area of the network, will also play a role in the mobile data connection performance.
2G networks, also are seen as GSM, are now fairly old technology, it was common around 1992,
but cover the vast majority of the cities areas. 2G networks designed basically for text and voice
communication, and are enough to get your mobile phone text messages and conversations from Y to Z.
These networks are also able to transfer data, but only unreliable and very slowly. All this was advanced
by GPRS often called 2.5G and then came EDGE, before 3G networks began to take over the most
networks. The maximum data speed 473Kb, a 2G network is able to attain i.e. about half a Mb - however,
you're not usually to get anything close to it.
Networks like 3G are an advancement from 2G, starting in 2001, and are basically planned to handle
the data transfer. UMTS generally called Standard 3G, is capable of data transfer speeds up to 2Mb.
3G technology improved to become HSPA, increasing the theoretical top end mobile broadband data
transfer speed. HSPA has been further advanced by HSPA+ and DC-HSDPA, the latter of has been widely
positioned across the world to provide mobile broadband speeds nearing 4G network performance.
4G network is the new thing on the block. The first 4G network was launched in the USA in
November 2012, now all the networks providing 4G services. Right now the only real downsides are
having to get a new handset or device which supports 4G and limited coverage area.
On 4G networks, the average mobile broadband download speeds is15.1Mbit/s (Megabyte per
Second) is more than double as fast as 3G which has 6.1Mbit/s, across all the networks. The performance
varied by operator communication research found that as O2 and EE offered faster than normal 4G
download speeds at 15.6Mbit/s and 18.4 Mbit/s respectively.
LTE or Long-Term Evolution is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for data terminals
and mobile phones. It is established on the UMTS/HSPA and GSM/EDGE network technologies,
enhancing the speed and capacity using a core network improvements together with a different radio
interface. According to LTE Advance will be capable of transferring the data on peak loads at the rate of
100 Mbps for downloading and 50 Mbps for uploading.
We're not going to be discussed here who provide the best network features! There are likely too
many variations, while the factors are literally changing every week as the mobile suppliers improve and
upgrade their installations.
We can recommend here is that you to go to their official web pages and put in any required postcodes
to make certain you should be capable of getting a signal.
These should tell you whether you're likely to get a 4G, 3G or 2G signal, but there are some other
things you may want to take into account, which we will cover below.
7.1.2 BLUETOOTH

Another wireless technology is Bluetooth but designed to be utilized over much smaller areas as
compared than Wi-Fi. The most general use is for wireless Bluetooth earpieces and headphones, but it is
also used by 'pairing' with another device to transfer data over very short distances.
You will find it is supported on all smartphones as well as laptops, tablets and some other devices.
7.1.3 WI-FI AND ITS USAGE

A lot of advanced devices, including smartphones, equipped with the capability to communicate to
other devices over a WLAN or 'wireless local area network'. The set of standards for this method of
communicating is called IEEE 802. 11, and Wi-Fi Alliance the trade group lets any item conforming to
its certification process carry the Wi-Fi logo, therefore the fact Wi-Fi is nowadays is the commonest of
the terms employed to describe this type of connectivity.
When it comes to smartphone usage, Wi-Fi is normally associated with 'hotspots', places like stations,
airports and cafes etc. where you can go online through your tablet, laptop or smartphone. Wi-Fi is also
common in offices and homes because of the wireless broadband routers, while aspirational projects
have seen very larger areas covered by growingly massive Wi-Fi networks: for instance, London had one
mighty Wi-Fi for the Olympic Games 2012.
Wi-Fi supported by almost all of smartphones. Many of you may never utilize it, particularly if you
don't transfer much data traffic with your smartphone, like web browsing. Even if, you do, it may save a
plenty of money during, sometimes giving you a better and faster broadband connection when you are in
a Wi-Fi hotspot range.
If you plan Wi-Fi might be a big count of your smartphone, you have to look out for a network who
offer up either has a good selection of Wi-Fi hotspots or free Wi-Fi on its roll. But remember one thing, a
lot of Wi-Fi hotspots will still charge you extra to use it, they're not all created equal.
7.1.3.1 WIFI DIRECT

Bluetooth, you know that well too, and also use it quite often. WiFi, you know it well, and use it
every day. If you combine all the best features of the both, that's WiFi Direct.
So, there is this thing called WiFi. You have likely listened to it and you believably use it quite a lot,
perhaps even now. This is a wireless communication technology that has a lot of uses, but it is commonly
used to access the Internet. But there are options when you don't require any Internet connection, just
want to pair two smartphones and other devices and share some files or data between them, like print your
document on a printer or send an image. Fortunately, there is a technology just for that tasks, called WiFi
Direct.
The requirement of wirelessly sending data to nearby devices without the use of any other hardware
is not a new idea. Bluetooth was the one of the first and most widespread solutions around 1998. It is
awesome to connect your peripherals to a computer like keyboards or mice via Bluetooth or using a
wireless headset, as these connections don't need fast data transfers. Setting up Bluetooth is not hassle-
free and it is not a fast technology either.
But WiFi is quite different, it has high data transfer speeds, as well as much easier to configure. It
is why WiFi Direct was designed. Thanks to the much easier configuration make it a technology for
wireless and fast transfers of files between devices. With WiFi Direct you can connect basically anything
wirelessly.
Intel was the first big company to support WiFi Direct. For their Centrino 2 platform in 2008, they
introduced the new standard.
With launching Android 4.0 in 2013, Google introduced WiFi Direct support for their devices.
You might confuse ad-hoc wireless connections with WiFi Direct, but these both are quite different.
Ad-hoc connections also combined two computers wirelessly, but they have a speed limit of 11 Mbps and
much harder to set up.
The main ideas to develop the WiFi Direct standard was quite simple: make it just as faster as WiFi
connection, have it support all sort of services and make it easy to set up. It doesn't have any drawbacks
since WiFi Direct is based on "regular" WiFi.
The way it works is rather simple, one device locates the other like it would locate a wireless network,
you push a button or enter a password, and yes the devices are connected. No need to put up with any
of the problems Bluetooth has, match long numeric codes and set up visibility. And best it all, only one
device has to be the standard of WiFi Direct.

Basically, when you pair two devices via WiFi Direct, First one creates an access point like a router
and the second device connects to the first. And it's all automatic you don't have a need to do it manually.
Depending on what sort of devices are connected the available features vary, play movies or music on a
TV from a smartphone or music player, send files from a smartphone to a computer, send pictures to a
digital picture frame or you can print to a wireless printer. The possibilities are limitless.
You can forget about passwords, WiFi Direct based on WPS (WiFi Protected Setup) a simple way to
securely connect two devices via WiFi. You only have to press a button or enter a number displayed on
screen just like with modern routers and the devices connect.
With its much higher transfer speeds, longer range and simple setup for wireless file transfers between
two devices, WiFi Direct is the best option than Bluetooth. Range and setup also make it a great
replacement for Bluetooth in other areas, like peripheral connection. Certainly, the technology is quite
new, therefore this might take some time to happen, but we'll see.
7.1.3.2 WI-FI HOTSPOT/TETHERING

Connect your laptop or tablet to your smartphone and get internet access on the move. In this section,
we explicate everything you need to use your smartphone as a portable Wi-Fi hotspot.
If you own a Tablet or a Smart TV with 4G or 3G connectivity, you will likely be connected to the
Internet, provided by your mobile network, through your smartphone.
Smartphone's small screen isn't as good as a tablet's for streaming videos and browsing the web,
though. It's still possible to share the data connection with your Wi-Fi-only a laptop or tablet by making
your smartphone a portable Wi-Fi hotspot.
This setup is called internet sharing or tethering, and almost all smartphones equipped with this
feature.
'Tethering' means the same thing no matter what OS on a smartphone you are using. The only thing
count is how you enable it on each platform.
Regardless of the pairing method, its prime important to check first whether your mobile network
tariff allows tethering, before making your smartphone a Wi-Fi hotspot. In some cases, the mobile
network operator can prevent the option from displaying on your handset screen if tethering isn't part of
the deal.
It's physically possible to set up hotspot but if it's not part of your tariff you even being cut off or find
yourself with a warning for breaking the rules. Some operators are more indulgent than others, but always
make sure if you're in doubt.
If you haven't bought a tablet, and you are considering buying one with 4G or 3G support, then you
have to get a data-only SIM card for it, and either pay as you go for this separate tariff or pay monthly.
You can invest in a portable Wi-Fi hotspot, also called a MiFi. These are essentially wireless routers,
battery powered devices, into which you insert a SIM card, just as you would a 4G or 3G tablet. MiFi cost
you some or might come with a data SIM as part of a package.
The tethering process involves enabling the hotspot option on your smartphone, configure wireless
security with a password to keep other people piggybacking on your connection, then pairing your tablet
or laptop to the wireless network.
You have to enter the password the very first time you connect, but on subsequent time, your device
should connect automatically. If you have a MiFi dongle the process will be the same.
On your smartphone, always disable the hotspot when you're not utilizing it as this will not only save
your money with unnecessary data usage but prolong the battery life of your device also.
7.1.4 GPS SMARTPHONE NAVIGATION
GPS stand for 'Global Positioning System' is used to spot your location via satellite, allowing you
to use a smartphone as a sat nav or (Satellite Navigation). Standard GPS is fine, but if it's something
you'll be using a lot it's probably worth keeping an eye out for a smartphone equipped with A-GPS, which
should be on any model made in the last few years or a GPS. This 'Assisted' GPS uses data connectivity
to improve accuracy and performance.
7.1.5 TRIBAND QUAD-BAND ROAMING
Mobile networks around the world operate on different frequencies resulting that if you buy a
smartphone which doesn't operate on a specific 'band' or frequency it may not function in certain
countries.
If you're within North or South America, Canada, or the Caribbean you'll require a tri-band handset
that adds the 1900 MHz frequency. And if you head to most parts of Europe, you'll find that any
smartphone made to European specification (900MHz and 1800MHz) and dual-band should suffice.
Nevertheless, some areas of the Caribbean, Central, and South America use 850MHz, for those areas,
you'll need a smartphone which has a quadband.
If you are in doubt, check the specific country you're going to. This link of Wikipedia is might be
useful, but always to be sure to double check your information somewhere else too.
Once you've purchased a smartphone you can want to use abroad, be sure to ask about mobile data
roaming before you start communication, if you used it for internet access smartphone roaming can be
expensive!
7.1.6 HDMI CONNECTIVITY

HDMI-equipped smartphones to let you watch HD videos recorded from your smartphone to your
HDTV. Actually, original HDMI ports were too big for cell phones but because of the introduction of
the smaller Micro- (Type D) and Mini- (Type C) HDMI cables did it possible for smartphone devices
producers to start the HDMI phone era.
Today, different software and technologies are making it possible for smartphones and mostly HD
smartphones to broadcast high-definition content via HDMI. Today smartphones are available in the
market with HDMI port that let you watch, record and capture HD videos and pictures on any HDMI-
enabled device and watch it on HDTV.
7.1.7 DLNA CONNECTIVITY

The DLNA abbreviated for Digital Living Network Alliance is a non-profit trade organization, Sony
started it way back in 2003. DLNA defines standards that enable devices to share contents like music,
video and photos and much more with each other, and it has a lot of members companies responsible for
more than 4 billion different DLNA Certified devices.
DLNA is created to work as a bridge between your various types of devices, so you can play an
MP3 file from your smartphone on your stereo, watch an HD movie from your smartphone or send shots
from the family photo album to your wireless printer via your tablet or your laptop on your big-screen
HDTV. Think of it as a kind of home cloud: it shouldn't matter where your media is or what device you're
currently holding; with DLNA, whatever you want should come to whatever you're using and wherever
you are.
As you might expect, DLNA hardware is designed to work on a home network. It doesn't matter
whether that network is wired or wireless, even though with Wi-Fi you'll require assuring that for what
you want to do, your network must have enough bandwidth. We'd recommend 802.11n Wi-Fi for serious
home sharing.
7.1.8 NFC CONNECTIVITY
Do you aware, what causes tap-and-go services like Google Wallet Amiibo and Apple Pay work? It
looks like it is pure magic.
NFC is a method of wireless data transfer that locate and then enables technology in close proximity
to communicate without an internet connection. It works automatically, fast and easy.
7.1.8.1 HOW DOES NFC WORK?
The technology involved in NFC is misleadingly simple. Evolved from RFID (Radio Frequency
Identification) technology, an NFC chip works as one part of a wireless link. A small quantity of data
between two devices can transfer when placed a few inches from each other, once it's activated by another
chip.

Near field communication is fast and easy


No connecting password is needed to link up and because it uses chips that run on very low amounts
of power, it's much more power-efficient than other wireless communication methods.
At its core, NFC acts to identify people by their devices, activated cards, by extension and other
personal info even our bank accounts etc.
7.1.8.2 HOW CAN I USE NFC RIGHT NOW?
NFC chips installed inside credit cards for contactless payments is not new. But more admittedly more
enticing and more recent use case for NFC is with your smartphone device, which able to digitize your
entire wallet.
Google Wallet allows Android users to pay via NFC
Every mobile OS maker offers their unique virtual NFC functionality, by their own apps. First off, US
subscribers can pick up Google Wallet, which accesses your finances for contact-less payments. Android
users have the widest variety to choose from. Samsung Pay works similarly, is launching the service for
Samsung smartphone users in Korea and US.
However, a facility that all Android users able to enjoy is called Android Beam. It was launched as a
nifty in Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0, a simple method that allows for the transfer of directions, contacts, and
photos that work by holding two smartphones together.
iPhone 6 Plus and iPhone 6 enabled NFC functionality with limited, only for Apple Pay so far. It is
like Google Wallet, in that it's an application which provides users the power to pay for services and goods
at listed retailers.
Whichever smartphone you hold, it's probably that a coffee shop, taxi, train station or nearby
supermarket supports contactless payments through your phone's NFC chip. Simply hold it close to a
contactless payment terminal like swiping a credit card and instantly, the payment will be made.
It is possible in near future that NFC chips could replace every card in your pocket. It means the
unique information on your frequent business cards, library card, and shopper loyalty cards could be
contained and transmitted simply through NFC.
Inactive NFC tags built into informational stalls and posters to transmit further information like how
scanning a QR code can prompt a website, offering a map to download or a price reduction coupon on
your smartphone device.
Strangely enough, even action figures and video games are even looking for an injection of the
wireless tech. Disney Infinity, Skylanders, and Nintendo's Amiibo are collectible toys at heart, the NFC
tech provides new features not formerly seen in video games.
Swipe these statuettes over accessories enables players or gaming consoles to bring the game into life.
Nintendo's NFC-powered Amiibo bring new functionality to figurines
The inside NFC chips are capable enough to deposit user data such as customized settings,
progression experience, and points.
One more pragmatic use of NFC is with Bluetooth headphones and speakers. So many devices like
these flourish the NFC logo, meaning that by holding your smartphone to the NFC-enabled device, via
Bluetooth you'll be able to pair much faster than manually connecting devices.
NFC chips will also be installed in more fitness trackers and smartwatches. Apple is including NFC
support to its Apple Watch, users will pay with a tap of the wrist for goods using Apple Pay.

Sony SmartWatch 3 the first smartwatches with NFC


7.1.9 FEMTOCELLS

Femtocells are small base stations that can connect to your fixed-line broadband connection at work
or at home, utilize your internet line to boost your mobile phone network signals.
Femtocell technology has arrived a while ago but has largely failed to capture on at the consumer
level. In major cases, femtocells have a small range of appeal, but they can prove life-saver, if your home
or office undergo from terrible mobile network signal reception, a femtocell could be the solution to make
all the difference.
7.1.10 USB-C CONNECTIVITY

You are likely aware of the Type-C USB port. But, you may not be aware of its power and true
potential. This upgraded version of microUSB 2.0 port and is so big and powerful that this is going to
establish a new trend in the smartphone technology in coming future.
If you have interest having this future proof technology on your smartphone, then you dont have to
wait anymore, as we already have a dozen of smartphones available in market equipped with the tech.
One best feature of the USB-C connector is that it is reversible, and can be inserted in either way. It
will be able to connect screens, power cables, and USB devices. The USB-C or USB Type-C is the same
size as of the Micro-B USB.
The dimensions of the USB C port are 2.6mm by 8.4mm. With the top speed of 10Gbps, it will support
USB 3.1, and the power output will be 20V (100W) and 5A. Apple launched its new MacBook having
first the USB-C connector, users even charge the laptop with its small size.
The bi-directional one intends that you may charge the peripheral device using the same port and use
the peripheral device to charge a host device at the same time. The USB Type-C came really easy to use,
but it needs the right devices and accessories for the two-way charging to take place.

This is still the new technology that is coming forth, and there will be a lot of potential around it
because that this technology will be adopted by so many other companies, reason it does save a lot of
space and there is less clutter of cables around the devices with this single port capable of handling
everything.

7.2 SMARTPHONE SENSORS


Smartphones are amazing unbelievable little machines today, ones that would have been regarded as
magic or witchcraft several decades ago. But we have grown so used to our Android handsets and iPhones
that take them for granted even though there's so much cool hi-tech bundled into them. Their sensors for
example. Do you know how many different kinds of sensors inside a smartphone?
7.2.1 ACCELEROMETER
We will start with accelerometer one of the most generally used sensors. An accelerometer as its
name shows, it is acceleration that it measures. Data from this sensor will spike as you move your
smartphone in any direction, but place it still and it will go flat. The accelerometer also used to find a
device's orientation along its three axes. Applications use this sensor to tell if a phone is in landscape or
portrait orientation if its screen is facing downward or facing up.

