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# MECH 5310/6310/6316 - Mechanics of Electronic Packaging

Auburn University
J. C. Suhling, 2017

FUNDAMENTALS OF
SOLID MECHANICS
Relationships Between Stress, Strain, and Displacement

J. C. Suhling, 2017
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SOLID MECHANICS
Quantities of Interest / Field Variables for Models

Displacement ui (i 1,2,3)
Vector (3 Components)
Stress ij (i, j 1,2,3)
Measurement of the Internal Force Intensity at a Point
Symmetric 2nd Order Tensor (6 Components)
Strain ij (i, j 1,2,3)
Measurement of Local Deformations at a Point
Symmetric 2nd Order Tensor (6 Components)

## Total of 15 Field Variables

(Could be More if Heat and Moisture Transport is Present)

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SOLID MECHANICS
Equations Relating the Field Variables

## Typically, a Set of 15 Equations is Found Relating

the 15 Field Variables:
Equations of Motion
(Well Known)
Strain-Displacement Relations
(Well Known)
Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations
(More Challenging, Different Equations Often Used
for Various Problems - Even for the Same Material)

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SOLID MECHANICS
Complete Theory - Example

## Equations of Motion Stress-Strain Relations (Example)

11 12 13 2 u1 11 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 11
f1 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t 22 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25 S26 22
12 22 23 2u2 33 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 S36 33
f2 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t 13 S41 S42 S43 S44 S45 S46 13
13 23 33 2u3 23 S S52 S53 S54 S55 S56 23
f3 2 51
x1 x 2 x 3 t 12 S61 S62 S63 S64 S65 S66 12

Strain-Displacement Relations

u u 2 u1
Simple Model for a Elastic Material
11 1 212 12 with 15 Equations and 15 Unknowns
x1 x1 x 2
u 2 u1 u 3
22 213 13
x 2 x 3 x1
u 3 u 2 u 3
33 2 23 23
x 3 x 3 x 2

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SOLID MECHANICS
Equations of Motion

F ma
Reminder
11 12 13 2 u1
f1 a1 2 M I
x1 x 2 x 3 t
2
12 21
12 22 23 u
f 2 a 2 22 13 31
x1 x 2 x 3 t
23 32
13 23 33 2u3
f 3 a 3 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t

## f1 , f 2 , f3 are Body Force Components per Unit Volume

a1 , a 2 , a3 are the Acceleration Components of the Point

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SOLID MECHANICS

## Based on Newtons Law Applied at a Point

Valid for All Materials (Even Fluids)
No Assumptions
Include Body Force Terms for Forces Which Act over
a Distance (e.g. Gravity)
Involve Only Stress Components

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Consider a finite volume element of material

at an arbitrary point P = (x1,x2,x3) in a loaded body

x1
x2 P

x 2
e 2
x1
P
e1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
e 3
x3
x3
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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## What forces are acting on the volume element?

1. Internal forces acting on the surface area of the
element (6 rectangular faces) that are exerted
by the contact with the neighboring material.
Such forces are the ones used to define stresses.
2. External Body Forces acting on the element over
a distance without physical contact (e.g. gravity).
x1

x2
x 2
x1
x3 P (x1 , x2 , x3 )

x3

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## In reality, the stresses (internal forces) vary from point to point on

each face of the finite volume element. Eventually, we will be
considering the limit as the element shrinks to zero size. In this case,
the stress (force) distributions on each face will approach a constant
value. Therefore, we will assume from the start that the values of
a particular stress component at all points on a face are equal to the
value of the stress component at the center of the face.
x1
x3

## 11 Net Force in the x1-direction on the right face

P x 2 x 2 x3 x3
x 2 Force
( x1 , x2 , x3 ) x2
x3
11 dx2dx3

x2 x2 x
Force 11 ( x1 x1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) x 2 x3
2 2
x1 (Mean Value Theorem)
x3
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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

Quantities f1, f2, f3 are defined as the components of the body forces.
Normally, body forces are given in units of force per unit volume. Gravity
is the main example. For gravity in the negative x2 direction, the body force
components would be:
F2 mg
f2 g f1 f3 0 f2
mg

mg
g
V x1x 2 x3

Rigorously, the body forces also vary from point to point in the finite
volume element under consideration. As the element shrinks to zero size,
the body force distributions will approach a constant value. Therefore, we
will assume from the start that the value of the body force components
are constant, and equal to the values at the center of the element.

