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# MAGNETOSTATIC

CHAPTER 2

BEB 20303
Magnetostatic

## Introduction to Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field Intensity from Biot-Savarts Law
Stokes Theorem
Amperes Law
Infinite Line Current
Infinite Sheet of Current
Infinitely long Coaxial Transmission Line
Magnetic Flux Density
Maxwell Equations
Introduction to Magnetic Field
An electrostatic field is produced by static (stationary) charges.
The magnetostatic field or static magnetic field is produced by a
constant current flow (direct current).
The current may be due to;
Magnetization currents as in permanent magnet.
Electron beam currents as in vacuum tubes.
Conduction currents as in current-carrying wires
Two major laws governing magnetostatic fields are;
Biot-Savarts law
Amperes circuit law
The use of magnetic phenomena can be found out in many
applications such as motors, transformer, microphone, compasses,
telephone bell ringers, television focusing controls, advertising
displays, magnetic separators, memory store and etc.
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Magnetic fields can be produced by permanent magnets and steady
electric currents as illustrated in figure below;

in Wire Wire

## Magnetic Field Sources

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
A permanent magnet such as bar magnet has a magnetic field
surrounding it that consists of lines of forces or flux lines.

## The direction of the

magnetic field near
the poles of a
magnet is revealed
by placing compasses
nearby.
The magnetic field
points towards a
magnet's south pole
and away from its
Iron filings in the north pole.
presence of a magnet
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Attraction and Repulsion:
Like poles repel each other
Opposite poles attract each
other

## Hans Christian Oersted in 1819

Electric Current Magnetic Field
Compass needle was deflected by a current in a wire.
The needle always turned in the direction perpendicular to the
current-carrying wire and to the radial line connecting the
wire to the needle.
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Steady Current & Current Density in a Conductor:
A stationary charge will produce electrostatic field intensity.
If the same charge moves in a steady velocity, it forms a steady
current and produces magnetic field intensity.

dq
I
dt
** uppercase letter I = steady current
There are three types of electric current distributions:
1) Filamentary current
2) Surface current
3) Volume current
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Steady Current & Current Density in a Conductor:

dl
K
I KdS
J Jdv

## 2) Surface / sheet current, K

I = l u K = s u J = v u
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Current-carrying wire induces a magnetic field that formed
closed circular loops around the wire.

## **Right hand rule

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Two parallel conductors carrying same direction current are
attracted towards each other, and vice versa.

## A sign CROSS indicates the

A sign DOT indicates the current is flowing IN along
current is flowing OUT along the conductor
the conductor
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
Steady Magnetic field for Current Loops:
Magnetic Field Pattern is similar to that of a permanent magnetic
and a pattern of the electric field of the electric dipole
Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)
The magnetic field is characterized by the B and H vectors.
Both are related by the permeability (or magnetic constant) of
the medium. B = H
The vector field H is known as the magnetic field intensity or
magnetic field strength:
H is measured in Amperes per meter (A/m).
The vector field B is known as magnetic flux density or magnetic
induction or simply magnetic field:
B has the units of Teslas (T), equivalent to Webers per square
meter (Wb/m) or volt-seconds per square meter (V s/m).
Biot-Savarts Law

## Biot-Savartss Law states that the differential magnetic field

intensity, dH produced at a point P by the differential current
element I dl is proportional to the product I dl and the sine of the
angle between the element and the line joining P to the element
and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance R
between P and the element.

## Idl sin Idl R

dH
4R 2
4R 3
or (A/m)
Idl R
H
4R 3
Biot-Savarts Law (Cont.)

## The direction of dH can be

determined by using:
The right hand rule: where the
right hand thumb pointing in the
direction of the current and the rest
of right hand fingers encircling the
wire in the direction of dH.
The right-handed screw rule:
where the screw placed along the
wire and pointed in the direction of
current flow. The direction of
advance of the screw is the
direction of dH.
Biot-Savarts Law (Cont.)

