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Ue State Handling

Ue States

The following transitions are supported by the LTE:


CELL_DCH Handover E-UTRA Handover
GPRS Packet
transfer mode
CCO with
optional CCO,
CELL_PCH NACC Reselection
URA_PCH Reselection
Connection Connection
Connection establishment/release establishment/release

Reselection E-UTRA Reselection GSM_Idle/GPRS

RRC_IDLE Packet_Idle
CCO, Reselection
*CCO = Cell Change Order
NACC = Network Assisted Cell Change
Mobility Management States

Definition of main EPS Mobility Management states

The UE is not reachable by a MME.
UE context can still be stored in the UE and MME
UE enters to EMM-Registered with Attach or Tracking Area Update procedure
The UE location is known with accuracy of the tracking area list
UE has at least one active PDN connection
After Detach procedure the state is changed to EMM-DEREGISTERED

EMM states in UE EMM states in MME

Detach Detach
Attach reject Attach reject
TAU Reject TAU Reject
All Bearer Deactivated All Bearer Deactivated


Attach accept
Attach accept TAU Accept
Connection Management States
Definition of EPS Connection Management states
UE is in ECM-IDLE state when no NAS signaling connection between UE and network exists.
In the EMM-REGISTERED and ECM-IDLE state, the UE shall perform:
Tracking Area Update
Periodic Tracking Area Update
Service Request
Answer to paging from MME with Service Request
UE and MME enter the ECM-CONNECTED state when signaling connection is established.
UE location is known in the MME with an accuracy of a serving eNodeB.
For a UE in the ECM-CONNECTED state, there exists a signaling connection between the UE and
the MME.
The S1 release procedure changes the state at both UE and MME from ECM-CONNECTED to

ECM states in UE ECM states in MME

RRC Released S1 Released


RRC Established S1 Established

Purpose of DRX
DRX/DTX General Motivation is the Challenge > Battery
Capacity Increases only Slowly Compared to Moores Law
Joseph A. Paradiso Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory, Thad Starner Georgia Institute of Technology,
GVU Center Energy Scavenging for Mobile and Wireless Electronics, Pervasive Computing, IEEE Volume 4, Issue 1,
Jan.-March 2005 Page(s):18 - 27 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPRV.2005.9

CPU by Moores
law = double
every 18 months

Battery savings
are a must and
are proportional to
active/inactive ratio

Battery capacity
double every 12
Normal eNB Initiated Transition to ECM-IDLE
(e.g. due to user inactivity) inactivityTimer
Inactivity for UL & DL
LNCEL; 10..65535s; 1s ; 30s

Main impact > UE- consumes less battery power in idle mode and there are less active UEs which
network have to handle. Fast going to inactivity has drawback of longer connection setup
time (transition idle<->connected)
Inactivity Timer Parameter

Nokia Huawei Ericssons

MO Parameter MO Parameter MO Parameter
LNCEL inactivityTimer RrcConnStateTimer UeInactiveTimer Rcs tInactivityTimer

Typical value of this inactivity timer is 10 seconds.

DTX/DRX Discontinuous Transmission/ Reception

DRX/DTX means UE transceiver is switched off for some predefined time periods. This save power
consumption on one side but might consequences in longer call setup time and/or lower user
throughput achievable.

What are DRX/DTX options?

In Idle mode for Paging this option means UE is listening paging messages in predefined time
opportunities only and sleeping all other time..

DRX/DTX in connected mode UE is switched off for predefined time interval.

DRX in Idle Mode
Discontinuous Reception for paging (TS 36.304)
The UE may use DRX in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption
One Paging Occasion (PO) is a subframe where there may be P-RNTI transmitted on PDCCH
addressing the paging message
One Paging Frame (PF) is one Radio Frame, which may contain one or multiple Paging
When DRX is used the UE needs only to monitor one PO per DRX cycle
defPagCyc pagingNb
cell specific paging DRX cycle duration. It defines the number of possible Paging Occasions per
also determines the maximum paging radio frame, i.e. the density of paging occasions. This
DRX duration applicable in the cell. parameter is used to calculate the number of paging
Referred as T in 36.304 occasions within one paging DRX duration, which in
LNCEL; 32rf(0), 64rf(1), 128rf(2), 256rf(3); turn is used to calculate the paging occasion
128rf(2) LNCEL; oneT(2), halfT(3), quarterT(4), oneEighthT(5),
1rf = 1 radio frame = 10ms oneSixteenthT(6), oneThirtySecondT(7); quarterT(4)

