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CHAPTER 2

BEB 20303

Magnetostatic

Magnetic Field Intensity from Biot-Savarts Law

Stokes Theorem

Amperes Law

Infinite Line Current

Infinite Sheet of Current

Infinitely long Coaxial Transmission Line

Magnetic Flux Density

Maxwell Equations

Introduction to Magnetic Field

An electrostatic field is produced by static (stationary) charges.

The magnetostatic field or static magnetic field is produced by a

constant current flow (direct current).

The current may be due to;

Magnetization currents as in permanent magnet.

Electron beam currents as in vacuum tubes.

Conduction currents as in current-carrying wires

Two major laws governing magnetostatic fields are;

Biot-Savarts law

Amperes circuit law

The use of magnetic phenomena can be found out in many

applications such as motors, transformer, microphone, compasses,

telephone bell ringers, television focusing controls, advertising

displays, magnetic separators, memory store and etc.

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Magnetic fields can be produced by permanent magnets and steady

electric currents as illustrated in figure below;

in Wire Wire

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

A permanent magnet such as bar magnet has a magnetic field

surrounding it that consists of lines of forces or flux lines.

magnetic field near

the poles of a

magnet is revealed

by placing compasses

nearby.

The magnetic field

points towards a

magnet's south pole

and away from its

Iron filings in the north pole.

presence of a magnet

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Attraction and Repulsion:

Like poles repel each other

Opposite poles attract each

other

Electric Current Magnetic Field

Compass needle was deflected by a current in a wire.

The needle always turned in the direction perpendicular to the

current-carrying wire and to the radial line connecting the

wire to the needle.

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Steady Current & Current Density in a Conductor:

A stationary charge will produce electrostatic field intensity.

If the same charge moves in a steady velocity, it forms a steady

current and produces magnetic field intensity.

dq

I

dt

** uppercase letter I = steady current

There are three types of electric current distributions:

1) Filamentary current

2) Surface current

3) Volume current

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Steady Current & Current Density in a Conductor:

dl

K

I KdS

J Jdv

I = l u K = s u J = v u

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Steady Magnetic field:

Current-carrying wire induces a magnetic field that formed

closed circular loops around the wire.

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Steady Magnetic field:

Two parallel conductors carrying same direction current are

attracted towards each other, and vice versa.

A sign DOT indicates the current is flowing IN along

current is flowing OUT along the conductor

the conductor

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

Steady Magnetic field for Current Loops:

Magnetic Field Pattern is similar to that of a permanent magnetic

and a pattern of the electric field of the electric dipole

Introduction to Magnetic Field (Cont.)

The magnetic field is characterized by the B and H vectors.

Both are related by the permeability (or magnetic constant) of

the medium. B = H

The vector field H is known as the magnetic field intensity or

magnetic field strength:

H is measured in Amperes per meter (A/m).

The vector field B is known as magnetic flux density or magnetic

induction or simply magnetic field:

B has the units of Teslas (T), equivalent to Webers per square

meter (Wb/m) or volt-seconds per square meter (V s/m).

Biot-Savarts Law

intensity, dH produced at a point P by the differential current

element I dl is proportional to the product I dl and the sine of the

angle between the element and the line joining P to the element

and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance R

between P and the element.

dH

4R 2

4R 3

or (A/m)

Idl R

H

4R 3

Biot-Savarts Law (Cont.)

determined by using:

The right hand rule: where the

right hand thumb pointing in the

direction of the current and the rest

of right hand fingers encircling the

wire in the direction of dH.

The right-handed screw rule:

where the screw placed along the

wire and pointed in the direction of

current flow. The direction of

advance of the screw is the

direction of dH.

Biot-Savarts Law (Cont.)

dH is out dH is in

with a cross sign to indicate the dH is inward.

dH is out dH is in

Magnetic Field Intensity from Biot-Savarts Law

dl

Id l R

I H L 4 R 3

Line current

K

K dS R

KdS

H Surface current

S 4 R 3

J dv R Volume current

H

Jdv v 4 R 3

J

J is volume current density (A/m2)

Example 1

straight current-carrying filamentary conductor of

finite length AB.

Solution of Example 1

Example 2

The conducting triangular loop in figure below carries a current of

10A. Find H at P(0,0,5) due to side 1 of the loop.

