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6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Introduction 3. To correlate scientific principles to the


The National curriculum Framework student's experience.
2005(NCF 2005) is one of the most 4. To involve students in exploring topics
comprehensive documents published in the through discussion and activity.
last decade. It suggests radical changes in 5. To imbibe the spirit of enquiry in
curricula for the country and offers an excellent students through valuable learning
framework for preparing need based experiences through experiment.
curricula. While revising the syllabi for
Science and Technology, the position paper 6. To help the students become
on science ( NCF 2005) has selected autonomous learners.
"Learning without burden" as the main theme. STD. IX
It also recommends a pedagogy which is 1. Food
hands-on and inquiry based. The present
syllabus of Science and Technology for Std. 1.1. Plant and animal breeding and
IX and X is based on the principles and selection for quality improvement.
themes suggested in NCF 2005. The Themes 1.2. Use of fertilizers, manures.
are cross-disciplinary in nature: Food,
1.3. Protection from pests and diseases;
Materials, The world of the Living, How things
organic farming.
work, Moving things; people and ideas;
Natural Phenomena and Natural Resources. 2. Materials
Some themes have been merged to 2.1 Matter: All things occupy space,
consolidate content.As suggested in NCF possess mass. Definition of matter,
2005, unnecessary focus on enumeration has characteristics of solids, liquids and
been avoided. More importance has been gases e.g. shape, volume, density.
given to the processes in science rather than Change of state: freezing, melting,
focusing on only factual information. evaporation, condensation, sublimation.
Cooling by evaporation. Absorption of
Since the themes are inter-linked to
heat.
each other, the entire syllabus has been
integrated into one paper . This will facilitate 2.2 Elements, mixtures and Compounds:
better understanding of the subject across elements, compounds and mixtures as
disciplinary boundaries and at the same time types of chemical substances.
expose students to many topics in Biology, Types of mixtures; Heterogeneous,
Physics and Chemistry. homogeneous, colloids, suspensions.
Objectives 2.3 Combination of substances: Law of
constant proportion, atomic and
1. To enable the students to "Learn without molecular masses. Particle nature,
Burden". basic units: Atoms and Molecules.
2. To expose the students to a "hands-on 2.4 Mole Concept: Relationship of mole to
way of learning science. mass of the particles and numbers.

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Valency. Chemical formulae of common * Pulse Polio program.
compounds.
3.4. Exchange of substances by living
2.5 Atomic Structure: Electrons, protons organisms with the external world:
and neutrons. Atomic number and
Diffusion/exchange of substances
atomic mass number. Isotopes and
between cells and their environment and
Isobars.
between the cell themselves in the living
3. The World of the Living system; role in nutrition, water and food
3.1 Biological Diversity transport, excretion, gaseous exchange.
Diversity of plants and animals: Basic 4. Moving Things. People and ideas.
issues in scientific naming. Basis of Motion.
classification, Hierarchy of categories/ 4.1 Motion: displacement, velocity, Uniform
groups. and non-uniform motion along a straight
Plant classification: Major Plant groups line,acceleration, distance-time and
(salient features): Bacteria, velocity-time graphs for motion and
Thalophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, uniformly accelerated motion. Equations
gymnosperms and Angiosperms. of motion by graphical method .
Animal Classification : Major groups of Elementary idea of uniform circular
animals (salient features): Non- motion.
Chordates up to phyla and non 4.2. Force and Newton's Laws : Force and
chordates up to classes. Motion; Newton's Laws of Motion.
3.2 Smallest living unit of Life, Cell : Cell Inertia of a.body, inertia and mass,
as a basic unit of life prokaryotic and momentum, force and acceleration.
eukaryotic cells, multicellular Elementary idea of conservation of
organisms;cell membrane and cell wall, momentum, action and reaction forces.
cell organelles, chloroplast,
mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, Golgli 4.3. Gravitation: gravitation, universal law of
apparatus. Nucleus, chromosomes, gravitation, force of gravitation of the-
basic structure, number.Tissues, earth (earth's gravity), acceleration due
organs, organ system, organism to gravity, mass and weight, free fall .
Structure and functions of animal and 4.4. Work, Energy and Power: work done
plant tissues. (four types in by a force, energy, power. Kinetic and
animals;meristematic and permanent Potential energy, Law of conservation
tissues in plants). of energy.
3.3. Health 4.5 Floating Bodies: Thrust and Pressure,
Archimedes' Principle, Buoyancy. Idea
* Failure of health leading to disease.
of relative density.
* Disease and its causes.
4.6. Sound; Nature of sound and its
* Diseases caused by microbes and propagation through different media,
their prevention: Typhoid, diarrhoea, speed of sound, range of hearing in
malaria,hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, TB, humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound;
Polio.
echo and SONAR Structure of the