## with a dot sign to indicate the dH is outward and

dH is out dH is in
with a cross sign to indicate the dH is inward.

dH is out dH is in
Magnetic Field Intensity from Biot-Savarts Law

## The magnetic field intensity, H for different current distributions:

dl
Id l R
I H L 4 R 3
Line current

K
K dS R

KdS
H Surface current
S 4 R 3

J dv R Volume current
H
Jdv v 4 R 3
J

## where K is surface current density (A/m)

J is volume current density (A/m2)
Example 1

## Determine magnetic field intensity at point P due to a

straight current-carrying filamentary conductor of
finite length AB.
Solution of Example 1
Example 2
The conducting triangular loop in figure below carries a current of
10A. Find H at P(0,0,5) due to side 1 of the loop.

3 2

1
Solution of Example 2
Stokess Theorem

## Stokess theorem converts the surface integral of the curl of the

vector over an open surface S into a line integral of the vector along
the contour C bounding by the surface S

## Mathematically, stokess theorem

is given by

B dl B dS
C S
Stokess Theorem (Cont.)
Curl of a Vector B:
In Cartesian coordinates,

B dl
B lim L
a
x y z

S 0 S B
n

x y z
Bx By Bz

## In cylindrical coordinates, In spherical coordinates,

r r z r r (r sin )
1 1
B B 2
r r z r sin r
B r rB Bz Br rB (r sin ) B
Amperes Law

## Amperes law states that the line integral of the tangential

components of H around a closed path is the same as the net current
Ienc enclosed by the path.

## The integral form of Amperes Circuit Law

H dl I enc
Amperes Circuit Law is used when we want to determine H
when the current distribution is symmetrical.
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## By applying Stokess theorem to integral form of Amperes

Circuit Law. We obtain
I enc H dl ( H) dS
L S

But I enc J dS
S

## Therefore, the differential or point form of Amperes Circuit

Law is given by;

H J
**Third Maxwells Equation: Amperes law in point form
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## Infinite Line Current:

To determine H at an observation
point P, we allow a closed path
pass through P known as an
Amperian path (different to
Gaussian surface)
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## Since the amperian path encloses the whole current I, according

to Amperes law:

H dl I enc
I H rd H r d H 2 r
Thus
I
H
2r
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## Infinite Sheet of current:

Consider an infinite current sheet in the z = 0 plane with a
uniform current density K = Kyay A/m
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## Infinite Sheet of current (solution):

Amperes Law (Cont.)
Infinitely long coaxial transmission line:
Consider an infinitely long transmission line consisting of two
concentric cylinders having their axes along the z-axis.
The inner conductor has radius a and
carries current I while the outer
conductor has inner radius b and
thickness t and carries return current -I.
Since the current distribution is
symmetrical, we apply Ampere's law
for the Amperian path for each of the
four possible regions:
0 r a,
a r b,
b r b + t, a n d
rb+t.
Amperes Law (Cont.)

## Infinitely long coaxial transmission line:

0 r a,
Ir
H
2a 2
a r b,
I
H
2r
b r b + t,
I r 2 b2
H 1 2
2r t 2bt
rb+t
H 0
Magnetic Flux density

## Magnetic Flux Lines Magnetic flux through a surface S is

given by:

B dS
S

I
Unit is webers (Wb) and
S
N Unit of B is webers/square meter
N
(Wb/m2)
S
Magnetic flux density, B is given by:

B 0 H
0 4 107 (H/m) is permeability of free space.
Magnetic Flux density (Cont.)

## Magnetic flux lines always close upon

themselves - NOT POSSIBLE to have
isolated magnetic poles (or magnetic
charges)
An isolated magnetic charge does not
exist
Thus the total flux through a closed
surface is zero

B dS 0
Law of conservation of magnetic flux
or Gauss Law for magnetostatic field
Magnetic Flux density (Cont.)

