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MYSORE

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

u UNDER JNNURM SCHEME

Karnataka
Slum
Clearance
Board
City Development Plan for Mysore

PREFACE TO THE CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF


MYSORE

This City Development Plan (CDP) document has been prepared by Mysore City in
the context of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
(JNNURM). The document has been prepared through a systematic consultation
process with citizen groups, elected representatives, and Government
departments/ agencies. Infrastructure Development Corporation (Karnataka) Ltd.
(iDeCK) 1, which is an organization empanelled for the purposes of the JNNURM
by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, has assisted Mysore
City in developing this CDP.

This CDP seeks to set in place the directions and principles, rather than aim at
being a definitive and conclusive document. Primary emphasis is on principles,
directions and reform, rather than on specific projects that the City needs to
develop. Given the complex and consensual nature of the exercise, it is clear that
while such a consultative process gives room for all the views to be articulated, it is
certainly not possible to adopt every view point. The final vision will therefore
reflect a preponderance of opinion, rather than be a unanimous view.

A two-phased approach has been adopted to chart the direction of the Citys
development. A consultative, normative approach to envision the future,
complemented by a bottom-up approach of specific project interventions in the
City.

It is also clear that the Vision articulated in this document will continue to evolve,
even subsequently, with learning and feedback from various stakeholders. Mysore
City recognizes this need for ongoing fine-tuning of the CDP, and proposes to
incorporate any essential and crucial issues into a revision that will be brought out
in periodic reviews.

1
iDeCK is a joint venture of Government of Karnataka, Infrastructure Development Finance
Company (IDFC), and Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC)

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City Development Plan for Mysore

CONTENTS

PREFACE TO THE CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF MYSORE ......................... 1

CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 2

ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................. 9

CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND OF MYSORE URBAN REGION......................... 12

MYSORE THE CITY ......................................................................................... 12


Origin of Name.............................................................................................................................................. 13

History ........................................................................................................................................................... 13

Palaces in Mysore.......................................................................................................................................... 13

Mysore Dasara .............................................................................................................................................. 14

Other Attractions of Mysore........................................................................................................................ 15

Economy ........................................................................................................................................................ 16

Connectivity................................................................................................................................................... 17

Educational and research institutions......................................................................................................... 18

Spiritual Tourism.......................................................................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER 2: HERITAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF MYSORE .......................... 20


Heritage component...................................................................................................................................... 20

Architecture styles of Heritage buildings in Mysore.................................................................................. 20


Indo Sarcenic Buildings .......................................................................................................................... 20
Traditional Hindu Style.............................................................................................................................. 21
Greco-Roman ............................................................................................................................................. 21
Gothic......................................................................................................................................................... 21
European Classical style ............................................................................................................................ 22

Statutory & Legal Framework .................................................................................................................... 22


Statutes....................................................................................................................................................... 22

Institutional set-up ........................................................................................................................................ 23


Heritage Task Force ................................................................................................................................... 23

Heritage strategy........................................................................................................................................... 24
Identification of heritage zones .................................................................................................................. 24
SWOT Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 24
Setting out objectives of Heritage Strategy................................................................................................ 25
The other associated objectives of the same include the following: ................................................. 25

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Selection, listing and grading of heritage structures .................................................................................. 25


Criteria for selection of heritage building .................................................................................................. 25
Criteria for listing of heritage buildings ..................................................................................................... 26
Criteria for grading of heritage building .................................................................................................... 26
Grading of the listed buildings/listed precincts .......................................................................................... 26
Strategies for tapping heritage potential in Mysore ................................................................................... 27
Valuation of Heritage Buildings ................................................................................................................ 28

Setting out activities for tapping the potential............................................................................................ 29

Infrastructure................................................................................................................................................ 30

Financial Arrangements:.............................................................................................................................. 30

Financing Plan: ............................................................................................................................................. 31

Action Plan .................................................................................................................................................... 31

CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS OF EXISTING URBAN SITUATION........................... 32

SUMMARY STATISTICS..................................................................................... 32

DEMOGRAPHY................................................................................................... 32
Population Forecast ...................................................................................................................................... 33

LAND USE PATTERN......................................................................................... 34


Land use (1995) ......................................................................................................................................... 34
Land use (2001) ......................................................................................................................................... 35
Land use (2011) ......................................................................................................................................... 35

Urban Poor .................................................................................................................................................... 39

INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY................................................................... 43
Mysore City Corporation (MCC)................................................................................................................ 43
Important Obligatory Functions of MCC................................................................................................... 44
Important Discretionary Functions of MCC .............................................................................................. 45
Functions transferred to MCC under 74th Constitutional Amendment....................................................... 45

Mysore Urban Development Authority (MUDA) ...................................................................................... 45


Functions of MUDA .................................................................................................................................. 46
Organization............................................................................................................................................... 47

The Karnataka Urban Water Supply and Drainage Board (KUWSDB)................................................. 47

Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) ........................................................................ 48

Public Works Department ........................................................................................................................... 48

Zoo Authority................................................................................................................................................ 49

Department of Archaeology ......................................................................................................................... 49

Lake Development Authority....................................................................................................................... 49


Role of Private Sector ................................................................................................................................ 49

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City Development Plan for Mysore

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES ........................................................... 51

SERVICE INDICATORS ...................................................................................... 51


Water Supply................................................................................................................................................. 52

Sewerage ........................................................................................................................................................ 56

Solid Waste Management............................................................................................................................. 60

Roads and transportation............................................................................................................................. 68

Storm Water Drainage ................................................................................................................................. 74

Public Health & Stray Animals ................................................................................................................... 75

Public Conveniences ..................................................................................................................................... 75

Parks, Gardens & Water bodies.................................................................................................................. 75

Naming of Streets & Numbering of Houses................................................................................................ 76

Burial grounds & Crematoriums ................................................................................................................ 76

Parking lots.................................................................................................................................................... 76

Birth & Death Registration.......................................................................................................................... 76

Property Registers ........................................................................................................................................ 76

Environmental Services................................................................................................................................ 76

MYSORE A COMPETITIVE IT DESTINATION ................................................ 76


Key Observations:......................................................................................................................................... 77

CITIZEN CHARTER ............................................................................................ 77

INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT IN MYSORE KUIDP................................ 77


Best Practices................................................................................................................................................. 78
Slum Improvement..................................................................................................................................... 78
Improvement of Water Supply & Sewerage Networks .............................................................................. 79
Outer Ring Road ........................................................................................................................................ 79
Project Coding............................................................................................................................................ 79

FINANCIAL PROFILE OF MCC .......................................................................... 80


Municipal Revenue Income.......................................................................................................................... 80

Municipal Revenue Expenditure ................................................................................................................. 80

Municipal Capital Receipts and Expenditure ............................................................................................ 81

Water-supply & Sewerage Expenditure & Income ................................................................................... 81

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Cost-recovery in Urban Infrastructure....................................................................................................... 83

Investments in Urban Infrastructure .......................................................................................................... 83

CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPMENT OF A VISION FOR MYSORE............................ 85

THE CONSULTATION PROCESS...................................................................... 85


Stakeholder Meetings ................................................................................................................................... 85

Coverage for the CDP................................................................................................................................... 87

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS ........................................................................ 87


Strengths........................................................................................................................................................ 87

Weakness ....................................................................................................................................................... 88

VISION STATEMENT .......................................................................................... 88


Key Elements of Vision................................................................................................................................. 88

And What The Vision DOES NOT Envisage.......................................................................................... 89

Key Result Areas........................................................................................................................................... 89

General Statement of Objectives The Vision Statement......................................................................... 90

Specific Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ 91


Tourism ...................................................................................................................................................... 91
Wellness..................................................................................................................................................... 92
Handicrafts/ Sericulture ............................................................................................................................. 93
Education ................................................................................................................................................... 93
Information Technology/ ITeS/Bio-technology ......................................................................................... 94

Sector-specific Targets.................................................................................................................................. 94
Targets for Water & Sanitation .................................................................................................................. 95
Targets for Urban Roads ............................................................................................................................ 95
Targets for Solid Waste Management ........................................................................................................ 95
Targets for BSUP ....................................................................................................................................... 96

Quality of Life Ideas ..................................................................................................................................... 97

Mapping of Objectives................................................................................................................................ 100

Project Prioritization .................................................................................................................................. 102

CHAPTER 5 BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR ............................. 104

SCENARIO IN KARNATAKA............................................................................ 104

MYSORE SCENARIO ....................................................................................... 104

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City Development Plan for Mysore

PAST RESPONSES .......................................................................................... 108

HOLISTIC APPROACH..................................................................................... 108


Policy of Slum Improvement...................................................................................................................... 108

CONCEPT & RESETTLEMENT PROPOSAL ................................................... 109

GOALS OF BSUP COMPONENT ..................................................................... 110


Infrastructure Requirements ..................................................................................................................... 112
Housing .................................................................................................................................................... 112
Drinking Water ........................................................................................................................................ 112
Underground Drain .................................................................................................................................. 112
Storm Water Drain ................................................................................................................................... 112
Street Lighting.......................................................................................................................................... 113
Roads........................................................................................................................................................ 113
Community Centre ................................................................................................................................... 113
Primary Health Care & IEC Activities..................................................................................................... 113
Low Cost Sanitation................................................................................................................................. 113
Skill Up-gradation Program ..................................................................................................................... 113

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS..................................................................................... 114


Housing ........................................................................................................................................................ 114

Infrastructure Cost ..................................................................................................................................... 114


Project Cost .............................................................................................................................................. 114
Beneficiary Contribution.......................................................................................................................... 114

CHAPTER 6 - IMPLEMENTING THE VISION (THE CIP) ................................. 115

BASIC FRAMEWORK....................................................................................... 115

ASSESSING THE INVESTMENTS REQUIRED................................................ 115


Assumptions for the Assessments .............................................................................................................. 116

Heritage Conservation and Tourism......................................................................................................... 117

Water Supply & Sewerage ......................................................................................................................... 119

Municipal Solid Waste Management ........................................................................................................ 122


Collection and Transportation of MSW ................................................................................................... 122
Treatment and Disposal of MSW............................................................................................................. 122

Basic Services to the Urban Poor............................................................................................................... 124

Roads............................................................................................................................................................ 125

Transport Related Infrastructure ............................................................................................................. 127

Urban Spaces............................................................................................................................................... 130

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Summary of Infrastructure Investments .................................................................................................. 132

CHAPTER 7 FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS.............................. 133

MCC FINANCIAL SUMMARY CURRENT...................................................... 133


Receipts........................................................................................................................................................ 133

Components of Receipts ............................................................................................................................. 134

Expenditure & Surplus (Deficit)................................................................................................................ 135

Components of Expenditure ...................................................................................................................... 135

PROJECTED RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE OF MCC ................................ 136


Receipts........................................................................................................................................................ 136

Expenditure ................................................................................................................................................. 138

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 139

THE FINANCING PLAN .................................................................................... 140

CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................ 142

THE INSTITUTIONAL REFORM AGENDA....................................................... 143

URBAN GOVERNANCE BACKGROUND ........................................................ 143


Core Focus Should be Service Delivery .................................................................................................... 144

Mutual Accountability between Service Provider & Citizen .................................................................. 144

Financial Resource Situation of ULBs ...................................................................................................... 144

Framework Conditions............................................................................................................................... 145

Challenges of Decentralized Frameworks & Capacity Creation ............................................................ 146

CONTEXT MYSORE ......................................................................................... 146


Summary of Current Situation.................................................................................................................. 146

Issues to Address......................................................................................................................................... 147

Financial ...................................................................................................................................................... 148


Introduction of Accrual Based Accounting System in MCC: .................................................................. 148
Skill Transfer............................................................................................................................................ 148
Increase in MCC Income ...................................................................................................................... 148
Property Tax Reform................................................................................................................................ 148

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City Development Plan for Mysore

E-Governance Mysore ............................................................................................................................. 148

Capacity Building ....................................................................................................................................... 149


Training and Exposure programs ............................................................................................................. 149
Other Components in Capacity Building ................................................................................................. 150

Participatory Governance .......................................................................................................................... 150


Automation of Municipal Functions & E-Governance ............................................................................ 150
Continuing Stakeholder Interactions ........................................................................................................ 150
Transparency & Accountability ............................................................................................................... 151

Land-use & Planning.................................................................................................................................. 151

Infrastructure Management....................................................................................................................... 152


Asset Management vs. Asset Creation ..................................................................................................... 152
Linking Reform to Development Projects................................................................................................ 153
Professional Delivery of Services ............................................................................................................ 153

Implementation, Sequencing & Prioritization of Reform ....................................................................... 154


State and City role.................................................................................................................................... 154

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City Development Plan for Mysore

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB Asian Development Bank
ASI Archaeological Society of India
BMIC Bangalore Mysore Infrastructure Corridor
BOT/ BOOT Build-Own-(Operate)-Transfer
BSUP Basic Services to the Urban Poor
CAGR Compounded Annual Growth Rate
CDP City Development Plan
CIP City Investment Plan
CITB City Improvement Trust Board
DMA Directorate of Municipal Administration
DSCR Debt Service Coverage Ratio
IT/ BT Information Technology/ Bio-technology
FY Financial Year (April to March)
GoK Government of Karnataka
JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
KSCB Karnataka Slum Clearance Board
KSRTC Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
KTCP Act Karnataka Town & Country Planning Act
KTPP Act Karnataka Transparency in Public Procurements Act
1999
KUIDP Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development Project
KUWASIP Karnataka Urban Water Sector Improvement Project
KUWSDB Karnataka Urban Water Supply & Drainage Board
LDA Lake Development Authority
MCC Mysore City Corporation
MGD/ MLD Million gallons/ litres per day
MUDA Mysore Urban Development Authority
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
ODP Outline Development Plan
PPP Public-Private Partnership
PSP Private Sector Participation
PWD Public Works Department
RWA Residents Welfare Association
SHG Self-Help Group(s)
STP Sewage Treatment Plant
UFW Unaccounted-for-Water
ULB Urban Local Body (and where the context admits in this
document, MCC)

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Tables

Table 1: Tourist Inflow - Major Tourist Centres in Mysore (lakhs) ..........................................................16


Table 2: Share of Mysore District in State GDP (%)..................................................................................17
Table 3: Educational and Research Institutes in Mysore..........................................................................18
Table 4: Grading in Heritage Buildings.....................................................................................................27
Table 5: Percentage of Heritage Buildings renovated...............................................................................31
Table 6: Historical Population Trends.......................................................................................................33
Table 7: Composition of Growth ................................................................................................................33
Table 8: Population Forecast......................................................................................................................34
Table 9: Landuse in 1995 ............................................................................................................................34
Table 10: Landuse in 2001...........................................................................................................................35
Table 11: Proposed landuse in 2011.............................................................................................................35
Table 12: Mysore Slum Population.............................................................................................................39
Table 13: Number of Slums notified in past two decades .........................................................................39
Table 14: List of Notified Slum...................................................................................................................41
Table 15: Goals and Visions for the Mission period 2007-12......................................................................42
Table 16: Goals and Visions for the Mission period 2013-31......................................................................42
Table 17: Role and Responsibilities for different Agencies .......................................................................50
Table 18: Scores for Services .......................................................................................................................51
Table 19: Statistics for Current Status in Water Supply .............................................................................52
Table 20: Sources for Water Supply ............................................................................................................53
Table 21: Overview of Water Supply...........................................................................................................53
Table 22: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Water Supply ................................54
Table 23: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Water Supply ................................55
Table 24: Waste Water Disposal .................................................................................................................57
Table 25: Details of Sewerage Capacity for Drainage Districts.................................................................57
Table 26: Areas covered in various Drainage Districts ..............................................................................58
Table 27: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Drainage.......................................59
Table 28: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Drainage .......................................59
Table 29: Current Status for Solid Waste Management .............................................................................60
Table 30: List of wards with access to centralized and decentralized facilities ........................................62
Table 31: Ward Wise Waste Generators......................................................................................................63
Table 32: Proposed activities to achieve efficiency in Solid Waste Management.....................................65
Table 33: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for solid waste management .............67
Table 34: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for solid waste management..............67
Table 35: Details for key roads in Mysore ..................................................................................................68
Table 36: Current status of Roads ..............................................................................................................68
Table 37: Statistics on vehicular growth.....................................................................................................70
Table 38: Status of Street Lighting .............................................................................................................71
Table 39: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Roads............................................73
Table 40: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Roads............................................73
Table 41: Summary of investments in various sectors ...............................................................................78
Table 42: Revenues of MCC over a period .................................................................................................80
Table 43: Revenue and Expenditure ..........................................................................................................80
Table 44: Share of State Government and Financial Institutions..............................................................81
Table 45: Municipal Capital Expenditure..................................................................................................81
Table 46: Income and Expenditure from Water Supply and Sewerage Services ......................................82
Table 47: Water Tariffs for Domestic and Non-Domestic Connections...................................................83
Table 48: Water Tariffs for Commercial Connections ...............................................................................83
Table 49: Cost recovery in various Urban Infrastructure Services.............................................................83
Table 50: Aggregate Investment in Urban Infrastructure between FY02 and FY05.................................84
Table 51: Key Responses and Priorities by Stakeholders for different Infrastructure needs ....................86
Table 52: Area as per CDP for Mysore Urban Agglomeration ..................................................................87
Table 53: Targets for Water and Sanitation................................................................................................95
Table 54: Targets for Urban Roads ............................................................................................................95
Table 55: Targets for Solid Waste Management ........................................................................................95
Table 56: Targets for BSUP ........................................................................................................................96
Table 57: Summary of Sectoral Theme .................................................................................................... 102
Table 58: Current Status for Slum dwellers .............................................................................................. 105

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 59: Mysore (MC) Slum population................................................................................................ 105


Table 60: Number of Slums notified in past two decades ....................................................................... 105
Table 61: Location of slums, their types and number of households ...................................................... 106
Table 62: List of sites allotted by KSCB and proposed number of houses.............................................. 109
Table 63: Houses in G+ 1 or G+2 configuration (in cities) ..................................................................... 112
Table 64: Investments Projects and their Time Horizon ........................................................................ 118
Table 65: Investment in water supply and sewerage and their time horizon.......................................... 121
Table 66: Investment in Municipal Solid waste management and the time horizon ............................. 123
Table 67: Investment in basic services for the urban poor and the time horizon ................................... 124
Table 68: Investment in Roads and the time horizon.............................................................................. 126
Table 69: Investment in transport related infrastructure and the time horizon ...................................... 128
Table 70: Investment in Urban Spaces and the time horizon.................................................................. 131
Table 71: Summary of cost of land and rolling stock ............................................................................... 132
Table 72: Summary excluding cost of land and rolling stock.................................................................. 132
Table 73: Summary of MCCs Receipts.................................................................................................... 133
Table 74: Components of Receipts........................................................................................................... 134
Table 75: MCCs Expenditure & Surplus (Deficit).................................................................................. 135
Table 76: Proportion of components of Expenditure .............................................................................. 135
Table 77: Details of Property Tax............................................................................................................. 137
Table 78: Details of Water Charges .......................................................................................................... 137
Table 79: projections of Receipts ............................................................................................................. 138
Table 80: Projection of Expenses ............................................................................................................. 138
Table 81: Summary of Projected Finances ............................................................................................... 139
Table 82: Project Cost Means of Finance.............................................................................................. 141
Table 83: Sequencing of Mandatory Reforms.......................................................................................... 155
Table 84: Sequencing of Optional Reforms ............................................................................................. 155

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City Development Plan for Mysore

known for its palaces and proximity to


several attractions. Mysore is also well
CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND known for its ten-day Dasara festival, a
OF MYSORE URBAN hallmark of the old Kingdom of Mysore,
REGION which usually occurs annually in early
September-October.

MYSORE The City Mysore is an educational, commercial and


administrative centre and also an

M
ysore (Kannada: ) important tourist and heritage centre. It is
the name evokes images of well connected to the adjoining States of
palaces, of tranquillity, of rich Kerala (Wynad, Calicut) and Tamil Nadu
culture and heritage! (Ooty, Coimbatore) through roads.

Mysore is a city in the Indian state of Mysore, the cultural capital of the State,
Karnataka, and the administrative seat of was the home for many great musicians,
Mysore District, one of the largest districts music composers, dancers and Sanskrit
in Karnataka. Mysore was the former scholars. Mysore University and many
capital of the Kingdom of Mysore. Mysore other academic and scientific institutions
is located at 770 m above sea level at are situated here. This obviously led to the
12.18 N 76.42 E and is 135 km from city boasting of great scholars, writers,
Bangalore, the state capital. The city is and, in general, intellectuals. Post

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City Development Plan for Mysore

independence, Bangalore became the Mahabharata and Asoka refer to Mahisha


State capital and later the economic hub Nadu or Mahisha Mandala. References
of the State, and country. Mysore has can also be found in Tamil literature about
however retained its heritage and charm. Ezimahi Nadu. The earliest documented
However, the economic growth of evidence of the town is in the form of
Bangalore, and the push-effect of its stone carvings (Saasanas) found in
high-technology industrialization are villages around Mysore, inscribed around
going to have a significant demographic 1021 AD. From 1499 the name Mahisru
and economic impact. The challenge for has been recorded in inscriptions. Till the
Mysore is to absorb and encourage year 1610, when Srirangapatnam was
growth, without compromising on its acquired, Mysore was the centre of
heritage, culture, and pleasant life-style. administration. It became the capital of
the Kingdom of Mysore after the death of
Tippu Sultan in 1799. The administrative
Origin of Name centre was shifted to Bangalore in 1831, as
According to Hindu legend, the area the British moved their garrison from
around Mysore city was once the domain Srirangapatnam to Bangalore, thereby
of the demon king Mahishasura, who establishing the Bangalore Cantonment.
grew almost invincible and wreaked havoc
on the world. The Goddess Mysore once again became the capital of
Chamundeshwari vanquished the demon the kingdom in 1881 with the rendition of
in a humungous struggle waged over a power by the British to the Wodeyars.
period of 10 days. Goddess Most present day historical landmarks,
Chamundeshwari is also known by the and organisation of the city of Mysore
name Mahishasura Mardhini (Slayer of were inspirations of the Wodeyar kings
Mahisha). The battle became a festive and their Dewans. Plans for organised
event, which the development of the city exist as far back as
annual 10-day 1904. Several structures were built around
Dasara festival late 1800's and early 1900's.
commemorates
to this day. The
name Mysore is
Palaces in Mysore
the anglicised Mysore is called the City of Palaces as a
version of number of palaces are situated in the city,
Mahisru which including the following:
is derived from
Mahisha. This
legend,
important in
Hindu
mythology,
renders the
temple of the Goddess Chamundeshwari,
located atop Chamundi Hills in Mysore,
an important place of pilgrimage.

History
The history of Mysore has been closely
linked with the history of the Kingdom of
Mysore. References from the times of

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Prominent palaces programs highlighting the dance, music


Amba Vilas (Main Mysore Palace) and culture of the State of Karnataka are
Rajendra Vilas (also called the performed. Musicians and dancers from
summer palace, situated on top of the other States are also invited to give
Chamundi hills) performances. Mysore Palace is
Jaganmohana Palace illuminated on all the ten days and
Jayalakshmi Vilas (now in the
University of Mysore premises)
Lalitha Mahal (now converted into a
hotel).

Other palaces
Chittaranjan Palace (now the Green
Hotel, was also the Premier Studios)
Cheluvamba Mansion (now in the
CFTRI premises)
prominent cultural programs are held in
Karanji Mansion (now the Postal
the grounds surrounding the palace. The
Training Institute)
festivities commence with a pooja
Lokaranjan Mahal (next to the
performed to the Goddess
Mysore Zoo)
Chamundeshwari atop the Chamundi
Crawford Hall (University
Hills in the presence of the Wodeyar royal
Administrative Building).
couple, Ministers & high-ranking officials
in the Government of Karnataka, and
The original main palace of Mysore was
other invitees.
burnt down in 1897 and the present day
structure was built over the same site. The
One of the main attractions of the festival
present Palace exhibits a mixture of
is the Dasara exhibition which starts
architectural styles, including the
during the Dasara and continues for
Dravidian, Indo-Sarcenic, Roman, and
around two months. It is held in grounds
Oriental. The erstwhile Royal family
opposite to the Mysore Palace, and
continues to live in a portion of the Palace.
contains stalls selling articles like clothing,
plastic and glass ware, food stalls, stalls
The Jayalakshhmi Vilas Mansion, was
highlighting the various departments of
constructed by Sri Chamaraja Wodeyar for
Government of Karnataka, and also a play
his daughter Jayalakshammanni. The
area where people can participate in
Jayalakshmi Vilas is now a museum
games and amusement rides.
dedicated to folk culture. A new gallery is
being added for artefacts and collections
Another attraction is the wrestling
of the Wodeyars of Mysore.
tournament which is held in the Devraj
Mysore Dasara Urs stadium adjoining the Dasara
exhibition grounds. Wrestlers from
Dasara is the Nadahabba (State festival) around India participate in this
of Karnataka State, and Mysore is well tournament, which attracts a sizeable
known for the festivities that take place audience.
during the Dasara period. Also termed as
Navaratri (meaning nine-nights), it is a
ten-day festival that usually falls in the
months of September-October. During
this period, various cultural and religious

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City Development Plan for Mysore

St. Philomena's Church (smaller scale


reproduction of the Cologne
Cathedral)

Lakes and Gardens


Kukkarahalli Lake
Pushpakaashi (Flower garden)
Karanji Lake
Lingambudhi Lake
Dalvoy Lake
Bogadi Lake
Krishna Raja Sagara
Brindavan Gardens
The conclusion of the festivities is marked
by a colourful Dasara procession Museums and Zoos
(popularly known as Jamboo Savari). The
main attraction of the procession is the Railway Museum
idol of Goddess Chamundeshwari which is Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens
carried in a Golden howdah on top of an known popularly as Mysore Zoo
elephant. Various tableaux created by Natural History Museum (adjoins Karanji
different State organisations participate in Lake)
the procession. Musical bands belonging
to State Police lend music to the Locations and Theatres
procession. The culminating program of Manasagangotri (Mysore University
the Dasara festivities is the torch-light Campus)
parade (also known as Panjina Kalamandira & Rangayana (Adjoins
Kavayatthu) held during the evening and Kalamandira)
night in the Bannimantap grounds on the
outskirts of the city. It is followed by a Commerce and Industry
dazzling display of fireworks. A Laser Mysore Silk Factory
show has been added recently to the
program. Nearby Locations
Some nearby tourist locations also form a
Additional buses and trains are organised part of the Mysore tourist circuit. Some
from Bangalore to Mysore during the major ones are listed below:
Dasara Period.
Other Attractions of Mysore Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) dam is
located across the Kaveri River, in the
Besides, the abovementioned Mysore Mandya District near Mysore. There
offers a variety of other attractions, which is an ornamental garden attached to
have over the years attracted tourists from the dam, called Brindavan gardens,
all over the world. These tourist making it a popular tourist place and
destinations range from the religious to picnic location.
the museums and zoos in the city. These Srirangapatnam (Seringapatam), an
include the following: island fortress-city that also served as
the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore
Places of worship has been an urban center and place of
pilgrimage. The town has been named
The Chamundeshwari Temple
after the celebrated temple of Sri
Nandi the Bull (on the Chamundi
Ranganathaswamy, which dominates
Hills)
the town, making Srirangapattana

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City Development Plan for Mysore

one of the most important from Mysore. The area contains the
Vaishnavite centers of pilgrimage in habitat of several rare and
south India. The temple was built by endangered species, notably the tiger.
the Ganga dynasty rulers of the area Rangantittu Bird Sanctuary is a Bird
in the 9th century. Sanctuary located on the Bangalore-
Melukote situated north - east of Mysore Highway, close to the historic
Mysore city houses the famous and town of Srirangapatna in the Mysore
holy shrine of Sri Vaishnavites and a District. It is a small sanctuary with
centre for learning Sanskrit. The town an area of 67 sq. kms, and comprises
rose to cultural and religious six islets on the banks of the Kaveri
importance in the 12th century AD River.
when the great South Indian Somanathapura, an ancient temple of
philosopher and teacher, Sri historical and archaeological
Ramanuja lived in the town. The importance is home to one of the
famous temples located here are greatest examples of Hoysala
Cheluvanarayanaswamy temple architecture of the Hoysala Empire.
within the township and Balamuri and Edamuri (backwaters
Yoganarasimhaswamy temple on the of the Kaveri River)
hill overlooking Melukote.
Kabini River Resort, located at Economy
around 80 kms from Mysore is rated Tourism centred around numerous
among the top five wildlife resorts in attractions and the Dasara Festival,
the world by Tatler's Travel Guide. It contribute to the economy and fame of
is home to the Indian bison (locally Mysore. The city is a host to an annual
known as "Gaur"), wild boar, inflow of tourists to the tune of around 25
elephants, leopards, chital, barking Lakhs annually. Around 95% of these are
deer and the occasional tiger, the domestic tourists, while the rest are
resort located on the side of the international tourists.
Nagarhole Wildlife Sanctuary is also
famous for its birdlife. Table 1: Tourist Inflow - Major Tourist
Bandipur National Park, a part of the Centres in Mysore (lakhs)
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is one of
India's best known sanctuaries, and is 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Mysore
an important Project Tiger reserve. It Palace 16.11 14.29 16.45 18.31 20.62
is located in the Chamarajanagar Art Gallery 2.33 1.97 2.14 2.29 2.42
district of southern Karnataka in Zoo 12.92 11.82 15.96 15.30 16.45
south India. It is home to around Brindavan
Gardens 24.84 9.82 18.44 22.94 21.25
seventy tigers and over three
Chamundi
thousand Asian elephants (as per the Hills 35.03 70.74
1997 census), along with leopards,
dholes, gaur and sloth bears. Other industries in Mysore include,
Madumalai Forest is primarily a tiger manufacturing Tyres (Vikrant Tyres),
reserve. Its wild life includes gaur, Textiles (K. R. Mills, now Atlantic Mills),
spotted deer, barking deer, sambar, Electronic Systems (L & T), Bharath Earth
flying squirrels, langur etc. and Movers Ltd. (BEML), TVS, Silk Factory
several species of bird life including (KSIC) and Information Technology
migratory birds. The park , part of (Infosys, Wipro). Articles made of silk,
Niligiri biosphere reserve is close to lacquer, and Sandalwood are some of the
and accessible from Ooty and Mysore. most famous products of Mysore, making
Nagarhole National Park is an all
weather park located 96 km away

16
City Development Plan for Mysore

significant contributions towards proximity, are having a push effect on


commerce in Mysore. IT/ITeS industry to Mysore.

The industry experienced reverses during The citys share in the State GDP at 7.09%
the last few decades, as some of the major (1996-97), has exhibited a marginal
units like Ideal Jawa (Automobiles), K. R. increase over the figure of 6.63 % (1980-
Mills (Textiles) closed down and several 81). However, with the IT companies
people became unemployed. However establishing their bases in Mysore in the
some revival efforts, like those of K. R. recent years, the citys share in the state
Mills (Atlantic Mills) helped improve the GDP is expected to improve.
situation.
Table 2: Share of Mysore District in State
GDP (%)
The Government of Karnataka is 1980- 1996-
promoting Mysore as an alternative 81 97
destination for the Information Mysore's share in State
Technology (IT) industry and developing GDP (as %) 6.63 7.09
it as a counter magnet city to Bangalore. Primary Sector 7.40 7.28
As a result the city has become a new Secondary Sector 6.08 7.33
haven for the IT and Information Tertiary Sector 5.97 6.80
Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government
industry and is poised to play bigger role of Karnataka

in the economy of the city. This is Connectivity


apparent from the fact that the software
exports from the city grew at 26.8% to Mysore is the second biggest city in the
reach Rs.392 crores, in the year 2005-06. state of Karnataka covering an area of 128
sq. kms. It is situated at 140 kms from
As the divisional headquarters of Mysore Bangalore and is well connected by rail
Division and as the Railway Junction, and road to all parts of the country. In
railways is the other major employer in order to improve air connectivity with the
Mysore. Improvements in infrastructure, major cities of the country, upgradation
like doubling of Railway tracks, and expansion of the existing airport is on
completion of the four lane State-highway, the anvil.
the Bangalore - Mysore Infrastructure
Corridor (BMIC) between Mysore and
Bangalore, upgradation and expansion of
the Mysore Airport will bring significant Highways
growth to the economy of Mysore. The
The existing two-lane road linking Mysore
congestion in Bangalore, as well as its

17
City Development Plan for Mysore

to the state capital Bangalore is being of the airport. The redesign is expected to
upgraded to a four-lane highway and is align the runway to run southeast to
nearing completion. This would assist in northwest. About 165 acres
reducing time taken to travel significantly. (approximately 0.7 km) of land is
National Highway 212, and State expected to be acquired for extending the
Highways 17, 33, 88 pass through Mysore airport. This upgrade would allow planes
connecting it to nearby cities. with up to 50 seats to land and take off at
the airport.
The expressway proposed under BMIC,
when completed, would also reduce travel
time considerably, as well as create new Educational and research
self-contained townships on the Bangalore institutions
Mysore axis.

