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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as
copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is
behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the
deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure, which lowers its
resistance but also permits the creation of semiconductor junctions between differently-doped regions of the
extrinsic semiconductor crystal. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron
holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics.

Semiconductor devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one
direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat. Because the electrical
properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by doping, or by the application of electrical fields
or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy

The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the
movement of charge carriers in a crystal lattice.[1] Doping greatly increases the number of charge carriers
within the crystal. When a doped semiconductor contains mostly free holes it is called "p-type", and when it
contains mostly free electrons it is known as "n-type". The semiconductor materials used in electronic
devices are doped under precise conditions to control the concentration and regions of p- and n-type
dopants. A single semiconductor crystal can have many p- and n-type regions; the pn junctions between
these regions are responsible for the useful electronic behavior.

Although some pure elements and many compounds display semiconductor properties, silicon,[2]
germanium, and compounds of gallium are the most widely used in electronic devices. Elements near the
so-called "metalloid staircase", where the metalloids are located on the periodic table, are usually used as

Some of the properties of semiconductor materials were observed throughout the mid 19th and first decades
of the 20th century. The first practical application of semiconductors in electronics was the 1904
development of the Cat's-whisker detector, a primitive semiconductor diode widely used in early radio
receivers. Developments in quantum physics in turn allowed the development of the transistor in 1947[3]
and the integrated circuit in 1958.

1 Properties
2 Materials
2.1 Preparation of semiconductor materials
3 Physics of semiconductors
3.1 Energy bands and electrical conduction
3.2 Charge carriers (electrons and holes)
3.2.1 Carrier generation and recombination
3.3 Doping
4 Early history of semiconductors
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading

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8 External links

Variable conductivity
Semiconductors in their natural state are poor conductors because a current requires the flow of
electrons, and semiconductors have their valence bands filled, preventing the entry flow of new
electrons. There are several developed techniques that allow semiconducting materials to behave like
conducting materials, such as doping or gating. These modifications have two outcomes: n-type and
p-type. These refer to the excess or shortage of electrons, respectively. An unbalanced number of
electrons would cause a current to flow through the material.[4]
Heterojunctions occur when two differently doped semiconducting materials are joined together. For
example, a configuration could consist of p-doped and n-doped germanium. This results in an
exchange of electrons and holes between the differently doped semiconducting materials. The
n-doped germanium would have an excess of electrons, and the p-doped germanium would have an
excess of holes. The transfer occurs until equilibrium is reached by a process called recombination,
which causes the migrating electrons from the n-type to come in contact with the migrating holes
from the p-type. A product of this process is charged ions, which result in an electric field.[1][4]
Excited electrons
A difference in electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal
equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation. This introduces electrons and holes to the system,
which interact via a process called ambipolar diffusion. Whenever thermal equilibrium is disturbed in
a semiconducting material, the amount of holes and electrons changes. Such disruptions can occur as
a result of a temperature difference or photons, which can enter the system and create electrons and
holes. The process that creates and annihilates electrons and holes are called generation and
Light emission
In certain semiconductors, excited electrons can relax by emitting light instead of producing heat.[5]
These semiconductors are used in the construction of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent quantum
Thermal energy conversion
Semiconductors have large thermoelectric power factors making them useful in thermoelectric
generators, as well as high thermoelectric figures of merit making them useful in thermoelectric

A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including:[7]

Certain pure elements are found in Group 14 of the periodic table; the most commercially important
of these elements are silicon and germanium. Silicon and germanium are used here effectively
because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell which gives them the ability to gain or
lose electrons equally at the same time.
Binary compounds, particularly between elements in Groups 13 and 15, such as gallium arsenide,
Groups 12 and 16, groups 14 and 16, and between different group 14 elements, e.g. silicon carbide.
Certain ternary compounds, oxides and alloys.
Organic semiconductors, made of organic compounds.