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion
Sources of Force in the x1-Direction x1
x1 x
21 ( x1 , x2 x2 , x3 3 )
2 2
x x2
31 ( x1 1 , x2 , x3 )
2 2

x 2
x2 x
11 ( x1 , x2 , x3 3 )
2 2
x2 x
11 ( x1 x1 , x2 , x3 3 )
2 2
x1 x2
31 ( x1 , x2 , x3 x3 ) P (x1 , x2 , x3 ) x1 x x
2 2 f1 ( x1 , x 2 2 , x3 3 )
2 2 2
x3
x2 x1 x
21 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 3 )
2 2
x1
x3 11
J. C. Suhling, 2017
DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Summing all Forces Acting on the Element in the x1-Direction, and

Applying Newtons 2nd Law Gives:

F 1 ma1
x 2 x x 2 x
F1 [11(x1 x1 , x2 2
, x3 3 ) x 2 x3 11 ( x1 , x 2
2 2
, x3 3 ) x 2 x3 ]
2
x x x x
[ 21 ( x1 1 , x 2 x 2 , x3 3 ) x1x3 21 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) x1x3 ]
2 2 2 2
x x 2 x x 2
[ 31 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 x3 ) x1x 2 31 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 ) x1x 2 ]
2 2 2 2
x x 2 x
f1 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) x1x 2 x3 (x1x 2 x3 ) a1
2 2 2

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## If the Stress Distributions are Continuous and Differentiable, we

may Expand Them in a Taylor Series:

( x1 x1 , x 2 x 2 , x3 x3 ) ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )

x1 x 2 x3
x
1 ( x1 ,x2 ,x3 ) x 2 ( x1 ,x 2 ,x3 ) x
3 ( x1 ,x2 ,x3 )

1 2 2
1 2 2

2 ( x1 ) 2 ( x 2 )
2 x1 ( x ,x ,x ) 2 x 2 ( x ,x ,x )
1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 2
2
2 ( x3 ) ( x1x 2 ) []
2 x3 ( x ,x ,x ) x1x 2
1 2 3 ( x1 ,x 2 ,x3 )

## [ Higher Order Terms]

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

Therefore:

x 2 x x x
11 ( x1 x1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) 11 ( x1 , x 2 2 , x3 3 )
2 2 2 2
2
1
11
x 11
( x1 ) []
2
x1 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 ) 1 2 x12 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 )
1 2
2
3
2 1 2
2
3
2

and

x 2 x x x
11 ( x1 x1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) 11 ( x1 , x 2 2 , x3 3 )
2 2 2 2
2
1
11 x1 211 ( x1 ) []
2
x1 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 ) 2 x1 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 )
1 2
2
3
2 1 2
2
3
2

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## The Sum of the Forces in the x1-Direction then Simplifies to:

2
1
1
F 11 x1x 2 x3 211 ( x1 )2 x 2 x3 []
x1 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 ) 2 x1 ( x ,x x2 ,x x3 )
1 2
2
3
2 1 2
2
3
2
2
1 []
21 x1x 2 x3 21
x ( x )2
x
x 2 ( x x1 ,x ,x x3 ) 2 x 22 ( x x1 ,x ,x x3 ) 1 2 3

1
2
2 3
2 1
2
2 3
2
2

31 1
x1x 2 x3 31
x x ( x )2
[]
x3 ( x x1 ,x x2 ,x ) 2 x32 ( x x1 ,x x2 ,x ) 1 2 3

1
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
2
3

x x 2 x
f1 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 3 ) x1x 2 x3 (x1x 2 x3 ) a1
2 2 2

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Now Divide This Equation by (x1x2x3), and Let x1,x2,x3

Each Go to Zero:

F1 x 11
0
x
21
0
x
31
0
1 ( x1 ,x2 ,x3 ) 2 ( x1 ,x2 ,x3 ) 3 ( x1 ,x2 ,x3 )
f1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) a1

11 21 31
or f1 a1
x1 x2 x3

11 12 13
or f1 a1
x1 x 2 x 3
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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Applying Newtons Law Similarly in the x2 and x3 Directions Gives:

ma
F

11 12 13 2 u1
f1 a1 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t
12 22 23 2u2
f 2 a 2 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t
13 23 33 2u3
f 3 a 3 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion
Sources of Moment in the x3-Direction x1
x1 x3
21 ( x1 , x2 x2 , x3 )
2 2

x 2
x2 x3
12 ( x1 x1 , x2 , x3 )
2 2

x2 x3
12 ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
2 2
P (x1 , x2 , x3 )

x3
x2 x1 x3
21 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
2 2
x1
x3
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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Summing all Moments Acting in the x3-Direction About the Center

of the Element, and Applying Newtons Law of Rotational Motion Gives:

M 3 I333

x 2 x3 x x 2 x x
M 3 12 ( x1 , x 2
2
, x3
2
) [ x 2 x3 ] 1 12 ( x1 x1 , x 2
2 2
, x3 3 ) [ x 2 x3 ] 1
2 2
x x3 x x x x
21 ( x1 1 , x 2 , x3 ) [ x1x3 ] 2 21 ( x1 1 , x 2 x 2 , x3 3 ) [ x1x3 ] 2
2 2 2 2 2 2

1
12

(x1x 2 x3 ) ( x1 )2 ( x 2 )2 3

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Now Divide This Equation by (x1x2x3), and Let x1,x2,x3

Each Go to Zero:

2 12 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) 2 21(x1 , x2 , x3 ) 0

12 21

Static or Dynamic!

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DERIVATION
Equations of Motion

## Applying Newtons Law for Rotational Motion Similarly in the

x1 and x2 Directions Gives:

M I

12 21
13 31
23 32
Static or Dynamic

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SOLID MECHANICS
Strain-Displacement Relations

## For the Lagrangian Strain Definition:

1 u i u j 3
u k u k
L

ij
2 x j x i k 1 x i x j

u1 1 u1 u 2 u 3
2 2 2

L
1 u1 u 2 u1 u1 u 2 u 2 u 3 u 3
x1 2 x1 x1 x1
L
11
12
2 x 2 x1 x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x 2
u 2 1 u1
2 2 2
u 2 u 3 L 1 u1 u 3 u1 u1 u 2 u 2 u 3 u 3
L
13
x 2 2 x 2
22
x 2 x 2 2 x 3 x1 x1 x 3 x1 x 3 x1 x 3

1 u 2 u 3 u1 u1 u 2 u 2 u 3 u 3
u 3 1 u1 u 2
2 2 2 L
u 3 23
L
33 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 3
x 3 2 x 3 x 3 x
3

## These are Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) Involving the

Strain Components Which are Hard to Understand Physically (i.e. Trouble!)
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SOLID MECHANICS
Strain-Displacement Relations

## For the Eulerian Strain Definition:

1 ui u j 3 uk uk
E

ij
2 x j x i k1 x i x j

u 1 u 2 u 2 u 2 1 u1 u2 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3
E
11 1 1 2 3 E
12
x1 2 x1 x1 x1 2 x 2 x1 x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x 2

u2 1 u1 u2 u3
2 2 2
1 u1 u3 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3
E

E
13
22
x 2 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 2 x3 x1 x1 x3 x1 x3 x1 x3

u 2 u 2 u 2 1 u2 u3 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3
u 1
E
23
E
33 3 1 2 3 2 x3 x 2 x 2 x3 x 2 x3 x 2 x3
x3 2 x3 x3 x3

## These are Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) Involving the

Strain Components Which are Hard to Understand Physically (i.e. Trouble!)
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SOLID MECHANICS
Strain-Displacement Relations

## For Small Strains, We can Use the Linearized Version of

These Equations and the Engineering Strain Components:

1 u i u j
ij
L
ij
E
ij
ij
2 x j x i

u1 u 2 u1
11 212 12
x1 x1 x 2
u 2 u1 u 3
22 213 13
x 2 x 3 x1
u 3 u 2 u 3
33 2 23 23
x 3 x 3 x 2

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SOLID MECHANICS

Based on Geometry
Valid for All Materials
The Linear Version Assumes Small Strains
(A Large Strain Nonlinear Version of the Equations is
Also Available)

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

Deformed Body

s1
P

v1
Undeformed Body
Q
uP

uQ

x2 P v1 Q
e 2 s1 Strain at Point P
x1
e1 s s1
11 lim 1
x 3 e 3 s1 0
s1 26
J. C. Suhling, 2017
DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

Coordinates
P ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
Q ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 )

Vectors

v1 s1 e1

uP u( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e3

uQ u( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 )
u1 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e3

v1 ??
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

P

v1
Q
uP

uQ

P v1 Q Vector PQ v1 uQ uP v1

v1 v1 uQ uP

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

v1 v1 uQ uP P

v1
Q
v1 s1 e1
[u1 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e3 ]
[u1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e3 ]

u1 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
1 e1
s1
u ( x s , x , x ) u ( x , x , x )
v1 s1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3
e2
s1

u3 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) u3 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e
s 3

1
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## The Length of This Vector is:

s1 v1 v1 v1

1
u ( x s , x , x ) u ( x , x , x ) 2
2

1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3

s1
2
u ( x s , x , x ) u ( x , x , x )
s1 s1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3
s1
s
1
u ( x s , x , x ) u ( x , x , x ) 2
3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3

s1

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

Strain at Point P:

s s1
11 lim 1
s1 0
s1

s1 s1
11 lim
s1 0
s1

11 lim
s1 0
1
2 2 2
u1 u2 u3 Exact Version of the Strain-Displacement
11 1 x x x 1 Relation for the Engineering Strain Definition
1 1 1
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## Squaring the Exact Relation Leads to:

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 u u u u1 u2 u3
11 1 1 2 3 2 1 x x x 1
x1 x1 x1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 u u u u u u u
11 1 2 1
1
2
3
2 1 1
2
3
1 2 1
x1 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 u u u u u u u
11 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 1
x1 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1

2 2 2
u u u u
2 1 1 2 3 2 11
2
11
x1 x1 x1 x1

2 2 2
2 u u u u
11 2 11 2 1 1 2 3
x1 x1 x1 x1
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## If the Strains are Small, Then we have:

2 2 2
u1 u1 u2 u3
2 11 2
x1 x1 x1 x1

u1 1
2 2 2
u1 u2 u3
11 x x x
x1 2 1 1 1

Small Strain Version of the Strain-Displacement Relation
for the Engineering Strain Definition 2

1
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## If the Displacement Gradients are Also Small, Then we have:

u1
11 Linear Version of the Strain-Displacement Relation
x1 for the Engineering Strain Definition

ui
1 1
x j

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## Applying the Same Analysis Procedure with Line Segments in

the x2 and x3 Directions Gives:

u1
11
x1
u 2
22
x 2
u 3
33
x 3

ui
Requires 1 and 1 to be Accurate
x j
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

Deformed Body

s2
R
v2
P 12
uR
Undeformed Body v1 Q

uP s1
s2 R
uQ
v2

x2 P v1 Q
e 2 s1
Strain at Point P
x1
e1
212 12 lim 12
x 3 e 3 s1 ,s2 0 2

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations
Coordinates
P ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
Q ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 )
R ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 )
Vectors
v1 ??
v1 s1 e1 v 2 s2 e2

uP u( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) v2 ??
u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e3 12 ??

uQ u( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 )
u1 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) e3

uR u( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 )
u1 ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 ) e3
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