Inter-city
Mysore has inter-city and sub-urban
public bus transportation, albeit not very
robust. The system operates from the 'City
Bus Stand' connecting to most major
sections of the city. Traditional means of
transport available in other Indian cities
like auto-rickshaws and taxis are also
available. Tongas (horse-drawn carriages)
are also available, but are becoming rare.
Mysore is a host to a number of
Rail educational & research institutions such
Mysore is the railway junction for the as:
district, and rail lines connect Mysore city Table 3: Educational and Research
Institutes in Mysore
to Bangalore to the northeast via Mandya,
Universities University of Mysore,
and to the rail junction at Hassan to the Karnataka Open University
northwest, to Chamarajanagar via Research Central Food Technological
Nanjangud to the southeast. Institutes Research Institute, Central
Institute of Indian Languages,
Air Defence Food Research
Laboratory, Rare Materials
The lack of air connectivity could be a key Project, All India Institute of
reason for the difference in the Speech and Hearing
development of Mysore, vis--vis Engineering Sri Jayachamarajendra College
Bangalore, which has one of the busiest Colleges of Engineering, National
Institute of Engineering, Vidya
airports in the country. The nearest Vikas Institute of Engineering
accessible airport for Mysore is at and Technology,
Bangalore. The Mandkalli Airport, Vidyavardhaka College of
approximately 4 miles from the city, is Engineering
currently inoperative, although Medical Mysore Medical College, JSS
paragliding and, occasionally, aeroplane Colleges Medical College
Dental JSS Dental College
rides are offered at this location. Colleges
Pharmacy JSS College of Pharmacy
A memorandum of understanding has Colleges
been signed between the Government of Law Colleges JSS Law College,
Karnataka and the Airports Authority of Vidyavardhaka Law College,
India, proposing a redesign and extension Sarada Vilas College

18
City Development Plan for Mysore

Arts, Maharaja's College, Maharani's


Commerce College, Yuvaraja's College,
and Science Sarada Vilas College, Mahajana
Colleges College, Marimallappa's
College, JSS College, Teresian
College, Regional College of
Education
Management SDM Institute for Management
Colleges Development

Spiritual Tourism
Mysore is an important spiritual tourism
destination Many Mysore yoga instructors
draw international students for extended
yoga programs, including Venkatesh
Iyengar, and the well-known Pattabhi
Jois. Renowned teachers of Sanskrit,
kirtan (chant), Ayurveda and other yogic
arts reside in Mysore. The Sri Ganapati
Sachidananda Ashram welcomes visitors,
as does the Indus Valley Ayurvedic Centre.
In addition to traditional Hindu spiritual
methods, courses are available in Osho
meditations, the Art of Living, Sahaj
Marg, Reiki, Brahma, and many other
systems.

19
City Development Plan for Mysore

The most imposing and majestic building


in Mysore is the Palace of the Wodeyars. It
CHAPTER 2: Heritage is built in the Indo-Sarcenic style with
Characteristics of Mysore traces of other architectural features from
the East and the West. There are several
Heritage Background palatial buildings originally built for the
royal family, which now house the art
gallery, Museums, luxury hotels,
educational and research institutions and
Government offices. Mysore is also
famous for temples. Within the palace
complex there are a number of temples
built by the Wodeyars.

There are a few churches in Mysore built


A part of todays Karnataka was identified by the Europeans and St. Philomenas
formerly as the Mysore kingdom. Mysore Cathedral, built in gothic style is notable
city, used to be the capital of Mysore among them. Mysore also houses a few
kingdom. A reference to Mysooru is seen mosques. The Kutchi Moimen mosque
in an inscription of Kadalur dated 962 built by the traders from Kutch (Gujarath)
A.D. The Gangas built the Mahabala is a highly attractive structure.
temple on the hill adjoining Mysore, in the
year 950 A.D. and hence the hill came to The era of Sri.Krishnaraja Wodeyar and
be known as Mahabala Betta. The later Sir.M.Visweswaraya, and Sir Mirza Ismail
rulers built a temple in honour of their witnessed a new concept of urban
deity goddess Chamundi and the hill came planning and architectural
to be known Chamundi Hill. The conceptualization of civic structures and
Chalukyas, the Gangas, the Cholas, the monuments. Vast extent of land as
Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara kings ruled dictated by the aesthetics of the structure
over Mysore. The Wodeyars of Mysore, was assigned to each individual building.
who were feudatories of Vijayanagara
built a new fort in 1584 A.D. They have
their indelible impression on the cultural Architecture styles of Heritage
legacy of the city. The benevolent kings buildings in Mysore
and Administrators of Mysore promoted
Based on their architectural features, the
education and the all round development
heritage buildings of Mysore can be
of society.
classified as Indo Sarcenic, traditional
Hindu, Greco-Roman, Gothic and the
Heritage component European classical styles.
Mysore city, one of the prime heritage Indo Sarcenic Buildings
cities, in the country combines historical
facts and anecdotes with a harmonious Intricately executed multiple mouldings
combination of both natural and built with a superb abundance of deeply
heritage. In spite of the causalities of the sharpened fine carvings of scrolls, foliage,
modern-day approach to urban planning birds, animals and statuettes are the chief
and civic architecture owing to lack of characteristics of the Hoysala/ Indo
building space the city continues to retain sarcenic style of architecture.
its special characteristics as a native
princely city.

20
City Development Plan for Mysore

styles could be Tuscan, Ionic and


Corinthian; arched and plastered
colonnades form the two wings. Greek
deities define the tier and the balustraded
parapet bends are an agreeable addition to
a rich composition. The Deputy
Commissioners Office (Dewans Kacheri)
Chaluvamba Park (CFTRI) and the
Krishnaraja Hospital are classic examples
of this style.
The double storied verandahs on either
side of the building with arched openings
and pilasters, a fine portico with
Byzantine arches over slender columns
and minarets and projecting trellis work
balconies are the definitive characteristics
of Sarcenic style.

The Ambavilas Palace is a classic example


of the Indo Sarcenic style, while the City
Corporation building is a typical example Gothic
of the Sarcenic style.
Spires or long tapering roof-like elongated
pyramids that are commonly found in
Traditional Hindu Style
churches are the typical characteristics of
All temples in Mysore exhibit the gothic style. The main hall or nave with
traditional Hindu style of architecture. multiple moulded columns culminates in
Each temple has a Garbhagruha, stately arches which guide the eye to the
Sukanasi, Navaranga and Mukhamantapa. vaults. The altar is set against arched
The agrahara houses are another example screens of stone works which are in
of traditional style with a simple but harmony with the arched vertical lines
functional structure placed shoulder to and tapering vaults of the structure.
shoulder with shared masonry walls. The
Jaganmohan Palace is another example of
predominantly Hindu style.

Greco-Roman St. Philomenas Cathedral and Hardwick


In these structures a Vatican dome rising church are good examples of this style.
on a drum (Circular, Octagonal etc.)
dominates the elevation. The column

21
City Development Plan for Mysore

survey and historical analysis of the


European Classical style area.
These structures have vast garden settings An appreciation of the spatial
with elegant approach on the front side. relations between buildings, public
They usually consist of a central atrium space, and private court yards,
leading to a banquet hall, with elegant gardens, perspectives, views,
rooms on either side. These structures surrounding landscapes etc., and the
have an elegant portico. The Government study of their inter-relationship is
House and Yelval Residency are typical another important yard scale of
example of the restrained classicism measurement.
devoid of external element.
Statutes
Statutory & Legal Framework Various statutes, which govern the
heritage structures, include the following:
Heritage building means a building Karnataka Ancient and Historical
possessing architectural, aesthetic, Monuments and Archaeological Sites
historic or cultural values, which is and Remains Act 1961
declared as heritage building by the Karnataka Town and Country
Planning Authority/Heritage conservation Planning Act 1961
committee or any other Competent
Authority in whose jurisdiction such There are ten heritage structures, which
building is situated. have been declared as monuments under
the Karnataka Ancient and Historical
Monuments and Archaeological Sites and
Remains Act 1961. As per the section 2 of
this Act any structure or monument,
which has artistic, historic, aesthetic and
cultural value and which has been in
existence for not less than 100 years is
being declared as monument. As per
Section-4 of the Regulations the listed
Historical significance, architectural style, buildings, listed precincts are graded as I,
design, technology and material usage and II, III and as per Section-5 restrictions on
/ or aesthetics are the main parameters to development and repairs have been
identify Heritage buildings / precincts. imposed on the heritage buildings.
Heritage can be environmental,
architectural, and archaeological or No structure that would obstruct the
culture and crafts related. It is not harmony of the core-zone would be
restricted to monuments alone. allowed to come-up. No existing structure
will be allowed to be destroyed
The study of heritage property begins /dismantled without the approval of the
with the clear understanding that it sub-committee of Mysore Heritage Task
may be built or inbuilt, urban or Force.
rural, old or recent, exceptional or
ordinary, dense or dispersed, a. There is a provision to declare
homogeneous or heterogeneous. heritage buildings as monuments.
It may or may not comprise a This Act also has a provision to enter
historical monument. into a contract with the owners of
The identification of heritage is the monuments as far as
carried out by exploration, field

22
City Development Plan for Mysore

conservation and preservation of the Institutional set-up


monuments is concerned.
b. It is the responsibility of the Heritage Task Force
owner/occupier of the heritage The state government has accorded
building/ precincts to obtain Mysore the status of Heritage City and
necessary permission from the has constituted the Mysore Area Heritage
heritage committee to demolish Task Force (MAHTF) two years ago
and/or reconstruct and/or make (2004) to focus on conservation efforts in
alterations/additions to heritage Mysore and surrounding regions and
buildings/precincts or build a new appointed a Heritage Commissioner to
building within the heritage head the task force.
precincts.
c. Under this Act heritage monuments The action plan of the task force envisages
can be acquired. Depending upon the steps to be taken to identify the
the availability of funds heritage heritage buildings and classify and grade
buildings can be acquired. them on the basis of their importance and
historicity with the help of experts and
The other heritage buildings and precincts NGOs.
are brought under the Karnataka Town
and Country Planning Act 1961 and its An amendment was brought to The
heritage regulations. As per this 232 Karnataka Town and Country Planning
Heritage structures, which are more than Act 1961 and the Karnataka Town and
50 years of age and having historical, Country Planning (Amendment) Act 2004
artistic, aesthetic, and cultural importance come into existence w.e.f. 14th February
have been listed as heritage structures by 2005. Within the locus of this
the Mysore Heritage Expert Committee. A amendment, regulations for the
list of the major buildings is provided in conservation of heritage sites including
the annexure. The Urban Development buildings, heritage precincts and natural
Authorities and the Town Planning features have been brought out. The
Authorities have been suitably instructed Urban Development Authorities and
to incorporate these heritage buildings Town Planning Authorities are required to
and precincts in the master plan / incorporate the same in the Master Plan
comprehensive development plan and they are in the process of
(MP/CDP). incorporating the same. Any development
Regulations for conservation of in the precincts/ into the facility of
heritage sites including buildings, heritage buildings/ natural features will
heritage precincts and natural be in accordance with regulations
features have been prepared incorporated in the master plan. The
accordingly and directions have been display of sign boards would strictly be in
issued from the Director of the Town accordance with the specifications.
and Country Planning to all the Section 7 of the regulations clearly
Urban Development Authorities and mentions the procedure to be adopted by
Town Planning Authorities to the local authority (i.e. C.M.C. Mysore)
incorporate the same in the master before granting development permission
plan / comprehensive development in the form of commencement certificate.
plan for their respective areas.

23
City Development Plan for Mysore

Heritage strategy
The heritage strategy of Mysore city
focuses on preservation and conservation
of the structure/areas identified. The
components of the strategy include the
following:
Identification of heritage areas/zones
SWOT analysis
Prior approval from the local authority in: Setting out objectives of Heritage
strategy
Undertaking new construction within Selection, listing and grading of
the vicinity of heritage property. heritage structures
Demolition of heritage building Valuation of heritage buildings
Permission for repair-restoration of Setting out activities for tapping the
structure and interior; collapsed potential
portion and any addition/alteration Identification of specific
works of the heritage building. infrastructure
Change of land use if the new use is Setting out the financial plan
compatible with that of the existing The above are discussed in the following
heritage buildings. sections:
No interventions are permitted either
on the exterior or interior of Heritage Identification of heritage zones
1 buildings unless it is necessary in The distinct architectural and cultural
the interest of strengthening and heritage of Mysore is defined and
prolonging the life of the building identified through the following areas:
itself or its precincts. For this
purpose, absolutely essential and The Palace Complex
minimal changes are allowed and Royal Mansions of Mysore
they must be in accordance with the
original plan of the heritage structure Sayyaji Rao Road
or area. Permission for development Devaraja Market
purposes is given by the Planning
Authority on the advice of the Task Church Precincts
force which is appointed by State Town hall and Clock Tower
Government. Precincts
All development in areas surrounding
KR Hospital Area
Heritage Grade I structures are
regulated and controlled, ensuring University Campus
that they do not mar its grandeur or Kukkarahalli & Karanji lake
view in any manner. environs
The task force decides which
buildings go under which grade. Chamarajendra Zoo
Following this, the Corporation either Agraharas of Mysore
accepts or rejects these. The state
then, notifies the list and the Chamundi Hill
buildings are officially listed.
SWOT Analysis
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats are presented below:

24
City Development Plan for Mysore

Strengths: heritage of the composite culture of


Mysore and to drive home the value of the
The heritage city continues to attract
inherited environment and to preserve
increased number of visitors every
what is being lost through destruction and
year.
negligence.
The slow and measured way of life
adds to the charm of this royal city. The other associated objectives of the
Brindavan Gardens, Rangana Thittu same include the following:
Bird Sanctuary, Srirangapattana,
Melkote, Somanathapura, Talakadu To promote, stimulate and create
etc, located nearby are added tourist awareness among the public for the
attractions. conservation, restoration and
The traditional products of Mysore protection of the cultural and natural
viz., Mysore Silk, Sandal oil, heritage of Mysore.
Handicrafts, Mysore Mallige To undertake measures for the
(Jasmine) etc. are of great preservation, conservation,
commercial importance. restoration and protection of the
cultural, architectural and natural
Weaknesses: heritage of Mysore.
Land developments on all sides have To evolve a participatory method for
encroached upon the lung space. conservation and development of
Huge commercial constructions are Mysore involving various
coming up pulling down the heritage stakeholders of Mysore.
structures. To empower and enable the local
IT and BT Sectors are demanding people to take care of the heritage
huge extent of open space. site.

Opportunities: Selection, listing and grading of


heritage structures
City Development Plan (CDP) is The criteria for selection, listing, grading
expected to give a face-lift to the and process for grading of the selected
entire city of Mysore. heritage buildings is as follows:
Improved tourist infrastructure
would provide tremendous Criteria for selection of heritage
commercial opportunities. building
IT and BT sectors would attract
visitors from all over the globe. Any building depicting characteristics of
There would be more market for the historic, socio-cultural value, striking
traditional products of Mysore. architectural or artistic significance in
respect of style, design, use of
Threats: construction material etc.
Large scale speculative land purchase
will add to the existing suffocation.
The existing facilities and civic
amenities may not be sufficient for
the increasing tourist inflow.

Setting out objectives of Heritage In the middle of the 19th century, the
Strategy Public Works Department was organized
in the Mysore State which had European
The objective of heritage planning for engineers, and most of the State buildings
Mysore is to value and preserve the rich naturally came to be constructed under

25
City Development Plan for Mysore

their supervision. As they were Criteria for grading of heritage


conversant with the types of buildings building
based on the five classic orders viz., The Criteria for grading of buildings,
Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and precincts and areas are made on the basis
Composite, these buildings were raised in of the following.
the manner of Italian or French
Renaissance with classic details. The Value for architectural, historical or
Oriental Research Institute, the cultural reasons.
Maharajas College, the District Offices, Value for date, period, design or
the Law Court buildings, and the uniqueness of building.
Jayalakshmi Vilas Mansion are some Relevance to Social and Economic
specimen of Renaissance buildings. History.
A building, group of buildings or area
Buildings with architectural significance of distinct architectural design or
and traditional values are considered for style, historic period or way of life
their preservation and conservation. having sociological interest and or of
These buildings/structures/monuments community value.
play an important side in the history of the Unique value of a building,
Region as well as the State in general, architectural feature or artefact that is
which requires proper maintenance. Some part of a chain of architectural
buildings/ structures are in endangered development that would be lost if
condition; some require strengthening, broken.
while mere maintenance is sufficient for Its value as a part of a group of
some buildings/ structures. For this buildings.
purpose, an inventory of such buildings Representing forms of technological
upon which the heritage status has been development.
conferred is undertaken. Vistas of natural scenic beauty or
interest, waterfront areas, planned
Criteria for listing of heritage lines of sight, street lines, skylines or
buildings topography.
Open spaces sometimes integrally
The following information is required in planned with their associated areas
listing of a heritage building. often having a distinctive way of life,
having potential or are areas for
Description of buildings / precincts recreational purposes.
and its architecture, technique and
materials used in its construction, Grading of the listed buildings/listed
available inscriptions, sculptures, precincts
paintings, artefacts and other details
Period The heritage buildings and precincts of
Owner / user Mysore are classified into three categories
Serial number viz. grade I, grade II and grade III. This
Building type grading shall be on the basis of the
Past and Present use parameters as tabulated below:
Location
Significance
Drawings and photo documentation
Status
Proposal for restoration and
conservation

26
City Development Plan for Mysore

Strategies for tapping heritage potential in Mysore

Table 4: Grading in Heritage Buildings

GRADE-I GRADE-II GRADE-III


Heritage Grade-I Heritage Grade-II (A&B) Heritage Grade-III
comprises buildings and comprises buildings and comprises buildings and
precincts of national or precincts of regional or precincts of importance for
historic importance, local importance townscape; they evoke
embodying excellence in possessing special architectural, aesthetic or
architectural style, architectural or aesthetic sociological interest though
design, technology and merit or cultural or not as much as in Heritage
material, usage and/or historic significance Grade-II. These contribute
aesthetics; they may be though of a lower scale to determine the character
associated with a great than Heritage Grade-I. of the locality and can be
historic event, They are local land marks representative of lifestyle of
personality, movement that contributed to the a particular community or
or institution. They image and identity of the region and, may also be
have been and are the region. They may be the distinguished by setting on
prime landmark of the work of master craftsmen a street line, or special
region. or may be models of character of the facade and
All natural sites shall proportion and uniformity of height, width
fall within Grade-I ornamentation, or and scale.
designed to suit a
particular climate.

27
City Development Plan for Mysore

making on conservation and


All the heritage pockets are being
implementation of projects.
viewed from the conservation and
development perspective besides Providing incentives like
developing tourism related property tax exemptions to the
infrastructure. owners of private heritage
properties.
Restoration to be undertaken
without damaging the Heritage conservation under
architectural heritage of the city development plan is an
structure. exercise to convert weaknesses
into strengths and threats into
Providing amenities in public
opportunities.
places, markets etc. to cater to
the needs of all stakeholders Every year activities like
without losing the heritage heritage walks, tonga ride,
characteristics. heritage awareness
Developing Chamundi hills competitions etc., are
and foothill environs on lines organized
of Nehruloka Scheme Leaflets, hand books, guide
books etc, are being brought
Redesigning and restructuring
out for the benefit of
core zone to meet the
visitors/tourists.
increasing tourist demand.
The existing fee structure
Creating awareness among the
would be revised (Palace,
public about these issues.
Museum, Art gallery etc.,) and
Preparation of a well entrance fee etc could be
articulated maintenance and collected from tourists for the
management plan for all the visits to the heritage buildings.
heritage properties identified
Sound and light programs are
and listed.
being introduced which would
Evolving guidelines and a highlight the history and
policy document for the heritage of the city.
protection, conservation and
management of heritage Events would be organized in
properties and areas. the premises to attract more
number of visitors.
Conducting heritage
conservation programmes Special events would be
under public and private organized to attract the elite
partnership. customers niche market.

Implementing the existing Valuation of Heritage Buildings


regulations and rules Heritage buildings benefit the
concerning heritage businesses and residences in the
conservation through local neighbourhood. Many professional
authorities. groups, including construction firms
Involving the public, elected and skilled and unskilled workers are
representatives, NGOs, benefited. The benefits can be
educational institutions, estimated by determining the
environmentalists, enhanced capital or rental values of
industrialists etc., for decision the properties in the neighbourhood.

28
City Development Plan for Mysore

Heritage buildings recognised as Setting out activities for


World Heritage sites attract tourists tapping the potential
from all over the world and help earn
valuable foreign exchange. Mysore is vibrant with all kinds of
developmental activities and
The inflow of a large number of excessive urbanization has become a
visitors will directly benefit the bane to the city. Old heritage
growth of many trades, and the properties are being sold only for
economy in general. Such trades their land value. Like the city of
include tourist hotels and general Udaipur which has the complete
business. This kind of development harmony of heritage buildings,
has a multiplier effect. The valuation surroundings, lakes, hills in the
to be adopted is the benefit approach background and water in the
method. forefront Mysore also has all these
and requires similar attention.
Methods of Valuation include Stated
Preference method, Travel Cost
method and Hedonic Property Value.

In the Stated Preference method,


enquiry is made among the local
people and the tourists on the In order to retain the heritage
amount they are willing to pay to get characteristics of the city of Mysore
the building recognised as a heritage especially the core zone i.e., falling
structure. This enquiry may be made within a radius of 2 kms from Mysore
without any guidance to a possible Palace the following activities are
figure or inviting people to choose being undertaken.
between nominated options,
including a monetary element, or Listing, inventory and
seeking the people's approval for a documentation of Heritage
certain expenditure or policy like a Buildings
one-time payment or instalments Comprehensive Conservation
paid with the property tax. This Plan for Heritage Properties
process was reportedly followed in Condition mapping and
the valuation of the Royal Theatre at Conservation Plans
Copenhagen by contacting about Design of Heritage Guide Books
1,800 people. Conservation Guidelines manual
specific to the location
The Travel Cost method is based on
the number of persons visiting the Listing, Inventorying and Location
site and the cost of transport. This Documentation of Heritage
method was used to estimate the Properties of Mysore have been taken
demand for museums in Quebec in up in the first phase out of State
1994. budget.

In the Hedonic Property Value, the Digital documentation and Art Line
prices of buildings with different Documentation of prominent
characteristics are compared to show heritage buildings, structures, and
how the prices change with variation precincts is being taken up in the
in characteristics in terms of second phase out of departmental
architectural style, location etc. funds.

29
City Development Plan for Mysore

following steps are been taken to


Comprehensive conservation plans achieve the same.
for the above prominent heritage A systematic study is being
buildings, structures, precincts is undertaken to improve the
proposed to be taken up in the third existing pathways, widening the
phase under JNNURM. roads and to improve parking
etc.,
A minimum of 2500 to 3000 visitors Beautification and landscaping
including overseas tourists visit of heritage properties is being
Mysore everyday. These tourists visit undertaken.
heritages places viz. Mysore palace, Private entrepreneurs would be
Jaganmohan Art Gallery, Hammond encouraged to start new hotels/
Temple, Mysore Zoo, Jayalakshmi add to the existing infrastructure
Vilas Mansion, Devaraj Market etc., including budget hotels (bed and
they also visit a host of other heritage breakfast) for the use of
structures listed by Mysore Heritage increasing number of visitors.
Experts committee. During October - Wherever possible the owners of
November (Dasara) and in summer heritage buildings would be
season the number of visitors to encouraged to start heritage
Mysore is still more. In all it is hotels and incentives would be
estimated approximately 30 lakh provided to such entrepreneurs.
visitors visit Mysore every year. Adequate tourist conveniences
/visitor conveniences would be
Mysore is expected to receive more provided by the Department of
number of visitors in the ensuing Tourism.
years. In the next year alone it is Financial Arrangements:
expected that there would be an
increase of 30 to 35 % visitors to The State government is providing
Mysore. The increased number of budget for the maintenance of
visitors obviously demands more heritage sites and to conduct heritage
tourist infrastructure. promotion activities. However, as the
budget is limited, Government of
Some heritage structures that have India through schemes like heritage
been identified for renovation in the up gradation under the 12th finance
first phase of JNNURM include: commission funds etc. is providing
funds for the purpose. JNNURM is
K R Hospital another such platform for heritage
Ayurveda Hospital buildings conservation.
CAVA
The respective owners of the building
Devaraja Market or the heritage property are also
Vani Vilas Market expected to do the proper up keep of
their heritage property with hand
Sitavilas Choultry holding from local authorities; efforts
Mandi Mohalla Market. would be undertaken to create a
separate fund for the repair and
Infrastructure maintenance of heritage building vide
section 13 of the regulations. The city
corporation would arrange to provide
The infrastructure to meet heritage infrastructure viz., improvement of
requirements has been identified and roads, pathways, parking, water

30
City Development Plan for Mysore

supply, sanitation, garbage clearance Soft Loans would be raised


etc. out of their budget under various from Institutions like JBIC,
schemes. The Department of Tourism and special assistance would
would provide the required be requested to State and
additional tourist facilities out of Central Government.
their budget under various schemes.
Action Plan
Financing Plan: All heritage buildings listed at
Mysore require comprehensive
The Heritage buildings owned by the
conservation. In addition some
State Government, Central
heritage roads and boulevards in the
Government, City Municipal
core zone would also be considered
Corporation, Mysore University,
for renovation. Under cost of
Palace Trust, zoo Authority, Sports
conservation a sum of Rs 50 crores
Club, Race club etc., are having own
has been allocated per time period.
resources for day to day up keep and
The phasing of conservation /
annual maintenance.
renovation work has been spread
The following financial plan is across time periods as follows:
envisaged for comprehensive Table 5: Percentage of Heritage
conservation. Buildings renovated
Time Percentage of
Apart from the regular budget Horizon buildings renovated
special budget provision under 2007-12 21.7 %
the scheme of Suvarna 2013-17 21.7 %
Karnataka, the 12th finance 2018-22 21.7 %
commission funds of 2023-27 21.7 %
Government of India etc. are 2028-31 13.2 %
available for the Heritage
Conservation activities.
The plan proposes to take up the
JNNURM is another scheme
conservation of 44 heritage buildings
under which these activities
during the time period of 2007-12.
can be undertaken on a large
scale basis.
Heritage Conservation
activities can also be
undertaken in collaboration
with National Service Scheme,
Indian National Trust for Art
and Cultural Heritage and
Dharmasthal Dharmothana
Trust, the Mysore city
corporation, Mysore
University, Palace Trust etc.,
There is already an existing
scheme under public private
partnership for landscaping,
beautification and
conservation etc., of
monuments.

31
City Development Plan for Mysore

Total-1,31,794
Corporation
1093
CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS PWD 57.78
OF EXISTING URBAN NH 5
15 Road Length (km)
University
SITUATION 26
Total
1181.78
For developing the CDP, it is
16 No. of Street Lights 36,863
important to carry out an assessment
of the current state of urban 9.962
No. of sodium Lamps and 8
parameters, and of delivery of urban 17
High Mast lamps Corporation
services. This chapter sets out the key 10 MUDA
statistics of the urban infrastructure Average street lights per
services in Mysore. A summary has 18 40
Km
been presented below: 19 No. of Wards 65
20 Average rainfall 789.20 mm
Summary Statistics
1 Height (MSL) 770 meters
2 Latitude 12.18 North Demography
3 Longitude 76.39 East According to the 2001 census of
Male : India, the population of Mysore is
398730, 7.86 lakhs, while the current
Population (2001 Female : population (2006E) is estimated to
4
Census) 387070
Total : be around 8.9 lakhs (assuming
785800 growth of 2.5%).
Female Population per
5 967.41 The literacy rate of urban Mysore is
1000 Male (1991 Census)
Population growth( 1991- considerably higher than that of the
6 20.48% State average, at 82.8%. A majority of
2001)
Density & Population the city's population speaks Kannada,
7 6,129.72 while other languages such as Tulu,
(per sq. km)
8 Area 128.42 sq. km Tamil and Hindi are also spoken.
Dwelling Families 2001
9
census
1,65,815 The population has been increasing
at a compounded annual rate of 2.5%
Average Members in the
10
family
5.32 in the last two decades, which is
higher in comparison to the
Male
88.6%, population growth for the state of
Rate of Literacy (2001 Karnataka.
11 Female
Census)
80.2%
Total 84.5% The population of Mysore has
12
SC Population (2001
85,574
experienced a spike in the last 4
Census) decades with the population
13
ST Population (2001
27,695
increasing to 7.86 lakhs in 2001
Census) (Census, 2001) from 2.54 lakhs in
Male- 1961 (Census, 1961). While the
1,12,534, growth in the period up to 1971 is
14 Labourers(1991 Census)
Female- attributable to industrialization like
19,260,
automobile and engineering, the

32
City Development Plan for Mysore

growth in the period from 1971 to The population of Mysore has been
1991 is due to the increase in projected using the curve
heritage, culture, spiritual tourism extrapolation method. This method
and Mysore becoming a regular extends the past population growth
feature on the tourism circuit. trend to project the future
Mysore has multiple industrial zones population, assuming the historical
such as Hebbal, Metagalli, Belagola, rate of growth, as stated above.
Belavadi and Hootagalli industrial Assuming the historical rate of
areas. The growth in the decade of growth (2.5%), Mysore is forecasted
1991-2001 and in the last five years is to reach around 16.5 lakhs in the year
largely due to the growth of IT and 2030 (depicted in the table below).
ITeS industry in the city. The table The increase in population is
below depicts the historical predominantly from natural causes.
population trends. There has been no increase in
Table 6: Historical Population Trends population due to jurisdictional
Average changes. The composition of
Population
Year decadal Growth population growth has been
(lakh)
rate (%) calculated assuming that the natural
1901 0.68 increase in population growth for
1911 0.71 4% Mysore has been identical to that for
1921 0.84 18% the entire state of Karnataka i.e.
1931 1.07 27% 17.25% for the period 1981-91 and
1941 1.5 40%
21.12% for the period 1991-01., and
the balance is attributed to in-
1951 2.44 63%
migration.
1961 2.54 4% Table 7: Composition of Growth
1971 3.56 40% Composition of growth
Population increase during
1981 4.79 35% Composition 1981- % of
1991-01
% of
91 total total
1991 6.53 36% Natural increase 1.01 58% 0.83 62%
In-migration 0.73 42% 0.50 38%
2001 7.86 20% Total increase 1.74 1.328
Source: MUDA, CDP and Census of India, 2001 Source: Census 2001 and iDeCK estimates

Population Forecast

P op u l a t i on for e ca st

40
Population (in

30
lakhs)

20
10
0
2001

2006E

2010E

2020E

2030E

2 .5 % 3 .5 % 4.5 %

33
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 8: Population Forecast

Population forecast (in lakhs )


Scenarios 2001 2006E 2010E 2020E 2030E
Base Case (2.5%) 7 .9 8.9 10.1 12.9 16.5
Medium growth (3.5%) 7 .9 9.3 11.1 15.7 22.1
High growth (4.5%) 7 .9 9.8 12.2 19.0 29.5
Source: Cens us 2001 and iDeCk es timates
the industrial areas located in
The chart and table above illustrate
Nanjangud. MUDA/ private
three growth scenarios, namely, base
developers have developed new
growth, medium growth and high
layouts in the area like, Vijayanagar
growth scenario.
and J.P. Nagar. Besides, the
Base case Scenario: In the base case residential layouts the private
scenario, the population is envisaged developers have lined up an array of
to grow at the historical growth rate proposals to develop malls,
of 2.5%. This would imply that by the convention centres and golf course.
year 2030 the population would
reach 16.5 lakhs.
Land use (1995)
In the medium growth scenario, the Table 9: Landuse in 1995
citys growth is assumed to be 3.5%, Category Area in % Area
which would be slightly more than hectares 1995
the historical growth rate owing to
Residential 3,057.30 40.4
increasing urbanization. This would
Commercial 182.23 2.41
imply that the population would be
around 22 lakhs by the year 2030. Industrial 1021.01 13.4
Park and open 415.77 5.49
spaces
In the high growth scenario the
Public and semi- 856.45 11.32
growth is assumed to be 4.5% public
because of Mysores attractiveness as Traffic and 1,530.73 20.22
a business hub. This would mean that Transportation
the population would increase to Public utility 37.26 0.49
around 29.5 lakhs by the year 2030. Water sheet 182.68 2.41
Agricultural 285.34 3.73
Land Use Pattern Total 7,568.77 100

The total area for Mysore city as per MUDA has also proposed to develop
MUDA has shown an increase to 9221 few residential layouts in the north
hectares in 2001 from 7569 hectares east part of Mysore, such as, those
in 1995, representing a growth of towards Bannur/T. Narsipura like
22%. As per MUDA, the total area is Shastri Nagar.
further expected to increase to 15669
hectares by 2011, representing a
significant increase of around 70 %
over the total area in 2001. The citys
growth in the recent years has been
skewed towards southern Mysore i.e

34
City Development Plan for Mysore

Land use (2001)


Table 10: Landuse in 2001 However, the percentage of area for
Category Area in %
commercial, industrial and
hectares Area traffic/transportation purpose has
2001 not varied over the three periods, as
Residential 2,849.91 39.9 is illustrated in the land use tables.
Commercial 215.95 3.02
Industrial 962.61 13.48 Land use (2011)
Park and open 981.7 13.74 Table 11: Proposed landuse in 2011
spaces
Public semi- 639.69 8.96 Category Area in %
public hectares Area
Transportation 1,150.27 16.1 2011
Public utility 36.48 0.51 Residential 6,097.87 43.45
Water sheet 143.99 2.02 Commercial 344.07 2.45
Agricultural 162.33 2.27 Industrial 1855.05 13.22
7,142.93 100 Park and open 1055.05 7.52
Nehru Loka 2,078.14 spaces
Total 9,221.07 Public and 1180.78 8.41
semi-public
Traffic and 2,380.56 16.96
The total area demarcated for parks, Transportation
open spaces and Nehru Loka (green Public utility 43.35 0.31
spaces) is expected to decrease Water sheet 178.95 1.27
marginally to 2690 hectares (2011) as Agricultural 898.99 6.41
per the proposed land use pattern for Nehru Loka 1,634.82 -
the year 2011. This is at present at Total 15669.49 100
present around 3060 hectares
(2001). The area allocated to Nehru Currently, the city is undertaking GIS
Loka is expected to help preserve the mapping to update land-use data and
green spaces around the Chamundi property details, and the
Hills area. Comprehensive Development Plan
(master plan) is also being currently
The total area demarcated for updated.
residential purpose is expected to
increase as new residential layouts The following maps have been
are coming up. The residential area is enclosed in pages below:
estimated to be 6098 hectares in the 1. Mysore City Map indicating
proposed land use pattern for 2011. various colonies and localities
This would represent an increase of (not to scale)
almost 114% over the area of 2850 2. Land use map (2001) (to the
hectares in the land use pattern for scale)
2001. 3. Land use map (2011) (to the
scale)
The percentage of land for
agricultural purpose is also expected
to increase from 2.27% (162 hectares)
in 2001 to 6.41% (899 hectares) in
2011.

