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Case of the Cyanide

Cocktail and the


Missing Pathogens

Case of the Cyanide Cocktail and the Missing


Pathogens.

Investigators: Sarah N,
Sydney A, Peyton K, and Sam C
Suspect background

Dr. Tide Sheetburger: Dr.


Sheetburger was a spy in his previous
career, with much knowledge about
poisons, and how to make them
virtually undetectable. Currently he
claims to be just interested in
non-living matter such as rocks and
dirt. However, past colleagues said
that they thought Sheetburger might
be a double agent. Dr. Sheetberger is
an enigma to many. Does he know more
than he is saying about the night of
the party? (Mr. Linnenberger)
Suspect 2 background
Dr. Austin Newman Powers: Dr.
Powers is part of an exclusive
underground cult dedicated to the
overthrow of Monarch University.
He has been heard saying that with
Dr. Donley out of the way, the road
would be clear to execute manifest
destiny. He has been heard saying
that the US should still be a colony
of Britain! Currently Dr. Powers
whereabouts are unknown--is he in
the U.S. or back in the U.K.? Dr.
Powers was also a good friend of Dr.
Islands---did he know about the
blackmail? (Mr. Mainland)
Who's guilty and their motives
Because Dr. Tide Sheetburger has had some experience with poisons and
was a spy in his previous career, Dr. Austin Powers found it as a great
opportunity to hire him and finally overthrow Monarch University and get
Dr.Donley out of his way
Also, perfect opportunity for Dr. Tide Sheetburger to test out his new
cyanide poison
Because of these motives supported by the background info, we came to
the conclusion that mainly Dr. Sheetburger with the help of Dr. Austin
Powers ofcourse are suspects of this crime
Evidence #1 (Dr. Tide Sheetburger, Dog hair)
When we interviewed Dr. Sheetburger, we discovered that he likes dogs and
being around them, except for white dogs because apparently he got attack
by one(suspicious)
So we put everything together and came to the conclusion that before going
to the lab Dr. Sheetburger was petting a friends dog that happened to be
black, and on his way inside his "secret lab" a white dog had chased him and
in order to not draw attention he covered the dog with his coat to keep him
quiet
Therefore he still had hair on his lab coat from touching the dogs and the hair
found in scene one belonged to him because the stool also had black and
white dog hair shown by the picture provided in the next slide, which matched
the hair on Dr.Donley's sleeve
Evidence #2 (Fingerprints)
Fingerprints were found on Dr.
Donley's glass
Dr.Tide Sheetburger's
fingerprints were also found on
the glass
Therefore, Dr.Sheetburger was
present during the crime and is
our suspect
Evidence #3 (Blood)
Using luminol, blood analysis, and
forensics techniques
Blood underneath Dr.Donley's
fingernails belongs to Dr. Austin
Powers
When Dr.Sheetburger couldnt finish
the crime, Dr.Austin Powers attempted
and in the process got in a fight and
Dr.Austin Powers blood got into
Dr.Donley's nails when she was
fighting back
The Immune System

The immune system is composed of two different lines of


defences.
The first line of defence is more on the external side,such as
the skin.
And the second line of defense is protein, phagocytes, and
other cells.
The biggest goal of the immune system is to keep the body safe
from infection.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

A acid fast bacteria, that is the infectious


agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans.

Discovered by Robert Koch, a German


physician and scientist, on the evening of
March 24, 1882

Fun fact MTB was the leading cause of The


White Plaguein the late 1700s and early
1800s, during this period 100% of the
population was affected and 25% died from
MTB
Characteristics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Large nonmotile rod-shaped bacterium. About 2-4 micrometers in length
Obligate aerobe, or needing oxygen to grow, and is why we see most of the bacteria in the
upper lungs.
Facultative intracellular parasite, or being capable of living and reproducing either inside
or outside cells, making it more able to reproduce.
Slow generation time, 15-20 hours
Neither Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The Gram Method is staining technique for the
preliminary identification of bacteria, in which a violet dye is applied, followed by a
decolorizing agent and then a red dye. The cell walls of certain bacteria (denoted
Gram-positive ) retain the first dye and appear violet, while those that lose it (denoted
Gram-negative ) appear red
The cell wall complex contains peptidoglycan, but otherwise it is composed of complex
lipids. Over 60% of the mycobacterial cell wall is lipid
What is Tuberculosis
TB is a potentially serious infectious
bacterial disease that mainly affects
the lungs.
When symptoms do happen they
cough (sometimes blood-tinged),
weight loss, night sweats, and fever
The main treatment is through
antibiotics.
The reason this disease is so
dangerous is because it spreads really
easily and can lead to death.
Smallpox
An eradicated virus that used to be
contagious, disfiguring, and often
deadly, also known as Variola virus.
There is no cure for small poxs or
treatment.
In the 1950s worldwide, 15 million
cases of smallpox are reported each
year in the decade
It's the most highly contagious
disease that kills more than 500
million people worldwide over the last
century.
Characteristics of Smallpox
Large, brick-shaped, double-stranded DNA virus that serologically cross
Reacts with other members of the poxvirus family
Is generally transmitted mainly through the airborne route
At least 300 million have died from smallpox
Edward Jenner, a country doctor living in Berkeley, England, who in 1796
performed the world's first vaccination with the disease smallpox.
Symptoms of smallpox- the skin will have rashes, small bumps, blisters. The
Whole body will have a fever, malaise, or chills plus a headache or vomiting
This is a problem because of how easy it is to spread this disease and how likely
it is to lead to death.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV causes AIDS and interferes with


the body's ability to fight infections.