The accelerometer/gyroscope
7.2.2 THE GYROSCOPE
The gyroscope is a sensor that can determine orientation status as well, but with greater detail and
precision. Because to this specific sensor, Photo Sphere camera (Android) feature tell how much a device
rotate/tilt and in which direction. It is also used to tell what constellation you're aiming a phone by
Google's Sky Map.
Magnetometer
7.2.3 THE MAGNETOMETER
The magnetometer is another sensor that almost all smartphones now equipped. The magnetometer
is capable of detecting magnetic fields. Compass applications also use this sensor to aim at the planet's
north pole. Applications made to detect metal use this magnetometer as well.
7.2.4 THE PROXIMITY SENSOR
The proximity sensor is the next up we have here, it consists of an IR light detector and an infrared
LED. For a good reason, it is placed near the earpiece of a phone while taking when you place the handset
to your ear, the screen has to turn off because the sensor lets the sensor know that you're probably in a
call. The sensor works by shining a beam which is invisible to human infrared light reflected from a close
object and caught up by the IR detector.
A phone's light and proximity sensors are usually placed near the earpiece
7.2.5 THE LIGHT SENSOR
A Light sensor in smartphone is measured how bright is the ambient light. The phone's software uses
this data to adjust brightness automatically at the display. The screen's brightness is pumped up when
ambient light is plentiful, and the display is dimmed down when it is dark. It is interesting fact to know
that high-end Samsung Galaxy smartphones utilize an advanced light sensor that measures blue, green,
white and red light severally. And that is not all. In fact, the Adapt Display function uses this data to fine
tune image representation near to reality.

7.2.6 THE BAROMETER


Barometer is a built-in sensor in higher-end smartphones devices. This is an atmospheric pressure
which is this sensor can measure. Data measured by this sensor is used to determine how high the device
is above the sea level, which results in improved GPS accuracy.
7.2.7 THE THERMOMETER
Our next sensor is a thermometer, it is on pretty much any smartphone, and some handsets might have
more than one. The main difference is that thermometer utilizes to monitor the temperature of its battery
and inside the device as well. If a component inside the smartphone is detected to be overheating, the
system shuts itself down to prevent any damage or loss. And as speaking of the Galaxy S4, it initiated
the use of an air humidity sensor in a handset. Data provided this sensor was used in the S-Health app
to determine whether or not the user was in their Comfort Zone, one with optimal air humidity and
temperature.

7.2.8 THE PEDOMETER


While we're at the fitness and health matters, the sensor is used for counting the number of steps user
has taken is the pedometer. By your phones accelerometer, such data is usually obtained, but a committed
pedometer is a lot of power efficient and more accurate.
7.2.9 THE HEART RATE MONITOR
This sensors list would not be complete if we do not mention the heart rate monitor. This sensor is
made to measure one's pulse, and it acts that by observing the minute pulsations of blood vessels inside
your finger.
7.2.10 THE FINGERPRINT
A number of smartphones have the fingerprint sensors built into it. Of these, the Samsung has the
most convenient sensor to use as it does not need swiping to read fingerprint data. Fingerprint scanners
are most generally used as an extra security layer of as an alternate for a lock screen code.

7.2.11 RADIATION DETECTOR


An important sensor that you would not expect to find in a smartphone is one able to detect harmful
radiation. There is some smartphone that equipped with this sensor. Features a dedicated button which
launches a specific application used to determine the current level of radiation in the specific area.

Adding the cameras and the microphone to the list provide us a count of at least 14 different sensors
that are or have been utilized in a smartphone device. That is quite a lot of data that a smartphone can
provide, use and pick up. And as smartphones devices becoming more and more amazing by the year, the
list is certainly to keep on rising.
8.0 Smartphone Batteries

Old generation phones low to mid-end gives more than ten hours of talk time and around 400 hours
of standby time. Smartphones are fundamentally mini computers which have lots more going on inside
than ordinary cell phones. Therefore, they squeeze more juices. High-end smartphones give up to 300
hours standby time and up to ten to twelve hours talk time. A typical smartphone provides around 150
hours standby time and five hours talk time on 3G (2-3 times more on 2G). Despite these times drop very
sharply when you surf the web, play games and media files. A typical smartphone would not run with
you through the all work day on one single charge, so, whichever way you look at it, you have to buy a
separate reserve battery. Businessman or smartphone users who travel a lot must buy traveler kits and car
adapters. When assessing a new smartphone, pay attention to testing conditions and check its rated battery
life. For instance, manufacturers usually conduct battery tests with WiFi turned off, no media playback
and 50 percent brightness. These settings rarely reflect real-life usage scenarios and skew the battery life
unrealistically.
Users must observe that some smartphones come with built-in batteries and some removable. While
for most people this isnt a major feature, and lots of buyers will prefer the slim designs provided by
irremovable batteries, so, it is very important to keep in mind. If you are sending emails constantly,
makes a lot of calls, or a heavy phone user, then you might need to keep an extra battery handy. Many
smartphones, like the iPhone, have cases available with built-in batteries, but they provide a bit of weight
and size to the handset.

8.1 BATTERY LIFE


Temperatures can run high inside a smartphone
Smartphone market rotates around one question: how do you make possible all-day access to all
of a consumer's best services and favorite applications comfortably into one hand? (For the tablet
marketplace? With two hands.) The rest is hanky panky.
No smartphone supplier has managed to reply the question satisfactorily because they face a primal
dilemma. The gadgets that enable a more vivid, detailed screen, better video and gaming, higher-speed
data and faster performance are running at the speed of Moore's Law. The Li-ion (lithium ion) pouch cell
batteries can't keep up that power device. It is a little wonder that battery life is the greatest complaint of
smartphone users!
Li-ion battery restraints go to a long run elaborating why smartphone manufacturer expend millions
of dollars on advanced incremental design advantages in a market that's moving too fast with a blinding
rush. If you're attempting to figure out what your next Windows Phone, iPhone or Android device is going
to look like, then here are six major things you need to aware about batteries your smartphone would
have.

8.2 BATTERY BAG


A Li-ion cell is a closed bag holding cautiously superimposed cathode and anode having a thin
surface, a liquid electrolyte separator placed between them. A PCB (printed circuit board) is connected at
the one end of the battery, to the negative and positive terminals of each cell to provide active protection
against forced discharge overcharge and short-circuits. Li-ion pouch cells tend to rely on the smartphone
case the cell for protection and are fragile in nature, and so likely are not user-replaceable.

8.3 SQUEEZING IN RUN-TIME


It is determined by the energy density of a Li-ion pouch cell that how much run time you can bundle
into a given weight (gravimetric) or size (volumetric). In 1991 Li-ion technology came into the market.
Since then, transistor count in the processor has enhanced to a thousand-fold and energy density of Li-ion
only up by threefold. What makes blazing features possible are denser electronics, but they consume ever
more energy. Battery manufacturers are, unfortunately, facing a harder and harder time to increase energy
density. Therefore, this is the reason of non-replaceable Li-ion pouch batteries are famous with tablet and
smartphone. It is safe for users to handle the smartphone batteries without the protective case and does
nothing for energy capability, they pack more run-time into a small space as well as lighter, thinner.

8.4 The XYZ of Cells


Energy density is affected by the ratio between width, length of a Li-ion pouch cell and the thickness.
As the pouch gets thinner its volumetric energy density drops because the packaging takes an excess
percentage of battery volume. When the PCB is installed on the short edge of a narrow battery, the
optimum length-width ratio rises because there's more room for the cathode and anode that really store
energy. All other material being equal, a narrow, comparatively thicker battery will give better volumetric
energy density than a square one.

8.5 THE NEED TO KEEP COOL


The standard Chemistry of Li-ion battery counts on an electrolyte that reacts with residual moisture
to create, the most corrosive chemical compounds hydrofluoric acid. Like all other chemical reactions,
this process increases twofold in speed with every rise in temperature of 10 degrees Celsius. The result
is reduced cycle and calendar life: not only run-time degrade with its age, but each discharge and charge
further decrease it, until the battery doesn't last long enough between charges. Li-ion cells arise heat itself
during every discharge and charge: the hotter the battery gets the faster you charge it or the more power
your handset demands.

8.6 BUILDING A SMARTPHONE


Carve-out or three-layer approach, an example of the three-layer approach to smartphone design:
battery, circuitry, and screen are Motorola Droid. The handset that comprises two layers, electronics, and
screen, with a space carved out of the PCB for the battery like iPhone. In both cases, a larger screen results
in room for a larger battery. Regardless of the other benefits of each approach, the thicker and narrow
battery is possible with the three-layer approach which provides higher energy density. In a carve-out
approach, it's also more difficult to shield the battery from electronics that give heat and shorten battery
life.

8.7 CHEMISTRY
Advancement in Li-ion chemistry may provide spectacular advances in energy density, giving
smartphone manufacturers more options in the feature vs. lifetime battle. A lot of promising research into
some new solutions and new active materials already on the market for sale. One uses a new Li-imide
electrolyte that delivers a dramatic improvement in battery life and thermal stability because it doesn't
generate hydrofluoric acid. It also allows effectively thinner batteries by terminating most of the swelling
in thickness aspect of current Li-ion pouch cells over their effective life, which forces makers to sacrifice
cavity space to accommodate the swelling.

8.8 CONCLUSION
While smartphones are developing ever more advanced, but are still limited by power. The batteries
have not advanced in decades. Fortunately, we are on the brink of a power revolution.
Big companies, and now car companies are making electric powered vehicles, are all too aware of
the restrictions of existing lithium-ion batteries. While operating systems and processors are becoming
efficient to power conservation we are still only looking at a day or two of use on a smartphone before
having to recharge again. To counter, this problem universities are getting involved.
We are seeing a lot of battery discoveries popping out from universities all around the world. Car
manufacturers and technical companies and are forcing more money into battery advancement. And with
races like Formula 1 applying pressure to make technology better, so that technology is only going to
get greater.
While we have been discussing this advancement for decades there is yet nothing in our smartphones.
It is because every company is waiting for the perfect alternate before making the move.
Coming year is beginning to shape up as the year of batteries change. We will describe briefly some
of the best battery discoveries that could be with us soon. From super-fast 30-second re-charging to over
the air charging, you could be seeing this tech in your smartphones sooner than you imagine.

8.9 ADVANCEMENT IN BATTERY TECHNOLOGY


Lithium-air breathing batteries: This means batteries using oxygen as the oxidiser, instead of a
material. The resulting batteries that can be a fifth time cheaper and a fifth as light as lithium-ion, plus
they could make phones last five times longer. Certainly, like all research projects, this could be five to
ten years away to become a reality.
Bioo plant charger: It is a plant pot that holds the photosynthesis power to charge your handset. This
is already in the market and can be bought now.
Bioo plant provides two to three charges per day at 0.5A and 3.5V through a USB port that's smartly
disguised as a rock. The plant pot uses organic materials that react with the organic matter and water from
photosynthesizing. This produces a reaction that generates power enough to charge your smartphone.
Gold Nanowire Batteries: Nanowires, present a great possibility for future batteries, it is a thousand
times thinner than a human hair. But they've always broken down when recharging. To counter this,
scientists uses gold nanowires in a gel electrolyte. These batteries tested over 200,000 times recharging
in three months and found no degradation at all.
This will be ideal for future phones, spacecraft, and electric cars, and will never require new batteries.
Magnesium Batteries: Researchers discovered a way to harness magnesium for batteries. This will
result more densely and smaller packed units that won't require shielding. In the long run, that should
mean less reliance on lithium-ion, smaller devices, and cheaper batteries. Don't expect to see these type
of batteries will be marketed soon as they're still in the development stages.
Fuel cell for Phones: A new fuel cell has been designed that could mean you will charge smartphones
only once in a week. Scientists have, first time ever, blended thin-film electrolyte and electrodes of
minimal heat capacity with porous stainless steel. That means a battery that's longer lasting and more
durable than lithium-ion. Development for smartphones is expected to follow the announcement. Since
it's made in South Korea we may see it in the next Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphone.
Foam Batteries: 3D is the future of batteries. Prieto is the first company to develop this with its battery
that utilizes a copper foam substrate. Because of no flammable electrolyte, these batteries will not only be
safer, but they will also provide smaller than current offerings, cheaper to make, five times denser, faster
charging and longer life. The company is planning to place these batteries into small items like wearables
first. But the batteries can be upgraded to uses in phones in near future.
Nano Yolk Triple Capacity Batteries: MIT Scientists have produced a battery that can charge to
full in just 6-minutes and triples the capacity of current offerings. It also does not degrade rapidly over
time meaning it should last a long while. The good news is that production is easy to scale and cheap
comparatively, so we hope to see the batteries hit the market soon.
Aluminum Graphite Batteries: Researcher at Stanford University have created an Aluminum Graphite
Battery that could charge to full in a smartphone in just a minute. These batteries are charge ridiculously
fast, long lasting and flexible.
The only problem is they hold about half the power a compared to current lithium battery but having
the feature charging to full in just a minute that's not too much of an issue.
Lumopack Batteries: It can charge an iPhone 6's worth in only 6-minutes. The portable Lumopack
battery that's all about quick charging. The iPhone will take longer to exhaust that power from the battery
but you'll have the Lumopack ready in short time. It is because of its charge rate at 140W, making it
double the nearest competitor.
uBeam Batteries: To transmit electricity, uBeam uses ultrasound. Power is converted into sound
waves to transmit and then turned back to power on reaching the device. uBeam will make it possible
using a 5mm thick plate to charge gadgets over the air. These transmitters can be made into decorative
art or attached to walls, to beam power to smartphones. The smartphone just require a thin receiver to be
added in order to receive the charge.
Anticipating to see uBeam as a viable upgrade to your smartphones this year or early next.
StoreDot charges mobiles in 30 seconds. Chargers works with current smartphones, was designed
by StoreDot. Samsung Galaxy S4 was used to demo using with a standard battery. And the super fast
charging time of 30 seconds was achieved. This includes biological semiconductors made by peptides
(naturally occurring organic compounds), short chains of amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
As used by the body builders to build them bigger quickly. StoreDot will likely arrive in 2017.
Transparent solar charger: Alcatel has experimented a mobile phone with an over the screen
transparent solar panel that would let users recharge their smartphone by simply placing it in the sunbeam.
Although it's not seemingly to be commercially available in the market for some time, the company
anticipates that it will go to solving the daily issues of never having enough battery power. The phone will
work with standard lights as well as direct sunlight, as the way regular solar panels.
Sound powered Chargers: Scientists in the UK have created a phone that is capable of charging using
atmospheres ambient sound. The smartphone developed using a principle called the piezoelectric effect.
Nano-generators have generated that gather ambient noise and turn them into electric current. The phone
can be powered in an effective manner from waste noise found all the time around us. Impressively
the Nano-rods respond to the human voice resulting those chatty mobile users out there could really be
charging the phone as they talk. Maybe this will cause a revival in phone calls over messaging.
Solar Charged Phone: Tag Heuer has launched a new version of its Meridiist luxury phone that utilizes
solar to provide power to the device. A transparent photovoltaic component called Wysips Crystal is
placed between the LCD screen and the screen. This thin layer is invisible to the naked human eye but the
cells charge automatically when exposed to light either artificial or from the sun. Then they transfer the
power to the battery. Unfortunately, the Meridiist Infinite was released only as a limited run.

Ryden Dual Carbon Battery: A Japanese company (Power Japan Plus) has already
announced to launched Ryden dual carbon battery, there new battery technology. It will
not only charge faster, last longer than lithium batteries but it can be manufactured using
the same plants where lithium batteries are built. The batteries utilize carbon materials
resulting environmentally friendly and more sustainable than currently available. These
batteries will capable of charging twenty times faster than lithium ion batteries. They
will also be harder with the capability to last 3,000 charge cycles, further, they are safer
with minimum chance of explosion or fire. The company said it will begin manufacturing
18,650 Ryden cells soon. Hopefully, we'll go to see these batteries appear in mobile
handsets soon.
Organic Battery: Organic Batteries could be one possible future of power if a recent MIT discovery
makes it develop. Scientists have produced an organic flow battery that costs only about $27 per kilowatt-
hour nearly a 97% saving as compared to metal batteries at about $700 per kilowatt-hour.
Using Quinone molecules that are almost similar to molecules found in rhubarb, a battery was built
that is not only as effective as metal but that could also be built on a large scale.
Sand Battery: This is substitute type of conventional lithium-ion battery that utilizes sand to attain
three times better performance than existing. It is still lithium-ion battery like existed in your smartphone,
but instead of graphite, it utilizes sand in the anodes. This means it's not only low cost but provides three
times better performance, environmentally friendly and nontoxic. Scientists have been focused on Nano
Silicon but it is tough to manufacture in huge quantities and been degrading too fast. By sand, it can be
purified, powdered then ground with magnesium and salt before being heated to remove oxygen to extract
pure silicon. It is three-dimensional and porous as well, which helps in performance and, potentially, the
life of the batteries.
Sodium-ion Batteries: In Japan scientists are working on modern sort of batteries that don't require
lithium. Instead of Lithium which is rear material these new batteries will use one of the most common
materials on the planet sodium and will be seven times better performance than conventional batteries.
Marketing of the batteries is anticipated to start for smartphones in the next five to 10 years.
Upp Hydrogen Fuel Cell Charger: This portable charger is available now in the market. Upp charger
uses hydrogen to power your smartphone keeping you remaining environmentally friendly and off the
grid. One hydrogen cell will capable to gives five full charges of a smartphone, 25Wh capacity per cell.
The by-product formed is water vapor only. It uses a USB type-A socket means it will provide power to
most USB devices with a 1000mA, 5W and 5V output.
NTU Fast Charging Battery: Scientists have developed a battery that fast charges in 2 minutes up to
70% and has a life 10 times longer as compared to existing lithium-ion batteries. According to its creators,
the NTU (Nanyang Technology University) battery should last for 10,000 charges.
A lot of research work going on to improve battery technology as devices as diverse as smartphones
are more and more held back by a small range of energy storage. Most of the battery technologies fade
away before they reach to us. As MIT Technology Review mentioned, there are a lot of reason for this,
but most likely it comes down to a lack of focus and funding. Many energy analysts and researchers
considered its going to take a fundamental new chemistry to motivate the action. That could take decades.
Meanwhile, the big battery producers are working hard to make the existing capacity of batteries more
adequate.
9.0 SMARTPHONE CAMERAS

The camera is one of the most significant features of smartphones. Whether its for flowers or food,
landscapes, and photographing people, buyers today demand the best quality camera on the back of their
smartphones. As users are getting better each year, for many they have substituted standalone point-and-
shoot cameras as the go-to smartphone for everyday photography, as they're more compact to carry with
you and easier to access. With the services like Snapchat and trend of selfies across social media, the
front-facing camera is progressively important too.