R
v2
P 12
uR
v1 Q

uP
R
uQ
v2
Vector PQ v1 uQ uP v1

P v1 Q v1 v1 uQ uP

Vector PR v2 uR uP v2

v2 v2 uR uP
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

R

v1 v1 uQ uP v2
P 12

v1 s1 e1 v1 Q
[u1 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 s1 , x2 , x3 ) e3 ]
[u1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e3 ]

u1 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
1 e1
s1
u ( x s , x , x ) u ( x , x , x )
v1 s1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3
e2
s1

u3 ( x1 s1 , x 2 , x3 ) u3 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e
s 3

1
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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

R
v2 v2 uR uP v2
P 12

v2 s2 e2 v1 Q
u1 ( x1 , x2 s2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x2 s2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x2 s2 , x3 ) e3
[u1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e1 u2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e2 u3 ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) e3 ]

u1 ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 ) u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
e1
s 2
u ( x , x s , x ) u ( x , x , x )
v2 s2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 3
e2
s2

u3 ( x1 , x 2 s2 , x3 ) u3 ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) e
s2 3

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## The Dot Product of These Vectors is:

v1 v2 v1 v2 cos 12

v1 v2
cos 12
v1 v2

v v
sin 12 1 2
2 v1 v2

1 v1 v2
12 sin
2 v1 v2

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

Strain at Point P:

1 v
1 v2
212 12 lim sin
s1 ,s2 0
v1 v2

u u u u u u
1 1 1 2 1 2 3 3
x1 x 2 x1 x 2 x1 x 2
212 12 sin1
2 2 2 2 2 2
u1 u2 u3 u1 u2 u3
1 x x x x 1 x x
1 1 1 2 2 2

## Exact Version of the Strain-Displacement

Relation for the Engineering Strain Definition

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## Rearranging This Expression Leads to:

u1 u2 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3

x2 x1 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2
sin(212 ) sin 12
(1 11 ) (1 22 )

Where the Terms are the Exact Versions of the Normal Strains

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## If the Strains are Small, Then we have:

u1 u2 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3
212 12
x2 x1 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2

## Small Strain Version of the Strain-Displacement Relation

for the Engineering Strain Definition
2
1
1 1
sin 2 2

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## If the Displacement Gradients are Also Small, Then we have:

u1 u2
212 12
x2 x1
Linear Version of the Strain-Displacement Relation
for the Engineering Strain Definition

ui
1 1
x j

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DERIVATION
Strain-Displacement Relations

## Applying the Same Analysis Procedure with Pairs of Line Segments in

the x2 and x3 Directions and x1 and x3 Directions Gives:

u 2 u1
212 12
x1 x 2
u1 u 3
213 13
x 3 x1
u 2 u 3
2 23 23
x 3 x 2

ui
Requires 1 and 1 to be Accurate
x j
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SOLID MECHANICS
Types of Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

Elastic
The Material is Like a Spring - All Deformations are
Plastic
Permanent Deformations Occur Which are Non-Recoverable
Elastic-Plastic
The Material is First Elastic, and then Plastic
Viscoelastic
The Material Experiences Elastic and Viscous (Time Dependent)
Deformations
Viscoplastic
Combines Viscoelastic and Plastic Behaviors
Continuum Damage
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SOLID MECHANICS
Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

## Uniaxial Testing (Experimental) - Linear Elastic Material

x3

x1 b
P x2 P
t
L A bt
11
11
P b t 11
22 33 E1
A b t
12
22 1211 11
E1
E1
12 13 13
11
L
11
L
11
L 33 1311 11
L L L E1
Elastic Modulus Poissons Ratio Poissons Ratio
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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

x2

x1

12
12
12
G12 G12
12 212
Shear Modulus

## Typically Shear Testing is Done Using

Torsion of a Cylindrical Sample
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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

Example
General Linear Elastic Stress Strain Relations
(Generalized Hookes Law)
11 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 11

22 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25 S26 22
33 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 S36 33

13 S41 S42 S43 S44 S45 S46 13
23 S S52 S53 S54 S55 S56 23
51
12 S61 S62 S63 S64 S65 S66 12

## S ij are the Compliance Coefficients (Material Properties)

and Must be Determined by Experimental Testing

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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