B dS Bdv 0
S v

## It suggest that magnetic field lines are always continuous

Maxwells Equations for Static EM Fields
Magnetic Force, Material And Devices

## Force Generated by Magnetic Field

Force on a Charged Particle
Force on a Current Element
Force between Two Current Elements
Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment
Magnetic Material
Magnetization in Materials
Classification of Magnetic Materials
Magnetic Boundary Conditions
Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## Force due to magnetic fields can be experienced in three ways:

Force due to a moving charged particle in a B field,
Force on a current element in an external B field, and
Force between two current elements.

## A) Force on a Charged Particle

The electric force, Fe acting on a stationary or moving charge q in
an electric field, E is,
Fe = qE (N)
The magnetic force, Fm experienced by a charge, q moving with a
constant velocity, u in a magnetic field, B is

Fm = qu X B (N)
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## For a moving charge in the presence of both E and B fields, the

total electromagnetic on the charge is given by Lorentz force
equation as

## If the mass of the charged particle moving in E and B fields is m,

by Newton's second law of motion;

du
F ma m q (E u B)
dt
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## Electric Force, Fe Magnetic Force, Fm

Fe and E have the same
Fm is perpendicular to both u and B.
direction if Q is +ve.
Fe is independent of the Fm depends on the charge velocity
velocity of the charge. (charge in motion).
Fm cannot perform work when
Fe expends energy (work
particle is displaced because it is at
done) in displacing a
right angles to the direction of motion
charged particle.
of the charge.
Fe change the kinetic Fm does not cause an increase in
energy of the charge. kinetic energy of the charge.
The magnitude of Fm is generally small compared to Fe except at
high velocities.
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## Fm = q u X B (N) Vector cross product

The magnitude of magnetic force, Fm is
Fm = q u B sin (N)
where is the angle between u and B
If q is negative charge, the direction of Fm is reversed.

AXB
B

B sin
n
A
Example 1

## An electron moving in the positive x-direction perpendicular to a

magnetic field experiences a deflection in the negative z-direction.
What is the direction of the magnetic field?
Solution of Example 1

Fm = q u X B

In this case,

q e

u ux

Fm Fm ( z ) Fm z

Fm z eux B

direction.
Example 2

## A proton moving with a speed of 2 x 106 m/s through a magnetic field

with magnetic flux density of 2.5 T experiences a magnetic force of
magnitude 4 x 10-13 N. What is the angle between the magnetic field
and the protons velocity?
Solution of Example 2

## The magnetic force acting on a moving charged particle is

Fm = q u B sin
In this case,

q e 1.6 10 19
u 2 106 m/s
B 2.5 T
Fm 4 10 13 N

Fm quB sin
13
F 4 10
sin 1 m sin 1 30 0

Example 3

## A charged particle with velocity u is moving in a medium containing

uniform fields E Ex and B By . What should u be so that the
particle experiences no net force on it?
Solution of Example 3

Fe qE qEx

Fm qu B q(u By )
For net force to be zero,

F Fe Fm qEx q(u By )

0 qEx q(u By )

Ex u By
E
( x ) u y
B
u has to be along positive z-axis,
Thus
E
( x ) uz y
B
E E E
( x) u ( x)
u u z
B B B
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## B) Force on a Current Element

Now we wish to find force, Fm on a line conducting current in the
presence of a magnetic field, B.
The differential force, dFm on a small segment dq of a charge
moving with velocity u is

dFm dqu B
The velocity of charge can be written as

dl
u
dt
dl
Then, dFm dq B Idl B
dt
Fm Idl B
***where dq/dt corresponds to the current I in the line and the B field
is external to the current element I dl
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## No current flows I is upward I is downward

No deflection wire is deflected wire is deflected
to the left to the right
The total force on any closed current loop in a uniform magnetic
field is zero because the integral of the displacement vector dl over
a closed contour is zero
Idl 0
Example 4
The semicircular conductor shown below lies in the x-y plane and
carries a current I. The closed circuit is exposed to a uniform magnetic
field B B0 y . Determine
(a)the magnetic force, F1 on the straight section of the wire,
(b)the force F2 on the curved section,
(c)the total force on the closed loop.
Solution of Example 4 (1)

The magnetic force, F1 on the straight section of the wire:

F1 Idl B
In this case,
The length of wire is 2r (the diameter of the straight section)
The current flowing in y direction.