Example: quarterT = 1/4*T =

1 Paging Occasion PO in every 4th radio frame (40 ms)
32 POs / DRX cycle duration (128 rf)
Occasion of Paging Messages

The cell specific DRX cycle length Tsib is broadcasted by System Information (PCCH-
Config parameter defaultPagingCycle (in number of radio frames)
The UE specific DRX cycle length Tue might be received from core network from S1AP
Paging Message as Optional IE.
The used paging DRX Cycle T (in number of radio frames) is set to: T=MIN(Tue,Tsib).
(Referred to as ' T ' in 3GPP TS 36.304)
The relationship paging occasions - radio frame is given by the parameter pagingNb
provided in System Information (PCCH-Config parameter pagingNb). nB shall be interpreted
as a calculation formula (how to derive paging occasions from T). For better understanding,
the result of the calculation formula nB will be written as nB(T) in this section.
Example: quarterT denotes nB(T)= 1/4*T (there is 1 paging occasion in every 4th radio
Occasion of Paging Messages
Explain of Variables as per SFS (UE Behavior)
Paging capacity is not a limiting factor as the Paging Channel (PCH) is mapped dynamically on the PDSCH.

The factor (T div N) gives the distance of radio frames with paging occasions. The calculation of the factor
(T div N) is 2(i-k).
The factor (UE_ID mod N) gives a relative index of a radio frame with paging occasions inside a Paging DRX
cycle. The calculation of factor (UE_ID mod N) is a simple mask operation for the last k bits.
The product (T div N)*(UE_ID mod N) gives the relative position of a radio frame with paging occasions relative
to the start of a Paging_DRX cycle.
(SFN mod T) provides a SFN numbering relative to the start of a Paging-DRX cycle. The calculation of factor
(SFN mod T) is a simple mask operation for the last i bits.

*SFS = System Feature Sheet

Example (as per UE Behavior SFS, simplified, note the Tue is
smaller than allowed by 3GPP):
Cell paging DRX Tsib = 32(frames),
UE paging DRX Tue = 8 (frames)

T = MIN(Tue,Tsib) = MIN(8,32) = 8 frames -> DRX cycle length
nB(T) = half(8) = 4 -> paging occasions per DRX cycle
N = MIN(T,nB(T)) = MIN(8,4) = 4 paging groups
Ns = MAX(1, nB(T)/T) = MAX(1, 4 / 8) = MAX(1,0)= 1 subframe used for paging
UE_ID = 3, assumption for this example (it could be any number)
T div N = 8 div 4 = 2 -> distance between 2 radio frames with paging occasions
UE_ID mod N = 3 mod 4 = 3 -> relative index of a frame with PO inside DRX
(T div N)*(UE_ID mod 4) = 2*3 = 6 -> relative position of the PO inside DRX
Let next reachable be SFN = 501; therefore (SFN mod T) = 5; therefore SFN for paging is

Simplified case (*to be shown in the picture) as the Tue is smaller than allowed by 3GPP.

*SFS = System Feature Sheet

Paging Related Parameter

Nokia Huawei Ericssons

MO Parameter MO Parameter MO Parameter
LNCEL defPagCyc PCCHCfg DefaultPagingCycle Paging defaultPagingCycle
LNCEL pagingNb PCCHCfg Nb Paging nB

Typical value of this default Paging Cycle is rf128 (1280 ms).