## Stress-Strain Relations for Orthotropic Material

(Compliance Coefficients in Terms of Material Constants)
1 12 13
E 0 0 0
E1 E1
1
21 1

11 23 0 0 0 11
x2
E 2 E2 E2
22
22 31
32
1
0 0 0
33 E 3 E3 E3 33 x1
13
13 0
1 x3
0 0 0 0
23 G13 23

0 12
1
12 0 0 0 0
G 23
1
0 0 0 0 0
G12 (e.g. Silicon and FR-4)

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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

## Stress-Strain Relations for Isotropic Material

(Compliance Coefficients in Terms of Material Constants)

1
E 0 0 0
E E
1

11 0 0 0 11
E x2
E E
22 1 22
33 E
E E
0 0 0
33 x1
1
13 0 0 0 0 0 13
x3
23 G 23
0 1
12 0 0 0 0 12
G
1
0 0 0 0 0
G (e.g. Copper and Aluminum)

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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

## Stress-Strain Relations for Isotropic Material

1 E
11 11 22 33 11 (1 )11 ( 22 33 )
E (1 )(1 2 )
1 E
22 22 11 33 22 (1 )22 (11 33 )
E (1 )(1 2 )
1
33 33 11 22 33
E
(1 )33 (11 22 )
E (1 )(1 2 )
2(1 ) E
12 12 12
G E 12 G12
2(1 )
12

2(1 ) E
13 13 13 13 G13 13
G E 2(1 )
23 2(1 ) E
23 23 23 G 23 23
G E 2(1 )
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Constitutive (Stress-Strain) Relations

Empirical / Phenomenological
Based on Curve Fitting Experimental Data
Are Material Dependent
The Example Given - Generalized Hookes Law - is
Valid Only for Material That can be Modeled as Being
Other More Complicated Relations Have Been
Developed (Plasticity, Viscoelasticity, etc.)
Often, the Material Constants in a Set of Stress-Strain
Relations are Temperature Dependent

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SOLID MECHANICS
Complete Theory - Example

## Equations of Motion Stress-Strain Relations (Example)

11 12 13 2 u1 11 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 11
f1 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t 22 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25 S26 22
12 22 23 2u2 33 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 S36 33
f2 2
x1 x 2 x 3 t 13 S41 S42 S43 S44 S45 S46 13
13 23 33 2u3 23 S S52 S53 S54 S55 S56 23
f3 2 51
x1 x 2 x 3 t 12 S61 S62 S63 S64 S65 S66 12

Strain-Displacement Relations

u u 2 u1
Simple Model for a Elastic Material
11 1 212 12 with 15 Equations and 15 Unknowns
x1 x1 x 2
u 2 u1 u 3
22 213 13
x 2 x 3 x1
u 3 u 2 u 3
33 2 23 23
x 3 x 3 x 2

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## Set of 15 Equations Relating the 15 Field Variables

Equilibrium Equations (3)
Strain-Displacement Relations (6)
Stress-Strain Relations (6)
For a Given Problem, the Theoretical Equations are
Combined with Boundary Conditions to Yield a
Boundary Value Problem (BVP) That Models the
Actual Mechanical Behavior of the System
If the Temperature or Moisture Changes or There are
Non Linear Elastic Materials in the System, Then We
Must Modify the Theory (Make it Harder)

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Goal is to Find:

u1 u1 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 11 11 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 11 11 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )
u 2 u 2 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 22 22 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 22 22 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )
u 3 u 3 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 33 33 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 33 33 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )
12 12 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 12 12 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )
13 13 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 13 13 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )
23 23 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t ) 23 23 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , t )

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Complete Theory - Solution Procedures

## Analytical: Usually Impossible Unless Excessive

Assumptions are Made. In Some Situations, Might
Be Useful for Order of Magnitude Type Estimates
Numerical:
Finite Element Method
Finite Difference Method
Experimental: Each Technique is Capable of
Measuring Only a Few (Typically Only One) of the
Stress/Strain/Displacement Components. The
Theoretical Equations of the Chosen Model can Help
Guide the Experiments and/or Calculate Other
Variables Using Those Measured.

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