F1 Idl B
2r
I dl B
x 0
2r
I dxx B0 y
x 0

I x B0 z
2r
0
2 IrB0 z (N)
Solution of Example 4 (2)

The magnetic force, F2 on the curved section of the wire:

F2 Idl B
In this case,
dl rd and sin x cos y

Thus, dl B rd ( sin x cos y ) B0 y rB0 sin dz

F2 Idl B

I dl B
0

IrB0 sin d z
0

Ir cos 0 B0 z

2 IrB0 z (N)
Solution of Example 4 (3)

## The total force on the closed loop :

Fnet F1 F2
2 IrB0 z 2 IrB0 z
0
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## C) Force between two current elements

Now we wish to find force between two elements I1dl1and I2dl2.
According to Biot-Savart's law, both current elements produce
magnetic fields.
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

## Force d(dF1 )on

element I1dl1 is due to d (dF1 ) I1d l1 dB 2
the field dB2 produced
by element I2dl2
I 2 d l2 a R 21
From Biot-Savarts dB 2 0 A/m
law 4R21 2

I 2 d l2 a R 21
d (dF1 ) I1d l1 0
The force is 4R21 2

0 I1 I 2 d l1 (d l2 a R 21 )
Total force F1 on F1
4 l1
l 2 R212
current loop I1 due to
current loop I2 is
Force Generated by Magnetic Field

The total force F2 on current loop I2 due the magnetic field from
current loop I1 is

0 I 2 I1 d l2 (d l1 a R12 )
F2
4 l2 l1 R122

Example 5

## Two infinite and parallel filamentary current are separated by a

distance d (m) and carrying I (A) in opposite direction along z-axis.
Determine force per unit length between both conductors.

I = I1 = I2

I1 I2
y
d

x
z
Solution of Example 5
z
B1
y
I1 I2 F2
x I2dl2
y

F2 I 2 dl2 B1
x d 0 I1
I 2 (dzz ) ( x )
2d
I I1 0 I1 I 2 l
H H1 x dz y
2r 2d 2d z 0
0 I1 0 I1 I 2 l
B 0 H B1 x y
2d 2d
dl dzz F2 0 I 2
y
l 2d
Example 6

## A square loop of wire in the z = 0 plane carrying current 2 mA in the

field of an infinite filament on the y-axis as shown below. Determine
the total force on the loop.

I1= 15 A
y
(1, 0, 0) (1, 2, 0)
1
2 4
(3, 0, 0) 3

x I2 = 2 mA
Solution of Example 6
Magnetic field B1acting on loop of wire by filamentary current.
z

I1= 15 A
y

x I2 = 2 mA
I I1 15
H H1 z z
2r 2x 2x
15 3 106
B1 0 H1 B1 0 z z T
2x x
Solution of Example 6
The force on the Force exerted on side 3 of the loop:
loop
is
F1 F2 F3 F4 I 2 dl2 B1 3 10 6
Floop F3 I 2 (dyy ) ( z )
Force exerted on side 1 of the loop: x
3 10 6 3 10 6
2
F1 I 2 (dyy ) ( z ) 2 10 3
dyx
x 3 y 0
3 3 10
6
2 4 10 9 x
2 10 dyx
1 y 0 Force exerted on side 4 of the loop:
12 10 9 x
3 10 6
F4 I 2 (dxx ) ( z )
Force exerted on side 2 of the loop: x
3 1
3 10 6 2 10 (3 10 )
3 6
dx y
F2 I 2 (dxx ) ( z ) x 1 x

6 10 9 ln x 1 y
x 3
3 1
2 10 (3 10 )
3 6
dx y 6.592 10 9 y
x 1 x

3

## 6.592 10 9 y Floop 12 10 9 x 6.592 10 9 y

4 10 9 x 6.592 10 9 y
8 10 9 x N
Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment
If the loop is placed parallel to a magnetic field, it experiences a
force that tends to rotate it.
The torque T (or mechanical moment of force) on the loop is the
vector product of the force F and the moment arm d.