Currently there is no cure for


HIV/AIDS but they are working
towards a cure.

HIV really came into the public eye in


the 1980s, when a lot of people
started to die off from AIDS.
Characteristics of HIV
35 million people currently are infected by ut
HIV can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) if untreated
Once you have HIV, the virus never truly leaves your body
HIV attacks CD4 cells or T cells, the main function of T cells is to help the
immune system fight off infections. By attacking the T cells and reducing their
numbers it makes it harder for the body to fight off infections.
You can get HIV by having sex with someone who has it or if someone shares a
needle with someone.
HIV doesnt not have it own symptoms
ELISA
ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

It is a technique used to detect antibodies or infectious


agents in a sample.

When an organism is exposed to a virus or bacteria, the immune


system produces antibodies.

An antigen ELISA can indicate if the organism is infected by


this virus.
ELISA (continued)
How it works:

Antigens are stuck onto a plastic surface


A sample is added and any antibodies for the antigen will bind
A second antibody with a marker is added
If there are antibodies in the sample, a positive reaction
occurs and the marker changes color
If there are no antibodies in the sample, the second antibody
will not stick and there will be no color change
Evidence #4
ELISA test changed the color from clear to blue meaning antibodies were

present

Meaning that smallpox pathogen was found with Dr.Sheetburger

Therefore Sheetburger stole the smallpox pahtogen because of the positive


results of the ELISA lab test

Results shown on the next slide


A video that
further explains
how ELISA works.
Restriction Enzymes
Restriction enzymes act like molecular scissors, that make
cuts at a specific base pair
This destroys DNA from invading viruses or phages
An organism can protect their own restriction sites by adding
a methyl group
For example
EcoRI can be isolated from Escherichia coli by using a
restriction enzyme
Restriction Enzymes (continued)
A restriction enzyme sits on a DNA molecule and slides along
the helix until it recognizes a sequence of base pairs that
tell the enzyme to stop sliding
This site is called the restriction site
At the restriction site, the enzyme cuts (chemically
separates) the DNA molecule
Depending on where the restriction site occurs on a strand of
DNA, the segments will be various lengths
Restriction Enzymes (continued)
Agarose gel electrophoresis can be used to observe and
separate DNA that has been cut with restriction enzymes
A video that
further explains
restriction
enzymes.
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
This process separates DNA fragments by size
Wells in an agarose gel slab are filled with DNA fragments
A current is passed through the slab, causing the negatively
charged DNA to move to the positively charged pole
Over time, smaller fragments travel farther than large ones,
and fragments of the same size stay together
This graph shows the
measured distance
that each fragment
traveled from the
well during DNA
electrophoresis. Also
estimated size is
compared to position
of the Hindlll lambda
DNA marker
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA differs from person to person
To show that DNA contains a specific nucleotide sequence, a
radioactive probe can be used to bind to the sequence
This probe is also known as a radioactive tag
The size of the fragments (indicated by the positions of
radiolabeled bands in a gel)reflect variations in individuals
DNA
This can place someone at a crime scene, and prove relatedness
between family members
A video that
further explains
DNA fingerprinting.
ELISA Use at Crime Scenes
ELISA can detect

If drug or alcohol use contributed to a car crash or other


incident
Who may have been at the scene at a crime through blood tests
Peptides, proteins, antibodies and hormones in a DNA sample
Disease outbreaks
Antigens and antibodies
Part D
How We Used DNA Fingerprinting
In our investigation, we used DNA Fingerprinting to place one
of our suspects at the scene of the crime
We were able to place DR. AUSTIN POWERS at the crime scene.
The suspect's DNA that was picked up at the scene of the crime
matched well with the bands that Dr. Austin Powers has
indicating that Dr. Powers was there at one point.
Lip Print
The lip print that was seen at the scene of the crime matched the lip print
made by Dr. Sheetburger. Which also places Dr. Sheetburger at the crime.
What must have happened was that after all was said and done, both culprits
made a toast to a job well done, not realizing that they were leaving lip prints
and DNA.

Picture of lip prints found in the crime scene on next slide


When they say they didnt do it.
Bibliography

Biobest Laboratories Ltd. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from


http://www.biobest.co.uk/diagnostics/techniques/elisa-how-does-the-test-work.html
HIV/AIDS Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/
Retrieved April 21, 2017, from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/smallpox
Smallpox Fast Facts. (2016, April 30). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from
http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/02/health/smallpox-fast-facts/
Smallpox. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from
https://www.google.com/search?q=smallpox&ie=&oe=#spf=1