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Most common semiconducting materials are crystalline solids, but

amorphous and liquid semiconductors are also known. These include
hydrogenated amorphous silicon and mixtures of arsenic, selenium
and tellurium in a variety of proportions. These compounds share
with better known semiconductors the properties of intermediate
conductivity and a rapid variation of conductivity with temperature,
as well as occasional negative resistance. Such disordered materials
lack the rigid crystalline structure of conventional semiconductors
such as silicon. They are generally used in thin film structures,
which do not require material of higher electronic quality, being
relatively insensitive to impurities and radiation damage.

Preparation of semiconductor materials Silicon crystals are the most common

semiconducting materials used in
Almost all of today's electronic technology involves the use of microelectronics and photovoltaics.
semiconductors, with the most important aspect being the integrated
circuit (IC), which are found in laptops, scanners, cell-phones, etc.
Semiconductors for ICs are mass-produced. To create an ideal semiconducting material, chemical purity is
paramount. Any small imperfection can have a drastic effect on how the semiconducting material behaves
due to the scale at which the materials are used.[4]

A high degree of crystalline perfection is also required, since faults in crystal structure (such as dislocations,
twins, and stacking faults) interfere with the semiconducting properties of the material. Crystalline faults are
a major cause of defective semiconductor devices. The larger the crystal, the more difficult it is to achieve
the necessary perfection. Current mass production processes use crystal ingots between 100 and 300 mm (4
and 12 in) in diameter which are grown as cylinders and sliced into wafers.

There is a combination of processes that is used to prepare semiconducting materials for ICs. One process is
called thermal oxidation, which forms silicon dioxide on the surface of the silicon. This is used as a gate
insulator and field oxide. Other processes are called photomasks and photolithography. This process is what
creates the patterns on the circuity in the integrated circuit. Ultraviolet light is used along with a photoresist
layer to create a chemical change that generates the patterns for the circuit.[4]

Etching is the next process that is required. The part of the silicon that was not covered by the photoresist
layer from the previous step can now be etched. The main process typically used today is called plasma
etching. Plasma etching usually involves an etch gas pumped in a low-pressure chamber to create plasma. A
common etch gas is chlorofluorocarbon, or more commonly known Freon. A high radio-frequency voltage
between the cathode and anode is what creates the plasma in the chamber. The silicon wafer is located on
the cathode, which causes it to be hit by the positively charged ions that are released from the plasma. The
end result is silicon that is etched anisotropically.[1][4]

The last process is called diffusion. This is the process that gives the semiconducting material its desired
semiconducting properties. It is also known as doping. The process introduces an impure atom to the
system, which creates the p-n junction. In order to get the impure atoms embedded in the silicon wafer, the
wafer is first put in a 1100 degree Celsius chamber. The atoms are injected in and eventually diffuse with the
silicon. After the process is completed and the silicon has reached room temperature, the doping process is
done and the semiconducting material is ready to be used in an integrated circuit.[1][4]

Physics of semiconductors
Energy bands and electrical conduction

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Semiconductors are defined by their unique electric

conductive behavior, somewhere between that of a
conductor and an insulator.[8] The differences between
these materials can be understood in terms of the
quantum states for electrons, each of which may contain
zero or one electron (by the Pauli exclusion principle).
These states are associated with the electronic band
structure of the material. Electrical conductivity arises
due to the presence of electrons in states that are Filling of the electronic states in various types of
delocalized (extending through the material), however materials at equilibrium. Here, height is energy
in order to transport electrons a state must be partially
while width is the density of available states for a
filled, containing an electron only part of the time.[9] If certain energy in the material listed. The shade
the state is always occupied with an electron, then it is follows the FermiDirac distribution (black = all
inert, blocking the passage of other electrons via that states filled, white = no state filled). In metals and
state. The energies of these quantum states are critical, semimetals the Fermi level EF lies inside at least
since a state is partially filled only if its energy is near
one band. In insulators and semiconductors the
the Fermi level (see FermiDirac statistics).
Fermi level is inside a band gap; however, in
High conductivity in a material comes from it having semiconductors the bands are near enough to the
many partially filled states and much state Fermi level to be thermally populated with
delocalization. Metals are good electrical conductors electrons or holes.
and have many partially filled states with energies near
their Fermi level. Insulators, by contrast, have few partially filled states, their Fermi levels sit within band
gaps with few energy states to occupy. Importantly, an insulator can be made to conduct by increasing its
temperature: heating provides energy to promote some electrons across the band gap, inducing partially
filled states in both the band of states beneath the band gap (valence band) and the band of states above the
band gap (conduction band). An (intrinsic) semiconductor has a band gap that is smaller than that of an
insulator and at room temperature significant numbers of electrons can be excited to cross the band gap.[10]