T d F (N.m)

## The combination of forces F1 and F3 on the loop generates a torque

that tends to rotate the loop in a clockwise direction.
The arms 1 and 3 of the loop are
subjected to forces F1 and F3
respectively, with

F1 I (dyy ) B0 x
b
IB0 dyz
y 0

IB0bz

No magnetic force is F3 I (dyy ) B0 x
exerted on either arm 2 or
b
4 because B is parallel to IB0 dyz
the direction of the current y 0
flowing on those arms. IB0bz
The total magnetic torque is
T (d1 F1 ) (d 3 F3 )
a a
( x ) ( IB0bz ) ( x ) ( IB0bz )
2 2
IB0 aby
IB0 Ay A = ab is the area of the loop.
Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment
If B is not parallel to the plane of the loop, we have nonzero forces
on all four arms of the rectangular loop.
Forces F2 and F4 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction
and are along the rotation axis. T = 0
For forces F1 and F3, their moment arm is (a/2) sin .
The net torque exerted by the magnetic field is modified by sin ;

## T IB0 (a sin )by

IB0 A sin y
T IAB sin
T IAB sin
the magnetic dipole moment (in A/m2) of the loop.

m IAa n
an is a unit vector normal to the plane of the loop and its
direction is determined by the right-hand rule: fingers in
the direction of current and thumb along an.

## The magnetic dipole moment is the product of

current and area of the loop; its direction is normal to
the loop.

T m B
Magnetic Material
Magnetization in Materials
Material is composed of atoms and each atom maybe regarded as
consisting of electrons orbiting about the central positive nucleus;
the electrons also rotate (or spin) about their own axes.
An electron generates (a) an orbital magnetic moment mo as it
rotates around the nucleus and (b) a spin magnetic moment ms, as
it spins about its own axis.
Magnetic Material
An internal magnetic field is produced by electrons orbiting around
the nucleus or when electrons spinning.
Both of these electronic motions produce internal magnetic fields
B, that are similar to the magnetic field produced by a current loop.

(a) Orbiting electron (b) Spinning electron (c) Circular current loop
Magnetic Material
Without an external B field applied to the material, the sum of m's
is zero due to random orientation.

B =0, m = 0

v
When an external B field is applied, the magnetic moments of
electrons more or less align themselves with B so that the net
magnetic moment is not zero.
A medium for which the net magnetic moment is not zero
everywhere is said to be magnetized.
The magnetization M (in amperes/meter) is defined as the vector
sum of all the magnetic dipole moments per unit volume of
material. B

v
Magnetic Material
The magnetic flux density corresponding to magnetization M is

B m 0 M
With application of externally magnetic field, the total magnetic
flux density is
B 0 H 0 M
A material usually becomes magnetized in the presence of the
externally magnetic field, H.

M mH
where m is a dimensionless quantity (ratio of M to H) called magnetic
susceptibility of the Medium: a measure of how susceptible (or
sensitive) the material is to a magnetic field
Magnetic Material
Then, we have;