35
City Development Plan for Mysore

36
City Development Plan for Mysore

Urban Poor
The data on availability of basic
There are a total of 80 slums services to urban poor has been
(declared and undeclared) in Mysore, estimated as per the National Sample
as per the survey conducted by KSCB. Survey data for Karnataka, 2002.
Out of these, 49 are declared (also Some of these are:
referred as notified) slums. The Sanitation access: 34% of slum
number of declared slums in Mysore dwellers
has increase compared to 2001, Waste collection service : 50%
wherein the number of declared Access to pukka houses: 30%
slums was 34 (Census 2001). Easy access to water supply
(within 50 metres): 40%

The percentage of declared slum


population in Mysore is less but there
has been a spurt in the number of
slums in Mysore in the recent times
due to increasing urbanization. This
is visible from the increase in the
number of slums declared by KSCB
during the previous two decades to
meet the infrastructure & services
need of the urban poor of Mysore
City.

The current population of declared Table 13: Number of Slums notified in


slums in Mysore is estimated at past two decades
81,000. As per the census of 2001,
the population for these declared Sl. No Time period Slums notified
slums in Mysore was 71, 552. 1 Before 1985 3
Table 12: Mysore Slum Population
Mysore (M Corp) 2 1985-90 10
Slum Population 3 1990-95 2
2001 4 1995-00 15
Male 35967 5 2000-05 19
Female 35585 Total 49
Total 71552 Source: KSCB, 2006
Source: Census of India, 2001
Like other informal markets, the
As per a survey undertaken by DMA informal land and housing market is
and KSCB the number of BPL exploitative and has several negative
families and number of persons impacts.
below BPL in Mysore are 31,196 and
1,55,980, respectively, as in the year First and foremost, informal
2001. The number of BPL persons in settlements are often located on
Mysore comprises 19% of the total marginal land (along storm water
population of Mysore, which as per drains, railway lines, steep slopes and
the Census 2001 was around 7.85 on or near garbage dumps) and are
lakhs. prone to natural and man-made

39
City Development Plan for Mysore

disasters. They are also often illegal Durgamba temple


and those living there do not have
security of tenure. The KSCB has constructed houses in
Bogadi, Satagally and Gokulam for
Slum and squatter settlements in rehabilitating the slum dwellers of
Mysore are growing at alarming the city.
rates. Rapid urbanisation and job
opportunities in Mysore attract Besides these, MUDA has
unskilled labour in large numbers to constrcucted 107 EWS houses, 64
Mysore. LIG houses, 21 MIG houses. Apart
from this, MUDA has also developed
Visible disparities between slums and 6714 houses under the
better-off neighbourhoods increase Ashamandira scheme.
the social tensions in poorer areas.
Karnataka Housing Board (KHB) has
Unplanned growth of settlements built 1000 houses for beedi workers
makes conventional service provision and 500 houses under composite
complicated housing scheme in
Kyatamaranahally. KHB has also
The thrust of the strategy for undertaken a huge project to
improving the quality of life for urban construct 3000 houses in Hootagally.
poor in Mysore has been to provide
slum dwellers of the city with housing In addition to the above, Bharat
facilities, access to basic services such Earth Movers Limited, Rare Material
as, water, sanitation and waste plant have completed industrial
collections service. housing scheme for their employees.
These total around 6000 houses.
KSCB has been working towards
providing basic housing facility to the There are 18, 404 slum houses in
slum dwellers in the city. Under the Mysore. The list of notified slums and
improvement scheme KSCB the number of slum houses in each of
constructed 1390 tenements for the these slums is provided below:
benefit of the following 11 slums:

Medars block
Ashokapuram
Raja Soap factory
Doddakere Maidan
Govindrao Memorial Hall
Jyothinagar
Visweswaranagar
Slum between railway line and
RMC premises
Chamundeswari block
Janatha Saw Mill

40
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 14: List of Notified Slum


Sl. No Ward Location Type Households
No
1 7 Madhuvana & behind St. Marys School Notified 140
2 10 Behind Sarvajanika Hostel Notified 140
3 12 Nachanahalli Palya Notified 360
4 12 Industrial suburb Notified 120
5 12 Devaraja Urs colony Notified 150
6 12 Dharma Singh colony Notified 150
7 13 Dr. Ambedkar Colony, Ashok Puram Notified 200
8 13 Nellur Shed Notified 332
9 15 Jayanagar, Pampapathi Road Notified 122
10 15 Chinnagiri Koppal Notified 350
11 21 Kuduremala, behind Coffee board Notified 130
12 31 RMC Yard Notified 120
13 31 Medar Block Notified 450
14 31 Yashwanth Nagar Notified 110
15 31 Bamboo Bazar Notified 110
16 32 Manjunathapura Notified 300
17 33 Metagalli, Ambedkar colony Notified 820
18 35 Behind P.K. sanitarium Notified 150
19 40 B.B. Keri Notified 820
20 44 Behind KSRTC Notified 152
21 44 C.V. Road Notified 415
22 46 Behind Jail Notified 70
23 47 Kesare Slaughter House Notified 291
24 47 Kesare, Belavatha Colony Notified 130
25 47 Belavatha Janatha colony Notified 150
26 52 Chamundeshwari Nagar Notified 220
27 57 Ghousia Nagar Notified 4400
28 57 Kyathamaranahalli, A.K. Colony Notified 180
29 58 Kyathamaranahalli Notified 965
30 60 Jyothi Nagar, P.K. Colony Notified 200
31 63 Kurubarahalli Notified 330
32 65 Ghousia Nagar, Beedi workers colony Notified 150
33 45 Janata Sawmill Notified 94
34 11 Vishweshwara Nagar Notified 83
35 50 Gandhi Nagar, Chamundeshwari Road Notified 113
36 19 Vasanthnagar Notified 170
37 64 Girijabovi Palya Notified 218
38 41 Kailasapuram Notified 506

41
City Development Plan for Mysore

Sl. No Ward Location Type Households


No
39 52 Siddappaji Block Notified 76
40 52 Durgamba Temple, Gandhi Nagar Notified 86
41 31 Yadavagiri Notified 62
42 36 Gokulam Notified 80
43 7 Madhuvana Notified 129
44 21 Bogadi Road Notified 130
45 59 Ghousia Nagar, 2nd Stage, B Block Notified 250
46 8 Elethotha Notified 80
47 22 Kukkarahalli Notified 150
48 46 Bade Makhan Notified 450
49 56 Shanthinagar Notified 3000
18404

A brief of the current status, goals, vision, sector strategies and funding
requirements discussed above is tabulated as below:

For the Mission Period (2007-12)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the mission period (2007-12) and
also states the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.
Table 15: Goals and Visions for the Mission period 2007-12
T otal Required
Current Goals and Required JNNURM
Sector Param eters Sector specific strategies
Status Vision 2012 Funds Funds
(2007 -12) (2007 -12)
Basic Serv ices 30% 50% -EWS Housing (including
for the Urban Slum dwellers with infrastructure and O&M)
Poor houses -Construction of public toilets fo
Water within 50 40% 50% slums
metres of -Prov ide employ ment Rs 201 crores Rs 155 crores
inhabitation opportunities, health and
Waste services 50% 60% education facilities
collection -Dev elopment of bus bay /shelters
Sanitation 34% 50%

For the Period (2013-31)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the period (2013-31) and also states
the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

Table 16: Goals and Visions for the Mission period 2013-31
T otal
Goals and Goals and Required
Sector Param eters Sector specific strategies
Vision 2017 Vision 2031 Funds
(2013-31)
Basic Serv ices 60% 1 00%
for the Urban Slum dwellers with
Poor houses
-Slum rehabilitation
Water within 50 60% 1 00%
-Prov ision of basic serv ices,
metres of Rs 1 051 crores
employ ment opportunities,
inhabitation
healthcare and education facilities
Waste serv ices 60% 1 00%
collection
Sanitation 60% 1 00%

42
City Development Plan for Mysore

functioning and governance. These


Institutional include:
1. Karnataka Urban Water
Responsibility Supply and Drainage Board

T he city is governed by the Mysore


City Corporation (forming the
legislative branch), headed by a
(KUWSDB)
2. Karnataka Public
Department (PWD)
Works

Mayor. The Corporation comprises 3. Karnataka State Road


65 wards with an elected Corporator Transport Corporation
for each ward. The Commissioner, (KSRTC)
Health Officer, and Engineers in 4. Department of Archaeology
charge of health, water supply, & and Museums
sanitation, form part of the executive 5. Lake Development Authority
branch. 6. Zoo Authority of India

MUDA (Mysore Urban Development


Authority) is responsible for creation Mysore City Corporation
of new sections (layouts), zoning and (MCC)
expansion of the city.
The Mysore City Municipality
celebrated its centenary in 1968. In
The Mysore Zilla Parishad is
July 1862, a Municipal Committee
responsible for the rural sections of
was established under a notification
the taluk. Apart from these agencies,
of the Government. Till 1871 the
there are several others that play a
Municipal Committee had no
very important role in the citys statutory basis. The British

43
City Development Plan for Mysore

Commission, which administered the Important Obligatory Functions


Mysore territory at that time gave of MCC
serious consideration of the matter
and promulgated a regulation in 1871 The important obligatory functions of
to give the Municipal Councils a MCC are as given below:
statutory and legal basis. The Statute,
which was a milestone in the history
Watering and cleaning of all
of local self-government institutions public streets and public places,
in the state was extended to the and removal of all sweepings
Mysore Municipality in 1888. thereon;
Collection, removal, treatment
In pursuance of this policy, the and disposal of sewage, offensive
Deputy Commissioner of the Mysore matter, and rubbish and
District was made the ex-Officio preparation of compost/ manure
Commissioner of the Municipality. In
from such sewage, offensive
1862 a further landmark was matter, and rubbish;
achieved by the introduction of an Construction, maintenance, and
elected element, which was one half cleaning of drains and drainage
of the total strength. Out of 24 works and of public toilets,
Councillors 12 were elected on purely urinals, water closets and similar
property qualification. In 1918 the conveniences;
strength was increased to 30. It was Lighting of public streets,
at this time whole time officer of the
Municipal Markets, and places of
status of the Deputy Commissioner resorts in the limits of the
was appointed to manage the affairs Corporations;
of the Municipality. The Councillors Maintenance of all Public
were elected once in 3 years and the
Monuments, open spaces, and
President and Vice President every property vesting in the
Year. Corporation;
Regulation and abatement of
offensive and dangerous trades
or practices;
Maintenance of places for the
cremation/ burial of the dead;
Maintenance and regulation of
Public markets and
slaughterhouses;
Maintenance of service for
conveying dead bodies to
crematoriums;
Taking measures to meet any
The Mysore City Corporation is calamity affecting the public;
governed by the Karnataka Municipal Control of epidemic deceases.
Corporations Act 1976. It was
converted as Mysore City
Corporation on 10-06-1977. The area
of Mysore City Corporation is 128.42
sq.km.

44
City Development Plan for Mysore

improvements and upgradation,


Important Discretionary clause 21 B on urban forestry,
Functions of MCC protection of environment and
promotion of ecological aspects,
The important discretionary clause 21 C on urban poverty
functions of MCC are as given below: alleviation and clause 21 D on
promotion of cultural, education
Organization, maintenance of and aesthetic aspects.
chemical or bacteriological
laboratories for the examination Section 503 A of the principal
or analysis of water and food for Act was substituted, which
the detection of epidemic provides that every Corporation
deceases; shall prepare every year a
Welfare measures for development plan. Government
Corporation employees; will constitute a Metropolitan
Infant care programmes; Planning Committee for
Programmes relating to Bangalore Metropolitan Area
Improvement of Public Health. (section 503 B), and the Finance
Commission to review the
financial position of the
Functions transferred to MCC Corporations and make
under 74th Constitutional recommendations to the
Governor (503 C)
Amendment
The transfer of functions has, in some
Subsequent to the 74th Amendment cases, been accompanied by staff
to the Constitution of India, in order movement as well. For instance, in
to transfer the functions to the case of water supply, this activity is
municipal corporations, the now being handled by MCC. The
Karnataka Municipal Corporations KUWSDB has deputed its staff for
Act 1976 was amended (vide managing the system.
Karnataka Act No. 35 of 1994) on
October 5, 1994. The notable Mysore Urban Development
amendments include the following: Authority (MUDA)
Mysore can boast of having the first
Section 13 A of the principal Act
City Improvement Trust Board
was substituted to introduce the
(CITB), in the Country, set up in
constitution of Wards
1903. On account of this Act the City
Committee in a city with
has better planned extensions and
population of 3 lakhs or more.
housing. Under the Town and
Country Planning Act 1961 -
Under Section 58 of the principal
regulation and planned growth of
Act, after clause 28, clause 28 A
land-use, and development of Town
was introduced to include
Planning Schemes commenced from
registration of births and deaths,
1966. The Planning Authority
clause 28 B on regulation of
prepared the O.D.P for Mysore City
tanneries.
in 1972. The proposed Conurbation
area was 58.38 sq.km for an
Under Section 59 of the principal
Act, after clause 21, clause 21 A estimated population of 5 Lakhs by
was inserted on slum 1986.

45
City Development Plan for Mysore

the city. Mysore acts as an important


The C.D.P prepared by the Planning Agricultural Products Market and a
Authority was approved in 1981 and Commercial Centre for the
the proposed Conurbation area was neighbouring Settlements
92.21 sq.km for an estimated
population of 7 Lakhs by 2001 AD. As per the KUDA Act 1987, the
Subsequently Nanjangud Town Commissioner of the Authority is the
Planning Area was amalgamated with Chief Administrator and Chief
Mysore Planning Area and called the Executive of MUDA. The Chairman
'Mysore Nanjangud Local Planning heads the MUDA.
Area' in 1984 and in 1988 declared as
local planning area for the Environs Mysore is growing rapidly in all
of Mysore-Nanjangud Local Planning sectors. Housing to fulfil the
Area covering an extent of 495.32 requirements of ever-increasing
sq.km. population and changes of land-use
need to be envisaged, and
The Government of Karnataka development needs to be planned
established the Urban Development accordingly. The supporting services
Authorities for the planned - water supply, sanitation, electricity,
development of major and important transportation, etc, need to be
urban areas in the State and the area planned. MUDA is in the process of
adjacent thereto and to matters revising the Comprehensive
connected therewith under the Development Plan.
Karnataka Urban Development
Authorities Act 1987. MUDA has formed many layouts and
distributed nearly 35,000 sites and
As per the said Act, the City 10,000 houses after it came into
Improvement Trust Board (C. I. T. existence. It has also handed over the
B), Mysore and Local Planning developed layouts to Mysore City
Authority of Mysore was Corporation for further maintenance.
amalgamated and the present Mysore Vijayanagara Layout Ist, IInd, IIIrd
Urban Development Authority came and IVth Stage, formed by the
into existence. MUDA was Authority, is the biggest layout in
constituted on 16th May 1988. South Asia, covering an area of nearly
2000 acres having 25,000 sites.
Mysore Urban Development
Authority (MUDA) combined in itself
the Planning functions of the City Functions of MUDA
Planning Authority and the The Mysore Urban Development
development functions of the Authority performs planning and
erstwhile MUDA. development functions within the
MUDA area.
The Comprehensive Development
Plan of Mysore was revised in 1997
due to rapid industrialization, Planning
population growth, changed The Mysore Urban Development
economic activities and land-use. Authority is designated as the
Various industries including the IT Planning Authority under the
industries form the chief economic Karnataka Town and Country
base of the city and also the main Planning Act, 1961. The Planning
contributors for the development of

46
City Development Plan for Mysore

functions in brief involve the Nanjangud Area, preparation of


following: Layout Plans, approval of
Preparation of development plan Development Plans for Layouts
for Mysore; and Group Housing Schemes
Preparation of Scheme Plans; and generally assists the
Approval of Development Plans Authority in its function as the
for Group Housing and Layouts; planning Authority for Mysore.
Approval of Building Plans; Land Acquisition Department
Other statutory functions under Finance Department
KTCP Act. Law Department: The Law
Department advises the
Development Authority on various legal issues,
In addition to the planning functions, and handles litigation by and
the MUDA Act envisages the against the Authority in various
following development functions: courts, etc.
Planning and implementation of General Administration
schemes to provide for Department & Site Section: The
Residential sites Administration Department
Commercial sites handles all matters pertaining to
Industrial sites allotment of sites, shops and
Civic Amenity sites, and houses, assessment of property
Parks and Playgrounds tax, leases and shop rents. The
Construction of Commercial department is also entrusted
Complexes with the responsibility for all
Construction of houses for establishment and general
Economically Weaker Sections, administrative matters.
Low Income Group, Middle Auction Department: Auction
Income Group, High Income section deals with the auctioning
Group of the Corner and Intermediate
Development of major sites of the Authority as per the
infrastructure facilities provisions of the KUDA Act.

Organization
The Karnataka Urban Water
The Authority has the following
departments, viz.: Supply and Drainage Board
Engineering Department: The (KUWSDB)
Engineering Department is KUWSDB was established under
primarily concerned with the Karnataka Act No.25 of 1994 (the
execution of various Act) with a mandate to provide
developmental schemes in the potable water and under ground
layouts as also infrastructural drainage facilities in urban areas of
works. This department also Karnataka, other than Bangalore city.
monitors the execution of water
supply and underground KUWSDB's current operations
drainage works of MUDA. include the following:
Town Planning Department: The 1. Planning, design and
Town Planning Department is execution of Water Supply and
responsible for preparation and Drainage schemes
revision of the Comprehensive 2. Technical assistance to ULBs
Development Plan for Mysore & in implementation of schemes

47
City Development Plan for Mysore

3. Operation and maintenance of stopped giving capital contribution


water supply schemes completely to KSRTC from 1999-
transferred to ULBs 2000 onwards. Hence the
4. Scarcity relief works, with Corporation is depending solely on
financial assistance from GoK external borrowings for its capital
5. Deposit contribution works at expenditure program.
the request of ULBs

The water supply and underground KSRTC runs a variety of bus services
drainage schemes in Karnataka are to cater to its varied user base and
entirely managed by GoK and its destinations. Some of these are:
agencies. The schemes are Airavat: Fly-by-road luxury
constructed by KUWSDB and on buses;
completion are handed over to the
ULBs who carry out operations and
maintenance. Cost of capital works is
met by KUWSDB from sources raised
as Government grants or loans from
LIC and HUDCO.

Karnataka State Road


Transport Corporation Mayura: AC comfort buses;
(KSRTC) Rajahamsa: Semi-sleeper and
executive buses;
KSRTC has an extensive service Karnataka Sarige: Upgraded
network in Karnataka and also to Mofussil buses;
important destinations in Mini buses
neighbouring States, operating 4334 Courtesy coaches
schedules covering 16.33 lakh km, Pick-up-and-drop services
and carrying 22.50 lakh passengers
everyday.
Public Works Department
KSRTC has one corporate office, 10
Public Works Department is
Divisional offices, 50 Depots, 2 Bus
responsible for road works including
bodybuilding Workshops, 1 Printing
maintenance on National Highways,
Press, 103 bus stands and 4706
State Highways, and Major District
buses.
Roads and construction and
maintenance of Government
The management of the affairs and
Buildings. It also undertakes
business of the Corporation is vested
construction on behalf of other
with the Board of Directors, with the
department under the Deposit
Managing Director being appointed
Contribution Works.
by the State Government, as the Chief
Executive of the Corporation.
The Public Works Department has
After the initial capital outlay, only a
three Zones, namely, Communication
nominal amount of Rs.15.00 lakhs to
and Buildings South Zone, North
Rs.20.00 lakhs were provided up to
Zone and National Highways. Each
1998-99 by the State Government
Zone is headed by a Chief Engineer.
towards capital, & State Govt.
The Zonal offices consist of Circles

48
City Development Plan for Mysore

and Divisions. The Divisions are Department of Archaeology


controlled by Circles, and Circles are
under the control of Zones. Each The Department of Archaeology and
Circle is headed by a Superintending Museums came into existence during
Engineer. The Divisions are headed 1885 and it is one of the oldest
by Executive Engineers. Archaeological departments in the
Country. B.L Rice, the first Director,
Zoo Authority published 9000 inscriptions in 12
volumes of Epigraphia Carnatica.
The Wodeyar Kings had a vision to
create a well laid-out city amidst the
gardens, and founded the world-
famous Sri Chamarajendra Zoological
Gardens, Mysore.

Sri Chamarajendra Zoological


Gardens, Mysore has a history of
more than 110 years, and houses a
variety of species not only of this
country, but from over forty countries
in the World. It has beautiful
landscape with good vegetation cover
resembling to that of natural Lake Development Authority
environment. The Lake Development Authority was
created by a Government Order in
July 2002, as a registered society
under the Karnataka Societies
Registration Act, 1959. It is a non-
profit, autonomous, regulatory,
planning, and policy body for
protection, conservation,
reclamation, restoration,
regeneration and integrated
development of lakes, whether
natural or man-made, in Karnataka.
In 1979, the Zoo Authority of Role of Private Sector
Karnataka was established with its
Governing Council to cater to the As of now, all functions are being
needs of its administration. carried by the governmental agencies
mentioned in the table above. The
private sector has not had a role to

49
City Development Plan for Mysore

play in urban infrastructure, and its


role has been limited to commercial
infrastructure.

The following table summarizes the role and responsibilities of various agencies
Table 17: Role and Responsibilities for different Agencies
Institutional responsibility
Urban Planning and Operation and
Construction
infrastructure design maintenance
Water supply KUWSDB KUWSDB MCC
Sewerage KUWSDB KUWSDB MCC
Storm water drainage MCC MCC MCC
Solid waste disposal MCC MCC MCC
Municipal Roads (incl.
Flyovers) MCC MCC MCC
Street lighting MCC MCC MCC

Apart from these agencies, MUDA is responsible for planning and development
functions within the MUDA area, including development of layouts and
townships. The city has two local agencies i.e MCC and MUDA, all other agencies
in providing infrastructure services in the city are parastatal agencies like,
KUWSDB and KSCB. MCC and MUDA have separate areas of jurisdiction, which
helps in their independent functioning.

50
City Development Plan for Mysore

Urban Infrastructure Services


The status of urban infrastructure services is presented in the following sections.

Service Indicators
A study was conducted by Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) to
assess the municipal service delivery in select towns. Among these towns, Mysore
stands out with the highest level of average service delivery for various municipal
services in Karnataka. A summary of the same is presented below:

Table 18: Scores for Services


SCORES FOR SERVICES

Sl Name of Service Weight Score


No. age
1 Water Supply 10 5.8
2 Solid Waste Management 10 6.4
3 Sewerage and Storm Water Drains 10 6.7

4 Public Health and Stray Animal 6 4.1


Menace
5 Roads and Bridges 10 7.7
6 Street Lighting 6 3.8
7 Public Convenience 4 2.1
8 Provision of Parks, Gardens and 4 3.0
Urban forestry
9 Naming streets and numbering of 3 2.5
houses
10 Provision of burial grounds, 3 1.3
crematorium
11 Provision of parking lots and bus 4 2.3
stops
12 Birth and Death Registration 10 6.7
13 Property Register and issue of 10 6.7
extracts
14 Residential building licences 5 3.3
15 Trade Licence and renewals 5 2.2
Total 100 64.4

Each of these services was given a weightage depending on its importance to the
citizens. These services were then evaluated using the following five parameters
coverage, quality, quantity, frequency and responsiveness to customers. The table
presented above is the end result of the study and actual service delivery levels
have been included in the sector specific sections of this report. The detailed
scoring system is set out in the annexure.

51
City Development Plan for Mysore

During 1931 census the population of


Water Supply Mysore crossed the 1 lakh mark and
The history of water supply to Mysore by 1941 it was 150000. The supply of
dates back to the time of Deewan water to the city however, remained
Poornaiah. He had planned for a at 21.82 million litres per day. There
contour canal from Krishnarajasagar was no improvement in water supply
to Mysore through gravity to convey up to 1959. By this time, due to the
the Kaveri water to fulfil the water steady increase in population the
supply to Mysore. However, the need was felt further improvement
scheme did not achieve the objective and better planned water supply to
as the people during that period were the city. A committee was formed to
dependent on tanks and wells. Later assess the necessary needs and
an arrangement was made to supply improvements. It was estimated that
water from the Karanji tank. about 63.64 million litres of water
Subsequently, Kukkarahalli tank was had to be drawn from the
constructed from which water was Krishnarajasagar reservoir for
supplied through iron mains. Few purification. The suggestions of the
statistics on the current status are as Committee were accepted and the 1st
below. stage improvement was taken up in
Table 19: Statistics for Current Status 1959.
in Water Supply
Parameters Current Status The 2nd stage improvement was
taken up during 1965. This 2nd stage
Coverage 85% improvement included the following
Frequency of
schemes:
water supply 3 hours daily supply
Not fully covered Primary purification of water
Metering
( 85%) at Hongalli
Consumer Adhoc system at Provision of 375 mm diameter
redressal system present gravity mains to the eastern
part of the city
Vanivilas Water works: During 1986 Construction of 10 million
arrangements were made to litres overhead tank at
modernize the water supply Jayalakshmipuram Extension
arrangements to Mysore by adopting
better techniques at Belagola. This During 1961 the population of the city
arrangement enabled a supply of 2.27 was 2, 53, 865 and in 1971 it became
million litres of water to the city 3,55,636. This meant the
amounting to 30.02 litres per capita augmentation of water supply
per day. Due to the introduction of became a necessity. With this effect
electrification at Belagola water in mind Rs.350 lakhs III stage
works in 1910, the water supply to the development schemes were envisaged
city was improved considerably and in 1970. After government approval
resulted in a supply of 6.82 million and initial hurdles, the scheme was
litres per day. This ensured water put into execution in 1979.
supply to a population of 75000
during that period. Mysore has adequate water supply
resources due to the proximity of
Rivers Kaveri and Kabini. The city
has four sources of water located

52
City Development Plan for Mysore

within a distance of 15 kms. All of supply (lpcd)


these sources draw water from the Supply 2.5-6 hours
duration based on
Rivers Kaveri and Kabini. The names (range) location
of these sources and the quantity of Source: KUWSDB
water drawn from each of them is
given in the table below: Key statistics related to water supply
Table 20: Sources for Water Supply service in Mysore are as follows:
Quantity
Sl. No. Sources
(in M.G.D)
85% of the households are
Hongally Water Supply covered (and metered) by
8
1 Scheme (I & II stage) piped water supply system
Hongally Water Supply
12 Quantum of water supplied by
2 Scheme (III stage) the Corporation is about 135
Belgola Water Supply
3 Scheme
1 1 .5 lpcd
Melapur Water Supply Water quality checks are made
11
4 Scheme regularly to ascertain
Total 42.5 potability & suitable measures
Source: KUWSDB
are being taken whenever
occurrences of water borne
In comparison to other corporations, diseases have been reported.
Mysore fares well with an average per Water is supplied daily but the
capita water supply of around 135 duration of supply is
lpcd, but the distribution system is inadequate in a few localities.
sub-optimally maintained, and needs New residential localities
to be replaced/ repaired, to improve necessitate provision of
delivery efficiency in supplying of additional sources.
water. Unaccounted for water (UFW)
is estimated to range around 50%; Rehabilitation of existing water
and it is estimated that there are over supply system is also needed to cut
20,000 unauthorized connections. down the UFW, which ranges around
50% at present. Main reasons for the
In order to keep pace with the sub-optimal functioning of the
forecasted population growth, the existing water supply system in
City would need to augment its water Mysore city is inappropriate
supply for adequately servicing the augmentation of source, inadequate
incremental population base. An storage facility, aged and leaking
overview of the water supply services pipeline network, illegal tapping of
in Mysore is given in the table below: transmission water supply pipelines,
Table 21: Overview of Water Supply
unauthorized house connections,
Water
Water Installed faulty metering, lack of operation &
availability capacity 42.5 maintenance of system components,
(mgd) adoption of inappropriate design
Released
31.5 methodology etc.
/daily (mgd)
Number of Within 15 km
water
Due to the above reasons, there is an
4 adverse effect on development of the
supply
sources city. Certain parts of the city are
Water Population experiencing severe water supply
coverage covered by crisis and level of services offered by
85%
public water
service providers has reduced
supply %
Per capita 135 drastically. Therefore, there is an
urgent need to take remedial

53
City Development Plan for Mysore

measures to alleviate the problems Rehabilitation/setting up of


faced by the citizens due to raw water treatment plant
inappropriate water supply system, including modification of
and prevent potential health hazard. aerator, repairs to alum dosing
This would help in achieving system, flocculator, valves,
integrated development of the city flow meters as required.
and protect citys environs. Rehabilitation/setting up of
bulk water supply lines from
The city needs to refurbish its treatment plant
existing water supply distribution Rehabilitation/creation of
system as there are instances of rust existing distribution network
deposition and silting, which has and piped water supply
reduced the diameter of the pipes and connections
consequently, has affected the Provision of water supply
pressure of water supply. Further, connections to uncovered
these pipes are not as per hydraulic areas
design prescribed for the current Development and
population density. management of testing
facilities and customer service
Proposed activities Billing and collection activities
of water connection and
The activities proposed to be consumption charges
undertaken for improvement in water Operation and maintenance of
services are as follows: the water supply system
Redressal of complaints and
Rehabilitation/creation of repair of any defects
water extraction facilities at Development and updation of
source of water including the database and mapping of
replacement of raw water the system from time to time
pumps, installation of flow
meters as required.