3 2

1

Solution of Example 2

Stokess Theorem

vector over an open surface S into a line integral of the vector along

the contour C bounding by the surface S

is given by

B dl B dS

C S

Stokess Theorem (Cont.)

Curl of a Vector B:

In Cartesian coordinates,

B dl

B lim L

a

x y z

S 0 S B

n

x y z

Bx By Bz

r r z r r (r sin )

1 1

B B 2

r r z r sin r

B r rB Bz Br rB (r sin ) B

Amperes Law

components of H around a closed path is the same as the net current

Ienc enclosed by the path.

H dl I enc

Amperes Circuit Law is used when we want to determine H

when the current distribution is symmetrical.

Amperes Law (Cont.)

Circuit Law. We obtain

I enc H dl ( H) dS

L S

But I enc J dS

S

Law is given by;

H J

**Third Maxwells Equation: Amperes law in point form

Amperes Law (Cont.)

To determine H at an observation

point P, we allow a closed path

pass through P known as an

Amperian path (different to

Gaussian surface)

Amperes Law (Cont.)

to Amperes law:

H dl I enc

I H rd H r d H 2 r

Thus

I

H

2r

Amperes Law (Cont.)

Consider an infinite current sheet in the z = 0 plane with a

uniform current density K = Kyay A/m

Amperes Law (Cont.)

Amperes Law (Cont.)

Infinitely long coaxial transmission line:

Consider an infinitely long transmission line consisting of two

concentric cylinders having their axes along the z-axis.

The inner conductor has radius a and

carries current I while the outer

conductor has inner radius b and

thickness t and carries return current -I.

Since the current distribution is

symmetrical, we apply Ampere's law

for the Amperian path for each of the

four possible regions:

0 r a,

a r b,

b r b + t, a n d

rb+t.

Amperes Law (Cont.)

0 r a,

Ir

H

2a 2

a r b,

I

H

2r

b r b + t,

I r 2 b2

H 1 2

2r t 2bt

rb+t

H 0

Magnetic Flux density

given by:

B dS

S

I

Unit is webers (Wb) and

S

N Unit of B is webers/square meter

N

(Wb/m2)

S

Magnetic flux density, B is given by:

B 0 H

0 4 107 (H/m) is permeability of free space.

Magnetic Flux density (Cont.)

themselves - NOT POSSIBLE to have

isolated magnetic poles (or magnetic

charges)

An isolated magnetic charge does not

exist

Thus the total flux through a closed

surface is zero

B dS 0

Law of conservation of magnetic flux

or Gauss Law for magnetostatic field

Magnetic Flux density (Cont.)

B dS Bdv 0

S v

Maxwells Equations for Static EM Fields

Magnetic Force, Material And Devices

Force on a Charged Particle

Force on a Current Element

Force between Two Current Elements

Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment

Magnetic Material

Magnetization in Materials

Classification of Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Boundary Conditions

Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

Force due to a moving charged particle in a B field,

Force on a current element in an external B field, and

Force between two current elements.

The electric force, Fe acting on a stationary or moving charge q in

an electric field, E is,

Fe = qE (N)

The magnetic force, Fm experienced by a charge, q moving with a

constant velocity, u in a magnetic field, B is

Fm = qu X B (N)

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

total electromagnetic on the charge is given by Lorentz force

equation as

by Newton's second law of motion;

du

F ma m q (E u B)

dt

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

Fe and E have the same

Fm is perpendicular to both u and B.

direction if Q is +ve.

Fe is independent of the Fm depends on the charge velocity

velocity of the charge. (charge in motion).

Fm cannot perform work when

Fe expends energy (work

particle is displaced because it is at

done) in displacing a

right angles to the direction of motion

charged particle.

of the charge.

Fe change the kinetic Fm does not cause an increase in

energy of the charge. kinetic energy of the charge.

The magnitude of Fm is generally small compared to Fe except at

high velocities.

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

The magnitude of magnetic force, Fm is

Fm = q u B sin (N)

where is the angle between u and B

If q is negative charge, the direction of Fm is reversed.

AXB

B

B sin

n

A

Example 1

magnetic field experiences a deflection in the negative z-direction.

What is the direction of the magnetic field?

Solution of Example 1

Fm = q u X B

In this case,

q e

u ux

Fm Fm ( z ) Fm z

Fm z eux B

direction.

Example 2

with magnetic flux density of 2.5 T experiences a magnetic force of

magnitude 4 x 10-13 N. What is the angle between the magnetic field

and the protons velocity?