A pure semiconductor, however, is not very useful, as it is neither a very good insulator nor a very good
conductor. However, one important feature of semiconductors (and some insulators, known as
semi-insulators) is that their conductivity can be increased and controlled by doping with impurities and
gating with electric fields. Doping and gating move either the conduction or valence band much closer to the
Fermi level, and greatly increase the number of partially filled states.

Some wider-band gap semiconductor materials are sometimes referred to as semi-insulators. When
undoped, these have electrical conductivity nearer to that of electrical insulators, however they can be doped
(making them as useful as semiconductors). Semi-insulators find niche applications in micro-electronics,
such as substrates for HEMT. An example of a common semi-insulator is gallium arsenide.[11] Some
materials, such as titanium dioxide, can even be used as insulating materials for some applications, while
being treated as wide-gap semiconductors for other applications.

Charge carriers (electrons and holes)

The partial filling of the states at the bottom of the conduction band can be understood as adding electrons
to that band. The electrons do not stay indefinitely (due to the natural thermal recombination) but they can
move around for some time. The actual concentration of electrons is typically very dilute, and so (unlike in
metals) it is possible to think of the electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor as a sort of
classical ideal gas, where the electrons fly around freely without being subject to the Pauli exclusion
principle. In most semiconductors the conduction bands have a parabolic dispersion relation, and so these
electrons respond to forces (electric field, magnetic field, etc.) much like they would in a vacuum, though
with a different effective mass.[10] Because the electrons behave like an ideal gas, one may also think about
conduction in very simplistic terms such as the Drude model, and introduce concepts such as electron

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For partial filling at the top of the valence band, it is helpful to introduce the concept of an electron hole.
Although the electrons in the valence band are always moving around, a completely full valence band is
inert, not conducting any current. If an electron is taken out of the valence band, then the trajectory that the
electron would normally have taken is now missing its charge. For the purposes of electric current, this
combination of the full valence band, minus the electron, can be converted into a picture of a completely
empty band containing a positively charged particle that moves in the same way as the electron. Combined
with the negative effective mass of the electrons at the top of the valence band, we arrive at a picture of a
positively charged particle that responds to electric and magnetic fields just as a normal positively charged
particle would do in vacuum, again with some positive effective mass.[10] This particle is called a hole, and
the collection of holes in the valence band can again be understood in simple classical terms (as with the
electrons in the conduction band).

Carrier generation and recombination

When ionizing radiation strikes a semiconductor, it may excite an electron out of its energy level and
consequently leave a hole. This process is known as electronhole pair generation. Electron-hole pairs are
constantly generated from thermal energy as well, in the absence of any external energy source.

Electron-hole pairs are also apt to recombine. Conservation of energy demands that these recombination
events, in which an electron loses an amount of energy larger than the band gap, be accompanied by the
emission of thermal energy (in the form of phonons) or radiation (in the form of photons).

In some states, the generation and recombination of electronhole pairs are in equipoise. The number of
electron-hole pairs in the steady state at a given temperature is determined by quantum statistical mechanics.
The precise quantum mechanical mechanisms of generation and recombination are governed by
conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.

As the probability that electrons and holes meet together is proportional to the product of their amounts, the
product is in steady state nearly constant at a given temperature, providing that there is no significant
electric field (which might "flush" carriers of both types, or move them from neighbour regions containing
more of them to meet together) or externally driven pair generation. The product is a function of the
temperature, as the probability of getting enough thermal energy to produce a pair increases with
temperature, being approximately exp(EG/kT), where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is absolute temperature
and EG is band gap.