The 16-megapixel camera on the back of the Samsung Galaxy


What do pixel sizes and f-stops really mean? What hardware companies use? What goes into building a
smartphone camera? Here well be exploring interesting comparisons along the way, key terms associated
with photography and hardware for a smartphone camera.

9.1 THE BASICS OF CAMERA HARDWARE


For smartphone cameras, like a lot of cameras available on the marketplace, there are two primary parts
that build the camera module: the lens and the sensor. Without both of these important components, it
is impossible to you to take a picture. This is why theyre generally bundled together into one unit that
includes on to the main board of a smartphone through a ribbon cable.
A Camera module from the Samsung Galaxy S5K2P2XX 1/2.6 sensor with a f/2.2
lens
The components that actually capture the picture is the sensor. The sensor is a complex
integrated circuit that distinctively adds photodetectors, transistors plus amplifiers, the key
component that captures light and often some form of power management and processing
hardware. The sensor provides all the necessary data when the camera software inside the
smartphone requests an image.
Smartphone camera sensors almost universally use Complementary Metal-Oxide-
Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which is a form of active pixel sensor we discussed
above. Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) is the other main sensor technology, it is too
expensive and power consuming for use in smartphones devices, even if historically CCD
sensors have been of a higher quality.
A comparatively simple explanation of how a CMOS sensor acts is that the
photodetectors corresponding to every pixel in the picture capture analog data about the
light packets (photons) striking them. This data gets amplified and then changed into
a digital signal associating to the brightness of the photons. An RGBG Bayer filter is
superimposed over the array of photodetectors to get color data and an interpolation
software algorithm brings on to the final, full-color picture.
A number of photodetectors in the sensors array refers directly to a number of
megapixels a camera has. For example, there are eight million photodetectors in the array
of an eight-megapixel sensor.
To make the image clear and crisp the lens focuses light onto the sensor. It is possible
to use a camera without a lens, but the resulting image will be just a blur of colors as
photons from all angles strike the sensor. Primarily, you require a lens so the light from the
huge scene in front of the camera can be focused and reduced down to fit the small size of
the sensor.

Breakout of the construction of camera for smartphone


The lens is a collection of multiple glass or plastic elements, with glass generally
producing a sharper and higher quality result. Each element has a particular function in
focusing the light onto the sensor, whether thats normally shaping the light to fit the size
of the sensor, correcting issues, or furnishing the final focus point.
With autofocus in a camera, the collection of a few elements (or final lens element)
with the help of a motor, will further away from or move closer to the sensor. This makes
possible for different areas of the picture to come out in focus, and is one of the key
features of a pragmatic camera system.
Aperture is an orifice before the sensor, of a specific size, that the focused light passes
through. The aperture acts in conjunction with lens elements. The hole size ascertains
how much light travels to the sensor, and how in focus and sharp the picture will be. Its
impossible to regulate the light gathering properties of the lens to change the way the
image looks, because unlike professional cameras, the aperture on a smartphone camera is
always fixed.

Photo was captured using a Samsung Galaxy at ISO 40, 1/580s, f/2.2
The focal length is the distance between the sensor and the lens elements. The focal
length determines both field of view as well as the effective magnification of the camera
system. A short focal length equals to a wide-angle lens with little magnification and vice
versa.
How much far the lens requires to be from the sensor changes depending on what
function you want the lens to perform and the sizing of the sensor itself. Cameras in
Smartphone almost universally use small sensors and wide-angle lenses, resulting focal
lengths are below 5mm.
Therefore, it is a basic look at what a camera in a smartphone comprises of. As you
may have discovered, its very similar to a human eye, where the retina is the sensor and
the lens is the lens. Its time to take a deeper look now.
Independent cameras come in a large range variety, and are often specific to certain
purposes: macro cameras are for getting up close, the medium format provides the detail
needed for posters and magazines, superzooms are great for photographing birds and
airplanes and broadcast cameras are furnished for streaming video to your TV.
However, the Smartphone cameras categories into the one bracket designed to be the
most versatile without being complex. Sensors are small because of the small footprint of
a handset, apertures and lens focal lengths are fixed to minimize the number of moving
objects, the wide-angle lens is to be most useful for general shooting situations, and theres
not a lot of extra hardware to accompany the lens and the sensor.

The Duo Camera on the back of the HTC One (M8), a 4-megapixel OmniVision
OV4688 paired with a 2-megapixel OV2722 for depth sensing
There is a range of areas in which smartphone cameras differ between models and
vendors. Every one of them is detailed below.
9.2 MEGAPIXEL COUNT
Megapixels count is the one most people are aware of and the
subject that usually falls onto specification sheets and marketing
materials. Because it is the simplest to understand: a larger megapixel
count means more detail, which can be used for zooming and
cropping or for creating lifelike images. Because of fixed-focus
lenses for a Camera on a smartphone, zooming can be specifically
important, where you need a higher megapixel count to preserve the
detail.
Having a higher megapixel count is all good and well, but it doesnt even start to
explain the story of how a camera performs overall. A distinctive tradeoff with having a
sensor packing millions of pixels is a small pixel size, but conversely having few pixels
produce pictures look worse through a lack of detail. On smartphones, youll generally
find sensors packing between 20 and 5 megapixels because Camera manufacturers know
this trade-off.

Comparing a 41-megapixel image, 20-megapixel image and 5-megapixel image all at


100% crops
MP (Megapixel) count can be misleading as well. Leaping from 13 MP to 20 MP
may feel like a large jump, but pictures are just 25% wider (5248 pixels wide instead of
4160) and 1.5 times more pixels. Theres not a big difference between the images at full
resolution, both cameras created.
In fact to get a huge difference in zoom ability and quality, you require like going
from 5 MP to 20 MP or at least four times the pixels.
9.3 SENSOR SIZE
Sensor size anchors a bunch of the other crucial values regarding
a camera system, such as its crop factor, necessary focal length, and
the f-number. Fortunately, smartphone manufacturers are well aware
of all of those matters out for you, leaving the only one important
thing you require to concern about: sensors light gathering
properties.
Image was taken with a 20.7-megapixel, 1/2.3" at ISO 50, 1/160s, f/2.0
This one must be very easy to understand. Assuming the megapixel count remains the
same a bigger sensor has a larger area for the light to drop on, equating to a greater ability
to gather the light.
The Sensor sizes are generally provided as a fractional number in inches as 1/2.3 or
1/3.06, may seem to provide the diagonal dimensions of the sensor, but actually, it refers
to a type of sensor, instead, with a one-third smaller diagonal size. For instance, a 1/2.3
sensor instead of 11.04mm, have a diagonal size of 7.66mm 30% less.
9.4 PIXEL SIZE
For having an idea of how much space in the camera module is
consumed by the sensor, size of the sensor is useful, but less
countable for gauging total light gathering as megapixel counts differ
between smartphones. That is here pixel size comes in, providing a
direct measure in the CMOS sensor, of how large the individual
photodetectors are.
The camera looks inside the smartphone body looks
For smartphones, pixel size fits into a narrow range between one and two microns,
or m (micrometers) in either the vertical or horizontal direction. Again, the more light
every pixel can gathers as larger you go. That is why the camera, with a 2.0 m pixel size,
performs in dark conditions a lot better than with 1.12 m pixels. Because the pixels are
larger and can capture more light.
As the CMOS sensor, the technology behind its design can affect the light capturing
properties of each particular pixel, the easiest way to compare is just by counting on size.
As Calculated by comparing the difference in total area, a camera having 1.4-micron pixels
gathers twice the light per pixel of one with 1.0-micron pixels. We can say it another way
that the sensor of 1.4 microns will be brighter.

Image was taken with a 4-megapixel, 1/3" at ISO 200, 1/25s, f/2.0
As mentioned earlier, this trade-off between pixel size, sensor size, and the megapixel
count is extremely important. Some manufacturers like Samsung and Sony go for the
megapixel count, others Nokia and Apple like a balance, while HTC pushes all out on
pixel size.
Now it comes which one is better? There is no correct answer to this, as it comes down
to what you want from the camera in your smartphone. Typically, youll get better low-
light pictures with bigger pixel sizes, but if you like to shoot mostly during daytime, then
a higher megapixel count may be more appealing. Id recommend as always, to see what
type of camera youll find by checking the sample images and camera specifications for
any smartphone you are going to purchase.
9.5 RGBC FILTER, STACKED CMOS, ISOCELL, AND BSI
These terms refer to the susceptibility to noise, the sensitivity of
each pixel and the construction of the sensor.
You can find RGBC filter in high-end sensors of some
OmniVision. OmniVision adds in a clear pixel to the filter, instead of a
Bayer RGBG filter, which improves low light performance by running
through full brightness data information to the processor. Then camera
translates this into Bayer images for the image signal processor of
SoC.
In Sony sensors you can find Stacked CMOS technology, again
improving the ability to gathers light below the pixel array by forcing
some parts of the circuitry. Its found BSI technology in alongside
Exmor RS sensors.
BSI (Backside Illumination) is a method of designing a
smartphone camera sensor where the photodetectors are layered above
the other components with transistors. Its a more complex method,
but it minimizes reflectivity, which in turn improves the light
gathering ability of the sensor. Nearly all high-end smartphones are
equipped with BSI sensors.
Samsung's ISOCELL sensor
For their BSI sensors, ISOCELL is the Samsung-specific technology, it provides barriers
between each photodetector to minimize crosstalk, and especially in low-light situations it
improves color accuracy and sharpness. When photoelectrons bleed between the pixels is
called Crosstalk, causing halo effects and bloom in specific conditions, so to produce clean
images reducing these effects is important.
There are other forms of tech found in sensors as well.
9.6 FOCAL LENGTH
The distance between the sensor and the lens called Focal length,
which determines magnification and the field of view. Due to the small
sensors, the actual focal lengths for most of the smartphone cameras
arent very practicable for people familiar with photography terms.
35mm-equivalent focal lengths explain what focal length the cameras lens would
require to have if you wish to create equivalent images on a DSLR with a 35mm-format
sensor. Then it is easy to bracket the camera lens into different types based on whats
already known about lenses for traditional 35mm cameras: 18-35mm assigns a wide-angle
lens, 35-60mm are normal lenses, and above 60mm are long-focus known as zoom lenses
or telephoto.
Image was taken with a 20-megapixel, 1/2.5" at ISO 100, 1/1100s, f/2.4
All Cameras for smartphones fall into the wide-angle lens bracket, generally
somewhere between 24-30mm; the bigger the number, the less wide angle the lens will be.
Calculating the 35mm-equivalent focal length needs a ratio known as the crop factor,
describes how small the sensor is proportional to a sensor of 35mm. There is no great
difference between the focal lengths of cameras for a smartphone, although Samsung
smartphones use lenses slightly less wide as compared to their rivals. Though it doesnt
make a lot of difference in practical use.
9.7 F-NUMBER AND APERTURE

The size of the aperture of a camera has much more significant value, commonly described as an
f-number. The f-number is a ratio between the size of the orifice and the focal length, and explain how
much light sensor can pass through. For example, An f-number of 2, expressed typically as f/4 would be
a focal length 4 times the aperture and f/2 mean the focal length is twice the size of the aperture; and so
forth.
The larger the aperture, the lower the f-number, and thus more light will pass through it. Although
differences in f-number arent directly apparent, as double the f-number doesnt mean the half the light
capturing area and one stop less. Instead, double the f-number is a two stop difference due to the circular
nature of an aperture, providing one-quarter the light capturing area.
20.7-megapixel, 1/2.3" sensor paired with a f/2.0 lens.
Cameras in Smartphone generally utilize apertures ranging between f/2.0 and f/2.4,
in the overall camera ecosystem both are wide, but there is a huge difference between
them. The aperture of f/2.4 is a half stop less as compared to f/2.0, so a f/2.0 lens transfers
50% more light to the sensor. On low-light performance, it is a significant effect, with
f/2.0-lensed smartphones generally producing better results as compared to their f/2.4
counterparts.
The difference in f-number doesnt only affect light capturing properties. A lens with
a larger f-number has Weaker Bokeh means pleasant blur because of defocused fields
outside the depth of field range, less Chromatic Aberration means prevalent colored
fringes in areas of a photo with high contrast, typically sharper images and a wider depth
of the scene.
An average bokeh from a smartphone camera. Taken with a 16-megapixel, 1/2.6" at
ISO 40, 1/200s, f/2.2
We find another trade-off here. In some cases, strong bokeh and shallower depth of
field are preferred particularly when shooting subjects in macro mode or in up-close,
as it places the focal point of the image rather than the background, squarely on the
subject. DSLRs are specifically good at presenting pleasant bokeh with a good lens. But
on smartphones, the effect is less obtrusive, but still exist comparing f/2.4 and f/2.0 lenses.
While sharpness and chromatic aberrations are issues with wider apertures, it always
falls second place to depth-of-field and low light sensitivity. So, in nearly all situations,
wider apertures are preferred over smaller apertures. But unfortunately, wide-aperture
lenses are more expensive and more complex to manufacture, that's why not all
smartphones providers use them.
9.8 IMAGE STABILIZATION
When taking images, Smartphones are almost always used
handheld, that is why image stabilization is important. There are two
main forms: Electronic Image Stabilization (EIS), and optical image
stabilization (OIS). Normally, OIS is preferred as it provides better
results but is more complex and more expensive to integrate.
OIS works by placing a lens module or the camera sensor inside a stabilized rig.
Using data from a gyroscope installed just beside the camera, to counteract the physical
movement of the device the entire rig is shifted with electromagnets. This keeps the optical
components in the same specific position while the camera gently shakes in the hand of
users.
The harnessing manual mode in Camera and OIS. Taken with a 20-megapixel, 1/2.5"
at ISO 100, 2.0s, f/2.4
EIS or Electronic Image Stabilization works without the help of any additional
hardware. For still pictures, typically an EIS system will boost the sensitivity of a sensor,
therefore, a quicker shutter speed can be used, minimizing blur. Other EIS systems will
take a burst shot of normal sensitivity, u merging or sing together the least blurry pictures.
Extra pixels are used outside the normal video frame for video shooting, to reduce the
effects of motion, giving a buffer as the camera is moved around.
A good OIS system will provide a smartphone camera an advantage of a stop or more.
It means a slower shutter speed can be utilized that, without creating blur into the picture,
allows double the light to strike the sensor than otherwise.
9.9 SHUTTER, WHITE BALANCE, ISO, METERING AND
FOCUS
These five conditions are very significant to get an accurate and good looking, images.
Smartphone cameras typically focus using contrast detection unlike to professional cameras, it is
completely working on the software side by shifting the lens until there is maximum contrast between
nearby pixels. DSLR professional cameras typically utilize more accurate and quicker phase detection
method, which doesnt support the hardware of a smartphone camera.

A 13-megapixel 1/3.06" Sony IMX135 sensor with OIS and a unique laser autofocus system.
All smartphones do not depend on contrast detection: for example, the LG G3 has a laser-assisted
autofocus system, before matching the focus, it assesses the distance from the lens to the subject. This
autofocus system is faster and more accurate as compared to contrast detection.
Metering is completely done utilizing the sensor, again unlike professional cameras, pairs the sensor
with other hardware along with a light meter to get better results. The software of camera for a smartphone
analyze the picture before capturing and sets vibrancy, shutter speed, exposure, white balance and ISO
accordingly.
Specifically, a center-weighted metering mode is utilized, which corrects settings with a preference to
get the picture properly metered in the middle. And spot metering can also be used, it meters based on
where you tap on the display screen and as can matrix metering, uses a complex algorithm to calculate
the proper settings to use.
ISO refers to the speed of the film of a camera, in the case of digital cameras explaining how sensitive
the photodetectors are set. High ISOs make lighter pictures via increasing the signal amplification but are
more capable to grain, particularly so on a sensor of a smartphone. ISOs of 400 and above typically gives
images with obtrusive grain with such a small sensor, so theyre reserved for low light. In most of the
cases, you should try to take a picture with the lowest possible ISO.
The biggest point of failure often is White balance, when it comes to properly metering images,
indoors especially. The preview is used to calculate what color should be white and sets the tone for the
whole picture. Most camera applications provide you with full manual control over white balance, and it
can be key in getting a perfect image from your smartphone camera.
The shutter on almost all cameras is completely electronic, instead of mechanical as on DSLRs. A
mechanical shutter can improve its performance and simplify the sensor, but due to size reasons and build
quality, they are seldom found on smartphones devices. Electronic sensors are absolutely appropriate for
practical use and have the edge of being very fast.

