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An Introduction to

Structural Styles and Tectonics


in Petroleum Geology.

Dr Kevin C. Hill
University of Melbourne
Cape Liptrap field example
interpreted

A
Papua New Guinea Oilfields
Watchet, interpreted
Timor Sea
Overview
Monday Thursday
Introduction - Stress-Strain
FIRST-O Strike-Slip
Extension Salt
Tuesday Friday
Inversion Fractures
Wednesday
Compression
Components of an Extensional Fault

HEAVE
Footwall
P lip
Heave
Strike S Dip Throw
Sli (downthrow)
Net
p
Slip
Hangingwall
Dip
HW HW

FW
FW

Reverse fault Normal fault


hw cut-off above hw cut-off below
fw cut-off fw cut-off
Sea level

Compressional Fault; Extensional Fault;


repetition of stratigraphy, omission of stratigraphy,
growth above the FW growth above the HW
Missing section - extension

Bed A is missing along red line


Repeat section - compression

B B

Red line intersects a repeat of Bed B


Extensional or Compressional fault?
Extensional or compressional fault?

W E

F A
G C
B
D
E
G F
Cloos 1964
Folds - Terminology

Overturned
Anticline limb
axial
plane
Crest

Forelimb Backlimb Syncline


Anticline

Asymmetric Anticline
Folds - Terminology

xis
A
old
F
Plunge
Parallel Fold interbed slip,
constant bed thickness
Like folding
C a stack of
paper

A
Franklin Mountains parallel
(kink) fold
McKenzie Mountain Front
parallel fold
Similar fold + mixture
E H A D

t1 T1
T2
t2

t3
T3

t1 T1
T2
t2

T3
t3

F G B C
Similar fold + mixture
E H A D

t1 T1
T2
t2

t3
T3

t1 T1
T2
t2

T3
t3

Cape FLiptrap,
G
nearBMelbourne
C
Pyrenees isoclinal mixed
parallel and similar fold
Parallel, similar or mixture?
Parallel or similar fold?
Imbricate low angle
normal fault

Detachment, beds sliding horizontally

Sea level

Syn-deformation sediments grow above the hw


Pre-deformation sediments are roughly constant thickness
Rollover, offshore Angola

Growth

kn ess
Constant thic

c h m en t
Deta
Common erosion
on the crest
Sea level E
D
C
B E
D D
C RAMP C
HEIGHT
B B
A A A

Detachment Sediment growth on the footwall,


Gentle dip on top of anticline not above the hangingwall
gives regional tilt structure
Elevation of top must be known

Position of hinges locate ramp


E
Dip of limb = dip of ramp
D
C
B E
D D
C RAMP C
HEIGHT
B B
A A A

Regional elevation Ramp height = elevation of horizon on top of


anticline minus regional elevation
Dropped below Regional - Extension

llel to R egional
b ed s r etu rn para
HW

l D et achm ent
g ion a
Beds slidi ng along Re

Footwall cut-off often at Regional dip and elevation


This curvature
suggests fault Constant dip
steepens no curvature of fault plane
below this point

hangingwall elevated Probable fault


above regional trajectory

Regional elevation
from footwall
Extension,
HW beds below
Regional

Detachment
Most faults are curved in section. Movement on a curved
extension fault produces a rollover to fill the hole

Compression,
HW beds above
Regional
Detachment

A family of Listric Thrusts is known as Imbricates


3 types of fold-thrust interactions

Fault-bend
ramp
Detachment Folding

ramp Fault-propagation
Detachment Folding

Detachment
Detachment
Folding
FOOTWALL

FLAT

RAMP

Detachment or
Flat
RAMP ANTICLINE
Fault termination at depth
Non-rotational
planar faulting
Keel

Rotational planar
Faulting
Space gap at
keystone block

Listric faulting

Asymmetrical listric
fault termination
Block fault model
SW Feiran Block NE
GG85

Miocene

Cretaceous
Nubian
Basement
0 1 2 km
SW NE

Pre-Mioc
ene
Basemen
t
GG85 Feiran Block Uneroded Deeply eroded
Block deeply eroded Block exposed block
down to basement

TI O N
SEC E
LI N
Sketch Section
LOCATION MAP
Illustrates an uneroded block
SINAI
sandwiched between deeply
FIELD
eroded blocks prior to collapse
EGYPT
of Feiran and GG85 blocks
Regional Kutubu - Wage - Nembi Section
SW NE
Iagifu Nembi
Wage Valley
Iorogabaiu Kutubu Mubi
km Omati Trough Hedinia

0
Bas
in T
5 oro
Shelf Toro

10
A

Shelf Kubor-Mendi Trough


km Kutubu Mubi Wage
0
Shelf Toro
5 Basin Toro

10

Darai Limestone(Miocene) Toro Sandstone(Neocomian)

Miocene (distal) Jurassic 0 20 km


Eocene Basement (Paleozoic)

Ieru Formation(Cretaceous)
F.I.R.S.T. - O.
Factual interpretation
Internally consistent fault-fold shape and sediments
Regional detachments and FWC
Structural Style geometry, rheology
Test by Restoration

Other options, Open mind