B 0 H 0 m H
0 (1 m )H
0 r H
H
permeability of material is 0 (1 m )
relative permeability of material r 1 m
Magnetic Material
Classification of Magnetic Materials
A material is said to be nonmagnetic if m = 0 (or r= 1) such as
free space and air; it is magnetic otherwise.
Magnetic materials may be grouped into three major classes:
diamagnetic
paramagnetic, and
ferromagnetic.
Most diamagnetic materials have very little influence by the
magnetic field.
In paramagnetic material, the magnetic dipoles tend to align up
with the field and becomes slightly magnetic when B is applied.
Ferromagnetic materials exhibit strong magnetic property even in
the absence of an externally applied field. It is used for permanent
magnet and also for screening or shielding.
Magnetic Material
Diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials have the
following properties;
Ferromagnetic Material
The magnetization behavior between B and H can be represented
by a magnetization curve or B-H curve. In ferromagnetic material,
it is nonlinear.
The complete magnetization process is termed a hysteresis loop.
Wide hysteresis loops = hard ferromagnetic materials
Narrow hysteresis loops = soft ferromagnetic materials
Magnetic Boundary Conditions
Magnetic boundary conditions are defined as the conditions that H
(or B) field must satisfy at the boundary between two different
media.
They are derived using Amperes circuital law (tangential
components) and Gausss law for magnetostatic fields (normal
components).

B dS 0 H dl I enc

## Gausss law for magnetostatic Amperes circuital law

Consider the boundary between two magnetic media 1 and 2,
characterized, respectively by 1 and 2.
Applying Gauss's law for magnetic fields to the pillbox (Gaussian
surface) and allowing h 0
The integral form of Gauss's law become

top
B dS B dS 0
bottom

top
B1nn 21 dSn 21
bottom
B 2 nn 21 dS(n 21 ) 0
B1n S B2 n S 0
B1n B2 n
1 H1n 2 H 2 n
To determine boundary condition for tangential components of B
and H, we apply Amperes circuital law to a small path abcd
The Amperes circuital law around path abcd becomes
H dl I enc

h h
H1t w H1n H 2 n ...
2 2
h h
H 2t w H 2 n H1n K w
2 2
and allowing h 0.
B1t B2t
H1t H 2t K K
1 2
If the surface free of current or medium is not conductor,
K = 0.
H1t H 2t
H1t H 2t 0 B1t B2t

1 2
Exercise 2
A conducting triangular loop as shown in Figure below carrying a
current of 5A is located closely to an infinitely long
straight conductor
with a current of 2A. Calculate the total force, F on the loop due to
infinite long straight conductor.

I = 5A

I = 2A
Example 7

## Given the permeability be 4 H/m in region 1 where z > 0 and 7 H/m

in region 2 where z 0. If there is a surface current density
K 80 x
A/m at z = 0 and if B1 2 x 3 y z mT . Determine B2
z

## The 1st step:

1 = 4 H/m
Sketch the K 80 x
problem. n21
B1n B1
1
B1t
xy-plane
B2n 2 B2

B2t
2 = 7 H/m
Solution of Example 7

The normal components of B1 are
B1 2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z

B1n B1 n21 (2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z ) z 110 3

B1n B1n n21 110 3 z T

B2 n B1n 110 3 z T
The tangential

components of B1 are
B1 B1t B1n

B1t B1 B1n (2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z ) (110 3 z )
(2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y ) T

B1t 2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y
H1t 6
500 x 750 y A/m
1 4 10

H 2t H1t K n21 (500 x 750 y ) (80 x z ) 500 x 670 y A/m

B2t 2 H 2t 7 10 6 (500 x 670 y ) (3.5 10 3 x 4.69 10 3 y ) T
Solution of Example 7
Therefore,

B2 B2t B2 n

B1t 3.5 10 3 x 4.69 10 3 y 110 3 z T
3.5 x 4.69 y z mT
Exercise 1
A rectangular loop as shown below lies in the xyplane at z = 0. Find
the total force exerted on the
rectangular loop located in free space if
the magnetic flux density, B is given by B (3/x)z T.

Exercise 2
A conducting triangular loop as shown in Figure below carrying a
current of 2A is located closely to an infinitely long
straight conductor
with a current of 5A. Calculate the total force, F on the loop due to
infinite long straight conductor.

Floop 4.39 x 0.19 y N
Exercise 3
Magnetic material with r1 = 4 in the region where y + z < 1.
However, material 2 with r2 = 6 in the region where y + z > 1. If
the
surface is free of current and B1 2 x y T . Determine B2 and H 2