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Human Ear. (Auditory aspect). and alum
5. Natural Resources - Understanding b) A suspension of soil, chalk powder and
Ecosystem - fine sand in water
5.1 Types of ecosystem - forest, grassland, c) A colloidal of starch in water and egg
desert, aquatic, costal, marine albumin in water and distinguish
between these on the basis of
5.2 Interaction between biotic and abiotic
factors in an eco-system i) transparency
5.3 Energy flow and its importance. Cycles ii) filtration criterion
of nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic iii) stability
(fresh water and marine) ecosystems, 2. To prepare
nature's mechanism in maintaining
a) a mixture
balance.
b) A compound
6. Waste Generation and Management
Using iron filings and sulphur powder
6.1 Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, and distinguish between these on the
agricultural and commercial basis of:
6.2 Classification of waste : biodegradable i) Appearance i.e., homogeneity and
non biodegradable, toxic, non- toxic heterogeneity
biomedical.
ii) Behaviour towards a magnet
6.3 Impact of waste accumulation -
iii) Behaviour towards carbon disulphide
Spoilage of landscape, pollution, health
as a solvent.
hazards, effect on terrestrial and
aquatic (fresh water and marine) life. iv) Effect of heat.
6.4 Need for management of waste. 3. To carry out the following chemical
reactions and record observations. Also
6.5 Methods of safe disposal of waste identify the type of reaction involved in
segregation, dumping, composting, each case
drainage, treatment of effluents before i) Iron with copper sulphate solution in
discharge, incineration, use of water.
scrubbers and electrostatic
precipitators. ii) Burning of Magnesium in air.

6.6 Need for reducing, reusing and recycling iii) Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
waste. iv) Heating of Lead Nitrate
6.7 Legal provisions for handling and v) Sodium sulphate with Barium chloride
management of waste. in the form of their solutions in water.
STD. IX 4. To verify laws of reflection of sound.
PRACTICALS 5. To determine the density of solid.
(denser than water) by using a spring
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS balance and a measuring cylinder.
1. To prepare 6. To establish the relation between the
a) A true solution of common salt, sugar loss in weight of a solid when fully

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immersed in b) one adaptive feature with reference to
i) tap water its habitat.

ii) strongly salty water, with the weight of STD. X


water displaced by it by taking at least 1. Materials
two different solids.
1.1 Acids and Bases: Acids, Bases and
7. To measure the temperature of hot Salts: General properties, examples
water as it cools and plot a temperature- and uses.
time graph.
1.2 Chemical Reactions: Types of chemical
8. To determine the velocity of a pulse reactions: combination, decomposition,
propagated through stretched string/ displacement double decomposition,
slinky. precipitation, and neutralization.
9. To prepare stained temporary mounts 1.3 Oxidation and Reduction: Oxidation and
of onion peel and to record Reduction in terms of gain and
observations and draw labeled loss of oxygen and hydrogen.
diagram.
1.4 Metals and Non-Metals: Brief
10. To identify parenchyma and discussion on basic metallurgical
sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped processes. Properties of common
muscle fibers and nerve metals. Elementary idea about bonding.
cells in animals, from prepared slides 1.5 Carbon Compounds: Elementary idea
and to draw their labeled diagrams. about bonding. Saturated
11. To separate the components of a hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids
mixture of sand, common salt and (properties only)
ammonium chloride (or camphor) by 1.6 Common chemicals used in daily life:
Sublimation.
Soap, common salt, Washing soda,
12. To determine the melting point of ice Baking soda, bleaching powder,
and the boiling point of water. Plaster of Paris.
13. To test (a) the presence of starch in the 1.7 Classification of Elements: Brief
given food sample (b) the presence historical account, Mendeleev's periodic
of the adulterant metanil yellow in dal. table, gradation in properties.
14. To study the characteristic of spirogyra/ 2. The World of the Living
Agaricus, Moss/Fern, Pinus (either 2.1. Life Processes: Definition of "Living
with male or female cone) and an things". Basic concept of nutrition,
Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two respiration, transport and excretion in
identifying features of groups they plants and animals.
belong to.
2.2. Control in the Living: Tropic movements
15. To observe and draw the given in plants .Introduction to plant hormones;
specimens-earthworm, cockroach, bony control and coordination in animals;
fish and bird. For each specimen voluntary, involuntary and reflex action,
record. nervous system, chemical coordination,
a) one specific feature of-its phylum animal hormones.