9.10 VIDEO CAPTURING

In the smartphone camera, Video is an integral part, captured by taking fundamentally a burst shot
of pictures at the frame rate and the resolution of the video. Frame rate and the maximum supported
resolution of a camera is always confined by both the image signal processor on the SoCs side and the
circuitry of the camera model itself.
Video recording is extremely bandwidth intense, and all the processing is done, off the camera
hardware after it passes through the image signal processor raw input converting to the H.264 is done
by the video encoding block on the SoC. Therefore, you dont see crazy frame rates from cameras in a
smartphone, because the hardware cant support it.
What type of bandwidth are we talking about? For instance, the high-end IMX214 sensor from Sony
supports maximum output speeds of 2.4 Gbps, sufficient to support transmitting raw 4K information at
30 Feet per Second (FPS) which needs 1.9 Gbps.
A high-end smartphone typically supports recording 4K i.e. 3840 x 2160 videos at 30 FPS, which
needs a sensor size of minimum 8 MP (megapixels). Other supported video recording modes typically
include 720p at 120 FPS and 1080p at 60 FPS.

9.11 MANUFACTURERS
The smartphone sensors most often used in smartphone handsets are from manufacturers such as
S5Kxxx from Samsung, IMXxxx from Sony and OmniVision, parts designated OVxxxx, and are used in
everything from the entry-level Moto E to the high-end iPhone. Camera modules are also built by Nokia,
although these used exclusively in their own handsets. ST VDxxxx sensors from ST Microelectrics also
crop up time to time.
The sensor is sometimes coupled with a lens by the camera fabricators to give an easy slot-in module.
At other times, a third-party will give potentially an optical stabilization rig and the lens system; or the
smartphone manufacturer companies will design their own to use.

A 16-megapixel 1/2.3" OmniVision OV16820 CMOS sensor


Camera hardware, unfortunately, is not the thing you can simply swap out of a smartphone. Its up to
the manufacturer to select a camera company to bring the parts for the final product, and the only way to
replace the camera is to change the smartphone handset as a whole.
10.0 NEW SMARTPHONE FEATURES
Nowadays it is hard to decide, which is a more thrilling feature in a smartphone, watching a new
smartphone launching or doing home jobs while listening music.
A slightly vivid screen display! A better camera!
I dont want to sound ungrateful. How accessible and powerful smartphones have become over the
last decade is one of the great technological achievement ever.
Todays smartphone are proving that some phone manufacturers are focusing on reinvention and not
just refinement like LGs newest flagship smartphone G5. The G5 has a number of tricks: To plug in
with different modules its bottom half detaches, two rear cameras and it works with LGs forthcoming
360-degree camera and virtual-reality headset.
The similarly cost Galaxy S7 by Samsung has a good battery life, superior camera, and sleek
waterproof design. And, certainly, the iPhone 6 and 6S are a great exchange of money as well.
Although the software will be continued at the base of smartphone creation, there is hardware (we
discussed in an earlier section) on the scenario that will push phones forward.
We will discuss in the section about some great features of todays smartphones.

10.1 Always-Listening

The most recent smartphone handsets are moved a step ahead towards always-on technology. You
have already encountered a few smartphones with voice activation while the handset is away from you
charging to a power source or while the screen is on. However, always-on, touchless and full-fledged
handheld devices remain relatively new and quite rare. This trend began with Motorola's Moto-X always-
listening voice activation feature. The Apple iPhone 6S features always-listening Siri released one year
ago. The new Samsung Galaxy S7 become a double member of the always-on feature club, with S-voice
activation as well as a perpetual low-power time and date display. These smartphones are the pioneers, but
it's a safe to say that these features will soon become the standard for all smartphone devices. Therefore,
what does it take to not drain your phone's battery by having the great always-on features?

10.2 ACTIVE DISPLAY OR ALWAYS ON SCREEN

Active Display or Always-on display is the new feature, introduced in the LG G5, Samsung Galaxy
S7, and Edge. This feature is designed to breathe your screen to life depending on the occasion. It doesnt
look like a big deal because weve been using our smartphone without it for years. However, Trust me,
the convenience makes a world of difference. It may be a trick, but I am certain once you use it, youll
never leave it again. And, dont concern, its not as sinister as it sounds.
Genuinely introduced by first Moto X and its famous motion-activated display, these new display
features are first and foremost designed for convenience, but they offer some other benefits also.
Fundamentally, an active display will show you a sneak peak of information, even when your display
screen is turned off. A feature in Moto X called Moto Display, the screen comes to life and shows
you information such as email, messages and time all without having a hand or even to touch your
smartphone. On the same way, if your handset is lying face down, as you simply turned it over and the
display will gently be faded on.
In the Pure Edition Technically, lights up the entire screen, as opposed to previous Moto X models,
but it keeps the display black and shows white text so your eyes dont bleed when seeing the time at 4 a.m.
You can see in the picture above to observe what this feature looks like. Moto Display took advantage in
previous Moto X models, of AMOLED technology to only light up particular pixels.
Because of The Pure Edition, in particular, came with an additional set of IR sensors, enabling
it recognizing when to fade notifications in and out. Certainly, the Moto X does a fantastic job of
recognizing when your hand waves over the display, which means you wont have to swing at it just to
see the time.
Its not only the time either. If your notifications already waiting for you, just approach your
smartphone and itll come to life, detecting your presence like some sort of digital guard. This feature
makes it easy to watch if any notifications require your attention to right this moment. Again, all without
touching your handset. It works like magic.
It means the less you turn on your display screen, the more battery life is saved. Once you begin to
enjoy this feature of checking time and notifications, youll start to love the benefits an active display or
always-on screen gives.
Simply providing the feature isnt enough, still. A feature knows as Ambient Display with Lollipop
(introduced by Google), but its not as responsive or advanced as what Motorola provides. Still, its
good to see manufacturer recognizing the usefulness of the feature. With an extra sensor or two or some
tweaking, Google can obviously provide Ambient Display up to compare with Motorolas tendering.
Samsung has dallied with active display technology before while LGs V10, to feed users information,
used a secondary display. We also observed OnePlus dabble with a same feature in the OnePlus X. Even
Nokia also played with a likely feature known as Glance. But with the Samsungs S7 and LGs G5, active
display or always-on displays are about to go mainstream.
10.3 DOUBLE TAP TO WAKE

First found on the G2 of LG, the "KnockOn" easy-to-use wakes up feature with a simple double tap
on the display screen.
It's more easy than reaching for the wake-up or power button on the back cover, side or top and
became a hit.
This feature is coming preloaded on flagship devices like iPhone 6, Samsung galaxy S5, S6, and
Tablets.
A power button may get some rest now. Furthermore, there are some apps like Knockon, Knocker,
Gravity Screen and Waveunlock are available now to use this feature on your Android tablet and
Smartphone ON and OFF without using your legendary power button.

10.4 PAYING WITH PHONE


NFC technology has gotten more popular over the years (we have discussed NFC in detail in the
previous section), allowing you to securely send information over a short distance.

10.5 LOCATION-BASED REMINDERS

How frequently do you pass by your favorite departmental store and forget to pick up Bread? Have
you ever headed to the airport to grab a flight, only to aware you have forgotten your passport is back
at home? If you're forgetful and disorganized, I recommend to set up a few location-based reminders on
your smartphone device.
As the name indicates, location-based reminders are alerts or notifications that show up when you or
really, your GPS-enabled smartphone are in a specific place. For instance, you can set up a location-based
reminder that displays, "Buy Bread" the next time you drive or walk past your favorite departmental store.
By using an application that supports location-based reminders, you instruct the smartphone through
application to take an action or alert you when you leave or arrive at an assigned destination. You setup
the address by either by selecting one stored in your digital address book or typing it in. The application
then keeps track of the GPS information data collected by your smartphone app to wake up the alert when
you leave or arrive at a destination.

10.6 SHAKE TO REDO


When you type something on your smartphone, there are occasions when you want to go to one
step back. For example, you had some text highlighted and you touch backspace wishing to delete one
alphabet, but instead, it removed all of the highlighted text. It would be fair to have an option that asked:
"Hey, I didn't want to do that."
iPhone smartphone have already had this feature for years, and they've improved it beyond having
just an "Undo" option that would occupy valuable screen real estate. Apples this feature provide you to
just shake your smartphone to pop up an "Undo" menu option. The shake option also provides to quickly
erase the text with the "Undo" option.

10.7 PIN SCREEN

If you have ever seen a tablet device in place of a conventional menu booklet at a restaurant, you
aware how this works. The user can use the menu application only and cant open anything else or leave
the screen display. The best option about screen pinning is that user can pin any app so if you needed to,
for instance, hand your smartphone off to your kid so they can play a certain game, they wouldnt be able
to reach anything else.
The Release of Android 5.0 Lollipop has for more than one year now and has the ability to pin an
application to lock the screen.
Pinning an application provide it the feature so if someone using your smartphone can't tap the app
and swipe away to anywhere else on your device. It's a very useful feature for parents who often let their
kids play games.
10.8 REACHABILITY MODE

There was a time when the original Galaxy Note having 5.3-inch display was believed huge. Now, it
is normal to have 5-inch-plus displays.
Just like Apple Reachability or one-handed mode for the larger iPhone 6 Plus and iPhone 6 displays.
Apple is calling this feature a Reachability Mode and because of it (as the image above) you can double
tap the Home Screen icon or button to shift the entire User Interface (UI) down to put UI contents at the
top of the display screen within your thumbs reach. Others manufacturers along with Samsung having
large smartphones devices provide same features that scale the screen to corner or one side to make the
smartphone easier to utilize with a single hand.

10.9 HANDOFF

A new feature brought in iOS 8, and OS X Yosemite, because of this ability text messages or phone
calls to be forwarded to another device. For instance, you could listen to a call conversation on your iPad
or reply to text messages from your MacBook with help of the much larger keyboard.
In order for Handoff to work, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth features must be a turn on both of your MacBook
and iPhone/iPad, and you have to enable on Handoff.
On the other hand, Handoff works with much more than text messages and calls. You can simply
synchronize information to and fro other devices, even from the Apple Watch, through applications like
Keynote, Numbers, Mail, Pages, Safari, and Maps.

10.10 FAST CHARGING

Cameras get better, displays get sharper, and hardware gets faster, the battery is yet a field that doesn't
seem to change. Battery lifespan has gotten importantly better across the board, but when you require
your smartphone the most, you're let down often.
Qualcomm Snapdragon processors powered a lot of phones devices, so thanks to its built-in "Quick
Charge" technology lives up to the name. With the most recent version, Quick Charge 2.0, user can
acquire a significant boost in as short as 15 minutes.
For example, Motorola's Turbo Charger offers to provide you up to 8 hours of battery lifespan after
charging in 15 minutes. Though, for most of Motorola's smartphones, you need to buy this charger
separately.
"Fast Charger" from Samsung goes by a different brand, but has the same benefits for the Galaxy
S6 Edge and S6, and now the LG G4 also has this feature.
10.11 WATER RESISTANT SMARTPHONE

Who says water and electronics devices dont mix? Smartphones that can tumble into a puddle, a dunk
in the bath or handle the rain, arent the rarity they once were, we are not only talking about low-powered,
basic cell phones covered in rubber either. Nowadays its possible to purchase a capable mid-range phone,
good-looking, and even an awesome flagship smartphone which isnt fear of the wet stuff or components,
too.
Maybe you just want to Tweet while you shower in the morning, youre always at the pool or you
work outdoors. Whichever the reason, weve got your back. Theres the top smartphone available for
anyone seeking a waterproof phone. With a quick overview of what those IP numbers really mean.
When we discuss waterproof hardware, we mention to an IP rating. IP is an abbreviation for Ingress
Protection and is normally followed by a number, which refers to its capability to withstand dust and
water. The first number relates to solid particle protection and the second number to liquid. Here is an
entire breakdown of what the IP codes denote, but I have added the details you require to know with each
smartphone device, so you dont need to go and work it out.
While some of the smartphones get close to being labeled waterproof, we certainly should address
them as just water-resistant. It means we dont advise you to submerge them intentionally. But its still
good not to need to worry.
For example, if the IP number starts with a six, then the smartphone provides complete safe from dust
and must ward off mites to the extent where none can find their way inside. If the IP number is a five,
then the smartphone device is protection against ingress, and any particles that get inside couldnt stop it
from the operation.
To meet the IPx8 standard, the smartphone device must continue to work normally after being
submerged in water continuously, however the exact details depend on to the fabricator. For example,
in the case of the Sony Xperia Z5, the manufacturer says itll withstand low-pressure water jets from
any angles, and at a depth of 1.5-meters for 30 minutes underwater. Its as good as it gets for consumer
electronic devices, but you have to keep in mind that its touchscreen isnt going to work properly while
underwater.
10.12 USING PHONE WHILE DRIVING
As smartphones devices have brought features like streaming music services and voice-guided
navigation, they've become fabulously useful while driving in a car. But certainly, looking down at your
smartphone screen while driving is not a safe idea.
Voice-assistance features as the iPhone's Siri have provided us a little safer by giving us to speak
commands to our smartphones, but they still need you to touch microphones icon to activate it.
Nowadays so many new vehicles come with features that let your smartphone to connect wirelessly to
your car so you can make calls using the car's controls, get directions or listen to music. But it hard to
setting up these features.
For example, the first smartphone Google launched since buying Motorola, the new Moto X
smartphone, has two new features that enable you to continue using your smartphone while driving a car
without sacrificing a lot of safety. In Moto X the first feature is touchless control, enables you to speak
voice commands to your smartphone without touching it. After your phone train enough to recognize only
your voice, then it is always listening for your command, whether its screen is sleeping or awake. Without
having to touch the smartphone device, you just say "OK Google Now" and you can do a Google search,
get directions or even make calls. If you secure your smartphone with a password, you can only to make
a call using touchless controls. Other commands need you to unlock it first with your hands. We all hope
that Google will fix it with a software update.
"Assist" is the other breakout feature, switches your phone to a "Driving" mode designed to make you
safer in the car, which automatically discovers when you're in motion. It asks whether you want to take
the call, announces the name of new phone callers or reads new text messages aloud.

10.13 IR BLASTER OR INFRARED REMOTE CONTROL


An IR blaster built into a smartphone enables the device to double as a URC (Universal Remote
Control) for a number of electronic components we have at our offices and homes. By using a particular
built-in application, the smartphone can be programmed to control a set-top box, a TV and maybe even
your AC.

10.14 WIRELESS CHARGING


This is a new feature for users now you don't need to plug in your smartphone for recharging. You
just set your phone down and it's started to recharge. And you don't have to worry; it is perfectly safe to
charge your smartphone wireless.
Someway, all of these smartphone features aren't obtainable on any one single mobile phone device.
Respected smartphone manufacturer, we won't tell if you simply use copy and paste all these features into
one single smartphone.
It shouldn't take purchasing a half dozen smartphones to get all the benefits of shake to redo, always-
listening, quick & wireless charging, knock to wake, Active Display and reachability.
I'd bet that if any smartphone device could feature all above features, it'd climb mighty high on
updated best phone list.
11.0 LATEST SMARTPHONES
Features and specifications of some of latest smartphones are as under;

11.1 SAMSUNG GALAXY S7 EDGE

Versions: G935 (USA), G935F (Global), G935FD (Southeast Asia)


Also known as Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge Duos with Dual-SIM Card Slot
NETWORK
Technology: GSM/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), LTE (Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS: Yes
EDGE: Yes
Launch Date: March 2016
BODY
Dimensions: 150.9 x 72.6 x 7.7 mm (5.94 x 2.86 x 0.30 in)
Weight: 157 gm (5.54 oz)
Build: Corning Gorilla Glass 4 Back Panel
SIM: Single SIM (Nano) or Dual SIM (Nano, dual stand-by)
Features: Samsung Pay (Visa, MasterCard Certified), IP68 Certified, Dust Proof
and Water Proof Over 1.5 Meter and 30 Minutes
DISPLAY
Type: Super AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size: 5.5 inches (~76.1% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution: 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~534 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch: Yes
Protection: Corning Gorilla Glass 4, Always On Display, TouchWiz UI, Curved
Edge Screen.
PLATFORM
Operating System: Android OS, v6.0 (marshmallow)
Chipset: Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820 Exynos 8890 Octa
CPU: Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
Octa-Core (4x2.3 GHz Mongoose & 4x1.6 GHz Cortex-A53)
GPU: Adreno 530 Mali-T880 MP12
MEMORY
Card Slot: Micro SD, up to 256 GB (Dedicated Slot)
Internal: 32/64 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary: 12MP, f/1.7, 26mm, Phase Detection Autofocus, OIS, LED Flash
Features: 1/2.5 Sensor Size, 1.4m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Simultaneous 4K
Video and 9MP Image Recording, Touch Focus, Face/Smile Detection,
Auto HDR, Panorama
Video: 2160p@30fps, 1080p@60fps, 720p@240fps, HDR, Dual Video
Recording
Secondary: 5MP, 1/4.1 Sensor Size, 1.34 m Pixel Size, f/1.7, 22mm, Dual Video
Call, Auto HDR
SOUND
Alert Type: Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker: Yes
3.5mm Jack: Yes
24-bit/192kHz Audio, Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN: Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, Wi-Fi Direct, Hotspot
Bluetooth: v4.2, A2DP, LE, aptX
GPS: Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS, BDS
NFC: Yes
Radio: No
USB: MicroUSB v2.0, USB Host
Features
Sensors: Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer,
Heart Rate, SpO2
Messaging: SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser: HTML5
Java: No
Features 60% in 30 Minutes (Quick Charge 2.0), Qi/PMA Wireless Charging
(Market Dependent), ANT + Support, S-Voice Natural Language
Command and Dictation, OneDrive (115 GB Cloud Storage), MP4/
DivX/XviD/WMV/H.264 Player,
MP3/WAV/WMA/eAAC+/FLAC Player, Photo/Video Editor,
Document Editor
BATTERY
Type: Non-Removable Li-Ion 3600 mAh Battery
Talk Time: Up to 27 h (3G)
Music Play: Up to 74 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors: Balck, White, Gold, Silver, Pink Gold
SAR US: 1.17 W/kg (Head) 1.59 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU: 0.26 /kg (Head) 0.51 W/kg (Body)
11.2 SAMSUNG GALAXY S7