Paging Parameter on SIB 2
(Sample on QXDM Log file)

Default Paging Cycle and Pangin nB on SIB2

DRX in Connected Mode
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
Target: maximize UE battery lifetime by discontinuous monitoring of DL control
channel (PDCCH)
UE will be kept time aligned* DRX cycle is limited to 80ms
Support of 3GPP defined long DRX cycle (short DRX cycle not supported)
3 different profiles supported: actDrx
1. DRX off activates the DRX in the cell.
LNCEL; true(1),false(0);
2. Voice optimized & false(0)
3. Non-GBR
The DRX profiles can be mapped flexibly to different QCI profiles
DRX profile of bearer with highest priority is applied in case of multiple bearers
per UE
DRX settings are signaled to UE via RRC messages
DRX settings are applied only to UEs indicating related DRX capabilities
Device type indication (non power limited devices do not benefit from DRX) provided by UE
according to 3GPP Rel. 9 can be configured drxApplyDeviceType
Determines whether the device type
*Time alignment of the UL transmission is noBenFromBatConsumpOpt shall be
achieved by applying a timing advance at the considered for DRX configuration
UE transmitter relative to the received DL timing LNCEL; true(1),false(0); true(1)
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
DRX Status
DRX status could be: DRX cycle (note that only long
DRX cycle supported)
DRX disabled: LNCEL; 20ms, 40ms, 80ms;
depends on DRX profile
UE always monitors PDCCH for UL and DL grants
DRX enabled:
Timeline is divided in DRX cycles of equal number of sub-frames
Start of DRX cycle is linked to SFN + offset (see backup slides)
Within a DRX cycle there are periods the UE is DRX Active and periods the UE is
DRX Sleep
DRX Sleep
SFN = System Frame Number
CQI / SRS / PMI / RI shall not be reported SRS = Sounding Reference Signal
DRX Active PMI = Precoding Matrix Indicator
RI = Rank Indicator
UE monitors PDCCH for UL and DL grants
UE is DRX active according to 3GPP TS36.321:
The On Duration Timer or the DRX Inactivity Timer or a DRX Retransmission Timer or the Contention
Resolution Timer is running (see next slides)
A Scheduling Request sent on PUCCH is pending
An UL grant for a pending HARQ retransmission can occur
A PDCCH (allocation) indicating a new transmission addressed to the C-RNTI of the UE has not been
received after successful reception of a Random Access Response for the signaled preamble
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
DRX Timers (1/3)
On duration timer:
Specifies the number of consecutive TTIs during which the UE shall monitor the PDCCH for
possible allocations
One per UE according to DRX profile
Will always be started with the first subframe of a DRX cycle
If running UE is DRX active
Shall be set to a value that allows eNB to schedule a UE within the On Duration period with
high probability if there are data to be transmitted

DRX on duration timer
LNCEL;1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,10ms ;
depends on DRX profile
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
DRX Timers (2/3)
DRX Inactivity timer:
Specifies the number of consecutive TTIs during which the UE shall monitor PDCCH after
successfully decoding a PDCCH indicating an initial UL or DL user data transmission for
this UE
Will be started or restarted if the PDCCH indicated a new UL or DL transmission and if the
UE is DRX Active at that time
If running UE is DRX active
For bursty traffic the scheduler can keep the UE awake by scheduling it in a specific time
window (with continuously grants to UE, DRX Inactivity Timer Window will be moved beyond
the end of the DRX cycle)
Re -Started at (2)
Note: If no further grants to UE during DRX Active
DRX Inactivity Timer
Started at (1)
time frame then the DRX Inactivity Timer will
DRX Inactivity Timer exceed and UE stops being DRX Active (not
listening to PDCCH any more)
DRX On Duration

DRX inactivity timer
(1) DL grant on PDCCH (2) DL grant on PDCCH LNCEL;1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,10, 20,
+ DL data on PDSCH + DL data on PDSCH
30, 40, 50, 60, 80ms ; depends
on DRX profile
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
DRX Timers (3/3)
DRX Retransmission Timer:
Specifies the maximum number of consecutive PDCCH sub-frames for possible allocations
as soon as a DL retransmission is expected by the UE
Started after HARQ Timer* expires and DL data were not decoded successfully
Purpose: Span a window within the UE listens on PDCCH for a retransmission in DL
If running, UE is DRX active
Stopped when PDCCH indicates a DL transmission and UE is DRX active at that time
As UE is DRX Active when DRX Retransmission timer is running, eNB could schedule UE in
DL or UL for new transmissions

Will be stopped at (3)

DRX Retrans. Timer drxRetransT

DRX retransmission timer
LNCEL;2, 4, 6, 8ms ; depends
(3) Retransmission of on DRX profile
(1) DL grant on PDCCH
(2) NACK (1)
+ DL data on PDSCH