A brief of the current status, goals, vision and sector strategies for water supply
is tabulated below:

For the Mission Period (2007-12)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the mission period (2007-12) and also
states the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

Table 22: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Water Supply
T otal Required
Goals and Required JNNURM
Sector Param eters Current Status Sector specific strategies
Vision 2012 Funds Funds
(2007 -12) (2007 -12)

Water supply Cov erage 85% 1 00%

-Rehabilitation of ex isting water


Frequency of
3 hours daily supply 6 hrs supply distribution sy stem
water supply
-Bulk water source
Rs 306 crores Rs 245 crores
augmentation
Metering Not fully cov ered 1 00% -Conserv ation of water and
Dev elop waste water recy cling
Consumer Adhoc sy stem at
consumer
redressal sy stem present
redressal sy stem

54
City Development Plan for Mysore

For the Period (2013-31)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the period (2013-31) and also states
the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

Table 23: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Water Supply
T otal
Goals and Vision Goals and Required
Sector Param eters Sector specific strategies
2017 Vision 2031 Funds
(2013-31)
-The city would ensure that all
Water supply Cov erage 1 00% 1 00% its citizens hav e better access to
drinking water and sewerage
Frequency of facilities and also at the same
6 hrs Continuous Rs 823 crores
water supply time aim to conserv e the water
Metering 1 00% 1 00% resources
Consumer Dev elop consumer Response time of
redressal sy stem redressal sy stem less than 2 day s

55
City Development Plan for Mysore

is constructed at a cost of Rs.7.43


Sewerage lakhs for treating the sewerage
Mysore was one of the earliest cities collected from the above areas. But
in India to have underground all the areas mentioned above are yet
drainage. In old parts of the city, to be connected to the main drain
underground drainage was even though the drainage work of
completed in 1904. At present a each area is completed. The sewerage
major part of the city is provided with is let into the storm water drains and
the underground drainage system. natural valleys at present. The
Since the old sewerage lines were owners of the gardens and other
incapable of taking the increased load lands adjacent to the main line are
and some parts of the old city were blocking the manholes on the way to
not provided with underground divert the water for irrigation.
drainage, a comprehensive scheme Thereby, the mechanical plant is not
was undertaken in 1955. Under this getting all the sewerage of the area
scheme some of the important areas for which it has been designed. The
of the old city were provided with treated effluent is let into the RBL
underground drainage. After this canal of the Krishnarajasagar
another duplicate line was laid reservoir.
behind King Convent from the
Krishnamurthy Puram Road. The second outfall draining the a part
of Chamaraja, Nazarabad and
Under the national water Supply and Lashkar Mohallas and the entire area
sanitation Scheme, the Government of Fort Mohalla and Krishnaraja
sanctioned a sum of Rs.11.3 lakhs in Mohalla is utilized by the sewerage
the year 1955, which was spent for farm after treatment. The sewerage
sewering the Ashokapuram, Mandi farm is situated along the Mysore-
Mohalla, Narasimharaja Extension, Nanjangud Road occupies an area of
Gandhinagar, Vanivilas Puram and about 146 hectares and is maintained
Paduvarahally. But still the areas like by the city corporation. The sewerage
Kumbarakoppal, Railway colony in is collected in two septic tanks of
Vontikoppal has been provided with capacity of 18 lakh litres and after
drainage pipes. The mains connecting preliminary treatment it is utilized
Yadavagiri, Narasimharaja Mohalla, for growing grass, vegetables, fruits,
Eeranagere and Mandi Mohalla to flowers etcetera in the sewerage farm.
Northern outfall is not yet completed. The sludge collected is utilized for
manufacturing compost.
The topography of the city is such
that the entire city drains into three The third outfall draining the
valleys viz., northern outfall into portions of Devaraja and Chamaraja
Kesare Valley, and other outfalls to Mohallas joins the Malalavadi tank
the south one into Dalvai tank feeder valley without any treatment. The
valley and another to Malalavadi tank new areas on the western part of
valley. The northern outfall drains Kuvempunagar flow towards south-
the area of Narasimharaja Mohalla, west of Lingambudi tank.
Jalapuri, Eeranagere and part of
Mandi Mohalla, Medars block and The fourth outfall drains towards
Yadavagiri Railway colony, art of Belavatha village and covers the area
Vanivilasa Puram and such as Yadavagiri, Hebbal layout,
Kumbarakoppal. A mechanical plant Metagalli, Brindavan extension, part
with a capacity of 3 MG of sewerage of Gokulam and Bannimantap layout.

56
City Development Plan for Mysore

are missing. These areas are


The present sewerage system in surrounding areas of Kabeer road,
Mysore city caters to around 100 Ashokpuram, Dhanavanthri Road,
sq.km and comprises of five drainage CFTRI, Chamaraja Double Road, JSS,
districts based on the topography of Kanakagirinagar and Gundu Rao
the city, namely, A, B, C, D and E. Nagar.
The following tables indicate the key
statistics: The drainage district C covers an area
Table 24: Waste Water Disposal
of around 2 sq. kms. In this area also
Waste water disposal
Waste water generated daily
some missing sewer lines have been
(mld) 128 identified. These areas are
Households connected to surrounding areas of Yadavagiri,
underground sewerage % 57% Kumbara Koppalu, B.M.Shree Nagar,
STP capacity(mld) 157.65 Metagalli,, Pulikeshi road, C.V Road,
Facultative Subash Nagar, Kesare, Hebbal 1st
aerated stage, Adhidravada Paurakarmika
STP Type lagoons Colony, CFTRI Quarters, Rajivnangar
Source: KUWSDB
3rd stage, V.V.Mohalla, Gokulam,
Source: KUWSDB Gandhinagar, Sathyanagar and
Hebbal.
The districts A&D make up for the
largest drainage zone in The fifth drainage district in the city
Mysorecovering an area of E covers an area of around 16 sq.
approximately, 41 sq. kms. In some kms. At present, this district does not
areas of these districts sewer lines are have a sewerage system. The
missing. These areas are RMP drainage district E includes the
Quarters, Aravind Nagar in district A private layouts and MUDA layouts
and V Mohalla, Janatha Nagar in formed in Alanahalli, Sathagally and
district D. The length of sewer line in Yaraganahally and all along the T.N.
these districts is 17.75 kms. The Pura Road and Bannur Road. In
district A&D are serviced by a addition to the population from the
common sewerage treatment plant above-mentioned a part of the
(STP) located in Rayanakere. The Mysore population has been
capacity of this STP is around 60 considered.
mld.
Table 25: Details of Sewerage
Capacity for Drainage Districts The missing sewer lines identified in
the abovementioned drainage
Sewerage Area Length
Drainage
capacity covered of sewer districts are of varying diameters
district
(mld) (Sq km) (In km) varying from 150 mm to 900 mm.
The total length of missing sewer line
A&D 60 41 17.75
identified as of 2002-03 is about
B 67.65 25 6.5
22135 metre. The missing sewer lines
C 30 2 6.5 were identified in the area, as
22 tabulated below:
(propose
E d) 16 NA
The drainage district B covers an area
of around 25 sq. kms with a sewer
length of 6.5 kms. This district also
has some areas in which sewer lines

57
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 26: Areas covered in various sewerage is the excess capacity of the
Drainage Districts STP at district B, which has been
Drainage designed for 2036. The STPs in other
Areas
district districts also need to be redesigned in
A RMP Quarters and Aravind keeping with the estimated
Nagar population for year 2030.
D VV Mohalla and Janatha Nagar
B Surrounding areas of Kabeer The drainage district E includes the
road,Ashokpuram, Dhanavanthri private layouts and MUDA layouts
Road, CFTRI, Chamaraja Double formed in Alanahalli, Sathagally and
Road, JSS, Kanakagirinagar and
Gundu Rao Nagar
Yaraganahally and all along the T.N.
C Surrounding areas of Yadavagiri, Pura Road and Bannur Road. In
Kumbara Koppalu, B.M.Shree addition to the population from the
Nagar, Metagalli,, Pulikeshi above-mentioned a part of the
road, C.V Road, Subash Nagar, Mysore population has been
Kesare, Hebbal 1st stage, considered. Thus, the development of
Adhidravada Paurakarmika
Colony, CFTRI Quarters, the proposed STP should be
Rajivnangar 3rd stage, expedited.
V.V.Mohalla, Gokulam,
Gandhinagar, Sathyanagar,
Hebbal Currently, the effluents from the
Source: KUWSDB various STPs are let out for irrigation
purpose. It is being proposed that
The city has three (STPs), all of treated effluent from the STPs could
which, are facultative aerated lagoons be used for maintenance of parks.
with sedimentation basins located at:
Rayanakere for district A&D Proposed activities
Vidyaranyapuram for district B
Kesare for district C Activities proposed for refurbishing
the sewerage are as follows:
The present sewerage capacity of the Construction/ rehabilitation/
STPs is ~157.65 mld. This is designed expansion of underground
as per the requirements of the city in drainage system including
the year 2011. In addition a STP with service connections to all the
a capacity of 22 mld has been households
proposed for drainage district E, Rehabilitation of sewage
which covers an area of 16 sq.km. treatment plant (STP) for
treatment of raw sewage
The total sewerage inflow treated by Safe disposal of treated
the three STPs is around 90 mld. The effluent at specified locations
expected inflow of sewerage to the Operation and maintenance of
plant is expected to increase after all underground drainage system
the missing sewer line links are and STP as per specifications
connected. Another reason for Development, operation and
mismatch in the current sewerage maintenance of public
capacity and actual inflow of conveniences

58
City Development Plan for Mysore

A brief of the current status, goals, vision and sector strategies discussed for the
sewerage services is tabulated, as below:

For the Mission Period (2007-12)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the mission period (2007-12) and also
states the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.
Table 27: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Drainage

T otal Required
Goals and
Current Required JNNURM
Sector Param eters Vision Sector specific strategies
Status Funds Funds
2012
(2007 -12) (2007 -12)

57 % of
Sewerage
Sewerage households 7 5%
Cov erage
of the city
Dev elop an efficient sewerage Rs.228
STP capacity 1 57 .65 MLd 1 7 9.65 MLD Rs.1 7 8 crores
sy stem crores
Facultativ e Tertiary
STP ty pe aerated treatment
lagoon env isaged

For the Period (2013-31)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the period (2013-31) and also states
the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

Table 28: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Drainage
T otal
Goals and
Goals and Required
Sector Param eters Vision Sector specific strategies
Vision 2017 Funds
2031
(2013-31)
Sewerage
Sewerage 90% 1 00%
Cov erage Dev elop an efficient sewerage Rs 540
STP capacity 220 MLD 350 MLD sy stem crores
STP ty pe Tertiary Tertiary

59
City Development Plan for Mysore

3000 houses are covered. The service


Solid Waste Management charges levied are in the range of
Rs.10-15/ month/house.
The total quantity of municipal sold
waste generated in Mysore city The door-to door collection is
ranges around 220 tonnes per day. proposed to be organised ward wise.
All 65 wards in the corporation are It is proposed that for each of the
covered by solid waste management ward a coordinating agency for the
program but in a few localities waste door-to-door collection would be
is not collected from households on a identified. This agency would be
daily basis. The collection efficiency constituted from all the RWA in the
is estimated to be 80%. MCC has area, a ward committee or a Non
installed 3131 Public dustbins, which government organisation who would
adequately cover all the wards. Few take the overall responsibility of the
statistics on the current status are as primary collection operation. These
below. agencies would in turn employ self-
Table 29: Current Status for Solid help groups for door-to-door
Waste Management
collection. This approach would
Parameters Current Status involve the local self-groups in an
income earning activity. Further this
Coverage 75% approach would reduce the number
Collection of agencies with which the city
80%
Efficiency corporation has to interact.
Segregation 10% At present based on the interest
Treatment and evinced from the various wards and
Disposal Not in place the discussion held, the type of
Facilities coordinating agency, which would
Recovery of Practised in select few operate in each of the ward, has been
Costs wards identified. In some of the wards the
specific agency that would coordinate
A compost plant has been set up has also been identified. In each ward
under the KUIDP for treating the it is proposed that 3 self-help groups
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and would operate for door-to-door
further sale of compost. However, collection. A collection zone is
the city does not have a scientific identified for each of the agencies.
landfill conforming to the MSW Efforts have been undertaken to
Rules, 2000. identify the RWAs and SHGs.

Primary Collection Secondary storage

Presently 90 pushcarts have been There are 20 secondary storage bins


deployed for primary collection of in Mysore City Corporation placed at
MSW from the wards. All main roads commercial areas and bulk waste
in each ward are swept daily by generation points. Secondary storage
pourakarmikas(sanitary workers) as bins (Dumper bins) are transferred
these roads have high traffic & using dumper placers to the compost
commercial activities. Some roads are plant.
swept two times a week, while others
are swept three times a week.
Typically in each ward, where door-
to-door collection is prevalent about

60
City Development Plan for Mysore

Transportation per day. Thus there is already


adequate facility available for
Types of vehicular fleet available with processing the organic waste being
the ULB include the following: generated in the city. With the
introduction of separate sweeping
Tractor-trailer: 21; Carrying
and segregation of waste at doorstep
capacity: 3 tonnes
it is expected that the inorganic solid
Truck: 4 MCC & 25
wastes which are now mixing with
Contractors; Carrying
the waste would be avoided.
capacity: 5 tonnes; Number of
trips by each vehicles: 3 no. It is also proposed that some of the
Dumper Placers: 2; wards, which are away from the
centralised compost facility, be linked
Waste from the Community bins are to decentralised composting units.
manually loaded to tractor- trailers & This would improve the viability of
trucks by 5-6 Pourakarmikas. Each some of the door-to-door collection
vehicle does 2 to 3 trips normally. units and reduce the transportation
The contractor has 25 trucks with costs of wastes. The lands for these
uncovered top. decentralised facilities are being
It is proposed to have twin bin identified. These wards and the
dumper placers for transporting the balance of wards would be linked to
waste to the processing facility. Each the centralised plant till the
dumper placer can make 5 trips to decentralised facilities are set up. The
the processing facility and back. Thus centralised plant would be made
each dumper placer would handle 10 functioning to accept the wastes.
containers. 17 such dumper placers Municipal Solid Waste is collected
are required. There are 2 existing from various generators and is
dumper placers. It is proposed to transported using tractor-trailers and
procure 15 more twin bin dumper trucks to the compost plant. Three
placers. sites are used for the disposal of
waste in the ULB. The types of
disposal are:
Treatment and Disposal
1. Windrow Composting plant at
There is an existing decentralised
Vidyaranyapuram: Waste is
waste processing facility at collected and allowed to
Kumbarakoppal handling about 2 decompose (2 months) with
tons of waste per day. There is also a aeration and watering. It is
small vermi composting facility then spread and screened by
operational in the city. The machine.
centralised compost plant has a 2. Vermi Composting plant at
capacity of handling 200 tons of Kesare: Worms are used on
waste per day. partially decomposed waste to
convert it into manure
The organic content of the 220 3. Decentralized Composting
tonnes waste generated in the city is Kumbarakoppal: Stacks are
estimated at about 110-130 tonnes used for decomposition.

61
City Development Plan for Mysore

The list of ward, which could access the centralised facility and those which would
access decentralised facilities, is provided as below:
Table 30: List of wards with access to centralized and decentralized facilities

Sl. No Proposed waste processing Wards accessing facility

1 Decentralised facility 1: at Kumbarakoppal 35, (Already existing facility)


2 Decentralised facility 2: at Hebbal 34, (work started)
3 Decentralised facility 3: at Gokulam 36,33,32, ( work started)
4 Decentralised facility 4: at D Agrahara 62,7,1
5 Decentralised facility 5: at Metagalli 33
6 Decentralised facility 6: at Kurimandi 47,48, 54(P)
7 Decentralised facility 7: at OD Block 45, 46, 49
8 Decentralised facility 8: at Paduvarahally Smashana 37,38
9 Decentralised facility 9: near Kukkarahally bund 22,23,39
10 Decentralised facility 10: at ward no. 19 19.21,20
12 Decentralised facility 12: at Satyanagar 53, 54(P), 55,56
13 Existing centralised facility at Vidyaranyapuram Remaining wards

Issues

The issues affecting the efficient


These activities would be
execution of the current solid waste
implemented in consonance with the
management system are as follows:
MSW (Management & Handling
Lack of manpower and Rules, 2000) and the Integrated
infrastructure
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Lack of community awareness.
Plan of Government of Karnataka.
Staff requires proper training
Lack of residents' interest and
support
Lack of planning
The projects suggested for
establishing an efficient municipal
solid waste management system in
Mysore are as follows:
Achieving 100% efficiency in
collection of municipal waste
Implementation of source
segregation
Development of an efficient
treatment and disposal
system.

62
City Development Plan for Mysore

The ward wise waste generators are as below:

Table 31: Ward Wise Waste Generators


Hospitals
Ward Meat
Shops Choultries Hotels Industries and Temples
No. Shops
Clinics
1 360 9 15 - - 6 5
2 446 - 4 1 1 8 7
3 167 - 3 - 6 1 8
4 172 2 5 - - 3 6
5 109 3 6 - 1 5 5
6 159 - 5 - 6 4 5
7 270 1 4 - - 12 6
8 160 1 1 - 2 1 5
9 331 1 3 - 3 16 1
10 255 1 2 - 2 18 4
11 320 8 5 20 3 3 1
12 314 2 1 13 10 10 11
13 75 - - - 6 5 6
14 73 3 1 - 4 2 2
15 63 - 2 - 3 7 3
16 247 4 16 - 8 42 17
17 212 - 13 - 12 36 15
18 230 3 4 - 10 20 10
19 326 1 4 - 10 21 17
20 178 3 2 1 12 15 -
21 159 - 5 - - 2 -
22 374 - 4 - - 5 -
23 202 - 2 - 7 5 5
24 253 2 5 - - 16 13
25 1543 2 18 - - 9 8
26 1728 5 16 - - 15 10
27 1763 - 52 - 1 15 -
28 1080 7 28 - 6 9 10
29 665 4 5 - 14 28 9
30 235 1 10 - - 10 6
31 197 2 6 - 6 14 7
32 32 5 4 40 - 9 6
33 191 1 - - 18 11 -
34 360 - 21 - 36 26 -
35 228 2 3 - 11 5 9
36 149 - 2 - - 3 1

63
City Development Plan for Mysore

Hospitals
Ward Meat
Shops Choultries Hotels Industries and Temples
No. Shops
Clinics
37 302 5 7 - 11 14 -
38 376 1 2 - 9 12 -
39 217 1 17 - 21 20 -
40 115 - 6 - 2 3 6
41 425 2 6 - 6 5 3
42 500 - 11 - 15 9 3
43 135 2 4 - 3 6 7
44 385 4 13 31 2 2 7
45 221 4 10 28 7 13 12
46 75 2 - - 1 2 2
47 132 1 - - 2 1 8
48 146 - 1 - 4 5 8
49 152 9 3 - 2 7 6
50 220 - 2 - 12 2 7
51 138 - - - - 4 5
52 31 - - - 1 - 6
53 72 2 2 - 2 2 8
54 95 2 1 - 5 3 5
55 210 - 1 - 6 2 9
56 166 - - - 4 14 19
57 125 - 2 - 5 3 8
58 105 - 3 - 2 8 10
59 203 - - - 7 4 7
60 239 1 - - 6 7 12
61 452 7 20 - 9 10 12
62 385 3 8 - 2 4 10
63 257 2 6 - 4 6 5
64 289 3 4 - 15 9 14
65 273 2 10 - 14 5 13

Total 20067 124 410 133 387 599 430

64
City Development Plan for Mysore

Proposed activities

A slew of activities have been proposed in order to achieve efficiency with respect
to the various aspects of solid waste management. All these would aim to align the
solid waste management system in Mysore with the Municipal Solid Waste Rules,
2000 (Management & Handling). The activities are set out in the table below:
Table 32: Proposed activities to achieve efficiency in Solid Waste Management
Action MSW Rules 2000 Present Status Proposed Strategy
Segregation 1. Organizing 1. Segregation only 1. Segregation of waste
awareness in some part of into wet,
programs the ward dry/recyclables and
2. Promoting 2. Awareness household hazardous
recycling or campaign in waste
reuse of schools and 2. Conducting awareness
segregated community campaigns every
materials month
3. Phased 3. Familiarizing people
program to about solid waste
ensure management system
community adopted in their ULB
participation in 4. Training program for
waste retrievers regarding
segregation importance of
segregation, proper
handling of waste and
its hazards due to
improper handling.
5. Littering of waste to be
banned, levying of fine
if segregation is not
practiced
6. Levying fine for
disposal of garbage in
open space.
7. Conducting awareness
campaigns for schools,
colleges and institutes.

Primary 1. Door to door 1. Door to door 1. Door to door waste


collection waste collection using 90 collection system
Collection pushcarts through 2. Systematic street
2. Slums, bulk RWAs in different sweeping
generators, parts of the city 3. Separate collection
agricultural 2. Composting the system for bulk
waste should Biodegradable generators and
have separate waste. construction waste
collection 4. User charges will be
system levied for households,
3. MSW should commercial
not mix with establishment and other
hospital and waste generators.
industrial
waste
4. No burning of
waste

65
City Development Plan for Mysore

Action MSW Rules 2000 Present Status Proposed Strategy


5. Recycling
biodegradable
waste
Secondary 1. Adequate Only 20 secondary Totally 170 secondary
storage number of storage bins storage bins are required
covered Closed metal secondary
storage bins storage containers
2. Colorization Manual handling of waste is
of the bins. minimized
Bio-
degradable
wastes
green;
Recyclable
wastes
white. Other
wastes -
black.
3. Avoid
manual
handling of
waste

Transportatio 1. Covered 25 MCC vehicles Twin container dumper


n transportatio without covering placer for transportation
n vehicles Waste will be transported to
2. Avoid landfill site
multiple
handling of
waste
3. No open
dumping
4. Regular
clearance
frequency
Processing Recycling of Plastic recycling unit is The wet waste is proposed
biodegradable in operation for preparing compost
wastes The dry waste is proposed
Inert for landfill for landfill and the
Recyclables will be sold by
the pourakarmikas in
market.
Disposal Sanitary landfill Wet waste: composting
Recyclables: sold in market
Financial No separate accounting The expenditure under
Arrangement for Nirmala Nagar SWM head should be
Program maintained separately
Institutional The supervising is done Collection &
Arrangement by the health transportation: Ward
department of the ULB committees, RWAs, SHGs
or management contract
(BOT)
Treatment & disposal:
The treatment and disposal
facilities would also be
developed through PSP in a
BOT framework.

66
City Development Plan for Mysore

A brief of the current status, goals, vision and sector strategies discussed above is
tabulated as below:

For the Mission Period (2007-12)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the mission period (2007-12) and also
states the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.
Table 33: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for solid waste management
T otal Required
Current Goals and Required JNNURM
Sector Param eters Sector specific strategies
Status Vision 2012 Funds Funds
(2007 -12) (2007 -12)
Solid waste -Achiev ing 1 00% efficiency in
Cov erage 7 5% 80% collection of municipal wastes
m anagem ent
-Implementation of source
Collection segregation
80% 1 00%
Efficiency -Dev elopment of an efficient
Segregation 1 0% 25% treatment and disposal sy stem
Rs 42 crores Rs 27 crores
Treatment and - Recov ery of costs would be
Disposal Not in place 1 00% ev olv ed ov er a time period
Facilities -Dev elopment of treatment &
Practised in disposal facility by PSP
Recov ery of through BOT framework is
select few 35%
Costs env isaged
wards

For the Period (2013-31)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the period (2013-31) and also states
the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

Table 34: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for solid waste management
T otal
Goals and Goals and Required
Sector Param eters Sector specific strategies
Vision 2017 Vision 2031 Funds
(2013-31)
Solid waste The city aims to prov ide a
Cov erage 90% 1 00%
m anagem ent clean and hy genic
Collection env ironment and also stresses
1 00% 1 00%
Efficiency on energy conserv ation
Segregation 35% 1 00%
Rs 254 crores
Treatment and
Disposal 1 00% 1 00%
Facilities
Recov ery of
50% 1 00%
Costs

67
City Development Plan for Mysore

432 kilometers in 1981, which


Roads and transportation accounts for 29% of increase over a
The network of roads and streets in decade. There are 48 main roads in
Mysore follows a hub and spoke the city covering a total length of
mechanism with arterial roads around 58 kms. The share of
originating from the centre of the city concrete/ tar roads in the city is
i.e., the Palace area. Arterial roads approximately 90% of the total road
start from the Palace area and run length. There are road dividers,
radially leading to towns and cities pavements and street lights on the
outside. This arrangement also main road and these are present on
means that all commercial activities almost the entire length of the road.
converge to the centre of the city
causing congestion.
The key road related data is tabulated
The arterial roads flow from the below:
centre of the city i.e the palace area. Table 35: Details for key roads in
There are four main arterial roads, Mysore
namely, highway connecting Roads and road transport
Bangalore-Ooty, highway connecting Municipal roads (km.) 1093
Kanakpura with Mysore (Bannur State-level roads (km.) 5
road), the highway connecting Public transport
Mysore with Mangalore (Hunsur
-Buses (number) 767
road) and the highway connecting
Mysore with Mananthody in Kerala. -Bus capacity/passengers 255
-Private registered vehicles 289278
Mysore city is the divisional
headquarters of Southern Railways As a number of layouts have been
and has railway lines passing through developed between 1981-991 the total
the city with Mysore-Arasikere line road network exceeds 600
connecting Bangalore-Poona main kilometers. The road capacity in older
line at Arasikere and Bangalore- part of the city has remained same
Chamarajanagar line ending at while the quantum of traffic has
Chamarajanagar. increased significantly. Few statistics
on the current status are as below.
Most of the roads in the city are Table 36: Current status of Roads
broad and straight with regular
footpaths on either sides. Parameters Current Status
Narasimharaja Boulevard and Mirza
Road are notable examples. As the
city grows with increase in per capita Length of good
income, the ownership of the vehicles 90% tarred
quality roads
has increased and the burden of
traffic on roads is increasing. The Pavements Only in main roads
number of motor vehicles has
Needs to be in
increased almost 25 times in the Signages and
conformity with the
period from 1970-96. The following markings on
standards for tourism
main roads
table indicates the growth of vehicles cities
in the district from 1970 onwards: A survey by Transport Operation
Planning and Informatics Centre,
The total road network in the city was Bangalore has revealed the following
335 kilometers in 1971. it increased to findings:

68
City Development Plan for Mysore

0.87 and 0.09 respectively, in


The vehicular and passenger age group above 58 years. It is
traffic volumes are very heavy estimated that about 5.7 lakh
on the following roads during passenger trips are generated
peak hours: each day within urban limits.
Visweswaraya circle in Home to work trips constitute
Sayyaji Road 23.2%, home to education
Corporation Circle in trips 19.5%, home to shopping
Sayyaji Road trips 2%, other home based
Srinivasa Circle in trip (including return home
Mananthody Road trip) 49.9% and non home
base trips 5.4%.
The survey indicates about Survey indicates that 21.72%
25% of households have no of intercity trips are conducted
vehicles, 28% cycles, 48% have by motorized two wheelers
two wheelers and cars are followed by 16.925 by cycle
limited to 4%. The mobility of and other slow vehicle owners
household members increased and 12.72% by bus. Intercity
with the ownership of passenger trips indicate nearly
motorized vehicles. The two thirds of travellers on a
household trip rates increased work trip, while tourist and
to 9.4 per day among the recreation trips constitute
households which have all the 12%. Nearly 36, 000 tourists
three modes of transport. The travel in and out of the city
per capita trip by males is 1.53 each day.
and 1.48 in females of age
group of 0-15, the per capita Some statistics on vehicular
trips by males and females is growth are given below. As is
1.66 and 0.81, in the age group observe the number of vehicles
15-24 years. The per capita trip gas increase almost 25 times to
by males and females is 1.87 1,45,000 in 1996 from around
and 0.36 in the age group of 6000 in 1970.
24-58 years. The per capita
trip by males and females is

69
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 37: Statistics on vehicular growth


T y pes of
197 0 197 6 1981 1986 1989 1996
v ehicles
4-wheeler 2099 2843 3323 4829 57 1 7 1 1 291
2-wheeler 2602 821 9 1 7 97 8 451 25 68060 1 28336
Truck 866 1 1 61 1 351 21 45 231 0 37 1 2
Bus 499 651 659 1 021 1 31 8 955
T otal 6066 1287 4 23311 53120 7 7 405 144294
V ehicle Traffic

1 60000

1 20000
Vehicle nos

80000

40000

0
1970

1976

1981

1986

1989

1996
4-wheeler 2-wheeler Truck Bus Total

Ring Roads
The ring road should have service
The road network of the city includes roads on either sides to prevent
three ring roads viz. outer ring road, traffic access into this important
intermediate ring road and inner ring road.
road and also arterials roads, sub-
arterial roads, collector roads and
others. The three ring roads not only Intermediate Ring road
collect traffic from other roads but
also act as by-pass roads at their The intermediate ring road is not a
respective locations in order to avoid new road. It is proposed along with
congestion especially at the core of the existing roads only. But it is
the city. The details are as follows: proposed to increase its width to 30
m. It starts from new Kantharaja Urs
Outer Ring road (ORR) road and passes through
Vishwamanava Double Road, Bogadi
The proposed road width of this road Road, Open Air theatre Road, Hunsur
is 45 m. The alignment of the Road, Gokulam Road. The existing
proposed ORR has been specified in road in Manjunatha pura and in front
the Comprehensive development of Ideal Jawa up to Highway Circle
Plan for Mysore. It is necessary to and then passes through
implement this concept as it would Bannimanatapa, old Bangalore-
help in decongesting the city. Mysore Road, Hydarali road, Karanji

70
City Development Plan for Mysore

Tank Bund Road, Race Course road , There are potholes/


Bangalore Nilgiri Road, J.L.B Road depressions at some locations
and joins Kantharaje Urs road. The on the main road and other
width of this intermediate ring road important roads in the City,
along Kantharaje Urs road has been reflecting a need for upgrading
retained at 24 m, as many structures of road infrastructure.
have come up on either sides of this Signage is put up on the roads
road. to indicate schools, hospitals
and other important places.
Inner Ring road However, there is a need to
upgrade the tourism-related
This inner ring road is also not a new signage systems, to make them
road but its alignment is proposed standardised, and pervasive.
along the existing roads and its Radial roads are required to
exiting width is proposed to be connect the outer ring road
widened to 30 m. It width within the with the CBD for efficient
reach of Shesadri Iyer road and traffic flow. This needs
Sawday road are kept as 24 m upgrading the Inner Ring
whereas in other reaches it has been Road and the 8 main radial
proposed as 30 m. The inner ring roads connecting the ORR and
road starts from Sawday Road and the IRR.
passes through Bangalore-Nilgiri Further, there is a need for
Road, Chamaraja Double road, J.L.B constructing an outer
Road, Shesadri Iyer road and then peripheral road to divert heavy
joins Sawday Road. traffic and through traffic
away from the ORR. The
KSRTC operates a fleet of 767 buses length of this peripheral road
in Mysore city, number of schedules would be almost 70 km.
being 580. The total number of Integrated rapid transport
kilometres covered per day is 1.97 system for servicing the
lakhs. The arrivals and departures requirements of the citizens
per day in the two bus terminals i.e and tourists is needed.
Mofussil bus terminus and City The city does not have a bus
central bus terminus are 1900 and rapid transport system, which
2080, respectively. About one lakh is necessary as Mysore is
persons use the Mofussil bus growing at a fast pace
terminus in a day, whereas 1.5 lakh All the through traffic passes
persons use the City Central bus the city in the absence of a
terminus. There are about 4.62 lakh bypass for diverting such
commuters per day in Mysore city. traffic. The through traffic is
Table 38: Status of Street Lighting increasing the traffic problems
Street lighting in the city and especially in the
Number 36863
central areas.
The lack of parking places in
Average streetlight per km 40
Source: MCC
commercial centres leads to
indiscriminate parking on the
Some key issues in road maintenance main road causing congestion
are as follows: The private buses do not have
an organized bus stand and
they indiscriminately stand
near Wesley Church and this

71
City Development Plan for Mysore

should be relocated to a more Construction and maintenance


appropriate location. of footpaths
Construction and maintenance
Proposed activities of storm water drains
Maintenance (erection of
The administration of the city street lights as required) of
proposes to encourage development street lights to prescribed
of local commercial areas (Kalidasa specifications
Road, Kuvempunagar), which would Junction improvements and
serve as counter magnets and help in installation of road markings
reducing the congestion in the City and signage
Centre. The activities proposed for Provision of vehicle parking
developing the network of roads and facilities at bus stand and
developing an efficient transportation railway station and provision
system is as indicated below: for auto stands etc.
Hop in hop off tourist shuttles
Completion and expansion of are also proposed for better
ring road in phases: mobility.
Completing the 2 lanes, More emphasis would be
expansion of 2 lanes to placed on safety related
4 lanes. maintenance and upgrades on
Development of outer congested roads.
ring roads in sync with At some point in the vision
the growth of the city period, the City would also
Strengthening/ improvement need to examine the feasibility
of the roads including of providing mass transport
resurfacing systems such as Bus Rapid
Maintaining the roads and Transit, Electric Trolley Buses,
related infrastructure to or light rail systems.
prescribed standards Congestion on main roads will
Construction and/or widening be managed by a combination
of road bridges/ culverts etc. of traffic engineering, capital
Construction and maintenance work projects and controls
of radial roads & inner ring (zoning etc)
road

A brief of the current status, goals, vision and sector strategies discussed above is
tabulated as below:
For the Mission Period (2007-12)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the mission period (2007-12) and
also states the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.