Versions: G930 (USA), G930F (Global), G930FD (Southeast Asia)


Also known as Samsung Galaxy S7 Duos with Dual-SIM Card Slot
NETWORK
Technology: GSM/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), LTE (Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS: Yes
EDGE: Yes
Launch Date: March 2016
BODY
Dimensions: 142.4 x 69.6 x 7.9 mm (5.61 x 2.74 x 0.31 in)
Weight: 152 gm (5.54 oz)
Build: Corning Gorilla Glass 4 Back Panel
SIM: Single SIM (Nano) or Dual SIM (Nano, dual stand-by)
Features: Samsung Pay (Visa, MasterCard Certified), IP68 Certified, Dust Proof
and Water Proof Over 1.5 Meter and 30 Minutes
DISPLAY
Type: Super AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size: 5.1 inches (~72.1% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution: 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~577 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch: Yes
Protection: Corning Gorilla Glass 4, Always On Display, TouchWiz UI
PLATFORM
Operating System: Android OS, v6.0 (marshmallow)
Chipset: Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820 Exynos 8890 Octa
CPU: Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
Octa-Core (4x2.3 GHz Mongoose & 4x1.6 GHz Cortex-A53)
GPU: Adreno 530 Mali-T880 MP12
MEMORY
Card Slot: Micro SD, up to 256 GB (Dedicated Slot)
Internal: 32/64 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary: 12MP, f/1.7, 26mm, Phase Detection Autofocus, OIS, LED Flash
Features: 1/2.5 Sensor Size, 1.4m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Simultaneous 4K
Video and 9MP Image Recording, Touch Focus, Face/Smile Detection,
Auto HDR, Panorama
Video: 2160p@30fps, 1080p@60fps, 720p@240fps, HDR, Dual Video
Recording
Secondary: 5MP, 1/4.1 Sensor Size, 1.34 m Pixel Size, f/1.7, 22mm, Dual Video
Call, Auto HDR
SOUND
Alert Type: Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker: Yes
3.5mm Jack: Yes
Features: 24-bit/192kHz Audio, Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated
Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN: Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, Wi-Fi Direct, Hotspot
Bluetooth: v4.2, A2DP, LE, aptX
GPS: Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS, BDS
NFC: Yes
Radio: No
USB: MicroUSB v2.0, USB Host
FEATURES
Sensors: Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer,
Heart Rate, SpO2
Messaging: SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser: HTML5
Java: No
Features: Fast Battery Charging: 60% in 30 Minutes (Quick Charge 2.0), Qi/
PMA Wireless Charging (Market Dependent), ANT+ Support, S-Voice
Natural Language Command and Dictation, OneDrive (115 GB Cloud
Storage), MP4/DivX/XviD/WMV/H.264 Player,
MP3/WAV/WMA/eAAC+/FLAC Player,
Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type: Non-Removable Li-Ion 3600 mAh Battery
Talk Time: Up to 22 h (3G)
Music Play: Up to 62 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors: Black, White, Gold, Silver, Pink Gold
SAR US: 1.40 W/kg (Head) 1.59 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU: 0.41 /kg (Head) 0.62 W/kg (Body)
11.3 iPHONE 7 PLUS

NETWORK
Technology: GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps) LTE
(Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS: Yes
EDGE: Yes
Launch Date: September 2016
BODY
Dimensions: 158.2 x 77.9 x 7.3 mm (6.23 x 3.07 x 0.29 in)
Weight: 188 gm (6.63 oz)
SIM: Single SIM (Nano)
Features: Apple Pay (Visa, MasterCard, AMEX Certified), IP67 Certified, Dust
Proof and Water Proof Over 1 Meter and 30 Minutes
DISPLAY
Type: LED-Backlit IPS LCD, Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size: 5.5 inches (~67.7% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution: 1080 x 1920 Pixels (~401 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch: Yes
Protection: Ion-Strengthened Glass, Oleophobic Coating, Wide Color Gamut
Display, 3D Touch Display & Home Button, Display Zoom
PLATFORM
Operating System: iOS 10.0.1, Upgradable to iOS 10.0.2
Chipset: Apple A10 Fusion
CPU: Quad-Core 2.23 GHz
GPU: Six-Core Graphics
MEMORY
Card Slot: No
Internal: 32/128/256 GB, 3 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary: Dual 12MP, (f/1.8, 28mm, OIS & f/2.8 56mm,) Phase Detection
Autofocus, 2x Optical zoom, Quad-LED (Dual Tone) Flash
Features: 1/3 Sensor Size @ 28mm, 1/3.6 Sensor Size @ 56mm, Geo-Tagging,
Simultaneous 4K Video and 8MP Image Recording, Touch Focus,
Face/Smile Detection, Auto HDR, Panorama
Video: 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary: 7MP, f/2.2, 32mm, 1080@30fps, 720p@240fps, Face Detection, HDR,
Panorama
SOUND
Alert Type: Vibration, Proprietary Ringtones
Loud Speaker: Yes, Stereo Speakers
3.5mm Jack: No
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone, Lightening to
3.5mm Headphone Jack Adopter Included
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN: Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, Hotspot
Bluetooth: v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS: Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC: Yes (Apple Pay Only)
Radio: No
USB: MicroUSB v2.0, Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors: Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging: iMessage, SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail,
Browser: HTML5 (Safari)
Java: No
Features: Siri Natural Language Command and Dictation, iCloud Service, MP4
H.264 Player,
MP3/WAV/AAX+/AIFF+/Apple Lossless Player, Audio/Photo/Video
Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type: Non-Removable Li-Ion 2900 mAh Battery (11.1Wh)
Stand-By Time: Up to 384 h (3G)
Talk Time: Up to 21 h (3G)
Music Play: Up to 60 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors: Jet Black, Balck, Gold, Silver, Rose Gold
SAR US: 1.19 W/kg (Head) 1.19 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU: 1.24 W/kg (Head) 1.00 W/kg (Body)
11.4 iPHONE 7

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps) LTE
(Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date September 2016
BODY
Dimensions 138.3 x 67.1 x 7.1 mm (5.44 x 2.64 x 0.28 in)
Weight 138 gm (4.87 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
Features Apple Pay (Visa, MasterCard, AMEX Certified), IP67 Certified, Dust
Proof and Water Proof Over 1 Meter and 30 Minutes
DISPLAY
Type LED-Backlit IPS LCD, Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 4.7 inches (~56.6% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 750 x 1334 Pixels (~326 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Ion-Strengthened Glass, Oleophobic Coating, Wide Color Gamut
Display, 3D Touch Display & Home Button, Display Zoom
PLATFORM
Operating System iOS 10.0.1, Upgradable to iOS 10.0.2
Chipset Apple A10 Fusion
CPU Quad-Core 2.23 GHz
GPU Six-Core Graphics
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 32/128/256 GB, 2 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12MP, f/1.8, 28mm, OIS Phase Detection Autofocus, Quad-LED (Dual
Tone) Flash
Features 1/3 Sensor Size @ 28mm, Geo-Tagging, Simultaneous 4K Video and
8MP Image Recording, Touch Focus, Face/Smile Detection, Auto HDR,
Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary 7MP, f/2.2, 32mm, 1080@30fps, 720p@240fps, Face Detection, HDR,
Panorama
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, Proprietary Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes, Stereo Speakers
3.5mm Jack No
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone, Lightening to
3.5mm Headphone Jack Adopter Included
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes (Apple Pay Only)
Radio No
USB MicroUSB v2.0, Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging iMessage, SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail
Browser HTML5 (Safari)
Java No
Features Siri Natural Language Command and Dictation, iCloud Service, MP4
H.264 Player, MP3/WAV/AAX+/AIFF+/Apple Lossless Player, Audio/
Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 2900 mAh Battery (11.1Wh)
Stand-By Time Up to 256 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 14 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 40 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Jet Black, Balck, Gold, Silver, Rose Gold
SAR US 1.19 W/kg (Head) 1.19 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU 1.38 W/kg (Head) 1.34 W/kg (Body)
11.5 GOOGLE PIXEL

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), EVDO/LTE (Cat9 450/50 Mbps
or Cat11 600/75 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date October 2016
BODY
Dimensions 143.8 x 69.5 x 8.5 mm (5.66 x 2.74 x 0.33 in)
Weight 143 gm (5.04 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
Features Splash and Dust Resistant
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.0 inches (~69.0% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1080 x 1920 Pixels (~441 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V7.1 (Nougat)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 821
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 32/128 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12.3 MP, f/2.0, Phase Detection & Laser Autofocus, Dual-LED (Dual
Tone) Flash
Features 1/2.3 Sensor Size, 1.55m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus,
Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary 8MP, 1/3.2 Sensor Size, 1.4m Pixel Size, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Feature Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB MicroUSB v3.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging, MP4 H.264 Player, MP3/WAV/eAAC Player,
Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 2770 mAh Battery
Stand-By Time Up to 456 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 26 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 110 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Quick Black, Very Silver, Really Blue
11.6 GOOGLE PIXEL XL

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), EVDO/LTE (Cat9 450/50
Mbps or Cat11 600/75 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date October 2016
BODY
Dimensions 154.7 x 75.7 x 8.5 mm (6.09 x 2.98 x 0.33 in)
Weight 168 gm (5.93 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
Features Splash and Dust Resistant
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.5 inches (~71.2% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~534 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V7.1 (Nougat)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 821
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 32/128 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12.3 MP, f/2.0, Phase Detection & Laser Autofocus, Dual-LED (Dual
Tone) Flash
Features 1/2.3 Sensor Size, 1.55m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus,
Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary 8MP, f/2.4, 1/3.2 Sensor Size, 1.4m Pixel Size, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB MicroUSB v3.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging, MP4 H.264 Player, MP3/WAV/eAAC Player,
Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 2770 mAh Battery
Stand-By Time Up to 552 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 32 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 130 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Quick Black, Very Silver, Really Blue
11.7 MOTOROLA MOTO Z

NETWORK
Technology GSM/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date June 2016
BODY
Dimensions 153.3 x 75.3 x 5.2 mm (6.04 x 2.96 x 0.20 in)
Weight 136 gm (4.80 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.5 inches (~72.0% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~535 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow), Planned Upgrade to V7.0
(Naugat)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot MicroSD, Up to 256 GB (Dedicated Slot)
Internal 32/64 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 13 MP, f/1.8, Laser Autofocus, OIS, Dual-LED (Dual Tone) Flash
Features Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus, Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@60fps, HDR
Secondary 5MP, f/2.2, 1.4m Pixel Size, LED Flash, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack No
Features 3.5mm to USB-C Headphone Adapter, Active Noise Cancellation with
Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, WiFi Direct, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.1, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes
Radio FM Radio
USB USB On-The-Go, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector, Magnetic
Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging, MP4 H.264 Player, MP3/WAV/eAAC/Flac
Player, Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 2600 mAh Battery
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Black/Gray, Black/Rose Gold, Black/Rose, White
11.8 ZTE AXON 7

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat6 300/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date May 2016
BODY
Dimensions 151.7 x 75 x 7.9 mm (5.97 x 2.95 x 0.31 in)
Weight 175 gm (6.17 oz)
SIM Dual Nano SIM (Dual Stand-By)
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.5 inches (~72.2% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~538 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4, MiFavor UI 4.0
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot MicroSD, Up to 256 GB (Uses SIM 2 Slot)
Internal 64 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 20 MP, f/1.8, Phase Detection Autofocus, OIS, Dual-LED (Dual Tone)
Flash
Features Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus, Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary 8MP, f/2.2, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes with Stereo Speakers
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features 32-bit/192kHz Audio, Dolby Atoms, Active Noise Cancellation with
Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, WiFi Direct, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS/BDS (Region Dependent)
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB USB V3.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging 83% in 30 Minutes (Quick Charge 3.0), MP4
H.264 Player, MP3/WAV/eAAC Player, Photo/Video Editor, Document
Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 3250 mAh Battery
Stand-By Time Up to 360 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 16 h (3G)
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Ion Gold, Quartz Grey, Chromium Silver
11.9 HTC 10

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps)/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE
(Cat9 450/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date April 2016
BODY
Dimensions 145.9 x 71.9 x 9 mm (5.74 x 2.83 x 0.35 in)
Weight 161 gm (5.68 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
DISPLAY
Type Super LCD5 Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.2 inches (~71.1% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~565 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 3, HTC Sense UI
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow), Planned Upgrade to v7.0
(Naugat)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot MicroSD, Up to 256 GB (Uses SIM 2 Slot)
Internal 32/64 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12 MP, f/1.8, 26mm, Laser Autofocus, OIS, Dual-LED (Dual Tone)
Flash
Features 1/2.3 Sensor Size, 1.55m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus,
Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 720p@120fps HDR, Stereo Sound Recording
Secondary 5MP, f/1.8, 23mm, OIS, Autofocus, 1.34 m Pixel Size, 1080p, HDR
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes with Dual Speakers
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features 24-bit/192kHz Audio, Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated
Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-Band, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, aptX
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS/BDS (Region Dependent)
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB USB V3.1, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging 50% in 30 Minutes (Quick Charge 3.0), Google
Drive (100 GB Cloud Storage) MP4/XviD/WMV/H.264 Player, MP3/
WMA/WAV/FLAC Player, Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 3000 mAh Battery
Stand-By Time Up to 456 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 27 h (3G)
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Topaz Gold, Carbon Grey, Glacier Silver, Camellia Red
11.10 ONEPLUS 3

NETWORK
Technology GSM/EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps)/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat6
300/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date June 2016
BODY
Dimensions 152.7 x 74.7 x 7.4 mm (6.01 x 2.94 x 0.29 in)
Weight 158 gm (5.57 oz)
SIM Dual Nano SIM (Dual Stand-By)
DISPLAY
Type Optic AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.5 inches (~73.1% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1080 x 1920 Pixels (~401 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4, Oxygen OS 3.2.4
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.6 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 64 GB, 6 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 16 MP, f/2.0, Phase Detection Autofocus, OIS, LED Flash
Features 1/2.8 Sensor Size, 1.12m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus,
Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 720p@120fps Auto HDR
Secondary 8MP, f/2.0, 1/3.2 Sensor Size, 1.34 m Pixel Size, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS/BDS
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB USB V2.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging 60% in 30 Minutes (Dash Charge), MP4/XviD/
DivX/H.265 Player,
MP3/eACC+/WMA/WAV/FLAC Player,
Photo/Video Editor, Document Viewer
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 3000 mAh Battery
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Soft Gold, Graphite
11.11 iPHONE SE

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps), EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps) LTE
(Cat4 150/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date March 2016
BODY
Dimensions 123.8 x 58.6 x 7.6 mm (4.87 x 2.31 x 0.30 in)
Weight 113 gm (3.99 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
Features Apple Pay (Visa, MasterCard, AMEX Certified)
DISPLAY
Type LED-Backlit IPS LCD, Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 4.0 inches (~60.8% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 640 x 1136 Pixels (~326 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
PLATFORM
Operating System iOS 9.3.2, Upgradable to iOS 10.0.2
Chipset Apple A9
CPU Dual-Core 1.84 GHz Twister
GPU PowerVR GT7600 (Six-Core Graphics)
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 16/64 GB, 2 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12MP, f/2.2, 29mm, Phase Detection Autofocus, Dual-LED (Dual Tone)
Flash
Features 1/3 Sensor Size 1.22m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Simultaneous 4K
Video and 8MP Image Recording, Touch Focus, Face/Smile Detection,
HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary: 1.2MP, f/2.4, 31mm, 720p@30fps, Face Detection,
HDR, faceTime Over WiFi or Cellular
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, Proprietary Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone, 16-bit/44.1 kHz
Audio
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes (Apple Pay Only)
Radio No
USB MicroUSB v2.0, Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging iMessage, SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail
Browser HTML5 (Safari)
Java No
Features Siri Natural Language Command and Dictation, iCloud Service, MP4
H.264 Player,
MP3/WAV/AAX+/AIFF+/Apple Lossless Player,
Audio/Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 2900 mAh Battery (11.1Wh)
Stand-By Time Up to 240 h (2G & 3G)
Talk Time Up to 14 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 50 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Space Gray, Silver Gold, Rose Gold
SAR US 1.17 W/kg (Head) 1.19 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU 0.97 /kg (Head) 0.99 W/kg (Body)
11.12 HUAWEI NEXUS 6P

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat6 300/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date September 2015
BODY
Dimensions 159.3 x 77.8 x 7.3 mm (6.27 x 3.06 x 0.29 in)
Weight 178 gm (6.28 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.7 inches (~71.4% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~518 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4, Oleophobic Coating
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow), Upgraded to v7.0 (Naugat)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8994 Snapdragon 810
CPU Octa-Core (4x1.55 GHz Cortex-A53 & 4x2.0 GHz Cortex-A57)
GPU Adreno 430
MEMORY
Card Slot No
Internal 32/64/128 GB, 3 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 12.3 MP, f/2.0, Laser Autofocus, Dual LED (Dual Tone) Flash
Features 1/2.3 Sensor Size, 1.55m Pixel Size, Geo-Tagging, Touch Focus,
Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 720p@240fps
Secondary 8MP, f/2.4, 1080p@30fps
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes with front Stereo Speakers
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features 24-bit/96 kHz, Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone

CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, Dual Band, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB USB V2.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging, MP4/H.265 Player,
MP3/eACC+/WAV Player, Photo/Video Editor,
Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Non-Removable Li-Ion 3000 mAh Battery
Stand-By Up to 440 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 23 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 100 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Aluminum, Graphite, Frost
SAR US 1.49 W/kg (Head) 0.81 W/kg (Body)
SAR EU 1.17 W/kg (Head) 0.54 W/kg (Body)
11.13 LG G5

NETWORK
Technology GSM/CDMA/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat6 300/50 Mbps or Cat9
450/50 Mbps)/EVDO (Rev.A 3.1 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date February 2016
BODY
Dimensions 149.4 x 73.9 x 7.7 mm (5.88 x 2.91 x 0.30 in)
Weight 159 gm (5.61 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano) or Dual Nano SIM (Dual Stand-By)
DISPLAY
Type IPS LCD Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.3 inches (~70.1% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~554 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 4, Always-On Display, LG Optimus UX 5.0 UI
PLATFORM
Operating System Android OS, V6.0.1 (Marshmallow)
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8996 Snapdragon 820
CPU Quad-Core (2x2.15 GHz Kryo & 2x1.60 GHz Kryo)
GPU Adreno 530
MEMORY
Card Slot MicroSD Up to 256 GB (Dedicated Slot) Single SIM
MicroSD Up to 256 GB (Uses SIM2 Slot) Dual SIM
Internal 32 GB, 4 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary Dual 16 MP (29mm, f/1.8) + 8 MP (12mm, f/2.4), Laser Autofocus, OIS
(3-Axis), LED Flash
Features 1/2.6 Sensor Size @ 29mm, 1/3.2 Sensor Size @ 12mm Geo-Tagging,
Touch Focus, Face/Smile Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@30fps, HDR, Stereo Sound Recording
Secondary 8MP, f/2.0, 1/4" Sensor Size, 1.12 m Pixel Size, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features 24-bit/96 kHz, Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, Dual Band, WiFi Direct, DLNA, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.2, A2DP, LE, aptX HD
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS, BDS
NFC Yes
Infrared Port Yes
Radio FM Radio
USB USB V3.0, Type-C 1.0 Reversible Connector, USB On-The-Go
FEATURES
Sensors Fingerprint, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer,
Color Spectrum
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Fast Battery Charging 83% in 30 Minutes (Quick Charge 3.0), MP4/
DviX/XviD/WMV/H.265 Player,
MP3/eACC+/WAV/WMA Player,
Photo/Video Editor, Document Editor
BATTERY
Type Removable Li-Ion 2800 mAh Battery
Stand-By Up to 400 h (3G)
Talk Time Up to 20 h (3G)
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Silver, Titan, Gold, Pink
SAR EU 0.52 W/kg (Head) 1.24 W/kg (Body)
11.14 MICROSOFT LUMIA 950

NETWORK
Technology GSM/HSPA (42.2/5.76 Mbps)/LTE (Cat6 300/50 Mbps)
GPRS Yes
EDGE Yes
Launch Date November 2015
BODY
Dimensions 145 x 73.2 x 8.2 mm (5.71 x 2.88 x 0.32 in)
Weight 150 gm (5.29 oz)
SIM Single SIM (Nano)
DISPLAY
Type AMOLED Capacitive Touchscreen, 16M Colors
Size 5.2 inches (~70.5% Screen-to-Body Ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2560 Pixels (~564 PPI Pixel Density)
Multi-Touch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 3, ClearBlack Display
PLATFORM
Operating System Microsoft Windows 10
Chipset Qualcomm MSM8992 Snapdragon 808
CPU Hexa-Core (4x1.40 GHz Cortex-A53 & 2x1.80 GHz Cortex-A57)
GPU Adreno 418
MEMORY
Card Slot MicroSD Up to 256 GB (Dedicated Slot)
Internal 32 GB, 3 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary 20 MP f/1.9 26mm, Carl Zeiss Optics, Autofocus, OIS (3-Axis), Triple
LED RGB Flash
Features 1/2.4 Sensor Size 1.12m Pixel Size, Pure View Technology, Geo-
Tagging, Touch Focus, Face Detection, HDR, Panorama
Video 2160p@30fps, Stereo Sound Recording
Secondary 5MP, f/2.4, 1080p
SOUND
Alert Type Vibration, MP3, WAV Ringtones
Loud Speaker Yes
3.5mm Jack Yes
Features Active Noise Cancellation with Dedicated Microphone
CONNECTIVITY
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, Dual Band, Hotspot
Bluetooth v4.1, A2DP
GPS Yes, With A-GPS, GLONASS, BDS
NFC Yes
Infrared Port Yes
Radio FM Radio
USB USB V3.1, Type-C Reversible Connector
FEATURES
Sensors Iris Scanner, Accelerometer, Gyro, Proximity, Compass, Barometer,
Sensor Core
Messaging SMS (Thread View), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
Features Microsoft Continuum Support, Qi Wireless Charging (Market
Dependent), OneDrive (15 GB Cloud Storage), Fast Battery Charging,
MP4/H.265 Player, MP3/eACC+/WAV Player, Photo/Video Editor,
Document Viewer
BATTERY
Type Removable Li-Ion 3000 mAh Battery
Stand-By Up to 288 h (2G & 3G)
Talk Time Up to 23 h (2G) & Up to 18 h (3G)
Music Play Up to 67 h
MISCELLANEOUS
Colors Black, White
12.0 CONCLUSION
"Which phone should I buy?" This is the single most common question readers like you ask phone
reviewers like us every day. We get it, it can be a challenge, especially with superb choices such as
Samsung Galaxy S7 or S7 Edge and iPhone 7 or iPhone 7 Plus. But depending on your price range and
what's available where you live, the new phone you should be getting may not be a flagship, it could turn
out to be the Microsoft Lumia 950 or one of the many Moto Z.
On the bright side, options like given in this book are a good thing, so long as you're armed with the
knowledge necessary to make smart shopping decisions.
When you are planning to buy a new smartphone decide first what features you want to see in your
device. Further look thoroughly the specification provided by the manufacturer along with the following;
1) Operating System
2) Processor CPU
3) GPU
4) RAM
5) ROM
6) External Memory Option
7) Screen Display Type
8) Pixel Density
9) Sensors
10) Connectivity Options like Blue-tooth, WiFi, HDMI, USB-C, NFC and DLNR
11) GPS Navigation
12) Battery Life
13) Camera Front & Rear
14) Megapixel Count, Sensor Size, ISO, F-Number
15) Quality of Video Recording
13.0 GLOSSARY