Solution of Example 2

Fm = q u B sin

In this case,

q e 1.6 10 19

u 2 106 m/s

B 2.5 T

Fm 4 10 13 N

Fm quB sin

13

F 4 10

sin 1 m sin 1 30 0

Example 3

uniform fields E Ex and B By . What should u be so that the

particle experiences no net force on it?

Solution of Example 3

Fe qE qEx

Fm qu B q(u By )

For net force to be zero,

F Fe Fm qEx q(u By )

0 qEx q(u By )

Ex u By

E

( x ) u y

B

u has to be along positive z-axis,

Thus

E

( x ) uz y

B

E E E

( x) u ( x)

u u z

B B B

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

Now we wish to find force, Fm on a line conducting current in the

presence of a magnetic field, B.

The differential force, dFm on a small segment dq of a charge

moving with velocity u is

dFm dqu B

The velocity of charge can be written as

dl

u

dt

dl

Then, dFm dq B Idl B

dt

Fm Idl B

***where dq/dt corresponds to the current I in the line and the B field

is external to the current element I dl

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

No deflection wire is deflected wire is deflected

to the left to the right

The total force on any closed current loop in a uniform magnetic

field is zero because the integral of the displacement vector dl over

a closed contour is zero

Idl 0

Example 4

The semicircular conductor shown below lies in the x-y plane and

carries a current I. The closed circuit is exposed to a uniform magnetic

field B B0 y . Determine

(a)the magnetic force, F1 on the straight section of the wire,

(b)the force F2 on the curved section,

(c)the total force on the closed loop.

Solution of Example 4 (1)

The magnetic force, F1 on the straight section of the wire:

F1 Idl B

In this case,

The length of wire is 2r (the diameter of the straight section)

The current flowing in y direction.

F1 Idl B

2r

I dl B

x 0

2r

I dxx B0 y

x 0

I x B0 z

2r

0

2 IrB0 z (N)

Solution of Example 4 (2)

The magnetic force, F2 on the curved section of the wire:

F2 Idl B

In this case,

dl rd and sin x cos y

Thus, dl B rd ( sin x cos y ) B0 y rB0 sin dz

F2 Idl B

I dl B

0

IrB0 sin d z

0

Ir cos 0 B0 z

2 IrB0 z (N)

Solution of Example 4 (3)

Fnet F1 F2

2 IrB0 z 2 IrB0 z

0

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

Now we wish to find force between two elements I1dl1and I2dl2.

According to Biot-Savart's law, both current elements produce

magnetic fields.

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

element I1dl1 is due to d (dF1 ) I1d l1 dB 2

the field dB2 produced

by element I2dl2

I 2 d l2 a R 21

From Biot-Savarts dB 2 0 A/m

law 4R21 2

I 2 d l2 a R 21

d (dF1 ) I1d l1 0

The force is 4R21 2

0 I1 I 2 d l1 (d l2 a R 21 )

Total force F1 on F1

4 l1

l 2 R212

current loop I1 due to

current loop I2 is

Force Generated by Magnetic Field

The total force F2 on current loop I2 due the magnetic field from

current loop I1 is

0 I 2 I1 d l2 (d l1 a R12 )

F2

4 l2 l1 R122

Example 5

distance d (m) and carrying I (A) in opposite direction along z-axis.

Determine force per unit length between both conductors.

I = I1 = I2

I1 I2

y

d

x

z

Solution of Example 5

z

B1

y

I1 I2 F2

x I2dl2

y

F2 I 2 dl2 B1

x d 0 I1

I 2 (dzz ) ( x )

2d

I I1 0 I1 I 2 l

H H1 x dz y

2r 2d 2d z 0

0 I1 0 I1 I 2 l

B 0 H B1 x y

2d 2d

dl dzz F2 0 I 2

y

l 2d

Example 6

field of an infinite filament on the y-axis as shown below. Determine

the total force on the loop.