72
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 39: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2007-12) for Roads
T otal Required
Cu rrent Goals and Strategy Required JNNURM
Sector Param eters
Status Vision 2012 2007 -2012 Funds Funds
(2007 -12) (2007 -12)

Roads & related Length of good


90% tarred A ll
infrastructu re quality roads
Only in main
Pav ements A ll
roads Asset Maintenance of
Absence of potholes, ex isting roads ina timely
7 0% of the
depressions and and sy stematic manner, Rs 329 crores Rs 249 crores
roads
wav es dev elopment of outer ring
Needs to be in road and radial roads
Signages and conformity
markings on main with the A ll
roads standards for
tourism cities

-Prov ision of low cost


Congestion free city transport to citizens,
with affordable construction of truck/bus
T ransportation Rs 482 crores Rs 342 crores
transport for terminals, bus shelters
citizens -Improv e air connectiv ity
of the city

For the Period (2013-31)

The table below sets out goals and visions for the period (2013-31) and also states
the funds required to finance the achievement of these goals.
Table 40: Funds required for goals and Mission period (2013-31) for Roads

T otal
Goals and Goals and General strategies Required
Sector Param eters
Vision 2017 Vision 2031 sector specific Funds
(2013-31)

Roads & related Length of good


A ll The city aims at prov iding a
infrastructure quality roads
good intra-city and
intercity network of roads
Pav ements A ll which would improv e
Rs 3922 crores
connectiv ity with
A bsence of potholes,
neighbouring cities and also
depressions and Potholes free Potholes free
help in smooth flow of
wav es
traffic
Signages and
A ll
markings on main
The city intends to
Congestion Congestion decongest the inner city
Cheap free city with free city with areas, beautify the city and
T ransportation transportation and affordable affordable prov ide a mass transport Rs 4686 crores
reducing congestion transport for transport for sy stem for citizens to
citizens citizens prev ent future congestion

73
City Development Plan for Mysore

One stretching from the


Storm Water Drainage entrance of Brindavan gardens
The total length of storm water to the Kukrahalli,
drainage (SWD) network in Mysore is Another stretches from
1200 kms. Out of this, 500 kms of Saraswatipuram
length of SWD is covered.
The third one stretches from
the Siddhartha layout.
While there is an inspection All of these are partly covered with
mechanism for monitoring the silt depositions. Few areas have road
cleanliness of the SWDs, silt side drains, majority of which are 1-2
deposition is a major issue. This silt m wide.
deposition causes overflowing of the
SWDs. In the core areas, the coverage of
storm water drains is better.
Flooding is common during heavy Presently, sewerage is released into
rains in Devraj Urs Road, Agrahara, these storm water drains, thus
Chamundi hills area. However, the reducing their effectiveness.
southern part of Mysore is better off
and does not experience any flooding. The present cleaning mechanism is
not perceived to be adequate as there
The topography of the city is such have been complaints of overflowing
that the waste water drains into three of drains.
valleys viz., northern onel into Kesare
Valley, and others into the south one Some of the projects, which have
into Dalvai tank feeder valley and been proposed, are as follows:
another to Malalavadi tank valley.

The northern ones drains the area of Bhogadi road


Narasimharaja Mohalla, Jalapuri, Janatha Nagar
Eeranagere and part of Mandi
Mohalla, Medars block and Paduvana Road Ramakrishna
Yadavagiri Railway colony, art of Ramakrishna Nagar
Vanivilasa Puram and
Kumbarakoppal. Ring Road
Hunsur Road
But all the areas mentioned above are
Mettagalli
yet to be connected to the main drain
even though the drainage work of Vijaya nagar 3rd Stage
each area is completed. The sewerage The projects include remodelling of
from these areas is let into the storm storm water drains, increasing the
water drains and natural valleys at coverage of storm water drainage
present. The owners of the gardens network, delinking the sewerage
and other lands adjacent to the main system from the storm water
line are blocking the manholes on the drainage system by completing
way to divert the water for irrigation. missing sewer links and desilting to
clean up the storm water drains.
The city has three big drains, all of
which are 4-5 metres wide. These are
as follows:

74
City Development Plan for Mysore

Public Health & Stray Animals


It is mooted to develop a master plan
Insecticides are sprayed in all the for an area of about 500 acres around
wards at regular intervals and food Chamundi Hills on the lines of Lal
adulteration checks are carried out in Bagh and Cubbon Park in Bangalore
all the hotels. to preserve the environment and
heritage of the city.
There are a few wards with
significant population of stray Mysore urban region lying between
animals. Kaveri and Kabini rivers is one of the
Public Conveniences most attractive tourist places in the
country. In the past, under the
The city has 32 public conveniences patronage of then Mysore Maharaja,
managed by the MCC. These public over 1400 tanks and lakes were
toilets have been located by MCC in created to meet the domestic and
market places, bus stands and agricultural water requirements of
residential localities. The citizens the area. With passage of time, these
regularly use majority of the public lakes / water bodies got silted and
toilets. An inspection mechanism has found entry of polluted domestic
been set up for upkeep of the wastewater. Also the encroachment
facilities. However, there is a great around some of the water bodies
need for public conveniences of high started eating the foreshore area. To
quality for use by the tourists, public, protect further degradation, the most
and conveniences for service affected lakes - Kukrahalli and
providers (such as, auto-rickshaw Karanji, were taken up for
and Tonga drivers). rehabilitation and improvement
studies.
Tourism department, Government of
Karnataka, is considering provision In the Karanji Lake, various
of such amenities in tourist places. components have been executed;
prominent ones are Butter Flies
Parks, Gardens & Water Park, Bird Aviary, Bird Watch Tower
and Boating Facilities. Presently
bodies
Karanji Lake has become an
There are 180 parks in Mysore important and attractive place for
covering approximately 9 sq. kms of tourists and a good source of income
the ULB. Another 8 sq. kms is for Zoo Authority, who owns this
covered by urban forestry Adequate lake.
area is covered by parks and gardens,
and trees have been planted on the In case of Kukrahalli Lake, a bund
roadside on the important roads of all has been created along the periphery
the wards. However, parks are in of the lake, which has become the
need of improved upkeep and morning walkers tracks. University
maintenance, and only about a half of of Mysore, owner of this lake, is
the available ones are used by the contemplating to charge the users to
citizens. meet the maintenance cost of the
lake.
With the increasing urbanization,
there is also a strong need to develop
and maintain more green spaces,
parks & water-bodies, on a priority.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Naming of Streets & Birth & Death Registration


Numbering of Houses Records of births and deaths are
computerized, and certificates are
All the streets in Mysore have been issued within the timeframe
named. However, the signage needs stipulated by the MCC.
improvement, and there are no Property Registers
boards/ location markers to indicate
the same. Records of all the transactions in the
MCC are computerised, and extracts
are issued within the time frame
Burial grounds & stipulated by the MCC.
Crematoriums
A complaint register is maintained in
There are three burial grounds in the Public Grievance Cell, headed by
Mysore. Facilities like proper a PRO, to record the problems faced
approach road, adequate lighting, by the citizens.
posting of caretaker and fencing are Environmental Services
provided. Water supply is however
inadequate and the natural Pollution levels are reportedly low,
vegetation is not cleared regularly. however vehicular congestion is
noticed in N.R Mohalla. KUWSDB
There is a clear need to provide more carries out periodic water-quality
facilities to keep pace with tests. For wastewater, there are
urbanization, improve upkeep of secondary treatment plants available.
these facilities. An aerobic compost plant is available
to treat the solid waste.
Parking lots
The investment proposals for all
There are 6 parking lots in the city. these services is presented in the later
All of these are located on the main sections.
roads of the city, where the traffic
congestion is higher. Mysore A Competitive IT
Destination
Parking lots are maintained in In 2004, an in-depth research was
market places and bus stands and all conducted in 27 cities of India, to
the parking lots have attendants. assess their competitiveness as IT/
Only one third of the total bus stops ITeS destinations. Four key
on the main road and other competitiveness factors were
important roads have shelters and evaluated: people, catalysts,
traffic congestion occurs when buses infrastructure and financials.
stop on these roads. Multiple dimensions within these
four key competitiveness areas were
There is a clear need to provide more scored on a scale of 1 5. The total
parking lots, with amenities and rating for each factor was determined
public conveniences, especially near by the sum of the individual ranking
tourist areas and to provide bus-bays of each dimension. Weight was then
and bus shelters in greater number. assigned to each of the four factors to
This would also involve some road determine the ultimate
widening. competitiveness score for each city.

76
City Development Plan for Mysore

The normalized score was calculated municipal infrastructure over the


by assuming the highest score as 100. years. While most of the investments
This normalized score indicated the have been made through budgetary
Offshore City Competitiveness Index, resources, a need was felt to give a
the OCC Index, for the city. fillip to the growth of the city.

Government of Karnataka (GoK),


through Government of India (GoI),
approached the Asian Development
Bank (ADB) for assistance in
formulating an integrated urban
development strategy for Bangalore
Sub-Region by developing selected
counter magnet towns. The project
was named as Karnataka Urban
Infrastructure Development Project
(KUIDP). As the urbanisation is
expected in the Bangalore Mysore
corridor, GoK chose towns from this
corridor for KUIDP. Package I,
comprising Mysore city, received
Source: Research Summary: India: Comparison most of the investments of KUIDP.
of Cities by neoIT. Volume 2, Issue 11
Karnataka Urban Infrastructure
Development and Finance
Key Observations: Corporation (KUIDFC) authorised as
nodal agency for implementation of
Mysore emerged as one of the top-ten KUIDP. Project development
attractive cites in the country. activities commenced in 1995-96. The
Mysore, as a Generation III activities include:
alternative, offers significant
advantages in financial impact a. Evaluation of sub sectors
towards cost of living and real including water supply, solid
estate prices. waste management,
Mysore, as a Generation III city,
sanitation, sewerage,
has all the right things in place to transportation,
emerge as an attractive choice.
communication, social
However, there is a need to
infrastructure, commercial/
package and market it properly.
industrial development,
housing/ land development,
urban environment and
Citizen Charter management.
The MCC has a publicized Citizens b. Ongoing and proposed
Charter, which is furnished in the projects were also assessed
Annexures. with an aim to avoid any
potential duplication in project
Infrastructure Investment selection and identify possible
sub-projects, which would
in Mysore KUIDP complement ongoing or
proposed projects being
MCC and other stakeholders have implemented.
been investing in upgrading

77
City Development Plan for Mysore

c. The existing situation in the and management of the project


city with regard to activities, including project design,
infrastructure, services and implementation, budgeting &
environment was studied financial planning, benefit
thoroughly and was found that monitoring & evaluation activities,
the city was suffering from socio-economic surveys,
inadequate sanitation and environmental assessment &
other waste disposal systems, protection, institutional policy
unsatisfactory transportation development, community
options; and poor housing and participation activities, and
social infrastructure. coordinating the works of all the
d. Various surveys and dialogues Consultants under this project.
with local officials, citizens
and other stakeholders were To support the PMU in discharging
carried out to assess the their functions, Project
infrastructure requirements Implementation Units (PIU) were
and perceived service established in project towns
priorities in the city. Emerging including Mysore. The PIU was
from these interactions and responsible for effective planning and
analyses, a set of structural coordination for implementation of
and non-structural the project components, while actual
interventions was formulated implementation of the respective
in the environment sanitation, project components was the
transportation, responsibility of the MCC /
communication, poverty Karnataka Urban Water Supply and
alleviation/ housing, industrial Sewerage Board / Karnataka Slum
and commercial development. Clearance Board, etc.
The summary of investments in these
sectors is presented below:
Table 41: Summary of investments in Best Practices
various sectors In KUIDP (Package-1), various urban
Sl Investment
Sector infrastructure sub-projects were
No. (Rs Cr)
Water Supply and
taken up for construction to provide
1 Drainage 39 the better civic amenities and
2 Sewerage 40 infrastructure to the citizens. While
3 SWM 4 execution of the sub-projects, certain
Storm water designs, implementation and related
4 Drainage 4 procedures, have been extraordinary
Road and Truck which could be termed as Best
5 Terminal 72
Practices.
6 Poverty Alleviation 5
7 Restoration of Lake 1
Slum Improvement
8 Slum Development 8
Total 173 Implementation of this sub-project,
improved the living conditions of the
KUIDFC had established a Project slum dwellers and subsequent
Management Unit (PMU) within decrease in water borne diseases in
itself and appointed the Managing these areas.
Director of KUIDFC as Project
Director to head the PMU. The PMU
has been responsible for coordination

78
City Development Plan for Mysore

Improvement of Water Supply & eastern side crossing Mahadevpura


Sewerage Networks Road and Joins Bannur Road near
Star Poultry Farm. ORR also includes
By implementation of water the construction of four number of
interconnections, water pressure was railway under passes. ORR has been
restored in low water pressure constructed with total crust thickness
pockets, and certain water un-served of 515 mm with the top portion
areas were covered. comprising 40 mm Bituminous
Concrete. There are 40 curves with
There were some missing links in design speed of 80 km/h; however in
sewer network along the trunk certain stretches design speed has
sewers; new areas, which were added been restricted to 65 km/h due to
in the limit of city, were not able to sharp curves and steep gradient.
convey their sewage to the proposed
STPs. Also in some of the pockets,
Project Coding
sewage was being discharged into the The whole project was divided into
storm water drains. By various sub-projects and contract
implementation of sewer packages. This was done to speed up
interconnection, these deficiencies/ the project implementation as well as
problems were eliminated. for effective monitoring.

An alphanumeric system was adopted


Outer Ring Road the first three letters represent the
Outer Ring Road (ORR) around the sub-project such as WSS for water
Mysore City was conceived to divert supply, URI for urban road
the traffic from the city area, which improvement; the subsequent two
are crossing through the city, and letters represents the contract
minimize the congestion within the package number in that sub-project
city. The entire length of ORR (21 such as 01, 02, etc.; and the last
km) takes off from Bangalore letter(s) represents the city/ town
Mysore Road (SH-17) and such as M for Mysore, MN for
circumferences Mysore City on the Mandya and MD for Maddur. These
western side crossing KRS Road, codes were of immense help in
Hunsur Road, Bogadi Road, HD Kote tracking, monitoring, reporting, etc.
Road and joins the Ooty Road near
the Regulated Market; and in the

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Financial Profile of MCC


The following tables summarize the financial situation of MCC. More detailed
assessment of the financial situation is dealt with in Chapter 7.

Municipal Revenue Income


As illustrated below, the revenue account receipts for MCC on account of taxation
revenues have exhibited a growth of 61%, increasing to Rs.1389 lakhs (FY05) from
Rs.862 lakhs (FY02). However, the total revenues have remained around the
same level. The following table set out the revenues of MCC over a period:

Table 42: Revenues of MCC over a period


Revenue account receipts (Rs. Lakh)
Year Transfers
Tax Non-tax including Total
grants
FY02 861.5 3286.2 3601.3 7749.0

FY03 813.1 3072.7 3247.2 7133.0

FY04 1195.8 2543.9 3244.5 6984.3

Fy05 1389.2 2946.4 3201.8 7537.3

Municipal Revenue Expenditure


The MCC revenue expenditure from various heads has remained stagnant
exhibiting a marginal growth of 3% over the period of FY02 to FY05. The revenue
account expenditure is set out below:

Table 43: Revenue and Expenditure

Revenue account Expenditure (Rs. Lakhs)


Year Establishment
Operation and Interest
(wages and Others Total
maintenance payment
salaries)

FY02 3867.2 2352.7 0.3 1625.2 7845.4

FY03 2956.5 2652.8 0.3 1746.6 7356.3

FY04 2952.5 2406.6 0.3 1689.0 7048.5

Fy05 3948.1 2486.8 0.3 1675.4 8110.6

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Municipal Capital Receipts and Expenditure


The Capital receipts for MCC are from two sources, namely, state government and
financing institutions. The share of state government in the total capital receipts
for MCC has exhibited a declining trend, decreasing to Rs.1643 lakhs (FY05) from
Rs.2830 lakhs (FY02). On the other hand, share of financing institutions has
increased to Rs.1558 lakhs (FY05) from Rs.771 lakhs (FY02). The state
government share and financial institutions borrowing are set out below:

Table 44: Share of State Government and Financial Institutions


Capital Receipts (Rs. Lakh)
Year
State Government Financing
Market Total
(Rs. Lakh) institutions
Grants & Loans

FY02 2830 771 0 3601

FY03 2115 1132 0 3247

FY04 1539 1706 0 3245

Fy05 1643 1558 0 3202

The Capital expenditure for MCC has remained largely constant in the period
between FY02 and FY05, as illustrated in the table below.

Table 45: Municipal Capital Expenditure


Municipal Capital Expenditure
Year Capital expenditure (Rs. Lakh)

FY02 3441
FY03 4105
FY04
4009
Fy05 3657

Water-supply & Sewerage Expenditure & Income


The income from water supply and sewerage services has surged to Rs.2441 lakhs
(FY05) from Rs. 1193 lakhs (FY02), exhibiting a growth of 105%. Income and
expenditure relating to water supply and sewerage is tabulated below:

81
City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 46: Income and Expenditure from Water Supply and Sewerage Services
Expenditure Income
Year
(Rs. Lakh) (Rs. lakh)

FY02 370 1193

FY03 300 1118.2

FY04 325 1819.9

Fy05 350 2441.2

The income has increased owing to the following reasons:


Revision in water tariff (details have been provided below)
Increase in area and number of connections under the ADB scheme (KUIDP).

The tariff increase in the domestic sector ranges from 20% to 65%. The 20%
increase is in the lowest consumption category, while the other categories had an
increase ranging from 40% to 65%. The increase in commercial category ranged
from 40% to 65%.

In addition, water supply system coverage has increased by more than 25% under
the KUIDP. (Connections increased from approximately 90000 to about 115000).
These factors have resulted in increase in the water charges receipts.

The expenditure mentioned accounts for establishment charges, which have


largely remained unchanged.
Expenditure on power (The estimated electricity charges are of the order of Rs. 16
crores in FY03), which constitutes a major component of O&M, is being deducted
by the Urban Development Department, GoK (from the SFC grants due to the
MCC) and remitted directly to the electricity utility. The amounts paid to the
electricity utility also include those relating to street lighting. This practice is being
adopted across the state. These amounts towards energy charges are not included
in the expenditure stated.

Given the higher increase in receipts, and non-inclusion of power charges, coupled
with static establishment charges, the surplus from water and sewerage seems
large. However, the same would translate into a deficit in case the electricity
charges are being considered.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 47: Water Tariffs for Domestic and Non-Domestic Connections


Tariff in 2001 (Rs. Revised Tariffs as on 31/03/2006 (Rs
Items
Per 1000 litre) per 1000 litre)
Domestic connection (slabs
based on consumption)
0-25,000 litres 1.65 2.00
25-50,000 litres 2.65 3.75
50-75,000 litres 3.65 6.00
75-100,000 litres 5.15 8.00
>100,000 litres 6.15 10.00
Non Domestic
0-25,000 litres 3.30 5.25
25-50,000 litres 4.30 7.00
50-75,000 litres 5.30 8.50
75-100,000 litres 6.70 10.00
>100,000 litres 7.30 11.00

Table 48: Water Tariffs for Commercial Connections


Treated water Raw water Treated water Raw water
Commercial (Rs. Per 1000 (Rs. Per (Rs. Per 1000 (Rs. per 1000
litre) 1000 litre) litre) litre)
8.65 8.65
(flat rate) (flat rate)
0-50,000 litres - - 14.00 13.00
50-100,000 litres - - 15.00 14.00
>100,000 litres - - 19.00 18.00

Cost-recovery in Urban Infrastructure


Currently, water supply and sewerage services only generate any revenues towards
cost recovery. However, the MCC plans to levy fees for waste collection as well.
The cost recovery in various urban infrastructure services is presented below:
Table 49: Cost recovery in various Urban Infrastructure Services

Cost incurred in service


Direct recoveries (Rs. lakh)
Infrastructure provision (Rs. Lakh)
FYo3 FY04 FY05 FYo3 FY04 FY05
Water supply 300 325 350 1118.2 1819.9 2441.2
Sewerage and sanitation 105 185 26 Nil Nil Nil
Solid waste collection 20 0 70 Nil Nil Nil
Public bus services Managed by KSRTC: separate accounts are not available

Investments in Urban Infrastructure


There has been no private investment in Mysore city urban infrastructure. The
public investment details are presented as below:

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 50: Aggregate Investment in Urban Infrastructure between FY02 and FY05
Public Private
Infrastructure investment investment
(Rs. Crore) (Rs. Crore)
Water supply 1345 Nil
Sewerage and
347.5 Nil
drainage
Solid waste 172 Nil
Roads (municipal) 255 Nil
Street lighting 325 Nil
Storm water drainage 75 Nil

84
City Development Plan for Mysore

CHAPTER 4:
DEVELOPMENT OF A Stakeholder Meetings
VISION FOR MYSORE To facilitate the process of
stakeholder interactions, twenty five
The Consultation Process meetings/ workshops were organized
A vision document for the City can be in the period from December 2005
prepared only through a consultative till April 2006 with various
process, ensuring that the stakeholders, NGOs and elected
interactions occur amongst representatives. More than five
stakeholders, including Citizen hundred people participated in these
Groups/ NGOs, Elected discussions.
Representatives, and Government
agencies. The consultation process A table of consolidated prioritized
aims to place on record details of the responses is enclosed in the next
existing situation, discuss possible page. The details of these
options to go forward, and seek interactions, workshops and the
participative and critical feedback on minutes of some of them are given as
where the city aims to be at the end of Annexure 1, 2, and 3.
a certain time-period, and set out the
directive principles of this vision. The CDP was then presented to the
Council Members of Mysore City
Given the complex and consensual Corporation, and the MLA/ MLC of
nature of the exercise, it is clear that the region, on 01/04/2006. This
while such a consultative process meeting was conducted under the
gives room for all the views to be Chairmanship of the Deputy
articulated, it is certainly not possible Commissioner, Mysore District.
to adopt every viewpoint. The final
vision will therefore reflect a The State Level Steering Committee
preponderance of opinion, rather (SLSC) met on 06/04/2006, under
than be a unanimous view. the Chairmanship of the Honble
Chief Minister of Karnataka and after
VISION (20-25
due discussion, approved the CDP
years perspective) prepared by the Mysore City
Corporation. The elected
representatives of the region, and
Identification Factors Affecting The Citys senior Government officers also
Of Current Development & Functioning.
Position attended the meeting.

What is the current status of Inputs from all these meetings/


Mysore city?
Where should it be heading?
interactions have been factored into
How to get there? this CDP document.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

A. Consolidated response of stakeholders The key responses & priority accorded by


stakeholders to different infrastructure needs of the City, have been categorized sector wise
and are summarized in the table below
Table 51: Key Responses and Priorities by Stakeholders for different Infrastructure needs

Sector / Area Priority


Water Supply & Drainage
Improvement of water distribution system
Conservation of ground water sources
Identification of different sources of water from the sustainability
point of view like Kabini
Re-designing of water supply system I
Rainwater harvesting
Waste water re-cycling
Improvement of UGD
Protection of natural valleys
Flood Management
Roads & Transport
Focus on local public transport
Improvement of roads tarring
Outer ring road connection
Improvement of Mysore-Malavalli Junction (can be declared as
national highway).
Development of national airport for connectivity.
Underground parking spaces near Town Hall, Makkaji Chowk II
Completion of existing ring road, Dasappa to Bommahalli to be
improved
Railway to be integrated in public transport system.
Pedestrian facilities to be provided.
North south railway corridor
Introduction of footpaths, cycle tracks, flyovers
Multistoried buildings to be shifted to the outskirts of the city
Beautification III
Development of Parks
277 Parks to be conserved
Plans for development of individual areas - Ashok Nagar,
Padavanahalli
Conservation of water bodies
Slums
Improvement of Slums
IV
Relocation / rehabilitation of Slums
NR Muhalla to be developed
Tourism & Heritage
Declare Mysore as Heritage City
Restoration of Heritage Buildings
Preparation of a Tourism plan V
Local artisans to be promoted
Provision of information kiosks

Congestion
VI
Development of satellite towns to cater to the influx of people.
Industries
VII
Make land available for industries

86
City Development Plan for Mysore

Others
Auto Nagar to be developed
Devaraja market to be redeveloped
IT/BT should be linked to an outside body and not to MCC
VIII
There should be an implementing officer apart from DC - single point
decision authority required.
Regulations implemented by Maharashtra government to be included
Improvement in collection and disposal of garbage

ASSESSMENT OF THE
CURRENT STATUS
Coverage for the CDP
The definition of the area as per the
DEFINE KEY ELEMENTS
CDP would be the Mysore urban OF VISION
agglomeration, which consists of the
following:
Table 52: Area as per CDP for
KEY RESULT AREAS WHERE
Mysore Urban Agglomeration
PERFORMANCE IS ESSENTIAL
Mysore Urban Agglomeration
a) Mysore 773889
i) Mysore 742261
ii) Hinakal 12077 GENERAL STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
iii) Hutagalli 6438
iv) Metagalli 508
v) Satagalli 600
vi) Alanahalli 3682 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
vii) Kurubarahalli
viii) Mysore Kasaba
ix) Chamundibetta 1393
x) Sriramapura 6084
xi) Datagalli 188
Strengths and Weakness
xii) Lingambudi 658 Strengths
b) Hebbalu 1471 The strengths of the City are
c) Belvata 5627 encapsulated in the following:
d) Bhogadi 4813 Old-world charm and confluence
Total (a+b+c+d) 785800 of heritage and culture
Source: Census of India, 2001
Salubrious climate
Planned city, having one of the
The area covered under the oldest plan authorities in the
JNNURM scheme would essentially country
be the MUDA area, excluding High standard of education
Nanjangud, which is a separate ULB. City growth (till recently) has
been gradual and well-managed
The process adopted for the Low slum population (< 10%)
development of the Vision Statement Room to grow
for the area under coverage, is Good linkages with Bangalore,
schematically shown in the following Tamil Nadu, Kerala
flow-chart: The City benefiting from its
proximity to Bangalore, and the

87
City Development Plan for Mysore

push-effect on industry seeking Urban Space


to expand out of Bangalore. Clean air/ noise free
environment,
Weakness demarcated areas for
The challenges that the city faces are: pedestrians and
Tourism industry in a status-quo vehicles, community
for the past many years creations, promotion of
Not much development beyond neighbourhood and
the sight seeing circuit community ownership,
No attempt to convert into better clear CBD demarcation,
public amenities, longer stays, adequate open space
and experiential tourism Economy
Or to convert Mysore into a Provision of balanced
heritage, culture, and tourism economic options,
hub cultural vibrancy of city,
Inadequate transportation heritage tourism based
infrastructure Sustainable economic
No proper airport, which could growth based on non-
be a key reason why Mysores polluting, high-
development has been so technology industry and
different from that of Bangalore services
Inadequate urban transport Heritage
system Unique resources that
Inadequate bus system need to be preserved
No local tourist shuttles, which Historical architecture
are very important in a tourist and buildings
city Cultural vibrancy which
Rail connectivity with Bangalore is the source of tourist
is poor & doubling still not on attraction
the fast-track Local art, handicrafts,
Can the city cope with increased silk
growth of industry? Governance
Bangalores congestion is forcing Decentralization and
companies to look at Peoples Participation
alternatives, but can Mysore Efficiency,
absorb such investment, and still Transparency and
retain its heritage and culture? Accountability
Housing E-government or other
Congestion equivalent systems for
Pollution efficient and
Services (Water, sustainable delivery of
Power) services to improve
responsiveness
Vision Statement Computerization of
information systems
Key Elements of Vision
The key elements of vision as borne
out in the stakeholder consultations
include the following.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

And What The Vision DOES Urban sprawl


NOT Envisage Unplanned industrialization
that places large stress on
It is of interest to define what Mysore urban environment & burden
DOES NOT want to become, and transport, roads, water, power
what are the trade-offs between Industrial townships
growth and quality of life. would be developed
OUTSIDE the city
peripheries, with
requisite infrastructure.

Key Result Areas


The Key result areas that the vision
seeks to address are:
1. Maintenance and
preservation of the unique
heritage and culture of
Mysore;
2. Establishing the city in a
sustainable environment
comprising green spaces
(parks & gardens), and water-
bodies;
3. Improved quality of urban
services, such as water supply
& sewerage, solid waste
management, and ensuring
universal access to an
Too many cities have courted growth, adequate level of these urban
or had growth thrust on them by services;
circumstances, and have been unable 4. Establishing a transparent,
to cope with the stress that growth participative, accountable &
has caused on the citys efficient city-wide framework
infrastructure, its society, and its for planning and governance;
culture. 5. Introduction of e-Governance
in the core functions;
Unplanned and haphazard 6. Promotion of the following
growth that lays stress on important economic sectors
citys infrastructure, impacting a. Tourism
quality of life, leading to: b. Non-polluting, high-
Congestion technology services &
Constructions in the industries
core and heritage areas, 7. Promotion of the following
that spoil the city sectors as social imperatives,
image, including as well as economy drivers
numerous fly-overs or a. Education
elevated roads that b. Wellness
detract from the Citys
heritage

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City Development Plan for Mysore

General Statement of Objectives The Vision Statement

Enhancing the glory of Mysore, and


enabling it to forge ahead as the
Cultural, Tourism, Educational,
Information Technology, Information
Technology enabled Services and
Wellness Hub.