Definitions of frequently used smartphone terms are


as under;
2G
The second generation of mobile communications standards and the first to allow data communications,
enabling text messaging, MMS and mobile internet. 2G is still used in the UK by several networks and is
what your connection will fall back on when 3G or 4G are not available.
3G
The third generation of mobile technology, and what many of us use to access the internet via our phones,
tablets or laptops using a signal from a mobile service provider. It offers much better performance over
2G and has recently been improved further by HSPA. Speeds will depend on many factors such as signal
strength, network traffic and the hardware used, but we've found a regular 3G connection can be expected
to deliver somewhere between 2-10Mb while 3G can comfortably exceed 10Mb. Most of the UK is now
covered by 3G network signals from all the operators.
4G
The fourth generation of mobile technology currently superseding 3G by offering far superior mobile
connection speeds, on a par with ADSL and fiber home broadband. While coverage is presently limited
compared to 3G it is gradually improving and now available in most major towns and cities as well as
less populated areas. To use 4G you may need to upgrade your smartphone, tablet or dongle, though many
new devices now support it as standard. 4G may offer an alternative to home broadband, though anyone
wishing to go this route should pay attention to data usage caps to avoid large bills.
4K
Referring to a display device or content with a horizontal resolution on the order of 4,000 pixels. In
standard consumer electronic, a 4K screen would be equivalent 2160p.
5G
The next iteration of mobile technology. This is still in development and nothing has been set in stone yet,
but the plan is to build a network that can easily support the growing demands of the Internet of Things as
well as regular users. At the very least it's expected to be much faster than even 4G. We're unlikely to see
a 5G network in the UK until the early 2020s.
ACTIVESYNC
Historically this Microsoft program was used for connecting PDA devices to computers running Windows
XP, or earlier operating systems. It was used to synchronize data for example contacts, appointments, and
files.
ADSL/ADSL2+
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A broadband technology which allows for faster transfer of data
across regular telephone lines than the old dial-up connections. And phone calls can be made at the
same time - all you need is a micro-filter or modern telephone faceplate and you can run both telephone
and broadband connection simultaneously. An ADSL line will at a minimum allow for a broadband
connection of 'up to' 8Mb, however, ADSL2+ is now available at nearly all exchanges throughout the UK
and improves data transfer rates, allowing for broadband speeds over the copper wire of 'up to' 17Mb.
A-GPS (ASSISTED GPS)
A GPS receivers functionality can be improved with this technology which enables better reception
within built-up or high foliage environments. This is done by taking positioning data from an assistance
server by cell phone communication.
AMOLED (ACTIVE-MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE)
This is a display technology developed by Samsung which provides several benefits over other screen
technologies. These include lower power consumption, higher refresh rates, and improved contrast ratios.
Super AMOLED provides better viewing in direct sunlight and offers higher resolutions.
ANTI-MALWARE
Protective software used to remove a malware infection or prevent one occurring in the first place. It
is important to note there are differences between an anti-virus and anti-malware/spyware application.
While an anti-virus tool will also offer anti-malware capabilities, there are specialist anti-malware apps
which are not focused on catching classic viruses but designed to protect against the specific dangers
posed by brand new (so-called 'zero day') malware. It is a good idea to use both anti-virus and anti-
malware.
ANTI-SPAM
An application or service which helps protect your email inbox from spam. Some internet service
providers may give you anti-spam software free as part of their broadband deals, but remember - it is
only useful if you use an email client (such as Microsoft Outlook) that downloads your messages directly
to your computer. If you use webmail, such as Yahoo Mail or Google Mail, they will have anti-spam
built in. It's also worth looking into free anti-spam programs (such as Mailwasher Free) and checking that
your anti-virus protection doesn't do the job for you already.
ANTI-SPYWARE
An application which detects and removes spyware. As these threats can differ from a virus there is a
distinction between anti-virus and anti-spyware/malware tools. Modern anti-virus applications usually
include anti-spyware features so you may already have protection with the free tools provided by your
ISP, but a dedicated anti-spyware tool such as Microsoft Defender (free for Windows XP+) or the
excellent Malwarebytes is recommended to bolster your security. These can be used at the same time as
an anti-virus application.
ANTI-VIRUS
This is a program that attempts to protect your computer from malicious software. Viruses can damage
your computer, steal your personal information or just be annoying, but whatever it does you don't want
it! Some kind of anti-virus software is essential on a broadband-connected computer, and some internet
service providers will give you one of the paid versions (such as Norton or McAfee) for free. However,
many people rely on free packages such as Avast, AVG, and Microsoft Security Essentials.
ASA (ADVERTISING STANDARDS AGENCY)
The body responsible for regulating advertising in the UK. The ASA has got involved in broadband when
ISPs overstep the mark, notably in relation to unlimited broadband.
BANDWIDTH
In the context of broadband, bandwidth is the capacity of a connection. If we say "high definition video
streaming uses a lot of bandwidths" it means a significant amount of your broadband connection's data
transfer capacity is being consumed by that video, which can mean other activities will be slower. You
will often see it used as a synonym of data transfer speed.
BANDWIDTH CONTENTION RATIO
See contention ratio.
BITTORRENT
A popular peer-to-peer file sharing technology. BitTorrent has become (in) famous for enabling piracy on
a grand scale, but the technology is not itself illegal in any way and is widely used for lawful purposes.
For instance, games companies may distribute patches via BitTorrent and many open source projects rely
on it to host their software.
BLUETOOTH
Wireless data standard for transferring data over short ranges. It is used for a multitude of applications
such as wireless mice and keyboards and connecting peripherals to smartphones. Fun fact: it is named
after tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth, famed for uniting tribes in Denmark.
BONDING
Broadband bonding is a way in which you can speed up an ADSL broadband connection beyond that
which would normally be available in your area by combining multiple lines. While not commonly
utilized in the UK it is a good option if fiber optic or cable broadband is not available, and has proven
particularly popular with businesses. It also acts as a backup - if you're downloading and one of your
connections goes down, things will slow down but the transfer will continue.
BROADBAND
A high-speed internet connection, distinct from the old dial-up internet ('narrowband') which topped out
at a maximum speed of 56k. Broadband is not a particular type of technology and there is no one official
definition, so in terms of speed it may be classified differently by governments and regulatory bodies
across the world. Here in the UK, the cable ISP NTL was told off by the ASA in 2003 for describing its
128Kb service as broadband.
BROADBAND CONTENTION RATIO
See contention ratio.
BROADBAND SPEED
See speed.
BROWSER
See web browser.
BT OPENREACH
The division of BT responsible for network infrastructure. Created in 2006 to allow competing providers
access to the BT lines. If a repair or installation is required it is BT Openreach, rather than your ISP,
who will send an engineer. Aside from Virgin Media most broadband connections in the UK use the BT
Openreach infrastructure.
BSI OR BI (BACKSIDE ILLUMINATION)
This is a type of digital image sensor which benefits the lens being arranged differently to traditional
construction. It is able to increase the amount of light captured by the lens and improve the low-light
performance of the camera.
BURST MODE
A feature of still cameras where multiple photos automatically taken in quick succession. The
photographer can then select the photo they prefer.
BYTE
A byte is a unit of measurement for data storage within computers. It is the smallest addressable unit of
storage within a computer. It is comprised of 8 bits. A bit is a single binary 1 or 0, therefore a byte can
store up to 256 discrete values (28).
CABLE BROADBAND
Broadband internet delivered over cable TV lines. In the UK the largest cable broadband operator is
Virgin Media, formed from a merger of NTL and Telewest. Over the last few years Virgin has stopped
describing its services as cable broadband and now calls it fiber-optic because, like the BT Openreach
fiber network, it uses fiber connections to street cabinets (FTTC). Unlike BT though it completes the link
to homes with coaxial cable, rather than the copper telephone lines.
CAPPING
A limit placed on a broadband service. Capping is a term you often hear in the world of broadband and
can be used in two different contexts. Firstly, there can be a cap on how much data you can use (both
download and upload) during a period of time, usually the monthly billing cycle. If you exceed this cap,
you may have to pay an excess charge or be punished through other means, such as throttling. Secondly,
the term is used when discussing throttling - you speed may be artificially capped at a certain rate, either
as a punishment for downloading too many data or as a way for your provider to manage data traffic in
busy peak-time periods.
CF (COMPACT FLASH)
This is a data storage card standard which utilizes Flash memory. It benefits from low power
requirements, but its applications are now limited. This is a result of newer data storage cards standards
which are more compact. Peripherals cards used to be commonly available which could add additional
functionality to portable handheld devices. These disappeared due to handheld devices incorporating
increasing numbers of features.
CHAP (CHALLENGE-HANDSHAKE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL)
Point to Point connections can be validated by the identity of the remote client being confirmed using this
protocol. This is done by a security hash of the password being sent to the client, which then responds
with a value, this is then confirmed by the sender. As the password isnt transmitted this is classed as a
secure protocol.
COAX (COAXIAL) CABLE
Coax is a type of wiring, used in the UK by Virgin Media to connect your broadband and television
services from the street cabinet to your home. It is used over this final section of the journey because coax
cables are cheaper than fiber but still efficient for transferring a variety of services, from broadband to
TV to telephone - as long as it is over a short distance. The rest of Virgin's network is fiber optic, which
is much more reliable at carrying this data over long distances without degrading.
CONTENTION RATIO
Your contention ratio tells you the potential maximum demand on your broadband connection from
yourself and other customers. Once your broadband signal leaves your home it joins a line connecting
your neighbors and others to the web; so the more people using it at once, the slower it can become. A
contention ratio of 50:1 (typical for ADSL broadband) means there are up to 50 people on one connection.
This is often why you experience slower speeds during peak usage times. Business broadband may be
uncontended so companies get a faster and more reliable connection without peak time congestion.
CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT)
This is an electronic circuit which executes programs within computers. The clock speed of this
component dictates the overall ability of the computer to process data. Historically this was measured in
Megahertz (MHz), but more recent CPUs have broken the Gigahertz (GHz) barrier. Additionally handset
products like smartphones commonly feature dual or quad CPU units.
CUPCAKE (ANDROID VER. 1.5)
This is a designation which relates to version 1.5 of the Android operating system. This was the first
generally available version of the Android operating system.
DATA CAP
See capping.
DATA TRANSFER RATE
The speed at which data can be moved across a connection. Broadband services are measured in kilobits
per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps) or if you're really lucky, gigabits per second (Gbps).
DC-HSDPA
Dual Cell High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. An evolution of 3G which permits much faster mobile
data speeds. Used in the UK by three, which markets it as Advanced 3G.
DIAL-UP INTERNET
Internet access using a modem which dials the ISP over regular telephone lines. Until broadband became
widely available in the early '00s this was the way most of us got online. By modern standards, it's very
slow, but it is still used around the world in areas where broadband is not available.
DONGLE
In terms of mobile broadband, 'dongle' is the word that has been almost universally adopted to describe
the small device that receives a mobile broadband signal. These devices contain a SIM card from your
mobile broadband supplier, in the same way, a mobile phone does, and will be either USB dongles that
plug into a spare port on a computer or mobile Wi-Fi (sometimes 'MiFi') dongles that broadcast a wireless
signal.
DONUT (ANDROID VER. 1.6)
This is a designation which refers to the 1.6 version of the Android operating system. It updated the user
interface and introduced text-to-speech and the battery usage indicator.
DOWNLOAD
The transfer of data to your computer or another device. Downloading does not just happen when you
specifically request a file transfer, anytime you access a website, stream a video or do anything else which
takes information from the internet you are downloading.
DOWNLOAD SPEED
How fast your broadband connection can receive data. This is the headline figure you'll see advertised on
any broadband package. It will be either kilobit per second (Kbps or Kb), megabits per second (Mbps or
Mb) or if you're really lucky, gigabits per second(Gbps or Gb).
DUAL-CORE
A term which indicates a processor is comprised of multiple cores. In this case, it has two cores, which
results in the processor being more efficient at running applications. This is dependent on the applications
being designed to take advantage of this hardware.
CLAIR (ANDROID VER. 2.0-2.1)
This is a designation which refers to the 2.0 and 2.1 versions of the Android operating system. With these
versions, multiple email account setup was introduced, along with Microsoft Exchange support. The web
browser, camera support, and Bluetooth implementation were all improved.
EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. An upgraded 2G mobile standard offering faster data transfer
speeds. Still used by some UK networks. You may fall back on this if 3G or4G aren't available - on
smartphones, it will usually be indicated by an 'E' next to the signal meter.
EGNOS (EUROPEAN GEOSTATIONARY NAVIGATION OVERLAY SERVICE)
This system supplements the GPS navigational satellites by reporting on their accuracy and reliability.
Geostationary satellites and ground stations are used to improve the accuracy to less than 7 meters.
EXMOR R / RS
This is Sonys variation of backside illumination lens technology. It improves a camera so that it can
capture better photographs in low light conditions. (See BSI)
EXTUSB
A propriety connector used by HTC, which is backward compatible with miniUSB products. It enables
the connection of HTC specific cables and accessories, which add additional functionality to a handheld
product.
FAIR USE POLICY (FUP)
A limit placed on broadband usage by the ISP. This is a controversial term as FUPs were in the past not
always clear and often used on broadband that was advertised as unlimited, leading to customers being
hit with unexpected throttling or charges. Complaints spurred OFCOM and the ASA into action, cracking
down on the practice so many ISPs are now either truly unrestricted or have much clearer limits.
FEMTOCELL
A femtocell is a wireless access point that provides localized mobile coverage. None the wiser? Well, it
basically means you buy a very small base station that receives your mobile ISPs signal and boosts it
around a small area, such as your house. They look like a router and are easy to install, using your home
broadband connection to boost your signal to make your smartphone, dongle or tablet perform better. This
technology isn't widely accepted but has obvious positive implications for boosting mobile broadband
signals in all kinds of environments.
FIBRE OPTIC BROADBAND
A method of transferring data which utilizes pulses of light sent along plastic or glass cables. Fibre
optic data communications are faster and less prone to interference and have revolutionized
telecommunications. It will one day entirely replace all the older copper cable that has been used on UK
telephone lines for years. The old telephone network wasn't introduced with data in mind and, as anyone
living far away from their BT exchange will testify, a long copper wire from the exchange to the home
can hamper broadband speeds. However, the UK is slowly turning to fiber optic. Both Virgin (through its
cable service) and the BT Openreach network now offer much faster speeds thanks to fiber, though not
all homes are covered. Speeds also vary depending on whether the fiber connection goes all the way to
the home or only to your street cabinet.
FILE SHARING
The act of distributing or accessing files such as movies, music, computer software, ebooks, and images.
File sharing can be carried out by many methods, from simply hosting files on a website to peer-to-
peer networking. While the term has become synonymous with piracy it is not inherently illegal, and file
sharing tools and services are commonly used for legitimate distribution.
FIREWALL
A firewall is a barrier between a computer and the internet. It is often used to stop unwanted malicious
communications arriving via the internet, but can also filter and block outgoing data. The firewall will
evaluate everything that's sent to or from your machine and take action according to its rules (which
are user-configurable). A firewall is a useful protective measure but in most cases, not something the
typical home broadband user has to worry about too much. Modern operating systems and broadband
routers include built-in firewalls and most of the time we will not need to change any of the default
behavior, aside from occasionally allowing software access if the firewall has mistakenly blocked it from
communicating. A firewall alone should not be relied upon to protect you, it is still important to use anti-
virus and anti-spyware tools.
FIXED LINE
Fixed line broadband is a term used to describe internet delivered over a physical link, such
as fiber or ADSL. The term is mostly used to differentiate fixed line broadband from wireless services
like mobile broadband and satellite internet.
FREE EMAIL
Some internet service providers sweeten their deals by offering customers a number of 'free' email
addresses. These are normally easy to set up and will be covered by your provider's tech support. They
will also often be used to send out important information about your accounts, such as price or terms and
conditions changes. However, there's a downside: if you switch provider you will lose the email address,
and changing email addresses can be a real pain. Also, getting a 'free' email address isn't much to write
home about now - millions of people now use webmail such as Gmail (Google Mail), Outlook and Yahoo!
Mail, all of which are free anyway (while having the added bonus of built-in spam filters and anti-virus
checkers for your received messages, as well as being able to access your email from any internet-enabled
computer, not just your own).
FROYO (ANDROID VER. 2.2)
This is a designation which refers to version 2.2 of the Android operating system. It provided a new
Home screen and dedicated shortcuts for the web browser and phone applications. Microsoft Exchange
support was improved with additional security, remote wipe support, and synchronization with calendars.
Multiple languages keyboards, portable hotspots and were introduced and overall performance was
improved.
FTP (FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL)
The protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another over a network, including the Internet.
Involved in the transfer are two types of computer, a server, and client. The latter connects to the server
and is able to upload and download data depending on restrictions. This was not designed to be a secure
data transmission protocol. There have however been attempts to improve this aspect of it.
FTTC
Fibre To The Cabinet. A type of broadband service which uses fiber optic cables to street cabinets then
regular telephone or coaxial lines to reach homes. This is cheaper and quicker to deploy, but speeds are
more limited than a full fiber solution like FTTH/FTTP (though still much faster than ADSL). If you sign
up for fiber broadband now it is most likely to be FTTC, using either the BT Openreach or Virgin Media
networks.
FTTH/FTTP
Fibre To The Home/Fibre To The Premises. These are different terms for the same thing: a full fiber-optic
broadband connection. The connection speed of such a link is far greater than either ADSL or FTTC.
Some FTTH services are now available in the UK and offer home users an incredible 1Gb speed. Vitally,
this is not the limit of fiber so it's a future proof technology.
GB/GBPS/GIGABIT
Gb is short for gigabit, which is a unit used to describe data transfer speed. It is often written as Gbps or
gigabits per second, but on Broadband Genie we use Gb as this is the style most commonly used by ISPs.
GB/GIGABYTE
GB is short for gigabyte, used to describe the size of computer files and memory capacity. There are 1024
bytes in a kilobyte (KB), 1024 kilobytes in a megabyte (MB), and 1024 megabytes in a gigabyte. To put
it in some context, a small text file could be measured in bytes, a basic Word document in kilobytes, a
music file in megabytes and a Blu-ray quality film in gigabytes.
GEOTAGGING
This is a method where the geographical location and/or time can be automatically added to the photo.
This is stored within the metadata of the photo.
GHZ (GIGAHERTZ)
Hertz (Hz) is a unit of frequency which is defined as the number of cycles per second. A GHz is 109
Hz and is commonly used within mobile computers and smartphones to refer to the speed of the central
processing unit CPU.
GIGABIT BROADBAND
Broadband service offering speeds of 1Gb or more. A gigabit connection is very fast - at a rate of 1Gb,
it would theoretically take just 32 seconds to transfer a 4GB DVD. Most home broadband connections in
the UK cannot support gigabit yet but there are a few areas where FTTH networks have made it possible.
GINGERBREAD (ANDROID VER. 2.3)
This is a designation which refers to version 2.3 of the Android operating system. With this version, on-
screen keyboard was redesigned for faster input and editing. The user interface was further refined and
power management was improved. NFC support and internet calling were introduced.
GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)
A technological system which provides a users location based on obtaining data from satellites orbiting
the Earth. The location (fix) is determined by triangulating the distance to several satellites. The system
is additionally able to provide accurate time by comparing several satellites.
GPRS (GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICES)
Mobile data service based on packet switching, which results in data communication being charge per
kilobit rather than the duration of a call. This is achieved by data being packaged up and sent via any
available connection opposed to reserving one for the duration of the call, as would be the case with GSM.
This is often referred to as a 2.5G technology.
GSM (GROUPE SPECIAL MOBILE)
This is referred to as a 2G data communication technology standard. It is utilized in the vast majority of
mobile phones to provide digital call quality and SMS functionality. GSM operates at the 900MHz and
1800MHz bands within Europe and 850MHz and 1900MHz bands in the Americas.
HD (HIGH DEFINITION)
A term that is often associated with TVs and refers to the resolution they are able to display. The common
resolutions are 720p, 1080p and 1080i. The number refers to the number of horizontal scan lines. A TV
with a resolution of 1080 scan lines will have a significantly better image quality than one with only
720. The letters indicate if the resolution is either Progressive (p) or Interlaced (i) scan. With progressive
scan, motion appears smoother and more realistic. The interlaced scan is a technique used to double video
resolution without increasing the bandwidth of the signal. As indicated by the Progressive scan benefit it
doesnt display motion accurately
HDR (HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE)
This refers to methods used in imaging and photography which enable a greater range between the lightest
and darkest areas of an image. Photos and video are enhanced with more accurate colors due to multiple
exposures.
HONEYCOMB (ANDROID VER. 3.0 3.2)
This is a designation which refers to the versions 3.0, 3.1 and 3.2 of the Android operating system.
Designed for tablets it was optimized for larger screen sizes with the user interface being updated. The
web browser, camera, photo gallery, and contacts were all improved and re-designed. It was now possible
to customize the look of the Home screen and multitask was now possible, for quick switching between
apps.
HSDPA
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. Mobile network standard offering faster 3G download speeds.
See HSPA.
HSPA
High-Speed Packet Access. A family of mobile network protocols which includes HSDPA and HSUPA
(High-Speed Uplink Packet Access). The latest standard is Evolved HSPA, or HSPA+, which has a
theoretical top speed of 337Mb. HSPA is available on all UK networks and may be indicated by an 'H' on
your device.
HSUPA (HIGH-SPEED UPLINK PACKET ACCESS)
This is a mobile telephony communications protocol which is based on and enhances UMTS networks
uplink speeds. This results in uplink speeds of up to 5.76Mbit/s depending on category. Sometimes known
as a 3.5G technology.
HUB
See Router.
ICE CREAM SANDWICH (ANDROID 4.0)
This is a designation which refers to version 4.0 of the Android operating system. Many new benefits
were introduced with this version. It brought multitasking to phone products, refined the user interface
with home screen folders and resizable widgets. New lock screen options were introduced, including face
recognition and the sharing and communicating interfaces were improved. The camera capabilities, web
browsing, and email support were additionally updated.
IEEE 802.11 A/B/G/N
This is a standard for WLAN connections which is created and maintained by IEEE (Institute of Electrical
and Electronic Engineers). The letters denote which standards an individual product is compatible with.
Products which are compatible with b, g and n standards operate at the same 2.4 GHz frequency.
They are however rated at different download data rates. These data rates are b 10Mbps, g 54Mbps and
n 600Mbps. The a standard operates at the 5GHz frequency and is able to provide download transfers
of up to 54Mbps. It should be noted that the n standard can operate at the 5GHz frequency however this
is less common.
IP ADDRESS
An Internet Protocol address is a string of numbers which acts as a unique identifier for every device
connected to the internet. Most home broadband connections have a dynamic IP address, which means
the identifier can change, while businesses will often use a static IP which is permanently assigned to the
connection.
IP RATING (INGRESS PROTECTION RATING)
A classification of the degree of protection and product has against the intrusion of solid objects and
water. The first number in a rating identifies the solid particle protection. This is rated from 0-6, with zero
being no protection and six being completed protection against dust. The second number rates the liquid
ingress protection. The rating is from 0-8, ranging from no protection up powerful jets and continuous
immersion.
IPS (IN-PLANE SWITCHING)
A technology developed by Hitachi Ltd to resolve some limitations of previous display screens. These
limitations included a restrictive viewing angle and low-quality color production. IPS panels resolve these
limitations by the crystal molecules moving parallel to the panel plane rather than perpendicular to it.
IM (INSTANT MESSAGING)
