Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson

11/2/16

Enzyme Inquiry Lab


You should use the Enzyme Inquiry lab and the Enzyme worksheet to outline a procedure to carry-out
when we return from break. Use the links below (Enzyme Inquiry Revised for the procedure Parts 1 and
2) and the Enzyme Inquiry lab sheet to fill out through the procedure. Use the information below and the
Videos on Enzymes--Tutorial link to learn as much as you can about enzymes and how they function. You
will do part 1 as is (controls) and then write a procedure for the variable you pick in Part 2. Hint- it should
be similar to testing in Part 1, but with some tweaks.

Factors to test:
1. Concentration (either substrate or enzyme)
2. pH
3. Salt interference
4. Temperature
5. Reusability
6. Expired v Fresh Lactaid

Objective - To design a procedure to gather information on testing one variable regarding lactaid
(artificial Lactase).

1. Pick a variable and design a procedure to test it. Use the resources provided on Schoology
Enzyme Inquiry assignment. Record team information on provided Enzyme Inquiry Lab sheet.
2. Once done, get your procedure approved by your instructor.
3. Carry out your procedure-- Record data in science notebooks and with either a check-out iPod or
your cell phone. Video tape your group carrying out the procedure, explaining along the way what
you are doing and the results/observations you are obtaining along the way. Note- you may need
to run the procedure a couple of times with modifications the second time to get more/better data.
4. Clean up your lab and have your station approved.
5. Analyze your data and create an educational commercial no more than 2 minutes to recommend
a new, better Lactaid product based on your data. Please use your data to support this
educational commercial.
6. What you will turn in: 1) commercial (one per group) and 2) a short write-up of your experiment
(formats can vary- PowerPoint, Prezi, Google presentation, google doc (see doc below), video
(can film while doing experiment), ThingLink, website, etc...)

Questions/Requirements:

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation that biomolecules follow the
same rules of chemistry as any other molecule
Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation regarding the optimal
conditions required for enzyme activity
Infer the consequences to organisms of suboptimal enzyme function such as altered blood pH
or high fever using direct and indirect evidence
How are rates of enzyme activity in cells affected by various factors such as pH or temperature?
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16

The enzyme activity in cells was not affected by old lactase versus new lactase. We found that the
enzyme activity was equal in both old and new lactase because in equal amounts of whole milk, the same
amount of glucose was left (determined by the glucose test strips) after 20 minutes of enzyme activity.
How does one know that enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
One knows that enzymes speed up chemical reactions because some chemical reactions cannot occur
without them. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation rates; the lower
amount of activation energy that a potential reaction has, the faster the rate of reaction will be.
Enzymes change shape during the reaction process, which allows them to efficiently reduce
activation rates.
Ask questions and state hypotheses using prior scientific knowledge to help design and guide
their development and implementation of a scientific investigation
Select and use appropriate technologies to gather, process, and analyze data and to report
information related to an investigation
Identify major sources of error or uncertainty within an investigation (for example: particular
measuring devices and experimental procedures)
1. We used 2 droppers full of each solution however due to air bubbles and pressure, not all the
test tubes had the same amount of solution in them.
2. In the expired lactase, not all the pills were dissolved when we took solution from it.

Enzyme (Lactase) Inquiry

Group Members names: Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
Problem: Do old lactase and new lactase differ the effects of enzyme digestion?
Research Hypotheses: (include at least 2 with a prediction)
1. That the new lactase will last longer and work better due to the fact that the companies
do create expiration dates, so there has to be some limit.
2. The old lactase will work but not as well as the new lactase because it has hit its end
date.
Procedure:
1. Make old lactase solution, by taking 2 pills of lactase and crushing them into 500ml of
water and stir.
2. Into 4 test tubes, use different droppers for each solution, add the following:
a. Test tube 1: 2 droppers full of distilled water and 1 dropper of lactase solution
(negative control)
b. Test tube 2: 2 droppers full of glucose and 1 dropper lactase solution (positive
control)
c. Test tube 3: 2 droppers full of whole milk and 1 dropper old lactase solution (test
solution)
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16

d. Test tube 4: 2 droppers full of whole milk (test solution) and 1 dropper of new
lactase
3. After 20 minutes, test each of the test tubes for the presence of glucose by dipping a
piece of glucose paper into each test tube. (Get units in either mg/dL) (Hint: It would be
a good idea to take pictures of strips for Lab write-up!)
4. After 2 minutes, note any color change in the glucose test paper; Record results (take
picture/label and save strips in small baggie)