Furthering the cause of the Citizens and


improving their quality of life by
providing improved urban services;
catering to the needs of the urban
poor;
sustaining the environment &
greenery;
preserving the charm and culture of
the city, and
improvement of human resource
quality

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City Development Plan for Mysore

operators. Similar view-experience-


Specific Objectives enjoy-buy circuits would be created
as 1-2 day trips around Mysore, such
Tourism as Coorg, for Plantation experience.
The objective is to go to the next level
of tourist activity, and give the tourist Experiential Tourism
an experience, thus moving away Create other events, beyond
from sight-seeing the same set of Dasara
landmarks. Experiences shall be Royal Experience
based on the heritage and Yoga and Wellness experience
monuments/ palaces in Mysore, and Hub for-
capitalize on its proximity to a Plantation experience
number of nature sanctuaries and Wildlife experience
habitats. Silk experience
Arts & Crafts experience

For instance, a Royal Experience It is envisaged that the City will only
could be a visit to the palaces in an plan for the basic infrastructure and
around Mysore and Srirangapatnam, planning requirements, and the
enlivened by a light-and-sound show, actual specific finances for each sub-
a historical narration, photo-ops in project will come from the private
traditional royal costumes, cuisines sector. There are certain facilitation
of the past, and purchase measures and backup infrastructure
opportunities of gems, jewellery, and requirements, for taking tourism to
antiques. The whole experience the next level. These are enumerated
would be packaged by efficient tour below:

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Wellness
Budget and upmarket hotels Mysores salubrious climate, its
Bed-and-breakfast facilities charm, and aura of culture have
Hub-and-spoke hotel resulted in a naturally developed
chains, with some yoga and spiritual tourism base. The
inventory at Mysore, and City would build upon this base, and
some at the experience focus on wellness and spiritual
locations such as Madikeri tourism. Some of the possible
Public amenities developments are enumerated here:
Toilets
Parking Pollution less environment
Information kiosks Green and open public spaces,
Event management parks, and gardens
Local shuttle buses Revival of lakes and water
Proper linkages to bodies and using parks and
Bangalore heritage areas for recreation
Healthcare tourism
Encourage the private sector, Celebrate Life in a holistic
to look beyond rooms and F&B manner, instead of being
Organize events/ called a pensioners
experiences paradise
A costume gallery Focus on developing special
showing replicas of areas/ facilities
royal costumes, where Mysore as a yoga hub
visitors can wear them Therapy through music
& get photographed Organic farming
Silk loom visits and
purchase trips Here again, the City would play a
Craft experience & facilitators role by setting the base
purchase trips infrastructure and planning/ zoning.
Spiritual/ musical The private sector would be
events encouraged to invest in the actual
projects/ facilities.
Though the involvement of the
private sector will reduce the onus To make Mysore a centre for
and financial burden on the City, still Wellness, there are certain
it is a fact that to undertake the imperatives
facilitation and creation of base Affordable medical facilities
infrastructure, the City would Promotion of Alternate
endeavour to allocate more financial therapies
resources. High quality ambience
Current funds do not accrue to High quality infrastructure
the City, but to the monument amenities
(managers/ owners) Emergence of Budget
Dasara funds from State are Accommodation
marginal Low rentals
Consider impact fee from Availability of rental
monuments/ managers/ transportation
owners

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City Development Plan for Mysore

The Citys focus would be on getting Spaces like haats and ethnic
the foregoing environment in place. getaways would be developed
for more lively experiences.

Handicrafts/ Sericulture
Mysore enjoys unique branding in
handicrafts and sericulture, with
Mysore Silk, sandalwood articles
and other handicrafts and local art
being well recognized household Chokhi Dhani
is an ethnic village resort with an exquisite
words associated with the City. Rajasthani touch that has been positioned as
However, there is a need to value-add a perfect place for a weekend, from where
to the existing cachet, and thereby one can experience Rajasthan, staying in the
ethnic huts, eating delicious food in
increase revenues and recognition. traditional style , enjoying the folk music
and dance performances.

Education
Developing human capital is the key
to improving standards of living and
economic growth.

This would be done in the following Enough emphasis has not been given
manner: on this aspect in India, in the past, as
the graph above indicates.
Strengthening of local
economy Mysore has all the ingredients
Merging with theme necessary to make it a centre for
entertainment/ experiential education and research.
tourism
Interactive workshops To encourage Mysore as a
would be conducted for centre of excellence in
tourists to familiarize education
them with vernacular Creating Campus
art and culture environment
See, experience Promotion of the
and purchase concept of international
Open university

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City Development Plan for Mysore

and zoning is done, and the type of


As before, the City shall play the role industry is regulated, it is possible
of a facilitator to catalyze the that the development may result in
development of educational economic growth at the cost of
institutions, while the actual lowering the quality of life by
education infrastructure can come congestion and infrastructure stress.
from private finance. In some cases
the City may also be able to lobby The imperatives for development of
with the State or Central industry are:
Governments to locate specific
centres of excellence in Mysore. To encourage Mysore as hub
for eco-friendly, high-
Provision of Land in urban technology industry and
Corridors for enhancing the services
number of players that can Particular emphasis on
enter the domain of education. IT/ BT industries
Creating land banks for Industrial development to be
educational institutions sequestered to planned zones,
and not permitted within the
Multi activities for space core city area
allotted to Universities. Such areas to be
Running summer designed to be self-
programs sustained with basic
infrastructure
Basic infrastructure,
Information Technology/ including water supply
ITeS/Bio-technology and transportation to
Mysore has very similar advantages be strengthened
in terms of climate, reasonably good
infrastructure, and human resources Sector-specific Targets
as Bangalore. The congestion of IT/
BT industries in Bangalore, and the The following sections indicate the
proximity of Mysore, are causing specific targets for the key urban
more of these industries to locate at service areas:
Mysore. Mysore is therefore 1. Water and sanitation
becoming a focus of development for 2. Urban roads
IT/ BT and other high-technology 3. Solid waste management
industries. 4. Urban poor

Industry is not necessarily invited


but comes in because of base
infrastructure and communication
facilities. Industrial development
would be focussed on the provision of
good support infrastructure, as well
as availability of suitable land.

It is also important to caveat


industrial growth in a heritage city
like Mysore. Unless proper planning

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Targets for Water & Sanitation

Table 53: Targets for Water and Sanitation


Parameter Current Status 2012 2017 2031

Frequency of water 3 hours daily 6 hours 10 hours Continuous


supply supply
Coverage 85% 100% All All
(Population)
Metering Not fully Covered 100% in all non 100% district All categories to
domestic, and metering be metered
commercial,
industrial
consumers
Sanitation 57% 75% 100% 100%
Coverage
Consumer Ad hoc system Develop Response time Response time
Redressal System present consumer of less than two of less than a
redressal system days day

Targets for Urban Roads

Table 54: Targets for Urban Roads


Parameter Current Status 2012 2017 2031

Length of good quality 90% tarred All All All


roads
Pavements Only in main All All All
roads
Absence of Potholes, 70% of Potholes free Potholes free
depressions, waves roads
Signage & Marking on All All All
the main road

Targets for Solid Waste Management


Table 55: Targets for Solid Waste Management
Parameter 2012 2017 2031

Collection coverage with door-to-door (%) 80% 90% 100%


Segregation percentage (%) 25% 35% 100%
Quantum of waste treated (% of total collected) 100% 100% 100%
Quantum of waste land-filled (TPD) Inerts & Inerts & Inerts &
Rejects Rejects Rejects

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Targets for BSUP


Table 56: Targets for BSUP
Parameter 2012 2017 2031

Slum dwellers with 50% 60% 100%


houses
Access to basic
services
-Water within 50 50% 60% 100%
metres of inhabitation
-Sanitation 50% 60% 100%

-Garbage disposal 60% 60% 100%


system

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Quality of Life Ideas


Some of the qualities of life ideas spelt out in the Stakeholder consultations
include the following:

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City Development Plan for Mysore

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City Development Plan for Mysore

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Mapping of Objectives for tourism ventures. The


projects would aim at
In preparing the CDP and planning renovating the heritage
for a citys future infrastructure the buildings and promoting
objectives as prioritized by its traditional industries like, silk,
stakeholders should assume sandalwood and other
unequivocal importance. Therefore, handicrafts. These would not
the thrust of sector-specific strategies only showcase the citys
should be towards maximizing and heritage but also result in
optimizing the gains of the individual gains for the citys economy.
projects for the city, state at large and Roads: The sectoral theme for
its citizens. the sector is to provide better
inter and intra city
The tenets of the CDP should be connectivity by creating new
based on the achievement of the assets and preserving the old
following objectives: ones. In order to do so projects
Increasing prosperity such as, development of an
Universal provision of basic outer ring road has been
services suggested. Further the projects
Urban renewal program also aim at improving the
Managing built assets well maintenance of the existing
Achieving financial roads, upgrading the roads in
sustainability keeping with the growth in
vehicular traffic. These
Each of these objectives has been projects would help in
charted with the sector specific provision of basic services,
projects, which promote the urban renewal program, better
achievement of the objectives. This management of built assets
helps in analyzing whether the and achieving financial
project is fulfilling the purpose and sustainability
lends objectivity to the process of Road related infrastructure:
selection of projects for the CDP. The sectoral theme is to
decongest the city and provide
Each of the sectoral interventions a cheap mass transport system
relates to one or more of the for the citizens. The projects
objectives as set out by JNNURM. suggested for the sector are
The sectoral strategy and suggested construction of bus/truck
projects have been developed in terminals, construction and
keeping with the sector specific maintenance of storm water
theme. The individual sector themes, drains, footpath and medians.
projects envisaged to sustain the All these would help in
sectoral theme and their relation the achievement of the objectives
achievement of the objectives of the as stated above. This would
CDP is explained as below: help in preserving the older
core areas of the city, which
Tourism and heritage: The have off late been burdened by
thrust of the CDP is to the inordinate increase in
preserve, conserve and protect vehicular traffic.
the heritage of the city and Water supply and sewerage:
capturing the potential that The sectoral theme intends to
the heritage of the city offers provide basic drinking water

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City Development Plan for Mysore

facility and sewerage facility to


the citizens and also conserve
the water resources lest these
might deplete beyond the citys
future requirements in line
with the increase in
population. Herein, the
projects suggested include
augmenting, rehabilitating the
water supply and distribution
system and introducing the
measures to conserve, recycle
and preserve the water
resources of the city through
waste water recycling, and
rainwater harvesting. These
projects assist in
accomplishing the objectives
of the CDP.
Municipal Solid waste
management: The sectoral
theme is to provide a clean and
hygienic environment and
initiate efforts to provide
renewable sources of energy.
The projects envisage include
developing a waste to energy
facility.
Urban poor: The sectoral
theme aim at improving the
quality of life for the poor by
providing housing facilities,
access to transportation
facilities and access to other
basic services. These would
help in creating social equality
and also help in increasing the
prosperity of the city.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 57: Summary of Sectoral Theme


Univ ersal Urban Managing Achiev ing
JNNURM Increasing
Sector them e prov ision of renewal built assets financial
objectiv es prosperity
Basic serv ices program well sustainability
Sectors
Preserv ation of city 's heritage, prov ide a
Heritage and platform for city 's craftsmen to ex hbit their Renov ation of heritage
T ourism wares to an international audience and ensure buildings
better facilties to tourist v isiting the city
Craft v illage (silk,
sandalwood and other
handicarfts) conv ention
centre and ex hibition
zone for ex hibiting city 's
eritgae
The city aims at prov iding a good intracity and
Asset Maintenance of
intercity network of raods which would imprv e
Roads ex isting roads in a timely
connectiv ity with neighbouring cities and also
and sy stematic manner
help in a smooth flow of traffic within the city .
Dev elopment of Outer
ring road and radial roads
The city intends to decongest the inner city
areas, beautify the city and prov ide a mass
Road related Prov ision of low cost
transport sy tem for the citizens to prev ent future
infrastructure transport to citizens
congestion because of v egicular population
growth.
Construction of
truck/bus terminals, bus
shelters
Consturction and
Maintenance of storm
water drainage,
streetlights, footpaths
and median
Airport upgradation
Ensuring usage of
env ironment friendly
v ehicles and fuel
The city would ensure that all its citizens hav e
Rehabilitation of ex isting
Water supply and better access to drinking water and sewerage
water suppy distribution
Sewerage facilties and also at the same time aim to
sy stem
conserv e the water resources
Bulk water source
augmentation
Conserv ation of water
and waste water recy cling
Municipal Solid The city aims to prov ide a clean and hy gienic
Waste env ironment and also stresses on energy A good MSWM sy stem
Managem ent conserv ation
Encourage usage of
renewable sources of
enery such as waste to
energy facility
The city intends to improv e the quality of life of Prov ide housing,
Urban poor the Economically weaker sections and prov ide transport and other
them with all basic public amenities public amenities

Project Prioritization Remodelling of Water Supply


Distribution System in Mysore
The priorities which have emerged city: The project aims at
from various consultations have been refurbishing the existing water
presented earlier in the chapter. The supply distribution network in
priorities between and within the Mysore and extend the
sectors have been stated in the table. network to the uncovered
The Mysore city administration has parts of the city. This would
conceptualized the implementation of help in providing equitable
certain projects, based on the water supply to all parts of the
priorities which have emerged. A city.
brief overview of some of the projects Augmentation of Water source
is as given below: to Mysore City from river
Kabini: The project aims at
augmenting the water supply

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City Development Plan for Mysore

to Mysore by drawing water increase in vehicular


from River Kabini. This would population and increase in
ensure that the water supply is commercial activities within
in line with the requirements the citys core area, in and
of the population increase. around the Palace. Such
Slum rehabilitation for congestion, if unabated would
identified slums: The project ruin the citys heritage areas.
intends to improve the quality This project would therefore
of life for urban poor by aim at decongesting the old
providing housing for the slum city areas, like Santepet,
dwellers in the selected slums Gandhi square, Devraja Urs
of the city. This project would Market.
be phased in such a way that
all the slum dwellers of the city Introduction of Rain water
would have basic housing harvesting in public buildings
facilities. and parks: Rain water
Completion of Outer Ring harvesting is increasingly
Road: The project would being perceived as a viable
involve completion of the option for augmenting the
remaining stretch of the Outer water supply sources as it is a
Ring Road measuring around simple and economical
8 kms. This outer ring road is method of water conservation.
presently incomplete and its It improves the quality of
completion would help in ground water as well as
improving traffic flow. With reduces the soil erosion. In
population increase and this method the rainwater
increasing urbanization the falling on the rooftop is guided
citys core area is becoming to wells or pits through small
congested, and measures such diameter pipes leading them
as these would help in to recharge ground water.
decongesting the city.
Heritage Conservation and Considering the importance of
Tourism plan for Mysore: The the same, GoK has directed the
plan would frame a strategy municipalities to implement
for protecting and conserving rainwater harvesting
the heritage of the city and measures. MCC proposes to
retaining its old world charm. introduce these measures, in
The plan would suggest the first instance, in all multi
optimal ways to capture the storied buildings, public
tourism potential of the city buildings and parks of the city.
without marginalizing the Suitable options of PPP
citys heritage. This would not frameworks would be explored
only assist in boosting the for implementing rain water
citys economy but would also harvesting schemes for public
showcase Mysores heritage to buildings and parks, where
the tourists from world over. feasible.
Decongestion of Old City
Areas: Mysore has grown at a
brisk pace in the last few years,
with the advent of IT/ITeS
industries. This has resulted in

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City Development Plan for Mysore

CHAPTER 5 BASIC associated with rural areas, little


investment has been made in
SERVICES TO THE improving the lives of the urban poor.
URBAN POOR The contribution of slum dwellers to
the citys economy is substantial as is
the contribution of industrial
Scenario in Karnataka workers, construction labourers,
domestic servants, rag-pickers and a
As per 2001 census in Karnataka, it is whole range of petty traders like,
estimated that out of the total 179 vegetable and fruit-sellers. Instead,
lakh urban population, 34 lakh reside the urban poor are seen as free riders,
in slums, which works out to 19%. as encroachers on valuable land and
The total number of slums in as entirely undeserving of the most
Karnataka is 2511, out of which, 1957 basic necessities. Such prejudices,
are declared slums. Bangalore has along with an anti-urban bias in
219 declared slums and these planning, have led to a neglect of
declared slums enjoy certain benefits. urban poverty and a refusal to
As per KSCB Act 1973, the Board is envision cities as engines of economic
providing basic amenities namely growth.
drinking water, street light,
community latrines, community Mysore Scenario
bathroom, drains, roads, storm water
drain to the slum dwellers in these
There are a total of 80 slums
declared slums.
(declared and undeclared) in Mysore,
as per the survey conducted by KSCB.
The 2001 census of India revealed
The number of declared (also
that out of a population of over 1
referred as notified) slums in Mysore
billion people, the urban population
has increased to 49 (KSCB Survey,
is 285.4 million (nearly 30%) and
2006) from 34 (Census 2001).
rising. A rapidly urbanising
Besides, these declared slums,
population and the inadequacy of city
Mysore have 31 un-notified slums.
administration to meet its demands
have meant a critical housing and
As per a survey undertaken by DMA
infrastructure shortage.
and KSCB the number of BPL
families and number of persons
Although information on the number
below BPL in Mysore are 31,196 and
of the poor families within this urban
1,55,980, respectively, as in the year
population is approximate, it is
2001. The number of BPL persons in
estimated that there are roughly 100
Mysore comprises 19% of the total
million slum dwellers in the country.
population of Mysore, which as per
Since poverty has long been
the Census 2001 was around 7.86
lakhs.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Few statistics on the current status Easy access to water supply


are as below: (within 50 metres): 40%
Table 58: Current Status for Slum The percentage of declared slum
dwellers population in Mysore is less but there
Current
Parameters
Status
has been a spurt in the number of
30% slums in Mysore in the recent times
Slum dwellers with
houses due to increasing urbanization. This
Water within 50 metres 40% can be seen from the increase in the
of inhabitation number of slums notified by KSCB
Waste services 50% during the previous two decades to
collection meet the infrastructure & services
Sanitation 34% need of the urban poor of Mysore
City.
The current population of declared
slums in Mysore is estimated at Table 60: Number of Slums notified in
past two decades
81,000. As per the census of 2001,
the population for these declared Sl. No Time period Slums notified
slums in Mysore was 71, 552. 1 Before 1985 3
2 1985-90 10
3 1990-95 2
4 1995-00 15
5 2000-05 19
Total 49
Source: KSCB, 2006

In order to make Mysore slum free


and make it more tourist friendly,
Table 59: Mysore (MC) Slum
rehabilitation of slums is being
population undertaken. The Government of
Mysore (M Corp) Karnataka and Karnataka Slum
Clearance Board aim to make Mysore
Slum Population
a slum free and thereby increase its
2001 attraction as a tourist destination.
Male 35967
Female 35585 There are 18, 404 slum houses in the
Total 71552 49 declared slums of Mysore. The list
of declared slums and the number of
Source: Census of India, 2001
slum houses in each of these slums is
provided below:
The data on availability of basic
services to urban poor has been
estimated as per the National Sample
Survey data for Karnataka, 2002.

Some of these are:


Sanitation access: 34% of slum
dwellers
Waste collection service : 50%
Access to pukka houses: 30%

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 61: Location of slums, their types and number of households


Sl. No Ward Location Type Households
No
1 7 Madhuvana & behind St. Marys School Declared 140
2 10 Behind Sarvajanika Hostel Declared 140
3 12 Nachanahalli Palya Declared 360
4 12 Industrial suburb Declared 120
5 12 Devaraja Urs colony Declared 150
6 12 Dharma Singh colony Declared 150
7 13 Dr. Ambedkar Colony, Ashok Puram Declared 200
8 13 Nellur Shed Declared 332
9 15 Jayanagar, Pampapathi Road Declared 122
10 15 Chinnagiri Koppal Declared 350
11 21 Kuduremala, behind Coffee board Declared 130
12 31 RMC Yard Declared 120
13 31 Medar Block Declared 450
14 31 Yashwanth Nagar Declared 110
15 31 Bamboo Bazar Declared 110
16 32 Manjunathapura Declared 300
17 33 Metagalli, Ambedkar colony Declared 820
18 35 Behind P.K. sanitarium Declared 150
19 40 B.B. Keri Declared 820
20 44 Behind KSRTC Declared 152
21 44 C.V. Road Declared 415
22 46 Behind Jail Declared 70
23 47 Kesare Slaughter House Declared 291
24 47 Kesare, Belavatha Colony Declared 130
25 47 Belavatha Janatha colony Declared 150
26 52 Chamundeshwari Nagar Declared 220
27 57 Ghousia Nagar Declared 4400
28 57 Kyathamaranahalli, A.K. Colony Declared 180
29 58 Kyathamaranahalli Declared 965
30 60 Jyothi Nagar, P.K. Colony Declared 200
31 63 Kurubarahalli Declared 330
32 65 Ghousia Nagar, Beedi workers colony Declared 150
33 45 Janata Sawmill Declared 94
34 11 Vishweshwara Nagar Declared 83
35 50 Gandhi Nagar, Chamundeshwari Road Declared 113
36 19 Vasanthnagar Declared 170
37 64 Girijabovi Palya Declared 218
38 41 Kailasapuram Declared 506

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Sl. No Ward Location Type Households


No
39 52 Siddappaji Block Declared 76
40 52 Durgamba Temple, Gandhi Nagar Declared 86
41 31 Yadavagiri Declared 62
42 36 Gokulam Declared 80
43 7 Madhuvana Declared 129
44 21 Bogadi Road Declared 130
45 59 Ghousia Nagar, 2nd Stage, B Block Declared 250
46 8 Elethotha Declared 80
47 22 Kukkarahalli Declared 150
48 46 Bade Makhan Declared 450
49 56 Shanthinagar Declared 3000
18404

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Policy of Slum Improvement


Past Responses In view of the pressing need for
solving the problems of slums within
Many past responses to the problem
of slums have been based on the
belief that provision of improved
housing and related services (through
slum upgrading) and physical
eradication of slums will, on their
own, solve the slum problem.
Solutions based on this premise have
failed to address the underlying
causes why slums come into being of
which poverty is the most significant. the limited financial resources
available, the emphasis has to be on
It is, therefore, emphasized that slum clearance and improvement of slums.
policies should more vigorously
address the issue of the livelihoods of 1. It should aim at providing
slum dwellers and the urban poor in good shelter to the slum
general, thus going beyond dwellers at affordable cost.
traditional approaches that have 2. It should promote
tended to concentrate on participation of the slum
improvement of housing, dwellers in clearance and
infrastructure and physical improvement of slums.
environmental conditions. 3. Wherever in-situ development
is possible, such slums shall be
taken up for in-situ
Holistic Approach improvement and basic
This means enabling informal urban facilities provided.
activities to flourish, linking low- 4. The slums located in
income housing development to congested unhygienic areas of
income generation, and ensuring easy the urban centres shall be
access to jobs through pro-poor cleared and tenement schemes
transport and low-income settlement put up.
location policies. 5. NGOs working in Mysore
could be involved in an effort
It is clear that slum formation is to build rapport and interact
closely linked to economic cycles, with slum dwellers.
trends in national income a. In Kuduremala, for
distribution and, in more recent example, RLHP has
years, to national economic slowly and firmly
development policies. The failure of moved in to help the
policy had the net effect of weakening people organize
the capacity of national governments themselves over several
to improve housing and living years, so the settlement
conditions of low-income groups. was well placed to
partner with the ADB-
financed project.
b. RLHP also created four
self-help women's

108
City Development Plan for Mysore

groups. The first began Concept & Resettlement


from a community of
only a few households - Proposal
all of which had a The proposal for improvement of
monthly savings of less basic services to the urban poor
than fifty Rupees. includes the following:
Collectively, these
savings have now grown 1. The families living in hutments in
to where members can congested unhygienic areas of the
get credit to meet urban centres would be re-housed
family needs. in multi-storeyed tenements
c. KUIDFC also provided constructed in the same area.
seed funds, and 2. The slums are significantly
subsequently loans improved with basic
were given to women to infrastructure and conferment of
start small businesses. land tenure and making it a good
Through self-help habitat.
groups and savings 3. The slum families who have
programs, women are encroached in areas required for
able to obtain loans to further urban development,
buy books for their pavements, road margins and
children or start small watercourse areas are to be
businesses. More resettled and rehabilitated near
important, they can get city limits in storied tenements.
out of the clutches of
moneylenders. The goal is to critically understand
various frameworks and
The KSCB has been working methodologies for upgrading slums
towards providing basic housing and support those initiatives where
facility to the slum dwellers in the the City would work in partnership
city. Under the improvement scheme with groups of the urban poor/
KSCB constructed 1390 tenements NGOs. The success of each city model
for the benefit of the following 11 is judged in terms of the actual
slums: deliverables and the capacities that
Medars block were created in the process of
Ashokapuram implementing policy.
Raja Soap factory
Doddakere Maidan KSCB has been allotted land in
Govindrao Memorial Hall Mysore city for developing the
Jyothinagar housing projects for slum dwellers.
Visweswaranagar The List of sites & proposed number
Slum between railway line and of houses is as given below:
RMC premises Table 62: List of sites allotted by
Chamundeswari block KSCB and proposed number of
houses
Janatha Saw Mill Hanchyasatgalli 200
Durgamba temple Roopanagar 200
Medars block 92
RMC yard C block 80
RMC yard D block 80
RMC yard A block 80

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City Development Plan for Mysore

RMC yard B block 80 houses for the urban poor is required


Manjunathpura 160 in Mysore. Applying the current
Metagalli 160 share of declared and undeclared
Raja soap factory 68 slums, 32100 houses are required for
KSRTC 42 declared slum population.
KSRTC MUDA land 80
Dharamsingh colony 108 In this direction, land utilization
Usmania block 128 reforms in land use patterns and
Savitha Ambedkar colony 130 layouts may be required. It would be
Hebbal colony 160 necessary to create self-contained
Kuppalur 120 townships to absorb housing and
Medars block-2 60 urban poor.
Mandakalli 480
Rajarajeshwari rice mill 80 Goals of BSUP
TOTAL 2788
Component
1. The plan is to build houses in The project areas would be
this area and resettle slum selected in such a way that the
dwellers in these flats. Each urbanization takes place in a
flat will have a bedroom, living dispersed manner.
room, kitchen and toilet. The About 2800 families of Mysore
housing will be in city will be rehabilitated in the
configuration. first phase, to get better civic
2. These flats will provide all the amenities emphasizing
basic amenities required for universal access to the
comfortable living. This will urban/semi-urban poor.
include storm water drains, Houses in the slum areas will
under ground drains, metalled be provided with all
roads, street lighting, piped infrastructural services like
water supply. drinking water, sanitation,
3. The project will also house a streetlights, etc.
community centre, which can This will lead to a
be used by all the beneficiaries qualitative
for social and other activities improvement in the
useful to the community. living condition of the
It is relevant here to mention that in urban population living
looking at slum development the below the poverty line.
vision on urban poor should not be The qualitative
lost. Slum development program improvement in the
would also be dovetailed with the living condition of these
urban basic services for the urban people will,
poor. Assuming a projected consequently, reduce
population of 16.5 lakhs by 2030 and the epidemic diseases;
assuming a 19% unit (As per survey facilitate the reduction
conducted by KSCB, it is estimated in crime rate in the
that out of total 179 lakh urban overall urban scenario.
population as per 2001 census in The project will facilitate
Karnataka, 34.50 lakh reside in employment opportunities to
slums, which works out to 19.27%) the urban poor leading to an
for Below Poverty Line (BPL) improvement in local
population, a minimum of 62000 economy.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Cooperative societies formed Social security, education,


in the newly developed areas health are all inbuilt in the
through the provision of project by providing space for
community centres in the primary school and primary
project will lead to an effective health care centres in the
linkage between asset creation project area itself.
and asset management. Upgrading the skills for the
Since the beneficiaries are also slum dwellers will ensure
contributing to the better earning prospects &
development there will be an thus improving their standard
effective participation and the of living.
infrastructure will be managed
efficiently leading to a self
sustaining system.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Infrastructure Requirements Drinking Water


While estimating the infrastructure Water is the most important service
requirements of such schemes, only provision, and it is proposed to
the requirements within the complex supply piped drinking water to each
have been considered, and not house. In addition to Corporation
outside the boundaries. However, in supplied water, there will be a bore
case of drinking water, a bore well well with enough capacity to provide
has been considered as an emergency drinking water to all the flats.
measure.
The bore well will pump the water
The balance of the infrastructure into a surface tank from which it will
requirements to service the area be again pumped to individual
externally such as water sourcing overhead tanks. From the individual
have been factored into the relevant overhead tanks the water will be
sector for the City, in the CIP. piped to each apartment with one
connection to the bathroom, toilet
Housing and kitchen respectively. In some
areas where a large number of houses
The basic house is designed so that
are coming up a overhead water tank
each flat has an overall area of 225
is also considered.
sq.ft. This has been divided into a
living room, a bedroom, a kitchen
and a toilet. The areas of each are as
Underground Drain
follows:
The sewerage drain water from each
Table 63: Houses in G+ 1 or G+2 house will be fed to the under ground
configuration (in cities) drain and all the branch drains will
1. Living Room - 81 sq.ft. join a main drain from where it will
be let to the city's sewerage treatment
2. Bed Room - 54 sq.ft. plants. In case such a central system
is not possible to be provided, either
3. Kitchen - 23 sq.ft.
a soak pit design or a sewerage
4. Bath Room - 17 sq.ft. treatment plant has to be considered.
However, this cost has not been
The type of constructions is a varying considered in this project.
one based on several factors such as
soil conditions, local requirements Storm Water Drain
and cost of the land. During heavy rains a lot of water gets
accumulated along the roads and this
In cities such as Mysore, the pressure is diverted into storm water drain
on land is high and the acceptance of running on either side of the road in
multi-storeyed dwellings is more the direction of the natural slope.
common. Further the beneficiaries These branch drains are then
usually consist of construction connected to a main storm drain (of
workers, housemaids or factory larger dimension), which lead the
workers and therefore the need for water safely into a storm drain. The
open space is limited. Keeping these rain water existing outside the project
in mind generally three storied area will also flow into the project
building (ground + two floors) is boundaries and in such a case a
considered as the optimum design. suitable storm water drain also has to

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City Development Plan for Mysore

be laid to collect such overflow from Primary Health Care & IEC
surrounding areas and divert from Activities
around the project area into a natural It is not enough if only housing &
drainage area. infrastructure services are provided
for the slum dwellers. There is a need
Street Lighting to make them responsible & health
This entire project area will have conscious through Information
streetlights on one side on all roads Education & Communication (IEC)
with lights being fixed at 50 meters activities. This will enable the slum
intervals. The streetlight will be of 40 dwellers to become on par with other
watts fluorescent tube design with an sections of the society. For this
electronic choke. program 5% of the project cost will be
earmarked so that there will be a
The individual house connection and comprehensive development of
metering will be the responsibility of human resources. The program will
local electricity Distribution be planned for all slum dwellers &
Company after the beneficiary has priority will be given for women &
paid appropriate connection charges, children's health.
deposits etc.
Low Cost Sanitation
The flats however will have internal Main objective of Low Cost
wiring from the proposed metering Sanitation sub-project was to
cubical to every room and will also provide hygienic living condition to
have a few power points for TV or low income group, which did not
kitchen gadgets. have access to toilet facility,. Mainly
two types of toilets were constructed
Roads Single Pit & Twin Pits and were
The proposed project roads will be connected to the nearest sewerage
provided between rows of houses. system.
Roads will be of 4 meters width and
they will lead to a main road of 12 Skill Up-gradation Program
meters width. This main road will Slum dwellers possess skills that
join the approach road to the project sometimes do not have any
area. significant market in the cities. New
skills require long-term investment of
Community Centre time and resources, which they do
A community centre along with some not have. Only option is getting
open space is considered essential. In engaged in occupations that are
all projects the community hall can unskilled and menial. Inadequate
be used by various beneficiaries for earning skills lead to low incomes
performing marriage, social functions and inability to provide adequate
etc. This can also be used as a resources for household expenses.
primary school when necessary. In Hence, it is planned to take up Skill
some cases a primary health centre is Upgradation program & training to
considered very important in the achieve the following.
absence of medical facilities in the
near by areas. Identify market based income
generation skills and
increasing the employment
prospects of slum dwellers

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Make slum residents active and painted both internally and


change agents in development externally.
Identify Areas in which skills
can be imparted viz. The cost of housing including houses
Carpentry, Tailoring, Food & community centres has been
processing, Electrical works, estimated based on the cost break up.
Automobile works, Computer
operator, etc.
Create support for practising Infrastructure Cost
these skills The infrastructure cost is relatively
Impart and enable training for lower in urban dwellings due to the
acquiring skills compactness of the design.