Software that lets people chat to each other instantaneously. These are often connected
to webmail accounts such as Gmail and Yahoo Mail and social networking sites such as Facebook, but
there are also popular dedicated programs such as Skype and WhatsApp.
IMAP (INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL)
An email protocol. Many webmail providers support IMAP to allow users to download their email to
client software. IMAP is recommended for users who access their email from multiple devices as it
synchronizes via the email server.
INTERNET
What is the internet? The internet, or 'net' to its friends, is a global collection of interconnected networks
sharing common protocols. While many consider the World Wide Web to be the internet, the web is only
one part of the greater internet which also includes the likes of email, VOIP, and Usenet.
INTERNET OF THINGS
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of objects with embedded electronics and sensors which share
data and can be remotely controlled. A 'thing' could be anything from a smart thermostat to a lightbulb to
an internet connected fridge.
ISP (INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER)
The company responsible for providing your internet connection (and sending the bill every month). This
is not always the same company which owns and operates the underlying infrastructure; if you get your
broadband down a BT line but you pay your bills to Sky, Sky is your ISP.
JELLYBEAN (ANDROID VER. 4.1-4.2)
This is a designation which refers to the versions 4.1 and 4.2 of the Android operating system. It
introduced multi-user support enabling a tablet to be shared between users. External display support was
added with the ability for apps to deliver new kinds of interaction as unique content can be targeted.
Support was improved for international languages, including the ability to change the screen layout for
scripts which read right-to-left. The user interface was updated and support for HDR cameras was made
available.
KB/KBPS/KILOBIT
Kb is an abbreviation of kilobit. When it comes to internet speeds you may also see it written as Kbps -
kilobits per second. This was commonly used to measure dial-up internet speeds and still crops up with
slower mobile broadband connections and slow uploads and downloads of internet files.
KB (OR KILOBYTE)
Kilobyte. A term used to describe the size of computer files and storage capacity.
KITKAT (ANDROID VER. 4.4)
This is a designation which refers to version 4.4 of the Android operating system. Reduced the code
footprint and installed size of the OS, added an immersive full-screen mode, new defaulting for common
applications, improved ability to run on lower specification hardware.
LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK)
A network covering a limited area, such as an office or home. Most LANs use either Wi-Fi or network
cables.
LANDLINE
Your landline is the telephone coming into your home, which for most of us will be using Virgin Media
or the BT Openreach network. In most instances a landline is required to get broadband, if you cannot for
some reason get a landline, you may have to opt for mobile broadband or satellite internet.
LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)
This is an electrical device module, which utilizes liquid crystals to produce a digital display.
LLU (LOCAL LOOP UNBUNDLING)
LLU allows BT Openreach to open up parts of its telephone exchanges to other ISPs who have their own
networks. Most exchanges are now LLU if yours is not you'll have a more limited choice of ISPs, speeds,
and packages. To find out what your local exchange is capable of, you can visit Samknows.com and enter
your postcode in the exchange search, or use the postcode filter field in our comparison tables.
LOLLIPOP (ANDROID VER. 5.0 - 5.1)
This is a designation which refers to version 5.0 of the Android operating system. Fully redesigned
interface and design language, full integration with new Android-based platforms - Android Auto / Wear
/ Google Fit, refreshed notification system.
LTE
Long Term Evolution is a next-generation 4G mobile data standard. While there has been some confusion
over whether LTE counts as 4G or is simply a faster type of 3G, it has been widely adopted and marketed
as such by networks across the world, including in the UK where it is used by the mobile networks for
their 4G services.
MAC (MIGRATION AUTHORIZATION CODE)
This was once used to ease the process of switching ISPs, however, it is no longer necessary to obtain a
MAC when switching.
MAC ADDRESS (MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL ADDRESS)
An identifier for hardware devices connected to a network.
MAH (MILLIAMP HOUR)
This is a unit of measurement which indicates how much power a battery will store. In theory, a higher
mAh listing should indicate a longer battery life between recharges. This is, however, dependent on the
power requirements of the product it is used within.
MALWARE
Malicious software. Applications designed to inflict harm (or sometimes just annoyance). This is a broad
term which encompasses viruses, spyware, adware, trojans, keyloggers and any other software designed
to cause trouble.
MARSHMALLOW (ANDROID VER. 6.0)
This is a designation which refers to version 6.0 of the Android operating system. Reworked permissions
model for better user control, improved power management and modes to stop apps draining power with
the screen off, built-in fingerprint recognition.
MB/MBPS/MEGABIT
Mb is an abbreviation of megabit. In terms of data storage a megabit (also abbreviated as Mb) is 1/8th the
size of a megabyte. In relation to broadband speeds, this means a 1Mb connection will be able to transfer
1MB (megabyte) of data in eight seconds. When talking about the speed of a broadband connection the
full phrase is megabits per second (Mbps), however as 'Mb' is currently the term most often linked with
the measurement of internet speeds this is how you'll see broadband speeds displayed on Broadband
Genie.
MB (OR MEGABYTE)
MB is short for megabyte, which is a term used to describe the size of computer files and storage capacity.
MHL (MOBILE HIGH- DEFINITION)
This is an industry standard for directly connecting Smartphones and other portable devices to high-
definition TVs and displays. It uses a single cable and avoids the need for additional power requirements
for the portable device.
MHZ (MEGAHERTZ)
Hertz (Hz) is a unit of frequency which is defined as the number of cycles per second. An MHz is 106 Hz
and is commonly used within portable computers to refer to the central processing unit CPU speed.
MICRO SD
A standard for SD memory cards which refers to their physical size. In the case of microSD cards, they
are physical 11m x 15mm x 1mm in size.
MINI SD
A standard for SD memory cards which refers to their physical size. In the case of miniSD cards their
physical size is 20m x 21.5mm x 1.4mm
MMC (MULTI MEDIA CARD)
This is a storage card standard that stores data within Flash memory resulting in low power requirements.
The card is physically approximately the size of a postage stamp 24mm x 32mm x 1.4mm, this results in
it being used within handheld devices or mobile phones. Additional smaller size cards have been released
Reduced-Size MMC, microMMC and dual voltage versions with lower power requirements for mobile
phones. It has however been largely replaced by SD cards.
MOBILE BROADBAND
High-speed internet access via mobile network signals, as opposed to fixed lines. This was first made
possible with the third generation of mobile networks, with later developments and generations providing
greater speeds.
MOBILE DEVICE CENTRE
A Microsoft program used for connecting PDA devices to computers running Windows Vista. It is used
for synchronizing data for example contacts, appointments, and files.
MOBILE WI-FI DONGLE
A mobile broadband dongle which broadcasts a Wi-Fi network signal instead of requiring a USB socket.
Not only does this allow you to connect any device that supports wireless to a mobile broadband network
- such as a games console or Wi-Fi tablet - but it also permits multiple devices to be connected at the same
time. They may also be called pocket Wi-Fi, wireless dongles or MiFi (which is a Three brand name).
MODEM
A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that decodes data coming to and from computers,
changing computer code into sounds that can be sent from one machine to another via either telephone
lines or radio waves. Modems can be wired, wireless or both.
MP3 (MPEG AUDIO LAYER 3)
A digital music format. There are many formats available for digitizing music for storage and playback on
electronic devices but MP3 is the most popular. MP3 playback is supported by a vast range of hardware
and software.
MSAS (MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM)
A satellite-based augmentation service for Japan, which is similar to the European EGNOS.
NET
See the Internet.
NEWSGROUPS
See Usenet.
NFC (NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION)
This is a set of standards which enables portable products like smartphones to easily establish radio
communication while in close proximity of other units. Current applications include contactless
transactions and data exchange. It builds on the previous RFID standard.
OCTA-CORE
A term which indicates a processor is comprised of multiple cores. In this case, it has eight cores, which
results in the processor being more efficient at running applications. This is dependent on the applications
being designed to take advantage of this hardware. In practice, many "octa-core" devices will actually
comprise of two quad-core processors being used simultaneously, rather than a true eight core CPU.
OFCOM (OFFICE OF COMMUNICATIONS)
The UK's communications regulator. Ofcom has done much to improve broadband for consumers,
including the streamlining of the broadband switching process, cracking down on misleading unlimited
broadband and formalizing broadband complaints procedures.
PDA (PERSONAL DATA ASSISTANT)
The compact computer used for storing personal information including appointments and contacts.
Recent versions include Wireless Networking, Bluetooth, and high-resolution screens. Additional
applications can be installed to increase functionality including dictionaries, translators, MP3 players
and many others. They can sometimes be known as handhelds or palmtops devices. Due to Smartphone
devices now being able to perform the same functionality they have largely disappeared from the
consumer market.
PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKING (P2P)
A distributed network architecture where each participant in the network contributes resources and
benefits from the joint effort. This is distinct from a typical client/server network where clients are passive
and served from a central location. In relation to broadband, the term P2P is usually referring to file
sharing, where users share the effort of hosting files and download pieces from multiple peers. As well
as providing redundancy and resilience a major advantage of P2P file sharing is that it becomes more
effective as more users join.
PHISHING
Phishing emails are scam messages designed to lure unsuspecting internet users into providing personal
information or installing malware. They often masquerade as legitimate emails from real companies,
using fake email addresses and links which point to clones of real websites.
PHORM
Phorm is a company that generated an online advertising program it called Webwise. The system came
under heavy criticism as it tracks internet usage habits (called 'behavioral targeting') to enable targeted
advertising, which many allege breaches customer privacy. While ISPs BT, Virgin Media, and TalkTalk
all expressed initially interested in Phorm, none have taken it on. If an ISP does link up with Phorm, and
you do not opt out, your personal browsing habits can essentially be farmed out to a third-party company.
PIRACY
The practice of downloading and distributing copyrighted works such as movies, music, TV shows,
books, and games.
PPI (PIXELS PER INCH)
This term refers to the pixel density of a screen. It is measured by the number of pixels within a square
inch of a screen.
PPP (POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL)
A term used to describe the protocol which controls direct connections between two devices. This can be
achieved using serial cable, cellular telephone or radio wave communications (WLAN).
PUSH E-MAIL
This term describes an e-mail system which automatically forwards mail to a client. A mail server
automatically pushes e-mails when they are received to the client, normally over a cellular connection.
Originally available on RIM Blackberry devices this function is now available with all Smartphone
devices.
QUAD-CORE
A term which indicates a processor is comprised of multiple cores. In this case, it has four cores, which
results in the processor being more efficient at running applications. They are faster and more efficient
than dual-core processors. This is dependent on the applications being designed to take advantage of this
hardware.
QVGA (QUARTER VIDEO GRAPHICS ARRAY)
This is a term describing the display resolution of a screen. It is a resolution of 320 x 240 pixels.
RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY)
A computer component used to store programs and data while they are being executed by a CPU. It
generally refers to volatile memory that can be accessed randomly.
RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION)
A wireless system which uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached
to an object. It is often used for identification and tracking of items. This can include the tracking of goods
and animals.
ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY)
A computer storage component used in mobile computers and Smartphone devices to permanently store
applications and data. ROM can be erased and written to numerous times in typically in excess of up to
100,000 writes and erase cycles and is quick to access.
ROUTER
A router directs traffic on a network. In relation to broadband the router usually (but not always) includes
a modem so is responsible for connecting to the internet as well as providing networking in your home.
A broadband router may also be called a hub.
SATELLITE BROADBAND
Broadband service provided by a satellite. In order to use this, you need a dish connected to a modem. The
equipment is expensive compared to regular home broadband but has a big plus: it doesn't need any fixed
lines and will work anywhere within the footprint of the satellite, making it ideal for fast connectivity in
remote locations where other services aren't available.
SD (SECURE DIGITAL)
This is a storage card standard which stores data within the non-volatile memory. This results in
storage card which has low power requirements. They are normally used within portable devices like
Smartphones and cameras due to their compact size. The standard physical size is 24mm x 32mm x
2.1mm. The original format incorporated a lock switch to prevented accidental data loss.
SDHC (SECURE DIGITAL HIGH CAPACITY)
A standard which facilitates the ability for SD cards to have a greater capacity. This is achieved by data
being addressed by sector rather than by byte. Currently, the maximum limit for SDHC cards is 32GB.
SDIO (SECURE DIGITAL INPUT OUTPUT)
Devices equipped with SDIO card slots are able to utilize compact peripherals in addition to flash memory
cards. Typical uses are digital cameras, barcode readers modems to name a few possibilities. As most
necessary features are integrated within Smartphone and other portable devices these type of peripherals
are no longer available.
SDSL (SYMMETRICAL DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE)
Unlike ADSL this type of connection provides the same speed for both uploads and downloads. SDSL is
not commonly found in the UK now but is most often used by businesses.
SDXC (SECURE DIGITAL EXTENDED CAPACITY)
A format of Secure Digital memory card which defines a theoretically maximum limit of 2048GB (2TB)
of data storage and transfer rates of up to 104MB/s. Currently, up to 256GB cards are available with
SDXC, but larger capacities should be released in the future.
SMTP (SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL)
The protocol used for the delivery (sending) of e-mails from a client to a server, before direction to the
destination.
SPAM
Unsolicited emails sent in bulk to multiple recipients. Frequently used to advertise questionable products
and services. Spam can be blocked using an anti-spam tool. The name comes from the famous Monty
Python 'spam' sketch.
SPEED
The transfer rate of a broadband connection. This is the key selling point of any service and usually, the
first thing any of us will check when comparing broadband. Broadband speed is measured in kilobits per
second (Kbps or Kb), megabits per second (Mbps or Mb) or gigabits per second (Gbps or Gb). For most
consumer broadband connections the speed will be faster downloading than it is for uploading.
SPYWARE
A type of malware used to collect information without the owner's consent, such as passwords, web
activity, and credit cards. Can also cause your computer to slow down, and alter programs and settings.
To protect against spyware use an anti-virus application or specialized anti-spyware or anti-malware tool.
SSID (SERVICE SET IDENTIFIER)
An identifier used to distinguish wireless access points or networks. This can be customized to individual
requirements, but all devices on the network need to share this name.
STREAMING
Viewing media without saving files to your computer. If you watch a video through Netflix or listen
to music with Spotify you are streaming. The advantage is that you get quick access without having to
download the whole file, but on the downside, you'll need a minimum speed to view without interruption
and the content needs to be streamed each time, potentially an issue if your broadband is capped.
SUPERFAST
According to the EU, 'superfast' broadband is any broadband deemed to run at 24Mb or above. This
essentially rules out any service running on old BT lines (ADSL) or any mobile broadband up to
and including 3G: leaving us in the UK with 4G (potentially), fiber and cable as 'superfast'. The UK
government has made a commitment to have superfast broadband available to 95% of the UK by the end
of 2017.
TB (TERABYTE)
A terabyte is a unit of measurement computer data storage. It is 10244 bytes depending on context.
TFT (THIN-FILM TRANSISTOR)
A type of active matrix commonly used within LCD displays where each pixel has a transistor. This
provides displays with quick screen refresh rates and improved picture quality.
THROTTLING
This term refers to internet service providers deliberately slowing down internet connections to certain
customers and/or at certain times. It is most commonly employed during peak broadband usage times and
against customers deemed to have overstepped their usage cap or fair usage policy. These measures may
also be temporary and used as a deterrent against those downloading large amounts of data. Throttling is
sometimes used interchangeably with traffic management but can have more negative connotations.
TRAFFIC
Network or data traffic is a term for data being sent across a network.
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
The practice of controlling and managing data traffic across a network. Traffic management, or traffic
shaping, can be fairly benign and simply designed to improve performance for the majority of users, such
as prioritizing tasks like VOIP or video streaming during busy periods. But aggressive traffic management
such as throttling can cause a severe drop in performance for certain activities, particularly file sharing.
While some ISPs no longer routinely use traffic management it is still in place on many services, so check
this before you buy.
TRAFFIC SHAPING
See traffic management.
TROJAN HORSE
A type of malware which appears harmless in order to fool a victim into installing it.
TRULY UNLIMITED
See unlimited.
UMTS (UNIVERSAL MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM)
A 3G technology which enables high-speed download speeds. Typical speeds of up to 384Kbits/s and up
to 7.2Mbit/s with HSDPA are possible. It can be used for video calls on mobile devices and fast Internet
access.
UNLIMITED
Broadband without limits, where you can use it as much as you like without additional charges or
restrictions. There's been a great deal of controversy over unlimited broadband in the past as providers
liked to sneak Fair Use Policies (FUP) in the small print or come up with their own loose definition of
the word, but today many ISPs are actually unlimited. Sometimes they may have no data usage caps
but still utilize traffic management, while others are 'truly unlimited' and have no usage caps or traffic
management policy.
UPLOAD
The transfer of data from your computer, or another device. For example posting photos to a social
network, sending emails or publishing a video on YouTube. Anything that goes across the internet from
your broadband is considered to be 'uploaded'. It's important to remember that if you have a data usage
cap it is affected by both download and upload traffic.
UPLOAD SPEED
How fast your broadband connection can send data from your computer. Most home broadband services
and all mobile broadband connections have a significantly lower upload speed than download. Specialist
business connections may offer faster uploads and some connections provide the same speed in both
directions.
USAGE ALLOWANCE
See fair use policy and capping.
USENET
A distributed internet discussion system that does not rely on central control or servers. Content is
organized into newsgroups focused on specific topics, with users posting text or files and entering into
discussions, much like a web forum. This is an old part of the internet, originally proposed in 1980, and
before the advent of the web was one of the most popular. Usenet was enormously influential on internet
culture and much of the jargon in use today originated there.
VGA (VIDEO GRAPHICS ARRAY)
This computer hardware standard has become widespread and the term has been adopted to mean several
meanings. In the case of mobile devices, it refers to the screen resolution of 640 x 480 pixels.
VIRUS
Malicious software which automatically spreads to other computers. The effects of a virus differ wildly,
some are designed to merely cause annoyance while others set out to corrupt data or even damage
hardware. The advent of the internet made it easier for viruses to spread, though they can also be
distributed on removable media such as USB sticks and CDs. Use anti-virus software to prevent a virus
infection.
VOIP (VOICE OVER IP)
A technology for making phone calls using an internet connection, with the advantage that computer-
computer calls are free, and calls to standard telephone numbers are often charged at a much lower rate
than your phone company. All you need to make a VOIP call is an internet-connected the device with a
microphone and some VOIP software. Skype is currently the most popular VOIP application in the world.
VPN (VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK)
A service which protects against eavesdropping. When using a VPN internet traffic is encrypted and
routed through a proxy server, making it much more difficult to intercept data. A VPN can also hide
your identity online as any sites or services accessed when connected to the VPN will see the proxy IP
address instead of your broadband connection. Use of a VPN is highly recommended when connecting to
an untrusted network (such as a public Wi-Fi hotspot).
WAAS (WIDE AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM
A satellite-based augmentation service for North America, which is similar to the European EGNOS.
WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK)
A network spread over a large geographic area, as opposed to a LAN. The internet is the largest WAN, but
private WANs are used by companies, education providers and governments for internal communications.
WAP (WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL)
A standard for mobile data access, WAP was designed around the small screens and slow data connections
of early mobile phones. It was hyped as a huge leap forward but the reality of using a WAP browser was
less exciting than the marketing suggested. It gained some popularity but faded away once phones offered
regular web access.
WEARABLE
Generic term for a smart device worn on the body. Wearables may be fairly simple - pedometers
connected via Bluetooth to a smartphone - or high-tech smart watches with their own powerful
processors, color displays, and data connections.
WEB (THE WORLD WIDE WEB)
WWW or information superhighway if you remember the early 90s. A huge collection of resources
connected by links accessed via the internet. It was invented by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.
This is how most of us use the internet day to day.
WEB BROWSER
Software used to view web pages. Popular browsers include Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Internet Explorer,
Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Opera.
WEBMAIL
Webmail refers to services which provide email via a web browser instead of requiring a mail client
program such as Outlook. The most common webmail services in the UK are Outlook (previously
Hotmail), Yahoo! and Gmail, but there are many around - most of them free. As it's usually less
complex and more flexible than using client software webmail is the most popular way of using email.
Additionally, webmail services can often be set up to receive emails from other POP3 and IMAP email
accounts and typically provide additional features such as built-in anti-spam and anti-virus software.
WEB SPACE
Storage space on a server where you can host a website. It was once common practice for broadband
providers to offer this as an incentive but since having a site is no longer a novelty and there are plenty of
free alternatives, few of them bother.
WEP (WIRED EQUIVALENT PRIVACY OR WIRELESS ENCRYPTION PROTOCOL)
Wireless networks can be secured using this means of data encryption. It is available in 64bit and 128bit
versions, however, it isnt as secure as WPA or WPA2.
Wi-Fi
A standard for connecting devices using radio waves. The term Wi-Fi does not stand for anything but is
a trademarked name owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance. In broadband terms, the most common usage is when
referring to wireless routers. These devices connect to the internet via a fixed-line telephone socket and
then transmit the data over a local Wi-Fi network so that you don't have to run wires to your PC, laptop,
games console or other devices. Wi-Fi is now commonly available in places such as hotels, airports, and
cafes, offering the internet in public areas (which are often known as hotspots).
WiMAX
This term is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access - a 4G broadband technology
offering a wireless broadband alternative without the need for cables. WiMAX lost out to LTE in the race
to be the next generation of mobile broadband, largely because of the latter fit the established network
model mobile companies already use; they simply had to upgrade their technology rather than starting
afresh.
WLAN (WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK)
A LAN that uses Wi-Fi to transfer data rather than physical network cables.
WPA & WPA2 (WI-FI PROTECTED ACCESS)
Wireless networks can be secured using this means of data encryption. An improvement on WEP this
security protocol uses a 128bit encryption key and dynamically changes it while the system is being used.
WPA2 is more secure than WPA, but may not be compatible with existing hardware.
WVGA (WIDE VGA)
A modified version of VGA which provides widescreen displays. This refers to any resolution which is
wider than the normal VGA standards e.g. 800 x 480 pixels.

Final Words
To show your appreciation to the author and help others have wonderful reading experiences and find
helpful information too, I'd be very grateful if you'd kindly post your comments for this book.
About The Author

Jamil Ahmed Khanzada is a professional Engineer, working in a leading National Industry. Member
of National Technology Association. Khanzada received his B.S. in Industrial Engineering from the
University of Illinois in 1994.
Since 1994 he is serving in a specific Engineering and Manufacturing Industry.
J. A. Khanzada is author and co-author of Books, several Research Papers and hundreds of professional
journal articles on Industry development and Energy Conservation. These Papers were presented in the
Annual Conventions and printed in several National and International Journals. He also received two
gold-medals for best research papers of the year. His most recent books is How to buy best series
(November 2016 publishing at Amazon).
He is living happily with his family in his home country.

Copyright 2016 J. A. Khanzada


The Right of J. A. Khanzada to be identified as the author of the work has been asserted him in
accordance with the copyright. Designer and Patents Act 1988.
All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or otherwise, without written permission from the author.