I1= 15 A

y

(1, 0, 0) (1, 2, 0)

1

2 4

(3, 0, 0) 3

x I2 = 2 mA

Solution of Example 6

Magnetic field B1acting on loop of wire by filamentary current.

z

I1= 15 A

y

x I2 = 2 mA

I I1 15

H H1 z z

2r 2x 2x

15 3 106

B1 0 H1 B1 0 z z T

2x x

Solution of Example 6

The force on the Force exerted on side 3 of the loop:

loop

is

F1 F2 F3 F4 I 2 dl2 B1 3 10 6

Floop F3 I 2 (dyy ) ( z )

Force exerted on side 1 of the loop: x

3 10 6 3 10 6

2

F1 I 2 (dyy ) ( z ) 2 10 3

dyx

x 3 y 0

3 3 10

6

2 4 10 9 x

2 10 dyx

1 y 0 Force exerted on side 4 of the loop:

12 10 9 x

3 10 6

F4 I 2 (dxx ) ( z )

Force exerted on side 2 of the loop: x

3 1

3 10 6 2 10 (3 10 )

3 6

dx y

F2 I 2 (dxx ) ( z ) x 1 x

6 10 9 ln x 1 y

x 3

3 1

2 10 (3 10 )

3 6

dx y 6.592 10 9 y

x 1 x

3

4 10 9 x 6.592 10 9 y

8 10 9 x N

Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment

If the loop is placed parallel to a magnetic field, it experiences a

force that tends to rotate it.

The torque T (or mechanical moment of force) on the loop is the

vector product of the force F and the moment arm d.

T d F (N.m)

that tends to rotate the loop in a clockwise direction.

The arms 1 and 3 of the loop are

subjected to forces F1 and F3

respectively, with

F1 I (dyy ) B0 x

b

IB0 dyz

y 0

IB0bz

No magnetic force is F3 I (dyy ) B0 x

exerted on either arm 2 or

b

4 because B is parallel to IB0 dyz

the direction of the current y 0

flowing on those arms. IB0bz

The total magnetic torque is

T (d1 F1 ) (d 3 F3 )

a a

( x ) ( IB0bz ) ( x ) ( IB0bz )

2 2

IB0 aby

IB0 Ay A = ab is the area of the loop.

Magnetic Torque Force and Magnetic Dipole Moment

If B is not parallel to the plane of the loop, we have nonzero forces

on all four arms of the rectangular loop.

Forces F2 and F4 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction

and are along the rotation axis. T = 0

For forces F1 and F3, their moment arm is (a/2) sin .

The net torque exerted by the magnetic field is modified by sin ;

IB0 A sin y

T IAB sin

T IAB sin

the magnetic dipole moment (in A/m2) of the loop.

m IAa n

an is a unit vector normal to the plane of the loop and its

direction is determined by the right-hand rule: fingers in

the direction of current and thumb along an.

current and area of the loop; its direction is normal to

the loop.

T m B

Magnetic Material

Magnetization in Materials

Material is composed of atoms and each atom maybe regarded as

consisting of electrons orbiting about the central positive nucleus;

the electrons also rotate (or spin) about their own axes.

An electron generates (a) an orbital magnetic moment mo as it

rotates around the nucleus and (b) a spin magnetic moment ms, as

it spins about its own axis.

Magnetic Material

An internal magnetic field is produced by electrons orbiting around

the nucleus or when electrons spinning.

Both of these electronic motions produce internal magnetic fields

B, that are similar to the magnetic field produced by a current loop.

(a) Orbiting electron (b) Spinning electron (c) Circular current loop

Magnetic Material

Without an external B field applied to the material, the sum of m's

is zero due to random orientation.

B =0, m = 0

v

When an external B field is applied, the magnetic moments of

electrons more or less align themselves with B so that the net

magnetic moment is not zero.

A medium for which the net magnetic moment is not zero

everywhere is said to be magnetized.

The magnetization M (in amperes/meter) is defined as the vector

sum of all the magnetic dipole moments per unit volume of

material. B

v

Magnetic Material

The magnetic flux density corresponding to magnetization M is

B m 0 M

With application of externally magnetic field, the total magnetic

flux density is

B 0 H 0 M

A material usually becomes magnetized in the presence of the

externally magnetic field, H.

M mH

where m is a dimensionless quantity (ratio of M to H) called magnetic

susceptibility of the Medium: a measure of how susceptible (or

sensitive) the material is to a magnetic field

Magnetic Material

Then, we have;

B 0 H 0 m H

0 (1 m )H

0 r H

H

permeability of material is 0 (1 m )

relative permeability of material r 1 m

Magnetic Material

Classification of Magnetic Materials

A material is said to be nonmagnetic if m = 0 (or r= 1) such as

free space and air; it is magnetic otherwise.