Financial Analysis Project Cost


The first phase of the slum
Housing rehabilitation project in Mysore is
The cost of multi-storeyed building in estimated at Rs. 38.11 Crores. The
cities has gone up significantly in the administrative and O&E would be 5%
last few years due to sharp increase in of the project cost.
the price of steel and cement. In
ground + two type of design the Beneficiary Contribution
building loads are taken by reinforced The endeavour would be to provide
concrete columns and beams. an appropriate and comfortable
Therefore the steel and cement usage dwelling at an affordable cost. The
is significantly more leading to high beneficiary contributions would be as
cost. The walls are built of hollow applicable under the JNNURM
concrete blocks with the main walls guidelines.
of 9" width and patrician walls of 4"
width. These walls will be plastered

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City Development Plan for Mysore

CHAPTER 6 - with various stakeholders, to


identify concrete steps that are
Implementing the Vision to be taken to achieve the
(The CIP) vision.
a. At the stakeholder level,
these discussions have
Basic Framework yielded a stakeholder
To attain the Vision for Mysore, it is project list, which has been
necessary to set in place a clear fiscal detailed in the Annexure.
and governance framework that will b. The stakeholder project
be realistic, flexible, and list is however not an
participative. adequate tool, for the
following reasons:
The following basic tenets would i. Stakeholder views are
guide the implementation process: generally confined to
1. The heritage and culture of the present issues and
Mysore, will be protected and are largely targeted at
sustained; addressing them, in
2. The MCC/ MUDA will their thought process;
concentrate on basic ii. A project-wise outlook
infrastructure and governance does not meet the
issues, and only take a objectives of a long-
facilitators position for term CDP;
guiding the Citys iii. The aspect of
development; sustainability, and
3. Private sector investment will life-cycle costing are
be encouraged in all possible also not considered;
areas, duly keeping in view the iv. The key to urban
needs for explicit subsidies to infrastructure is in
the Urban Poor; asset management
4. Emphasis will be placed on and not in asset
capacity-building for the creation. In many
MCC/ MUDA staff, to ensure cases the immediacy
that they are in a position to of response is to
address the issues of the create an asset such
future; as a water supply
5. Governance is key and MCC system rather than
and MUDA would strive to investing into
keep improving on attaining a improving existing
participative, transparent and systems such as
accountable system. improving the
distribution system
first, to fix the leaky
Assessing the bucket.
2. The stakeholder project list
Investments Required has therefore been used only
The following process has been as one of the inputs in the
adopted in assessing the investments estimation of investments for
required in the CIP. the CIP.
1. Given the vision statement, a. The initial investments
consultations have been held from this project

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City Development Plan for Mysore

assessment have been numbers have been furnished in the


converted into a normative subsequent sections.
basis for costing
b. Costs of asset management One key objective is to give emphasis
and maintenance have to the life-cycle maintenance of the
been factored in asset, rather than merely on asset
3. Investment requirements have creation.
been determined initially for
the mission period (ending
2012) and subsequently over
blocks of five years. A sectoral
approach has been used to
carry out this exercise.
4. The costs indicated have been
arrived at by:
a. In some cases, detailed
costs have been available,
and these have been used
as benchmarks
b. Stakeholder discussions,
based their experience
c. Industry benchmarks,
where available.

The indicated costs are therefore


realistic estimates, but not based on
detailed project reports and costing.
The DPRs, which would be prepared
later in the process by the agencies
concerned, would have the requisite
level of detail required at that stage.

The assessment of investment, in


each sector, is set out in the following
sections.

Assumptions for the


Assessments

The assessments for the CIP


investments have been carried out on
the basis delineated above, with
certain project-specific information
obtained from reports, and
stakeholder discussions. For purpose
of brevity of the main report, these
assumptions have been detailed in
the Annexures, and only the extract

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City Development Plan for Mysore

The activities would include the


Heritage Conservation and following;
Tourism Upgrading the infrastructure
Improved conservation and at the existing attractions,
management of the existing assets, especially the following zones
creation of new attractions reflecting and their precincts
the culture, upgrading the support Chamundi Hills: The
and complementary urban object would be to
infrastructure form the cornerstone create proper
of the citys plan for the future. A list infrastructure in the
of all the heritage buildings/ region, and improve
monuments, and attractions has been access, while at the
prepared, and the respective agencies same time creating a
would prepare rehabilitation/ national park
conservation plans. ambience of green
spaces/ parks:
The endeavour of the stakeholders in Temple and
achieving the vision would be to: surroundings
Mahishasura and
Provide/ improve all amenities surroundings
required for tourism activities Nandi and
(public conveniences, surroundings
transport shuttles, parking lots Trek path and
etc) foothills
Development of cultural Rajendra Vilas
centres, heritage works and and
other new attractions surroundings
Enable a conducive Creation of new facilities,
environment for participation attraction development and
from all quarters (private management
sector included) Upgradation/ Modernisation
Build the capacity of of hotels and rest houses
implementing agencies and Introduction of attractions like
service providers (drivers, horse riding, biking and
shopkeepers etc). treasure hunt

By the end of 2012, the stakeholders In this sector, other than the basic
would have implemented a co- infrastructure and some of the public
ordinated strategy to manage, facilities, the projects are proposed to
preserve and add value to the be implemented under PPP/ PSP
heritage assets. The condition of the models
public spaces would have been
enhanced and showcased for future
generations. Innovative ways would
have been found to display and make
tourism and heritage accessible to all
those interested.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 64: Investments Projects and their Time Horizon


(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
Heritage and Tourism
Development of cultural centre 45 45
exhibiting state's culture - haats/
shilpagram for silk, yoga,
sandalwood and other handicrafts;
Utilization of Dasara festival
infrastructure facilities round the
year, museum
Cost of land acquisition 1
O&M of cultural centre 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Local tourist
shuttles/circuits/Heritage
walks/ticketing
Capital expenditure 3 3 3
O&M 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.7 1.0
Facilitation centre for tourists 5.0 5.0
Public amenities
Toilets 4 2 2 2 2
O&M of toilets 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Parking terminus for autos/ Jatka 2 2 2 2 2
(horse carriage)
O&M 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Information Kiosks/ 1 0.1 1.1 0.2 1.2
centres/drinking water
Signage conforming to international 2.0 2.0
tourist norms
O&M of signage 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4
Renovation of heritage buildings 50 50 50 50 50
O&M of heritage buildings 2.5 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
Audio Guide 1 1 1 1 1
Convention centre and golf course 150
O&M cost 15 15 15 15 15
Cost of land acquisition 0
Budget Hotel 20 30 30 30 30
O&M cost 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Cost of land acquisition 1.2 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8

Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31

Capital expenditure 280 85 138 85 86


O&M 27 27 30 33 36
Land acquisition 2 2 2 2 2
Capital expenditure for Rolling 3 0 3 0 3
stock
O&M for rolling stock 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.7 1.0
Total 312 114 174 121 128

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Development, operation and


Water Supply & Sewerage maintenance of public
The activities for improvement in conveniences
water and sewerage services relate to Redressal of complaints and
the following: repair of any defects
Development and updating of
Rehabilitation/creation of the database and mapping of
water extraction facilities at the system from time to time
source of water including Institutional Development
replacement of raw water Implementation assistance.
pumps, installation of flow
meters as required. Rehabilitation/ repair/ replacement
Rehabilitation/setting up of primarily relate to improvement in
raw water treatment plant the bulk supply and retail
including modification of distribution systems, such as
aerator, repairs to alum dosing replacement of pipelines,
system, flocculator, valves, modification of aerator, repairs to
flow meters as required. alum dosing system, flocculator,
Rehabilitation/setting up of mixing and sludge scrapper system,
bulk water supply lines from replacement of raw water pumps,
treatment plant valves etc. New works include land
Rehabilitation/creation of acquisition, increasing coverage to
existing distribution network hitherto uncovered areas 2,
and piped water supply overcoming raw water shortage
connections during summer months (rain water
Provision of water supply harvesting and storage for use),
connections to uncovered ground water recharging, installation
areas of flow meters and level indicators
Development and etc. Institutional development
management of testing comprises computerization of
facilities and customer service records, training and capacity
Billing and collection activities building of staff, leak detection
of water connection and studies, surveys and preparation of
consumption charges maps, awareness programs,
Operation and maintenance of campaigns etc. The components
the water supply system relating to rain water harvesting
Construction/ rehabilitation/ would include improvements
expansion of underground envisaged at MCC and other
drainage system including government agencies properties and
service connections to all the parks.
households
Construction/ rehabilitation of MCC would endeavour to improve
sewage treatment plant (STP) the service delivery levels and would
for treatment of raw sewage use a range of parameters to assess
Safe disposal of treated the performance some of which could
effluent at specified locations include the following:
Operation and maintenance of
underground drainage system
and STP as per specifications
2
This would include covering areas that are
missing links from the KUIDP project.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Quantity of water supplied MCC and other government agencies


(frequency and duration of would incur most of the capital and
supply / volume, measured at operating, maintenance expenditure
critical zone points); for the system. Private sector
Quality of water supplied (e- participation would be invited
coliform, physio-chemical, selectively, after a due diligence, for
bacteriological tests) portions of the activities. Some
Pressure at critical zone implementation frameworks which
points, as required; are proposed to be utilized for private
Coverage of water supply sector participation could include:
service (number of people Advisory services for
having access to piped water redesigning and management
supply); of improvement activities
Customer responsiveness Operations and management
(time for redressal); contracts for operations and
Number and duration of maintenance of existing
emergency stoppages systems
Reduction of losses; Service contracts for testing
Number of properties/ area facilities etc.
covered with sewerage system;
Number of blockages It may also be necessary to consider
identified / reported per the twin achievements of an
month; augmented water supply and
Number of reported incidents restoration of water tanks in Mysore
of sewage overflow / sewer through gravity flow. There are 16
collapses; water tanks in Mysore, which have
Customer redressal; dried up or silted. This would need an
Number of public examination of the possibility of
conveniences; restoring these tanks through the
Sludge disposal mechanism; waters flowing in the Varuna channel.
and Prima-facie, there is possibility of
Sewage/ effluent tapping water from Varuna channel
characteristics after primary through gravity flow. Restoration of
and secondary treatment. these tanks can augment water
Maintenance of computerised supply, recharge ground water, create
records; a healthy environment and attract
Operation of customer service local citizens as well as tourists as a
centres; and picnic spot. The investigative study
Reduction in O&M costs may also include study of water
(implementation of energy supply to Mysore through gravity
efficiency measures). flow from other sources as well.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 65: Investment in water supply and sewerage and their time horizon
(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Project Themes Time Horizon
Water Supply and Sewerage 2007- 2013- 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 17 22 27 31
Capital expenditure for Distribution 126 51 58 67 77
system
Capital expenditure for Bulk supply 120 120
Augmentation
O&M cost 60 90 104 119 137
Capital expenditure for Sewerage 50 120
Capital expenditure for 84 34 39 45 52
Rehabilitation & Additions of
sewerage
O&M cost of sewerage 50 20 24 27 31
Waste Water recycling and gas 37 37 37 37 37
capturing
Land acquisition for STP 5
Rainwater harvesting (Corp bldg, 2
parks)

Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013- 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 17 22 27 31
Water Supply & Sewerage
Capital expenditure 419 121 374 149 166
O&M 110 110 127 146 168
Land acquisition 5
Total 534 231 501 295 334

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Municipal Solid Waste disposal facility. The developer would


Management be responsible for construction of the
facilities and operations and
MCC endeavours to provide a safe maintenance of the same for the
and environmentally benign entire landfill life. MCC would co-
sanitation and municipal solid waste ordinate with other governmental
services to its citizens. To this extent agencies including MUDA for
many initiatives have been taken acquiring land for the purpose.
including setting up of composting
process facilities and improving The activities for development of
collection practices. The provision of treatment plants and landfills would
services in future would be in include:
compliance with the applicable Design, Construct and operate
statutes including the Municipal and maintain treatment and
Solid Wastes (Management and disposal facility
Handling) Rules, 2000 and the Receive the mixed /
Integrated Municipal Solid Waste biodegradable waste supplied
Management Plan of Government of and process the same.
Karnataka. Landfill the rejects of the
processing facility along with
other inert waste.
Collection and Transportation Operate the facilities for the
of MSW entire landfill life, including
The activities include collection of the maintenance during the
MSW from the different waste statutory post closure period
generators such as domestic
households, commercial Various implementation frameworks
establishments, hotels, institutions that are proposed to be adopted for
etc., sweeping of streets and delivering the municipal solid waste
subsequent transportation of the services include the following:
waste collected to the processing
facility or the final disposal site. The Service contracts with SHGs,
activities envisaged would be RWAs or other private
undertaken with the assistance of self operators for primary
help groups and with participation of collection and transportation.
local populace. Management contracts/ OMT
or BOT concessions for
collection and transportation
Treatment and Disposal of MSW of municipal solid waste
The treatment and disposal facilities (MSW)
would be redeveloped / constructed ROMT/ BOT concessions for
with private sector participation on a development of engineered
Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) landfills/ upgradation of
Concession basis. Under the BOT existing landfills/ compost
Concession structure, while the processing units/ waste-to-
ownership of the land would remain energy facilities
with MCC, the same would be handed Service contracts for other
over to the selected private developer SWM-related services
for development of the treatment and

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 66: Investment in Municipal Solid waste management and the time horizon
(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Collection & transportation 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
equipment
Operations & Maintenance 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Treatment & Disposal 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0
Cost of acquisition of Land for 8.0
transfer station/treatment plant and
disposal site
Waste to energy (WTE) plant in 45 30
2015;
Energy from landfill gas
O&M of WTE plant 4.5 4.5 4.5
Land acquisition for setting WTE 6.4
plant
IEC and capacity building cost 5 5 10 15 15

Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31

Capital expenditure 10 55 40 10 10
O&M 24 24 33 38 38
Land acquisition 8 6 0 0 0
Total 42 85 73 48 48

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Basic Services to the Urban Poor


The concept and structure of interventions contemplated under the BSUP have
been detailed in Chapter 5. Based on this concept, the investments required have
been outlined in the following table.

Table 67: Investment in basic services for the urban poor and the time horizon
(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
Basic Services for Urban Poor
EWS Housing (including 160 160 160 160 160
infrastructure)
O&M of EWS Housing 24 48 72 96 120
Cost of acquisition of land for EWS 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
houses
Construction of public toilets for 8 8 8 8 8
slums
O&M of Public toilets 1 2 2 3 3
Development of bus bay/shelters 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
O&M of Bus Bay 0.07 0.14 0.21 0.28 0.35

Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
Basic Services for Urban Poor
Capital expenditure 169 169 169 169 169
O&M 25 50 75 99 124
Land acquisition 7 7 7 7 7
Total 201 226 251 275 300

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Roads
Road and related infrastructure (including storm water drainage) include the
following components:

Improvement in the road network in the region Arteries, rings, and other
important roads
Foot-paths
Street lighting
Traffic management, including signalling
A feasibility study would be conducted on MRTS and Metro and extension
of chord surface rail for commuters travelling within the city. The study
would also include feasibility of providing MRTS/Metro along the
alignment of Peripheral road, outer ring road and radial roads.

MCC/ MUDA have identified corridors for road improvement along with related
infrastructure. These corridors and the remaining roads would be improved in co-
ordination with other utility operators to provide comfortable pedestrian and
vehicular movement. The proposed activities include the following:

Completion and expansion of ring road in phases:


Completing the 2 lanes, expansion to 4 lanes, and more.
As the City grows in the Vision horizon, more outer rings may need
to be developed.
Strengthening/ improvement of the roads including resurfacing
Maintaining the roads and related infrastructure to prescribed standards
Construction and/or widening of road bridges/ culverts etc.
Construction and maintenance of radial roads & inner ring road
Construction and maintenance of footpaths
Construction and maintenance of storm water drains
Maintenance (erection of street lights as required) of street lights to
prescribed specifications
Junction improvements and installation of road markings and signage
Provision of vehicle parking facilities at bus stand and railway station and
provision for auto stands etc.

MCC/ MUDA would endeavour to:

Select the road stretches for prioritization on a clear basis, and focus on a
life-cycle maintenance, rather than mere expansion/ repair;
Cause minimum delay or inconvenience to users of the road facility;
Ensure that all roads are maintained to the prescribed standards;
Ensure that drains, lane marking, street lighting, and signage are
maintained at prescribed standards;
While most of the financing of the capital and recurring expenses are proposed to
be met out of city or government agency budgets and grants, the activities would
be implemented, where feasible, with private sector participation. The modes of
implementation could be in various formats, but would focus on asset
maintenance over the life-cycle.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 68: Investment in Roads and the time horizon


(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013- 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 17 22 27 31
Roads
Completion & conversion of Outer 69 148 126 137 147
Ring road into 4 and 6 lanes in
phases
Capital expenditure 69 141 105 105 105
O&M 7 21 32 42
Land acquisition 10 21
Radial roads connecting the rings 50 54 58 87 93
roads to the CBD and other new
roads
Capital expenditure 50 50 50 75 75
O&M 4 8 12 18
Land acquisition 8 8 8 11 11
Main road improvement 65 140 71 77 71
Capital expenditure 65 132 45 45 45
O&M 9 26 32 26
Land acquisition
Other road improvement 127 134 134 228 228
Capital expenditure
O&M 127 134 134 228 228
Land acquisition

Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013- 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 17 22 27 31

Capital expenditure 184 323 200 225 225


O&M 127 153 189 303 314
Land acquisition 18 29 8 11 11
Total 329 505 396 539 550

126
City Development Plan for Mysore

Transport Related same into four lanes, new road


Infrastructure additions (internal, extension areas
and radial) and introduction of a
mass rapid transport system (Bus
Many improvements have been made Rapid Transit) system. Hop in hop
to the citys transport infrastructure off tourist shuttles are also proposed
in the recent past, much more needs for better mobility. More emphasis
to be done. The city recognizes the would be placed on safety related
importance of an effective and maintenance and upgrades on
affordable transportation system to congested roads. At some point in the
the surrounding tourist destinations, vision period, the City would also
internal movement and the capital need to examine the feasibility of
city, Bangalore. The connectivity to providing mass transport systems
Bangalore is being upgraded with the such as Bus Rapid Transit, Electric
four-laning of the Bangalore - Trolley Buses, or light rail systems.
Maddur - Mandya - Mysore road,
internal city road development as At the end of the current
part of KUIDP etc.. A rapid increase intervention, Mysore will have an
in city traffic and congestion is efficient, affordable, integrated and
noticed despite the efforts. There is safe transport system which would
also a need for ongoing maintenance meet the needs of all its citizens and
throughout the place. visitors. Congestion on main roads
will be managed by a combination of
Priorities for improving the transport traffic engineering, capital work
facilities would include completion of projects and controls (zoning etc).
the outer ring road, converting the
.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 69: Investment in transport related infrastructure and the time horizon
(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
Transport Infrastructure
Construction, operation and 12 1 13 2 2
maintenance of truck terminals
Capital expenditure 12 12
O&M 1 1 2 2
Land acquisition 2 2
Construction, upgradation and 39 4 43 8 8
improvement of city bus
terminals/bus depots/bus shelters;
private bus terminal
Capital expenditure 39 39
O&M (excl rolling stock) 4 4 8 8
Land acquisition 6
Rolling stock-Augmentation of bus 33 7 7 7 7
fleet
O&M for rolling stock 7 8 9 10
Mass transport (bus/rail) System 160 1000 530 1045 1075
for peripheral areas of the city or
Electric bus system
Capital expenditure 160 1000 500 1000 1000
O&M 30 45 75
Land acquisition 150 75 150 150
Rolling stock-BRT bus fleet 11
O&M for rolling stock 2 2 2 2 2
Usage of less polluting fuels in
public and private transport
vehicles
Capital expenditure
O&M
Land acquisition
Road and road related
infrastructure
- Streetlights 19 19 19 19 19
Capital expenditure 17 17 17 17 17
O&M 2 2 2 2 2
Land acquisition
- Storm water drains 51 56 10 10 10
Capital expenditure 51 51
O&M 5 10 10 10
Land acquisition
- Footpaths, medians and 26 3 3 3 3
social forestry
Capital expenditure 26
O&M 3 3 3 3
Land acquisition
Development of pedestrian/cycling 2 2 2 3 3
zones
Capital expenditure 2 2 2 2 2
O&M 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Land acquisition
Construction of subways 7.5 8.3 9.0 9.8 10.5
Capital expenditure 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
O&M 0.8 1.5 2.3 3.0
Land acquisition
Construction of flyovers in 20 22 24 26 28

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City Development Plan for Mysore

(Investment in Rs. Crores)


Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31
peripheral areas
Capital expenditure 20 20 20 20 20
O&M 2 4 6 8
Land acquisition 3 3 3 3 3
Airport upgradation 90 9 9 9 9
Capital expenditure 90
O&M 9 9 9 9
Land acquisition
Time Horizon
Summary 2007- 2013-17 2018- 2023- 2028-
12 22 27 31

Capital expenditure 425 1098 597 1046 1046


O&M 2 26 65 88 121
Land acquisition 11 153 80 153 153
Capital expenditure Rolling 43 7 7 7 7
stock
O&M for Rolling stock 2 7 8 9 10
Total 482 1290 756 1303 1337

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Urban Spaces Improve the quality of life for


its citizens by decongesting the
The city of Mysore has been rapidly city. It may be necessary to
growing and a spate of infrastructure shift small industrial units and
activities need to be planned for the auto-workshops, from
citys infrastructure to keep pace with distributed locations, which
the population growth and increasing are adjacent to the existing
commercialisation. This leads to the residential areas, to zones
important concept of Creation of marked industrial (say in the
Urban Spaces with in the city. The manner of Auto Nagar)
City in its present form is congested within the conurbation in the
as the road network is inadequate Revised Comprehensive
and mass transport infrastructure is Development Plan (RCDP).
not in place. The city boasts of having This will also ease congestion
around 50 parks and three major and permit road widening.
lakes but the upkeep and This will help in
maintenance is not satisfactory. redevelopment of the old areas
to more conducive living areas.
The city envisages improving the Encourage a green and
quality of life for its citizens by pollution free Mysore by
creating green spaces/social forestry, increasing the share of green
efficient maintenance of its existing space, efficient maintenance of
parks/green assets and institute existing green asset and
pedestrian only/cyclist only zones redevelop its lakes
across the city. Further, the city Ensure uniform growth of the
intends to develop integrated city by developing integrated
townships/sub-urban spaces in the townships and sub-urban
growth corridors of the city so that areas
the growth of the city is not skewed. Build the capacity of
implementing agencies and
Special corridors/ zones for service providers.
pedestrian and non-motorized Redevelopment of the core
vehicular traffic would be created and area around Devaraja Market
maintained. To summarize the city creating a heritage
aims to implement the following: environment

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Table 70: Investment in Urban Spaces and the time horizon


(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007-12 2013-17 2018-22 2023-27 2028-31
Urban spaces
Development of existing and new 8 8 8 8 8
parks and boulevards with
indigenous materials
O&M of parks and playgrounds 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
Infrastructure facilities for integrated 7.5 37.5 37.5 37.5 37.5
townships
O&M of infrastructure facilities 1.5 9 16.5 24 31.5
Land acquisition 25 37.5 37.5 37.5 37.5
Lake redevelopment 10 10 10 10 10
O&M of lakes 1 1 1 1 1
Fire system 2 2 2 2 2
SEZ/industrial parks 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5

Time Horizon
Summary 2007-12 2013-17 2018-22 2023-27 2028-31

Capital expenditure 28 58 58 58 58
O&M 3 11 18 26 33
Land acquisition 38 38 38 38 38
Total 68 118 126 133 141

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Summary of Infrastructure Investments


Based on the sector-wise assessment, the aggregate investment required over the
vision horizon, is summed up in the following table. As stated before, this
investment is an aggregate investment, and it is understood that not all of it can be
financed under the framework of JNNURM. The city would need to generate
finances from other sources.

Summary including Cost of Land & Rolling Stock

Table 71: Summary of cost of land and rolling stock


(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007-12 2013-17 2018-22 2023-27 2028-31
Roads 329 505 396 539 550
Transport related infrastructure 482 1290 756 1303 1337
Water and Sewerage 533 232 501 295 334
Solid Waste management 42 85 73 48 48
Urban Poor 201 226 251 275 299
Tourism 312 114 174 121 128
Urban Spaces 68 118 126 133 141
Grand Total 1,96767 2,57070 2,27777 2,71414 2,83737
12,303

Summary excluding Cost of Land & Rolling Stock


The table below sets out the investment requirements without the cost of land and
rolling stock, as set out in the JNNURM guidelines. However, the city and its
citizens would certainly benefit if the cost of essential rolling stock were to be
considered within the ambit of the JNNURM.

Table 72: Summary excluding cost of land and rolling stock


(Investment in Rs. Crores)
Time Horizon
Project Themes 2007-12 2013-17 2018-22 2023-27 2028-31
Roads 311 476 389 528 539
Transport related infrastructure 428 1,131 670 1,143 1,177
Water and Sewerage 529 232 501 295 334
Solid Waste management 34 79 73 48 48
Urban Poor 194 218 243 268 292
Tourism 307 112 168 118 122
Urban Spaces 31 68 76 83 91
Grand Total 1,834 2,316 2,120 2,483 2,603
11,356

The costs are on a fixed present value basis, and inflation has not been
considered.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

CHAPTER 7 FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS

The total infrastructure investment requirement for achieving the vision has to be
funded through a combination of:
1. Funding under JNNURM
2. State Government grants/ loans
3. MCCs own revenues
4. MCCs debt from banks and financial institutions
5. Private sector/ commercial capital

For analyzing the means of finance, it is important to understand the current


financial situation in the MCC.

MCC Financial Summary Current


A summary of MCCs receipts and expenditures for FY 02 to FY 06 is given below.
These figures and analysis presented below are based on the financial statements
of MCC. The figures for FY 06 are taken from budget estimate 2005-06.
Receipts
Table 73: Summary of MCCs Receipts
(Rs. Lakhs)
Receipts FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06(BE) CAGR
861.50 813.07 1195.82 1389.21 1300 10.83%
Property Tax
Other property based 1280.58 1378.98 1243.75 1494.07 1654 6.61%
receipts
1035.6 1479.40 1073.06 1225.19 1360.25 7.05%
Water charges
State Finance 771.27 1131.94 1705.62 1558.35 2115.25 28.69%
Commission
Miscellaneous 970 214.29 227.10 227.10 579.78 -12.07%
receipts
Grants and 2830 2115.28 1538.91 1643.41 1626.75 -12.93%
Contributions
7748.95 7132.96 6984.25 7786.23 9036.03 3.92%
Total

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Components of Receipts
The share of various components of receipts is presented in the following Table:
Table 74: Components of Receipts
Percentage
Receipts FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06(BE)
11 11 17 19 19
Property Tax
Other property 17 19 17 20 18
based receipts
Water charges 13 21 15 16 15
State Finance 10 16 24 20 23
Commission
Miscellaneous 13 3 3 3 6
receipts
Grants and 37 30 22 22 18
Contributions
Total 7748.95 7132.97 6984.26 7537.33 9036.03

Comments on Receipts
a. The share of Grants has been steadily decreasing. Grants have shown a
decrease from Rs 2830 Lakhs in FY01 to Rs 1626.75 Lakhs in FY05.
b. Property Tax has grown at a CAGR of approximately 10%, and water
charges have increased by a CAGR of 7%.
c. Development charges has been growing year on year at a rate of around 6%.
This amount is collected from land developers for providing civic services.
Other property based receipts have been growing consistently at a CAGR of
6%.
d. The main items in miscellaneous receipts are advances, fixed deposits and
other cesses.
e. There have been various transfers to municipal funds under the residual
head. These transfers pertain to some earmarked funds/grants. This head
also consists of some book entries.
f. SFC accounts for around 23% of the receipts while salary accounts for 25%
of expenditure in FY06.
g. Grants and Contributions are generally received for specific purpose. It is
assumed that both the receipts and expenditure from these components
would match each other over the period.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Expenditure & Surplus (Deficit)


Table 75: MCCs Expenditure & Surplus (Deficit)

(Rs. Lakhs)
Expenditure FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06(BE) CAGR
2832.78 1945.53 1969.07 2036.00 2308.75 -4.99%
Salaries
1276.70 1622.54 1263.04 1155.76 1225.90 -1.01%
Administration
expenses

Repairs and
1076.01 1030.31 1143.57 1331.05 1556.95 9.68%
Maintenance

Purchases 1034.40 1010.97 983.46 1912.10 2161.91 20.24%

Miscellaneous 1352.00 1403.71 1403.71 1413.50 1467.1 2.06%

Development
273.17 342.91 285.31 261.85 356.05 6.85%
Expenses

Total 7845.06 7355.97 7048.17 8110.26 9076.66 3.71%

Surplus / (Deficit) -96.11 -223.001 -63.90 -572.92 -40.63


Source: MCCs budget statements

The Receipts and Expenditure have a grown at a CAGR of 3.9% and 3.7%
respectively.

Components of Expenditure
The share of various components of expenditure is presented in Table 3.
Table 76: Proportion of components of Expenditure
(Percentage)
Expenditure FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06
Salaries 36.11% 26.45% 27.94% 25.10% 25.44%
Administration
16.27% 22.06% 17.92% 14.25% 13.51%
expenses
Repairs and
13.72% 14.01% 16.23% 16.41% 17.15%
Maintenance
Purchases 13.19% 13.74% 13.95% 23.58% 23.82%

Miscellaneous 17.23% 19.08% 19.92% 17.43% 16.16%


Development Expenses 3.48% 4.66% 4.05% 3.23% 3.92%
Total 7845.06 7355.97 7048.17 8110.26 9076.66

Comments on Expenditure
a. Water supply and general conservation account for nearly 90% of Public
Health and Water Supply.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

b. Repair and Maintenance expenses have increased significantly from Rs


1076.01 lakhs in FY02 to Rs 1556.95 Lakhs in FY06.
c. The variations in municipality works are driven by the outlays on road and
drainage works.
d. Five items contribute to 90% of the expenditure, salary, and electricity for
water purifying unit and city cleaning expenses, purchase of water pipes
and line, roads and UGD works.
e. Purchases have been growing at a CAGR of 20%. Also, year on year growth
of purchases has been increasing.
f. Repairs and maintenance consists of electricity charges for water purifying
unit and city cleaning expenses, together accounting for 70-80% of this
head.
g. There is an increase in repairs and maintenance in FY02 due to increase in
electrical charges for water purifying unit. This payment is made to
Government for old accruals and is made on availability of funds or grants.
h. Developmental works comprising road, UGD works development of parks,
hospitals etc, have been growing at a CAGR of 6.85%.

Projected Receipts and Expenditure of MCC


With a view to estimate MCC's debt bearing capacity, MCC's receipts and
expenditure for the next 20 years have been forecast.

Receipts
Assumptions
1. The financial projections have been based on the prospective growth
drivers and the reforms that would be implemented as part of compliance
to JNNURM.

2. Property tax augmentation would happen due to increased assessment of


properties, transfer of properties from MUDA, widening of assessment
base, levy of additional cesses, in addition to reform measures.