The probability of meeting is increased by carrier trapsimpurities or dislocations which can trap an
electron or hole and hold it until a pair is completed. Such carrier traps are sometimes purposely added to
reduce the time needed to reach the steady state.[12]


The conductivity of semiconductors may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal
lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of
impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped
semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic. By adding impurity to the pure semiconductors, the electrical
conductivity may be varied by factors of thousands or millions.

A 1 cm3 specimen of a metal or semiconductor has of the order of 1022 atoms. In a metal, every atom
donates at least one free electron for conduction, thus 1 cm3 of metal contains on the order of 1022 free
electrons, whereas a 1 cm3 sample of pure germanium at 20 C contains about 4.2 1022 atoms, but only

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2.5 1013 free electrons and 2.5 1013 holes. The addition of 0.001% of arsenic (an impurity) donates an
extra 1017 free electrons in the same volume and the electrical conductivity is increased by a factor of

The materials chosen as suitable dopants depend on the atomic properties of both the dopant and the
material to be doped. In general, dopants that produce the desired controlled changes are classified as either
electron acceptors or donors. Semiconductors doped with donor impurities are called n-type, while those
doped with acceptor impurities are known as p-type. The n and p type designations indicate which charge
carrier acts as the material's majority carrier. The opposite carrier is called the minority carrier, which exists
due to thermal excitation at a much lower concentration compared to the majority carrier.

For example, the pure semiconductor silicon has four valence electrons which bond each silicon atom to its
neighbors. In silicon, the most common dopants are group III and group V elements. Group III elements all
contain three valence electrons, causing them to function as acceptors when used to dope silicon. When an
acceptor atom replaces a silicon atom in the crystal, a vacant state ( an electron "hole") is created, which can
move around the lattice and functions as a charge carrier. Group V elements have five valence electrons,
which allows them to act as a donor; substitution of these atoms for silicon creates an extra free electron.
Therefore, a silicon crystal doped with boron creates a p-type semiconductor whereas one doped with
phosphorus results in an n-type material.

During manufacture, dopants can be diffused into the semiconductor body by contact with gaseous
compounds of the desired element, or ion implantation can be used to accurately position the doped regions.

Early history of semiconductors

The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of
materials. The properties of negative temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity
were observed starting in the early 19th century.

Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in 1821.[13] In 1833,
Michael Faraday reported that the resistance of specimens of silver sulfide decreases when they are heated.
This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In 1839, A. E. Becquerel reported
observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte when struck by light, the photovoltaic
effect. In 1873 Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance when light
falls on them. In 1874 Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulphides,
although this effect had been discovered much earlier by M.A. Rosenschold writing for the Annalen der
Physik und Chemie in 1835,[14] and Arthur Schuster found that a copper oxide layer on wires has
rectification properties that ceases when the wires are cleaned. Adams and Day observed the photovoltaic
effect in selenium in 1876.[15]

A unified explanation of these phenomena required a theory of solid-state physics which developed greatly
in the first half of the 20th Century. In 1878 Edwin Herbert Hall demonstrated the deflection of flowing
charge carriers by an applied magnetic field, the Hall effect. The discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson
in 1897 prompted theories of electron-based conduction in solids. Karl Baedeker, by observing a Hall effect
with the reverse sign to that in metals, theorized that copper iodide had positive charge carriers. Johan
Koenigsberger classified solid materials as metals, insulators and "variable conductors" in 1914 although his
student Josef Weiss already introduced the term Halbleiter (semiconductor in modern meaning) in PhD
thesis in 1910.[16][17] Felix Bloch published a theory of the movement of electrons through atomic lattices in
1928. In 1930, B. Gudden stated that conductivity in semiconductors was due to minor concentrations of
impurities. By 1931, the band theory of conduction had been established by Alan Herries Wilson and the
concept of band gaps had been developed. Walter H. Schottky and Nevill Francis Mott developed models of
the potential barrier and of the characteristics of a metal-semiconductor junction. By 1938, Boris Davydov