Data: (include a table with observations and a Graph)

Pictures:
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16

Data table:

Test Tube Color of Test Strip Amount of Glucose (mg/dL)

TT1 (distilled water) Bright blue 0 mg/dL

TT2 (glucose solution) green/brown 500 mg/dL

TT3 (whole milk and old lactase) Bright green 250 mg/dL

TT4 (whole milk and new lactase Bright green 250 mg/dL

Graph:

Observations:
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16

Expired pills should be white but are a little yellow


There are particles floating around in the new lactase solution
The old and new lactase test strips have almost the exact same color

Conclusion/Recommendations: (Can be bulleted)


The old pills were not, in fact, expired
The old and new lactase have the same effect on glucose due to the same color change
of the glucose strips, both indicating that there was 250 mg/dL of glucose present in the
solution after 20 minutes of enzyme activity
A new product could be advertised for longer lasting lactase, with the same product
because even seven years after the expiration date, the old lactase worked the same as
the new lactase

Analysis: (Answer on a separate sheet of paper to be turned in individually!)


1. What products resulted after the hydrolysis of lactose? How do you know this? What is
your proof?
After the hydrolysis of lactose, we found that the expired lactase and the new lactase have the
same results. We the negative control of distilled water in TT1, (there were no color changes,
with 0 mg/dL of glucose) and the positive control of glucose solution in TT2 (the color of the
glucose test strip changed to a green/brown color with 500 mg/dL of glucose) as reference. We
observed the same color change on both old and new lactase solutions (TT3 with the old
lactase and TT4 with the new lactase) with about 250 mg/dL of lactase. If there had been a
difference in the color of the glucose test strips among TT3 and TT4, we would have concluded
that one worked better than the other, however because the old and new lactase solutions had
the same color change we were able to conclude that their effects on glucose are the same.
2. Why did you test glucose and the lactase with the glucose test?
We tested glucose just to have a positive control to compare to. We didn't test lactase by itself.
3. Does untreated milk contain glucose? What is your proof?
Yes, untreated milk contains glucose. According to our tests on whole milk, there was glucose
present indicated by the green color change of glucose test strips; they indicated 250 mg/dL of
glucose present after our test.
4. Describe how each factor above affects enzyme functioning.
Concentration:Substrate Concentration. Increasing Substrate Concentration increases
the rate of reaction. This is because more substrate molecules will be colliding with
enzyme molecules, so more product will be formed.
pH:Changes in pH may not only affect the shape of an enzyme but it may also change
the shape or charge properties of the substrate so that either the substrate cannot bind
to the active site or it cannot undergo catalysis.
Salt interference: changes in salinity adds or removes cations (+) & anions () disrupts
bonds, disrupts 3D shape, disrupts interactions between charged amino acids, and
affects 2 & 3 structure denatures protein
Temperature: Temperature Makes everything move more quickly and therefore makes
the reaction go more quickly.
Sarah Nadir, Peyton Korte, Sam Carner and Sydney Atkinson
11/2/16

Reusability: Researchers at Clemson University found a way of harvesting and reusing


biologically active enzymes. The enzymes go through a purification process that involves
seclusion from a compound mixture after establishing their function, composition and
interactions. Targets placed on nanoparticles, such as food sources, act as bait to bind
the enzymes. Researchers then freeze the enzymes in place and remove the particles.
They believe this could be a valuable tool in cancer research.
Old vs New: Old versus new makes little to no difference. If it gets really old (20 years+)
then it actually does expire.

Write-up:
1. Create a video of your experiment while you are carrying it out and a no more than 2
minutes commercial on how you would improve Lactaid, a lactose intolerance product
based on your lab results.
2. Be prepared to share your results with the class!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qhcp_sZVXRI

Bibliography:

"Lactose Intolerance Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Tests." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 17
Nov. 2016. <http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/lactose-intolerance-topic-overview>.