Magnetic materials may be grouped into three major classes:

diamagnetic

paramagnetic, and

ferromagnetic.

Most diamagnetic materials have very little influence by the

magnetic field.

In paramagnetic material, the magnetic dipoles tend to align up

with the field and becomes slightly magnetic when B is applied.

Ferromagnetic materials exhibit strong magnetic property even in

the absence of an externally applied field. It is used for permanent

magnet and also for screening or shielding.

Magnetic Material

Diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials have the

following properties;

Ferromagnetic Material

The magnetization behavior between B and H can be represented

by a magnetization curve or B-H curve. In ferromagnetic material,

it is nonlinear.

The complete magnetization process is termed a hysteresis loop.

Wide hysteresis loops = hard ferromagnetic materials

Narrow hysteresis loops = soft ferromagnetic materials

Magnetic Boundary Conditions

Magnetic boundary conditions are defined as the conditions that H

(or B) field must satisfy at the boundary between two different

media.

They are derived using Amperes circuital law (tangential

components) and Gausss law for magnetostatic fields (normal

components).

B dS 0 H dl I enc

Consider the boundary between two magnetic media 1 and 2,

characterized, respectively by 1 and 2.

Applying Gauss's law for magnetic fields to the pillbox (Gaussian

surface) and allowing h 0

The integral form of Gauss's law become

top

B dS B dS 0

bottom

top

B1nn 21 dSn 21

bottom

B 2 nn 21 dS(n 21 ) 0

B1n S B2 n S 0

B1n B2 n

1 H1n 2 H 2 n

To determine boundary condition for tangential components of B

and H, we apply Amperes circuital law to a small path abcd

The Amperes circuital law around path abcd becomes

H dl I enc

h h

H1t w H1n H 2 n ...

2 2

h h

H 2t w H 2 n H1n K w

2 2

and allowing h 0.

B1t B2t

H1t H 2t K K

1 2

If the surface free of current or medium is not conductor,

K = 0.

H1t H 2t

H1t H 2t 0 B1t B2t

1 2

Exercise 2

A conducting triangular loop as shown in Figure below carrying a

current of 5A is located closely to an infinitely long

straight conductor

with a current of 2A. Calculate the total force, F on the loop due to

infinite long straight conductor.

I = 5A

I = 2A

Example 7

in region 2 where z 0. If there is a surface current density

K 80 x

A/m at z = 0 and if B1 2 x 3 y z mT . Determine B2

z

1 = 4 H/m

Sketch the K 80 x

problem. n21

B1n B1

1

B1t

xy-plane

B2n 2 B2

B2t

2 = 7 H/m

Solution of Example 7

The normal components of B1 are

B1 2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z

B1n B1 n21 (2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z ) z 110 3

B1n B1n n21 110 3 z T

B2 n B1n 110 3 z T

The tangential

components of B1 are

B1 B1t B1n

B1t B1 B1n (2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y 110 3 z ) (110 3 z )

(2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y ) T

B1t 2 10 3 x 3 10 3 y

H1t 6

500 x 750 y A/m

1 4 10

H 2t H1t K n21 (500 x 750 y ) (80 x z ) 500 x 670 y A/m

B2t 2 H 2t 7 10 6 (500 x 670 y ) (3.5 10 3 x 4.69 10 3 y ) T

Solution of Example 7

Therefore,

B2 B2t B2 n

B1t 3.5 10 3 x 4.69 10 3 y 110 3 z T

3.5 x 4.69 y z mT

Exercise 1

A rectangular loop as shown below lies in the xyplane at z = 0. Find

the total force exerted on the

rectangular loop located in free space if

the magnetic flux density, B is given by B (3/x)z T.

Answer: Fm 8x pN

Exercise 2

A conducting triangular loop as shown in Figure below carrying a

current of 2A is located closely to an infinitely long

straight conductor

with a current of 5A. Calculate the total force, F on the loop due to

infinite long straight conductor.

Answer:

Floop 4.39 x 0.19 y N

Exercise 3

Magnetic material with r1 = 4 in the region where y + z < 1.

However, material 2 with r2 = 6 in the region where y + z > 1. If

the

surface is free of current and B1 2 x y T . Determine B2 and H 2

Answer:

B2 3 x 1.25 y 0.25 z T

1

H2 (0.5 x 0.21 y 0.04 z ) A/m

0

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