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had developed a theory of the copper-oxide rectifier, identifying the effect of the pn junction and the
importance of minority carriers and surface states.[18]

Agreement between theoretical predictions (based on developing quantum mechanics) and experimental
results was sometimes poor. This was later explained by John Bardeen as due to the extreme "structure
sensitive" behavior of semiconductors, whose properties change dramatically based on tiny amounts of
impurities.[18] Commercially pure materials of the 1920s containing varying proportions of trace
contaminants produced differing experimental results. This spurred the development of improved material
refining techniques, culminating in modern semiconductor refineries producing materials with parts-
per-trillion purity.

Devices using semiconductors were at first constructed based on empirical knowledge, before
semiconductor theory provided a guide to construction of more capable and reliable devices.

Alexander Graham Bell used the light-sensitive property of selenium to transmit sound over a beam of light
in 1880. A working solar cell, of low efficiency, was constructed by Charles Fritts in 1883 using a metal
plate coated with selenium and a thin layer of gold; the device became commercially useful in photographic
light meters in the 1930s.[18] Point-contact microwave detector rectifiers made of lead sulfide were used by
Jagadish Chandra Bose in 1904; the cat's-whisker detector using natural galena or other materials became a
common device in the development of radio. However, it was somewhat unpredictable in operation and
required manual adjustment for best performance. In 1906 H.J. Round observed light emission when electric
current passed through silicon carbide crystals, the principle behind the light-emitting diode. Oleg Losev
observed similar light emission in 1922 but at the time the effect had no practical use. Power rectifiers,
using copper oxide and selenium, were developed in the 1920s and became commercially important as an
alternative to vacuum tube rectifiers.[15][18]

In the years preceding World War II, infra-red detection and communications devices prompted research
into lead-sulfide and lead-selenide materials. These devices were used for detecting ships and aircraft, for
infrared rangefinders, and for voice communication systems. The point-contact crystal detector became vital
for microwave radio systems, since available vacuum tube devices could not serve as detectors above about
4000 MHz; advanced radar systems relied on the fast response of crystal detectors. Considerable research
and development of silicon materials occurred during the war to develop detectors of consistent quality.[18]

Detector and power rectifiers could not amplify a signal. Many efforts were made to develop a solid-state
amplifier, but these were unsuccessful because of limited theoretical understanding of semiconductor
materials.[18] In 1922 Oleg Losev developed two-terminal, negative resistance amplifiers for radio;
however, he perished in the Siege of Leningrad. In 1926 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a device
resembling a modern field-effect transistor, but it was not practical. R. Hilsch and R. W. Pohl in 1938
demonstrated a solid-state amplifier using a structure resembling the control grid of a vacuum tube;
although the device displayed power gain, it had a cut-off frequency of one cycle per second, too low for
any practical applications, but an effective application of the available theory.[18] At Bell Labs, William
Shockley and A. Holden started investigating solid-state amplifiers in 1938. The first pn junction in silicon
was observed by Russell Ohl about 1941, when a specimen was found to be light-sensitive, with a sharp
boundary between p-type impurity at one end and n-type at the other. A slice cut from the specimen at the
pn boundary developed a voltage when exposed to light.

In France, during the war, Herbert Matar had observed amplification between adjacent point contacts on a
germanium base. After the war, Matar's group announced their "Transistron" amplifier only shortly after
Bell Labs announced the "transistor".