*HARQ timer is one per HARQ process. Define the

sub-frame when next possible retransmission could be
started earliest
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
Example of UL Transmission
Transmission in UL is
possible while UE is
DRX Inactivity Timer
DRX Sleep
In case that the
transmission in (4)
DRX On Duration
also failed, this sub-
frame would be the
next slot for giving an
UL grant for a
Hence, this sub-frame
(2) UL (3) NACK on PHICH +
(4) UL belongs to the DRX
(1) UL grant on PDCCH transmission on UL grant for adaptive Active time too.
PUSCH retransmission on

UE has to monitor PDCCH in this sub-frame as an UL grant

for a retransmission can occur, even if DRX OnDuration
and DRX Inactivity timer expired
DRX Inactivity timer will not be started in this sub-frame as
this UL grant doesnt indicate a new transmission
DRX in RRC Connected Mode (RL30)
DRX Profile Modeling
The DRX profiles can be mapped flexibly to different QCI profiles
qciTab is enhanced by an index to DRX profiles
For each DRX profile index a DRX profile is provided

QCI Table DRX Profiles

QCI drxProfileIndex drxProfileIndex drxProfilePriority Further DRX parameters

1 {1,2}, default 2 1 45 None (DRX is off)
2 {1,2,3}, default 2 2 40 <voice profile>
3 {1,2,3}, default 2 3 30 <non-GBR [80ms] profile>
4 {1,2,3}, default 2
5 {1,2,3,4,5}, default 3
6 {1,3,4,5}, default 3 drxProfileIndex
7 {1,3,4,5}, default 3
DRX profile index. Uniquely
8 {1,3,4,5}, default 3
9 {1,3,4,5}, default 3 identify a DRX profile
LNCEL: 1,2,3;
depends on drxProfileIndex
drxProfileIndex (see table)
Id. of the corresponding DRX
LNBTS: 1, 2, 3;
DRX profile priority. Applied to
depends on QCI (see table)
identify the DRX profile to be used if
UE has multiple bearers established
LNCEL: 0..50; 1;
depends on QCI (see table)
Extended DRX Settings (RL30)
Extended setting for DRX in connected mode
2 additional DRX profiles with longer setting for the DRX cycle:
drxProfile4 applyOutOfSyncState
Define which UEs should be sent in out of
Non-GBR: intermediate DRX sync state
Useful for e.g. QCI 5 IMS related traffic LNCEL: extendedDrxOnly(0), allDrx(1),
allUEs(2); extendedDrxOnly(0) (i.e. Only
drxProfile5 UEs configured with extended settings for
Non-GBR: Long DRX the long DRX cycle )

Useful for UE with bursty traffic, e.g. web browsing

UL out-of-sync handling:
By using a very long setting for DRX cycle the UE is going out-of-sync (the time alignment is
stopped some time after the UE has finished the data transmission)
In out-of-sync UE releases dedicated resources on PUCCH
The transition back to UL in-sync is done via Random Access procedure

The choice to which UEs to apply the extended DRX setting could be set with
applyOutOfSyncState parameter
UEs with established GBR bearers are always kept UL in-Sync
Extended DRX Settings (RL30)

It should be avoided that UEs are being sent to RRC_IDLE immediately after UL
out-of-sync detection
Let users go UL out-of-sync whenever there is no traffic activity for both UL and DL
direction of all DRBs and SRBs
The (short) time frame until detection of no traffic activity is controlled by a eNB
time: Short Term Inactivity Timer
If short term inactivity has been determined UE is going out-of-sync

Short Term Inactivity Timer = max(minimumHOdelay, stInactFactor*drxInactivityT)

determines the minimum time DRX inactivity timer
for which a UE needs to be kept stInactFactor LNCEL;1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,10, 20,
in DRX active following the Short term inactivity factor. 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 200, 300,
most recent transmission of LNCEL: 0..10; 1; 1 500, 750, 1280, 1920, 2560ms ;
new data
depends on DRX profile
LNCEL;100..5000ms; 100ms;
Vendor specific parameter
DRX in Connected Mode: Parameters overview