3. The key growth drivers, therefore, include


Increased population growth given the increased economic
development and preference of Mysore by the new economy industries
Progressive revision of property taxes
User fees for full cost recovery

4. The rates of property tax is proposed to be levied on capital value basis in


future. The rates of property tax are as follows:
a. Residential Property:
i. Owner occupied : 0.25% of Capital value
ii. Tenant Occupied : 0.50% of Capital Value
b. Commercial Property : 0.45% of capital value

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City Development Plan for Mysore

5. These rates of property tax have been assumed to be revised upward by


20% every 5 years. Collection efficiency is assumed as 60% for FY06, at
70% till FY07, at 80% till FY08, 90% thereafter. The assumptions on
collection efficiency are based on past efficiency trends, as illustrated
below:

Table 77: Details of Property Tax


Opening Current Closing
Balance Demand Collection Balance
(Rs. Collection
Years lakhs) (Rs. lakhs) (Rs. lakhs) (Rs. lakhs) Efficiency
FY03 606.73 1249.08 1129.26 726.55 90%
FY04 726.55 1427.42 1460.74 693.23 102%
FY05 693.23 1993.07 2164.64 521.66 109%
FY06 521.66 3304.88 2552.42 1274.1 77%

Collection efficiency is defined as percentage of Collection by Current Demand.

6. Flat water rates are being charged. The water charges have been assumed to
remain constant for the next 2 years. Thereafter, it is assumed that the rates
would be increased by 20% every 5 years and this would be implemented to
domestic, non-domestic and commercial connections. Collection efficiency
is assumed at 75% till FY 2006, 80% in FY07 and 90% thereafter. The
assumptions on collection efficiency are based on past efficiency trends, as
illustrated below:
Table 78: Details of Water Charges
Opening Current Closing
Balance Demand Collection Balance Collection
Years (Rs.lakhs) (Rs.lakhs) (Rs.lakhs) (Rs.lakhs) Efficiency
FY03 2931 970 1028 2873 106%
FY04 2873 932 1003 2802 108%
FY05 2802 1113 1032 2883 93%
FY06 2883 1270 1425 2728 112%

Collection efficiency is defined as percentage of Collection amount by Current


Demand.

7. It has been assumed that with better service provision, water rates would be
increased. Though only flat rates have been assumed for analysis, phased
introduction of volumetric tariffs would augment water revenues. Other key
drivers include:
Increase in service area and subsequent increase in consumer base
Implementation of energy efficiency programs

8. Miscellaneous receipts have been projected, with 5% increase every two


years, on the basis of discussions with MCC authorities.

9. Other non-property receipts have been assumed to increase 5% once every


three years.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

10. SFC grant is assumed to grow at 5 % per annum given that SFC grants are
likely to increase due to the proposed progressive increase in devolutions.

Table 79: projections of Receipts

(Rs. Lakhs)
Receipts FY 07 FY 08 FY 13 FY 18 FY 31
Property tax
761 966 1833 2872 10224
Other Property based
1737 1737 1915 2010 2217
Receipts

Water charges 5042 4711 6767 8747 14885


State Finance
2449 2571 3281 4188 7897
Commission grants

Miscellaneous receipts 639 639 740 816 1148


Grants and
1883 1977 2524 3221 6073
Contributions
Total 12511 12601 17143 21854 42443

Expenditure
Assumptions
1. Expenditure on salary is assumed to increase @ 5% per annum.
2. However, since there could be some savings due to reduction in staff on
retirement and freeze on further recruitment, the annual salary increase
may not exceed 2%.
3. An increase of 15% every five years has been assumed for correction in
salary packages.
4. For various other items of expenditure, 5% annual increase has been
considered. This would provide for inflation and enable MCC to meet
other items of expenditure.

Table 80: Projection of Expenses


(Rs. Lakhs)
Expenditure FY 07 FY 08 FY 13 FY 18 FY 31
Salaries 2450 2499 2976 3543 5748
Administration
1419 1490 1902 2427 4577
Expenses
Repairs & maintenance 1802 1892 2415 3083 5813
Purchases 2503 2628 3354 4280 8071
Miscellaneous 1698 1783 2276 2905 5477
Development Activities 412 433 552 705 1329

Total 10285 10726 13475 16943 31016

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Summary
Table 81: Summary of Projected Finances
(Rs. Lakhs)

FY 07 FY 08 FY 13 FY 18 FY 31
13635
Opening Balance (a) 330 2556 16814 36533
0
Total Receipts (b) 12511 12601 17143 21854 42443

Total Expenditure (c) 10285 10726 13475 16943 31016

Cumulative Closing Balance (a+b-c) 2556 4432 20482 41444 147778

The improvement in the finances of MCC is envisaged owing to the following


reforms being envisaged:
Improvement in collection efficiencies for levying charges for water supply
services (projections are based on improvements on current levels)
Reform of water sector, across the state with adoption of volumetric pricing
and rationalisation of tariffs, efficient metering mechanism for water
supply services
Improvement in property tax collection efficiencies and increase in
property tax collections owing the change over from the administered
system to the self assessment method of calculation of property tax in line
with the Bangalore experience
Operational reforms such as mitigation of UFW, drives for collection of
arrears, mapping of assets (GIS system) leading to optimal asset
management, capacity building etc.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

The Financing Plan


The CIP, given in the previous chapter, sums up the investment requirements for
the City in the period of the CDP horizon. This investment (Project Cost) will be
financed through various sources (Means of Finance). The means of finance will,
inter-alia, be:
1. Funding under the JNNURM in the JNNURM tenure (the first block
period), which, in the case of Mysore, will be 80% of the project cost, less
exclusions of items such as land, that are not considered under the
JNNURM finance;
2. State contribution, which is 10% of the eligible project cost, in the case of
Mysore;
3. State contribution, beyond the JNNURM co-financing;
4. MCCs own surpluses, which have been estimated in the previous section,
and other stakeholders;
5. Private sector finances, or PPP projects;
6. Borrowings by the MCC/ other stakeholders from banks and institutions;
7. Capital market borrowings by the MCC/ other stakeholders;

The costing for the project includes the O&M cost for the upkeep of the assets and
the same would be financed through the internal accruals of the implementing
agency and by levying of user charges, wherever applicable. In addition, a
revolving fund would be conceptualized for individual projects while formulating
the detailed project reports. This would be as per the norms set out in the
JNNURM toolkit.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

The summary Project Cost Means of Finance has been set out in the following
table.

Table 82: Project Cost Means of Finance


(Amount in Rs. Crores) FY 2007- 2013-17 2018-22 2023-27 2028-31
12

Total Project Cost including costs 1967 2570 2277 2714 2837
towards Rolling Stock and Land
Acquisition
Amount to be funded under 1649
JNNURM (Share of Central
Government and State
Government). This amount
includes only the eligible costs,
excluding land, rolling stock, etc.
Share of Central 1466
Government in eligible
amount
Share of State Government 183
in eligible amount
Amount to be funded by MCC and 318 2570 2277 2714 2837
other agencies, which includes the
co-financing share of 10% of the
eligible amount, as well as ALL
other costs towards land
acquisition, rolling stock, etc.
MCC's Budgetary Surplus 168 365 639 1039 1478
Other Sources of Financing and 150 2204 1638 1676 1359
Contributions from Other Agencies

In FY 2007-2012, the Amount to be funded by the MCC and other agencies


involved, is Rs. 318 Crores. Of this, the MCC could meet upto Rs. 168 Crores out of
budgetary surplus, and the balance would be met from other agencies/ sources, as
illustrated below.

Sources of Funds
(Rs. Crores)

0 38
38

1 68
38
38

MCC Own Funds Rev enue from unutilized assets


Financing Institutions Capital Market
Off-shore Financing Central Gov ernment Loans
Priv ate Sector

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City Development Plan for Mysore

It may be noted that after the JNNURM period, there are large uncovered
investments required, since a large proportion of Government of India and
Government of Karnataka funds under the JNNURM would no longer be
available. This investment gap would need to be addressed through other schemes
that may be available at that juncture, municipal bonds, commercial borrowing,
multi-lateral borrowing, and further efficiency improvements.

Conclusions
1. The financial situation in MCC in the past, has not been very robust, and
the Corporation budget has been running a deficit finance;
2. Fiscal reform is therefore a key area of focus. The Corporation will have to
gear up to meet the challenges ahead, by:
a. Better efficiencies in tax collection;
b. Property tax reform;
c. Utilization of assets/ land in an appropriate manner to generate
revenue;
d. New cess/ levies, such as:
i. Solid-waste cess;
ii. Impact fee for new development;
iii. Parking revenues
e. Encouraging private participation/ PPP wherever possible and
appropriate, and using its own finances only to catalyse such
investments.
3. The financial projections worked out in the above section, have been used
to work out the means of finance under JNNURM, for the projects
envisaged under the CIP.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

THE INSTITUTIONAL
REFORM AGENDA

Urban Governance
Background
The Urban infrastructure sector is
arguably one of the most complex
and difficult areas to make a
successful intervention. There is a
wide range of factors and players that
make the sector so challenging. The
complexity stems from the range of
stakeholders, necessary and sufficient
framework conditions, the strength of
the linkages between these and the
presence of market forces.

The figure below provides a


diagrammatic representation of the
urban infrastructure situation.

In order to enable the urban local


bodies to perform effectively as
vibrant democratic units of self Over the last decade the
government, the 74th Constitutional responsibilities and problems to be
Amendment was introduced in the tackled by the urban local bodies as
Parliament and it became an Act in managers and service providers has
December 1992. The 74th CAA been increasing. The 74th
requires the State governments to: Constitutional Amendment has led to
Establish an adequately decentralization of responsibilities of
represented electoral base at urban local bodies, thereby
local levels with a fixed tenure increasing their functional areas and
of five years, and a provision giving them more powers. However,
for holding elections within six the spirit of the 74th CAA that of
months in the event of providing functional and financial
premature dissolution of local independence to ULBs, has not
councils; occurred. These institutions still
Set up mechanisms for encounter a number of problems-
consolidating and such as multiplicity of organizations,
coordinating planning and inadequate resource mobilization,
development initiatives and internal capabilities, lack of
actions of municipalities; and information and monitoring, and
Consider expanding the role of quality and coverage of service. The
municipalities, and control of the 2nd tier of Government
correspondingly strengthen (the State), is pervasive.
their fiscal jurisdiction and
power and authority.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

expectation of service and therefore


some scope for its satisfaction. The
Core Focus Should be service provider should
Service Delivery correspondingly be paid only on the
A feature that has characterized satisfactory delivery of service partly
centralized development approach or entirely based on the satisfaction
has been the focus on asset creation, of the beneficiary, the citizen.
as this is preferred for administrative
convenience. However experience While the present status is very far
across sectors has indicated that the removed from this ideal, it is useful to
focus needs to be on service delivery, start with this premise to look at
as asset creation is not sufficient to where the interventions are required.
guarantee the delivery of Looking at this matter from a top
infrastructure service. down approach there are a number of
necessary framework conditions that
need to be in place to create an
Mutual Accountability environment conducive to efficient
between Service Provider & and effective urban infrastructure
Citizen service delivery.

Urban local bodies in India provide


services to cover the most basic Financial Resource Situation
human needs - drinking water, of ULBs
sanitation, waste management, street The ULBs have been bestowed with
lighting, housing, roads, and health many administrative and financial
care. There is significant room for powers, under the 74th Constitutional
improvement in their overall Amendment. However, most ULBs
governance, while simultaneously have been found unable to cope with
being able to respond adequately to the changing scenario. The provision
new challenges posed by the rapidly of urban civic services has long been
changing urban scenario. considered as the onus of the
government, expected as a social
At the core of any process of efficient right, and at nominal cost. This
service provision is a relationship of makes it difficult for the ULBs to
mutual accountability between the meet the growing demand for
service provider and the citizen. The investment. Further, lack of sufficient
mutual accountability implies that resources and access to capital
both the service provider and citizen markets, huge capital investment
have rights and responsibilities in the requirements, and long gestation
relationship of service provision. This periods, have made it difficult for the
aspect is lacking, particularly in the ULBs to meet the growing
Urban Sector. responsibilities devolving upon them.
Ideally there needs be a clear
incentive structure on both the PPP Projects
service provider and citizen to have a
good level of service. This would Even though there has been some
normally be achieved by Citizens improvement in making specific
having to pay for the service (with urban infrastructure projects
explicit subsidy to urban poor, as commercially attractive, the private
needed) to ensure that there is some sector has taken very limited

144
City Development Plan for Mysore

exposure/ interest in these projects, period, to be distributed among the


for various commercial reasons, and States on the basis of inter-state ratio
attendant socio-political risks. of slum population derived from the
population figures of the 1971 Census,
Some of the key issues that have been and the GoI accepted this
identified are: recommendation. Further, the 11th
Absence of rationalization of FC was set up with a mandate to
functional responsibilities and augment the consolidated funds of
assignment of revenue the State in order to supplement the
instruments to the ULBs; resources of the ULBs in terms of the
Lack of assignment of revenue 74th CAA for the period 2000-2005.
sources among the state and
municipal functions; Recommendations of the 11th FC,
Lack of autonomy and inter-alia, were:
accountability in devolution of (i) Measures to augment the
functional responsibilities; consolidated funds of the
Increasing revenue gaps in the States (like land taxes,
ULBs and resource gaps in surcharge / cess on the State
meeting the O&M taxes, professional tax)
requirements; (ii) Reforms in local taxes
Lack of professionally (property/house tax,
qualified municipal Octroi/entry tax, user charges)
functionaries; (iii) Maintenance of civic services,
Ad-hoc fiscal inter- and
relationships between the (iv) Accounts and audit. Keeping
State and ULBs; in view the availability of
Inequitable rate structures for resources and the overall
various taxes levied by the limits set for the flow of
ULBs; resources from the Centre to
Difficulties in the exploitation the States, the 11th FC
of user charges and lack of recommended a grant of Rs.
effective pricing policy; and 4000 million (US$ 83 million)
Overstaffing and for each of the five years
disproportionately large starting from the financial year
administrative and collection 2000-01 3 to urban local bodies
costs. in the country to facilitate the
State Governments to
The financial decentralization implement the
envisaged under the 74th CAA is recommendations.
based on the mechanism of the
Finance Commission (FC), at the
State and Central levels, wherein the Framework Conditions
State Finance Commission (SFC) is The framework conditions that can
expected to suggest State fiscal be considered essential can be
devolution to the ULBs and the divided into 3 broad sections
Central Finance Commission would National and State Policies for
top-up such devolution by assisting urban infrastructure, that
the States. As a follow-up measure, outline overall roles and
the 10th FC (1995-2000)
recommended devolution of Rs. 10 3
Report of the Eleventh Finance Commission for
billion to the ULBs for its award 2000-2005

145
City Development Plan for Mysore

responsibilities, regulation, the local government level, the


governance, fiscal and subsidy challenge is to create capacity at the
related matters ULB level.
Capacity at the State and Local
levels to translate policies into
projects and programs that Context Mysore
result in final service delivery
The institutional structure of MCC
A project development
and MUDA has been discussed in
framework that specifically
previous sections, and in this section
provides for addressing
an assessment is made on the reform
stakeholder interests and
agenda for governance of the urban
requirements that is conducive
region of Mysore.
to the creation of urban
infrastructure projects that
Urban infrastructure and governance
deliver the planned service.
are inextricably linked, and the
linkage is strong enough to raise a
Once again most of the above is in the
debate on what needs to be addressed
realm of what is desirable as against
first. JNNURM also carries this
what is present today. All these three
linkage with explicit clarity.
areas are weak in the urban
infrastructure sector in India. This is
MCCs process of formulating the
however complicated further by the
CDP, CIP, and vision statement is a
problem of scale where most of the
clear commitment towards open and
project development work is required
professional management for the
at the local level where transaction
welfare of its people.
costs for capacity building and
change are very high.
Summary of Current Situation
Thus reform in the urban sector
1. MCC and MUDA are
requires success and change at all
established and well managed
levels of government,
organizations. However, many
At the same time and
of the issues highlighted in the
On the same issues.
previous sections are equally
valid fiscal sustainability &
Challenges of Decentralized independence, capacity to
Frameworks & Capacity address the challenges of the
future, transparency and
Creation
participative governance, etc.
The unique challenge for the Urban 2. MCC follows a cash-based,
Sector stems from the capacity single-entry accounting and
required at the decentralized levels to budgeting system. This system
successfully implement projects and is not suitable for proper
provide the services. As extensively financial management.
discussed in the vast body of 3. MUDAs Comprehensive
literature on decentralization and Development Plans are in the
economies of scale, administrative nature of land-use master
convenience often has veered towards plans, and do not address the
centralized administration as it is aggregate of the citys needs in
easier to create capacity. However terms of economic planning.
with the real requirement being at MCC still lacks a long-term

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City Development Plan for Mysore

economic development plan creates a core nucleus of


for the city. successes in various elements
4. MCC has a Citizen Charter on of the overall scenario that can
its web site, with published be replicated; such as:
performance delivery PPP/ PSP projects in
standards. This is a first step Mysore
towards realizing the delivery New financing
of services. methodologies, such as
5. MCC does not carry out Pooled Finance
consumer satisfaction surveys, Initiatives
which will make its MCC raising money by
functioning more effective. way of project-specific
6. Both MCC and MUDA have bonds
their web sites, and flow of Service contracts with clear
information is vital for good mutual accountability
governance. frameworks between citizen
and service provider
Beneficiary funding
Issues to Address Set in place precedents for
Given that the core purpose is to greater community
create a means of efficient urban involvement, including NGOs,
infrastructure and governance especially for addressing the
provision to citizens, there are a needs of the urban poor;
number of critical elements required Creating new pressure
to make this happen. mechanisms, which highlight
Creation of capacity in the the issues and facilitate
MCC for accounting, information sharing on the
administration, project subject, thereby enabling
identification and adoption of better standards/
implementation practices.
Increased transparency and
implementation of best Broadly speaking, there are four
practices in the MCC critical areas of reform, and these will
Creation of independent be addressed in turn.
financing interest in urban I. Land-use & planning
projects, though at the current II. Financial
juncture it is more on account III. Infrastructure
of government guarantees/ management
comfort. This would still be a IV. Capacity building
significant change as the V. Participatory governance
private sector is becoming
engaged in the sector, and one
anticipates that an
improvement in the
framework conditions can
enable the MCC to gradually
allow infrastructure projects to
stand on their own without
such guarantees/ comforts
Creation of breakthroughs on
demonstration projects. This

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City Development Plan for Mysore

with the appreciation in value of real


estate. While collection percentages
Financial have improved, further increments in
absolute terms would come about
Introduction of Accrual Based only with revisions to the base of
Accounting System in MCC: property tax.
The MCC has been maintaining its
accounts on cash basis only. Since Property tax is by far the best
the form of accounting system based surrogate user charge for a variety of
on cash basis does not reflect the true urban services that cannot be
financial position of the MCC, it is separately charged. It is also the
imperative to replace the cash-based largest component of revenues to the
accounting to double-entry accrual MCC, with property-tax and property
accounting system, in a phased based receipts accounting for over
manner. The standard accounting 35% of MCC revenues.
practices in the financial market
(banks and financial institutions) also The issue is therefore one of basal
require quicker, efficient, dependable (rate) revision, and also of collection
and comparable financial efficiency.
information. MCC has to therefore
change to accrual-based, double- E-Governance Mysore
entry accounting system. This is Property Tax is the principal source
anyway a mandated reform that the of revenue in cities including Mysore.
MCC has to undertake, under the In most cities in India the property
JNNURM. tax base has been considerably
eroded by administrative and
Skill Transfer procedural inadequacies. In many
The implementation of accrual cities a significant number of
accounting reforms can be by way of properties are not included in the tax
orientation program to officials and base; those that are included are
transfer of skill. Chartered inaccurately assessed, and collection
Accountants can assist municipal efficiency is poor. This directly affects
staff in switchover from cash to the quality of services and
accrual system of accounting; infrastructure provided by the city.
Based on thorough analysis of cities
Increase in MCC Income in Karnataka, the Urban
The measures taken for financial Development Dept. Govt of
reform and capacity building will Karnataka in partnership with the e-
result in improved levels of finances Governance Foundation, has
and management capacities. developed the e-Gov Property Tax
system to attempt addressing the
inadequacies in the current system.
Property Tax Reform
However the key issue relates to the The e-Gov Property Tax application
revision to property taxes and the computerizes the revenue
quality of assessment of property department and provides an IT
taxes. The general revisions are system that manages properties and
delayed and the increments to their taxation. It calculates the
assessed value of the base of property property tax demand automatically
tax have not been commensurate based on the CVS-Capital Value

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Systems. It handles property facilities to pay various fee for


registrations, transfers, bifurcations extended hours, and clarity on
and amalgamations. their arrears/dues etc.

The Revenue Dept. of the Mysore City The benefits include inter-alia:
Corporation will be computerized
Appropriate orientation about
under the Nirmala Nagara project,
the status and functioning of
and a property tax system will be
the MCC in the changed
implemented which will make the
context after the 74th
payment of property taxes very easy
Constitutional Amendment;
for the citizens of Mysore.
Applying to work, the specific
skills and understandings
Currently work is underway in
gained through customized
Mysore :
training pertaining to their
Creating GIS maps of the city area of operation.
Street & Property numbering The capacity of MCC in Project
Assigning unique IDs to each formulation and project
property appraisal, in a format
Collecting accurate data on each acceptable to the financial
property institutions, will significantly
improve as a result of specific
Capacity Building training on the project
development process.
Training and Exposure The managerial capacity
programs covering different areas of
operations, including the
To build knowledge and capacity, it is
awareness and attitude of the
important to identify training
managers, is another
programs for Municipal Officials,
significant area of expected
Elected Representatives and Other
improvement.
key stakeholders. Further, a number
The MCC could start
of Seminars, Workshops and
introducing partnership
Conferences need to be organized in
arrangements in few areas of
association with national and
service delivery, like solid
international organizations on special
waste management, street
topics to improve the understanding,
lights etc.
awareness and appreciation of urban
Increased application of
issues.
information technology on
day-to-day functioning and e-
These capacity building activities will
Governance measures is
yield a number of benefits for various
another area of visible impact
stakeholders:
of training. MCC can introduce
a) For the municipal staff: in
computerized information,
terms of time savings for
collection and service entries
delivering municipal functions,
improving the efficiency of
retrieval of information quickly by
various desk services offered
the managers etc;
to the citizens. MCC and
b) For the municipality: in terms
MUDA already have their own
increased revenue realization, and
websites, and there could be
c) For the citizens: in terms of
increased volume of
availability of corporate looking

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City Development Plan for Mysore

correspondence through e- applications), defined systems and


mail, reducing delay and paper provided software support in certain
work and highlighting core areas
sophistication. 1. Birth and Death
The elected representatives registration
will be better aware of legal/ 2. Building Plan Registration/
statutory provisions vis--vis Approval
their role and responsibility, 3. Licenses
and various best practices. 4. Financial Management:
Separate one day training Financial Accounting
programs can be conducted System, Inventory Control,
exclusively for women Movable Property, Vehicle
representatives (along with the Inventory, Immovable
main orientation training Property
courses) on women 5. Revenue Management:
empowerment and on gender Non-Tax, Professional Tax,
issues. Water Charges, Property
Tax
Other Components in Capacity 6. Others: Census, Personal
Building Management System,
The institutional development can Electoral rolls, Family
address a number of other sub- Enumeration, Solid Waste
components, designed to management, Hospital
complement one another, to build Information
capacity and improve governance in 7. Engineering applications
the MCC. Engineers can access all
1. City Corporate Plans engineering codes and
2. Urban Indicators Program quality assurance
3. Geographical Information measures at one place,
System in a very user friendly
4. Engineering software manner;
5. Computer support
6. Land-use study Once these systems are in place at the
7. Quality Assurance & MCC level, they can be opened
Control Manuals appropriately to the public for direct
8. Study Tours; and queries and services, over a suitable
9. Capacity Building of e-governance platform, with a central
Department of Municipal gateway and user kiosks.
Administration
Continuing Stakeholder
Participatory Governance Interactions
As has been mentioned in the preface
Automation of Municipal to the CDP, the consultation process
Functions & E-Governance with stakeholders has to be
To improve management, it is useful institutionalized and kept as an
to design operational manuals on ongoing exercise.
municipal functions such as 1. Periodic stakeholder meetings
administration and engineering with the officers/ elected
(apart from accounts and computer representatives, to review the

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City Development Plan for Mysore

progress of various initiatives


and to iron out any wrinkles; In addition, there are a number of
2. Interactions organized by steps that MCC/ MUDA would take
specific NGOs with the Urban to address this critical aspect of
Poor; governance:
3. Institutionalising a process of 1. Framing of budgets and plans
periodic reports/ feedback/ after a consultative process
score-card on key performance 2. Making available details of
parameters. ongoing projects, costs,
expected time-lines
3. Stakeholder interaction in
Transparency & Accountability monitoring project progress
Karnataka State has always been
ahead in terms of setting in place Land-use & Planning
mandated processes to ensure
transparency in public dealings. The MUDA designs a Comprehensive
Karnataka Transparency in Public Development Plan for the city, at an
Procurements Act 1999, and the interval of 10 years. Based on this
Karnataka Right to Information Act master plan, the development
2000, form the cornerstone of the regulation is done by way of plan
legal framework under which approvals and land-use.
Government departments and
agencies have to operate. Karnataka However, given the rate of
also has the Fiscal Responsibility Act, urbanization, 10 years is a long time-
to encourage planning and prudence frame, and this leads to the issue of
in the process of budgeting. periodic land-use reclassification and
the concomitant problems and issues.
Karnataka has also encouraged
private sector participation in It is therefore imperative to:
projects in the infrastructure areas, 1. Review the master plan
with first-time projects in the country periodically, to incorporate
illustrated by the Bangalore demographic and economic
International Airport Project, and the changes as they occur
Hassan Mangalore railway line. 2. Have a realistic and flexible
master plan, where the
In projects such as KUWASIP, emphasis is on a zone and
Karnataka has also amended rules of sector, rather than on the
employment to enable employees to exact use of a particular lot of
proceed on deputation to the private land.
sector.
In addition, Mysore has the key
However, it is clear that going factor of heritage that has to be kept
forward, the objective is not to have in mind, in any plan process. Some of
mandated transparency, but to have the key aspects of planning, as a
open and participative governance. result of this concern, are:
The core city areas are to be
This can be set in place only through kept in excellent condition,
an institutionalised and sustained Discourage new large
process of interaction, as mentioned constructions in the core
in the previous section. city area, and force all new
development in dedicated

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City Development Plan for Mysore

zones around the Poor construction quality,


periphery. leading to higher maintenance
FSI in the core city requirements
could be pegged at a The life-cycle aspect of
suitably low level, while the infrastructure asset
higher FSI permitted in is not considered
the periphery The contracting entity
Larger development that constructs the
fees or betterment facility has no stake in
charges could be levied ensuring that it
in the core functions
Pro-actively develop Finances for operation and
fully self-sustained maintenance are not
enclaves (industrial, earmarked/ available
commercial, or The capacity of the staff
residential) on the engaged in the maintenance is
periphery, so that there generally lower than
is no incentive for
development to move to Addressing this issue is more of a
the core management and training paradigm
Avoid large infrastructure shift, than one requiring large
interventions, such as investments.
elevated roads, and multi-
storey complexes in the The measure required to take care of
core city. asset management are the virtual
Computerization of land converse of the issues mentioned
records for the City and before:
especially the periphery, and
easy availability of title Ensure construction quality
verifications, will also facilitate requirements
land transactions and have a Consider life-cycle
beneficial effect on reducing aspect of the
demand in the city core. infrastructure asset
Tie-in the contracting
entity to a longer
Infrastructure Management maintenance, or back-
ended payment
Asset Management vs. Asset structures, to ensure
Creation that it has a stake in the
Government and its agencies have functioning of the asset
been generally efficient in asset Include costs for operation
creation, but the real issues arise in and maintenance, and keep
maintenance of these assets. This aside in an earmarked fund
leads to situations where facility does Build up capacity/ training of
not perform its intended function the staff engaged in the
properly. Potholed roads, leaking maintenance.
water systems, non-functional
sewage treatment plants many of
these situations occur because:

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Linking Reform to Development governance level increases, it will add


Projects significantly to the onerous tasks of
As mentioned previously, the MCC, to deliver high-quality and
development of projects has a strong efficient services to the citizens.
linkage to reform in governance. Professional delivery of services
would cover the entire gamut of
1. An assessment of MCCs activities, from project
current financial situation will conceptualization to asset
illustrate that unless there are management. While a part of this
key financial reforms, it may service can be carried out by the MCC
not be in a position to raise officials, it is probable that the MCC
budget surpluses, and use shall need to seek external assistance
those surpluses in from professional agencies.
implementing its CIP.
In the context of increasing
2. Further, even if the financial professionalism, the use of external
situation improves, the size, services can result in completion of
number, and type of projects work on time, where cost over run is
that need to be implemented, marginal and savings to the MCC as a
will place a significant strain result of financial advisory services,
on the capacity of the MCC though it may not be substantial, is
staff, and also on the significant. Support for market access
governance system as a whole. can result in MCC accessing the
For instance, even small urban market. External support could
transport projects like the Bus include:
Rapid Transit or High
Capacity Bus, need a very high Outsourcing of design and
skill level to implement and management functions;
administer. Better quality procurement
(bidding), where the cost
3. Finally, if private or overrun of large projects
commercial finance is required would be lesser, and times
to be brought in, the legal and would be maintained;
financial capacity required to Service contracts or PPP
handle such transactions, has arrangements, which leverage
also to be created. the administrative authority
and governance capability of
There is a clear and imperative need the MCC, with the sector
to ensure that reform on the financial specific skills in the corporate
and capacity aspects of MCC/ MUDA sector.
and the other stakeholders, moves in
tandem to the project development One of the suggestions that came up
process. in the stakeholder meetings with
elected representatives was the
possibility of setting up a separate
Professional Delivery of Water Board for Mysore, on the
lines of the Bangalore Water Supply
Services
& Sewerage Board (BWSSB). This is a
As the size of the City increases, and possibility that may need to be
the level of sophistication required at examined later in the reform phase.
the urban infrastructure and

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City Development Plan for Mysore

Implementation, Sequencing
& Prioritization of Reform The important aspect of urban
infrastructure is that unless all the
State and City role tiers of Government work in concert,
the objectives will not be met. The
Some of the key reform areas lie in
JNNURM guidelines therefore rightly
the purview of the State Government,
envisage a tri-partite agreement
while some of them are in the
between the Central Government, the
jurisdiction of the City. Issues such as
State Government, and the ULB.
determining Stamp Duty are clearly
in the States purview, while
Many of the mandatory & optional
introduction of accrual-based double-
reforms are in the jurisdiction of the
entry systems are in the domain of
States legal and administrative
MCC. domain, and would be committed at
the State level.
At the next level, there are also issues
where the MCC has to depend on the
The role of MCC and Government of
discretion of Government of
Karnataka, vis--vis the reform
Karnataka. The devolution of State
process that is agreed upon, will be
grant to a particular ULB is a matter
set out in such an agreement, and will
of such discretion.
determine the duties/ responsibilities
that each party has to perform, to
Finally, in situations such as the
make a reality of the vision envisaged
JNNURM, the Central Government is
in this CDP
also a key participant.
.

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City Development Plan for Mysore

The chart below sets out the time-lines for Mysore City to carry out the mandatory and optional reforms. The time-lines for reforms
that are within the jurisdiction of the Government of Karnataka will be set out in the MoU to be signed.

Table 83: Sequencing of Mandatory Reforms


Prerequisites for funding Mandatory reforms (ULBs & parastatal agencies) Current Status 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Adoption of modern accrual-based double entry system of accounting in Mysore Being implemented

Introduction of a system of e-governance using IT applications, such GIS and MIS for various services
Being implemented
provided by Mysore
Reform of property tax with GIS so that collection efficiency reaches at least 85 per cent within next
Being implemented
seven years.
Levy of reasonable user charges by Mysore with the objective that the full cost of O&M or recurring cost
To do
is collected within the next seven years.
Internal earmarking, within local bodies, budgets for basic services to the urban poor. To do
Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved
To do
housing, water supply and sanitation.

Table 84: Sequencing of Optional Reforms


Prerequisites for funding Optional reforms (S Current Status 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Revision of bye-laws to streamline the approval process


To do
for construction of buildings, development of site etc.

155