See also

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Semiconductor - Wikipedia

Semiconductor industry
Semiconductor characterization techniques

1. Feynman, Richard (1963). Feynman Lectures on Physics. Basic Books.
2. "Silicon Semiconductor" ( Retrieved
2017-02-15. External link in |website= (help)
3. Shockley, William (1950). Electrons and holes in semiconductors : with applications to transistor electronics. R.
E. Krieger Pub. Co. ISBN 0-88275-382-7.
4. Neamen, Donald. "Semiconductor Physics and Devices" (
/403/Semiconductor%20Physics%20And%20Devices%20-%20Donald%20Neamen.pdf) (PDF). Elizabeth A.
5. By Abdul Al-Azzawi. "Light and Optics: Principles and Practices (
sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMncyJmqjLAhVBxWMKHWuiBy0Q6AEIIjAB#v=onepage&q&f=false)." 2007. March
4, 2016.
6. "How do thermoelectric coolers (TECs) work?" (
thermoelectric-coolers-tecs-work.html). Retrieved 2016-05-07.
7. B.G. Yacobi, Semiconductor Materials: An Introduction to Basic Principles, Springer 2003 ISBN 0-306-47361-5,
pp. 13
8. Yu, Peter (2010). Fundamentals of Semiconductors. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-00709-5.
9. As in the Mott formula for conductivity, see Cutler, M.; Mott, N. (1969). "Observation of Anderson Localization
in an Electron Gas". Physical Review. 181 (3): 1336. Bibcode:1969PhRv..181.1336C (
/abs/1969PhRv..181.1336C). doi:10.1103/PhysRev.181.1336 (
10. Charles Kittel (1995) Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. Wiley, ISBN 0-471-11181-3.
11. J. W. Allen (1960). "Gallium Arsenide as a semi-insulator". Nature. 187 (4735): 403405.
Bibcode:1960Natur.187..403A ( doi:10.1038/187403b0
12. Louis Nashelsky, Robert L.Boylestad. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (9th ed.). India: Prentice-Hall of
India Private Limited. pp. 710. ISBN 978-81-203-2967-6.
13. (
14. Google Books (
15. Lidia ukasiak & Andrzej Jakubowski (January 2010). "History of Semiconductors" (
/czasopisma/JTIT/2010/1/3.pdf) (PDF). Journal of Telecommunication and Information Technology: 3.
16. Busch, G (1989). "Early history of the physics and chemistry of semiconductors-from doubts to fact in a hundred
years". European Journal of Physics. 10 (4): 254264. Bibcode:1989EJPh...10..254B (
/abs/1989EJPh...10..254B). doi:10.1088/0143-0807/10/4/002 (
17. Google Books (
18. Peter Robin Morris (1990) A History of the World Semiconductor Industry, IET, ISBN 0-86341-227-0, pp. 1125

Further reading
A. A. Balandin & K. L. Wang (2006). Handbook of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Nanodevices
(5-Volume Set). American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-073-X.
Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons (WIE).
ISBN 0-471-05661-8.
Turley, Jim (2002). The Essential Guide to Semiconductors. Prentice Hall PTR.
ISBN 0-13-046404-X.

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Semiconductor - Wikipedia

Yu, Peter Y.; Cardona, Manuel (2004). Fundamentals of Semiconductors : Physics and Materials
Properties. Springer. ISBN 3-540-41323-5.
Sadao Adachi (2012). The Handbook on Optical Constants of Semiconductors: In Tables and Figures.
World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 978-981-4405-97-3.
G. B. Abdullayev, T. D. Dzhafarov, S. Torstveit (Translator), Atomic Diffusion in Semiconductor
Structures, Gordon & Breach Science Pub., 1987 ISBN 978-2-88124-152-9

External links
Howstuffworks' semiconductor page
Wikimedia Commons has
( media related to
Semiconductor Concepts at Hyperphysics Semiconductors.
Calculator for the intrinsic carrier concentration (
carrier-concentration/) in silicon
Semiconductor OneSource Hall of Fame (, Glossary
Principles of Semiconductor Devices ( by Bart Van
Zeghbroeck, University of Colorado. An online textbook]
US Navy Electrical Engineering Training Series (
NSM-Archive ( Physical Properties of
Semiconductor Manufacturer List (
ABACUS ( Introduction to Semiconductor Devices
by Gerhard Klimeck and Dragica Vasileska, online learning resource with simulation tools on
Organic Semiconductor page (
DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package- "Introduction to Semiconductors"

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