DRX Profiles Summary

drxInactivityT drxLongCycle drxOnDuratT drxProfilePriority drxRetransT
[ms] [ms] [ms] [ms]
drxProfile1 DRX disabled 0..50, step 1; 45 DRX disabled
drxProfile2 1,2,3,4,5,6,8 20,40 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,1 0..50, step 1; 40 2,4,6,8
drxProfile3 10,20,30,40,50,60, 40,80 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,1 0..50, step 1; 30 2,4,6,8
80 0
drxProfile4 200,300,500,750, 160,320 10,20,30,40,50 0..50, step 1; 20 4,6,8,16,24,33
1280,1920, 2560 ,60,80,100
drxProfile5 750,1280,1920, 640,1280,2560 10,20,30,40,50 0..50, step 1; 10 4,6,8,16,24,33
2560 ,60,80,100,200

drxProfile1 drxProfile2 drxProfile3 drxProfile4 drxProfile5

DRX OFF Optimized for non-GBR bearers non-GBR bearers non-GBR bearers
voice calls that allow for short that allow for w/o specific
settings of the medium settings latency
long DRX cycle of the long DRX requirements (e.g.
cycle (e.g. IMS web browsing)
DRX Related Parameter

Nokia Huawei Ericssons

MO Parameter MO Parameter MO Parameter
LNCEL actDrx DrxParaGroup EnterDrxSwitch EUtranCellFDD drxActive
LNCEL drxApplyDeviceType
LNCEL drxLongCycle DrxParaGroup LongDrxCycle DrxProfile longDrxCycle
LNCEL drxOnDuratT DrxParaGroup OnDurationTimer DrxProfile onDurationTimer
LNCEL drxInactivityT DrxParaGroup DrxInactivityTimer DrxProfile drxInactivityTimer
LNCEL drxRetransT DrxParaGroup DrxReTxTimer DrxProfile drxRetransmissionTimer
LNCEL drxProfileIndex DrxParaGroup DrxParaGroupId DrxProfile DrxProfileId
LNCEL actSmartDrx DrxParaGroup SupportShortDrx
LNCEL drxShortCycle DrxParaGroup ShortDrxCycle DrxProfile shortDrxCycle
LNCEL drxShortCycleT DrxParaGroup DrxShortCycleTimer DrxProfile shortDrxCycleTimer
DRX setting on RRCConnectionReconfiguration message
(Sample on QXDM log file)

DRX Long Cycle

DRX Short Cycle

Background and Additional Slides
Occasion of Paging Messages

For each case when specific UE shall be paged in, the next appropriate radio frame
and sub-frame for sending the corresponding RRC PAGING message can be
derived from:
N = MIN (T , nB(T ))
The UE Identity Index Value IE (UE_ID) is provided in the S1AP: PAGING message.
The Paging Group Count on radio frame level (N) that is calculated from T and
.. ( )
N s = MAX (1, nB T / T )
As the nB values fourT and twoT are not supported N is always nB(T).
The number of sub-frames used for paging per radio frame (Ns) (only for those
radio frames used for paging). As the nB values fourT and twoT are not
supported in RL20, Ns =1 is valid for all cases. Generally:

. N s = MAX (1, nB(T ) / T )

Occasion of Paging Messages Cont.

The SFN of the radio frame for paging shall be calculated based on the
following formula give by [3GPP 36.304]:

SFN mod T == (T div N ) * (UE _ ID mod N )

The sub frame number is given by chapter 7.2 of [3GPP 36.304]. Since
Ns==1 is valid for all cases in the current release, the sub frame number
shall always be set to 9 for FDD.
Calculation of DRX cycle start

Start of DRX Cycle

DRX cycle will start in every sub-frame which meets the following equation:

[(SFN 10) + subframe _ number ]mod(DRX _ cycle _ length ) = drxStartOffset

RI reporting disabled
drxStartOffset will be calculated by eNB in such a way that the UE specific periodic CQI report
will be received at eNB in the same sub-frame which is addressed by the above given equation.
RI reporting enabled
drxStartOffset will be calculated by eNB in such a way that both reports (RI & CQI) will always
be received close together in a DRX cycle. (close together means: first comes RI report in sub-
frame x and CQI report in sub-frame x+1)