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2.3. Reproduction in the Living: remedies. Application of spherical
Reproduction in plants and animals. mirrors and lenses.
Need for and methods of family 5. Pollution
planning. Safe Sex vs-. HIV/AIDS. Child
bearing and women's health. 5.1 Types of pollution - air, water, (fresh and
marine), soil, radiation, and noise.
2.4. Heredity and Evolution: Heredity, origin
of life- brief introduction, Basic concepts 5.2 Sources of pollution and major
of evolution. pollutants, oil spills
3. Moving things. People and Ideas 5.3 Effect of pollution on -environment,
human health and other organisms
3.1. Electric Circuits: Potential and potential
difference. Ohm's Law, Resistances 5.4 Abatement of pollution
in series and parallel. Power dissipated 6. Striving for a Better Environment
due to current. Inter relation between P,
6.1 Use of efficient and eco-friendly
V, I and R.
technology
3.2. Magnets: Magnetic field, field lines.
6.2 Sustainable use of resources.
Field due to a current carrying wire, coil,
solenoid. Force on current carrying 6.3 Enforcement of acts, laws and policies
conductor. Fleming's Left Hand Rule. STD. X
Electric motor, electromagnetic
induction. Induced potential differences, PRACTICALS
induced current. Electric generator, LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
principle and working.
1. To find the pH of the following samples
Direct and Alternating current. by using pH paper universal indicator.
Frequency of AC. Advantages of AC
i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid
over DC. Domestic Electric Circuits.
ii) Dilute NaOH solution
4. Natural Phenomena
iii) Dilute Ethanoic acid solution
4.1. Light : Convergence and Divergence
of Light. iv) Lemon juice .
4.2 Spherical Mirrors: Images formed by a v) Water
concave mirror. Related concepts: vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate
centre of curvature, principal axis, Solution.
optical centre, focus, focal length.
2. To study, the properties of acids and
4.3 Refraction: appreciation of the concept bases HCl & NaOH by their reaction
of refraction. Laws of refraction. Velocity with
of light. Refractive index; twinkling of
i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of
light. ii) Zinc metal
4.4. Lenses: Images formed by a convex iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate
lens; functioning of the lens in the 3. To determine the focal length of
human problems of vision and their
a) Concave mirror

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b) Convex lens by obtaining the image i) Combination Reaction .
of a distant object.
ii) Decomposition Reaction
4. To trace the path of a ray of light
iii) Displacement Reaction
passing through a rectangular glass
slab for different angles of incidence. iv) Double Displacement Reaction
Measure the angle of incidence, angle 1. Action of water on quick lime. .
of refraction, angle of emergence and
interpret the result. 2. Action of heat on Ferrous Sulphate
crystals
5. To study the dependence of current (I)
on the potential difference 3. Iron Nails kept in copper sulphate
solution
(V) across a resistor and determine
its resistance. Also plot a graph 4. Reaction between Sodium sulphate and
between V and I. Barium chloride solutions.

6. To determine the equivalent resistance 14. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu
and Al metals on the following salt
of two resistors when connected in
solutions.
series.
i) ZnS04 (aq.)
7. To determine the equivalent resistance
of two resistors when connected in ii) FeS04 (aq.)
parallel. iii) CuS04 (aq.)
8. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf iv) Al2(S0)3 (aq.)
peel to show stomata.
b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals
9. To show experimentally that light is in the decreasing order of reactivity
necessary for photosynthesis. based on the above result.
10. To show experimentally that carbon 15. To study the following properties of
dioxide is given out during respiration. acetic acid (ethanoic acid):
11. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba i) odour
and (b) budding in yeast with the help
of prepared slides. ii) solubility in water

12. To determine the percentage of water iii) effect on litmus


absorbed by raisins. iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate
13. To perform and observe the following
reactions and classify them into;

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