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Admission Control

Nokia - Admission Control


Task of Radio Admission Control
Radio Admission Control Introduction (1/3)

Scope of RAC is cell level


RAC algorithms controls establishment of
Signaling radio bearer
Data Radio Bearer
RAC controls number of UE in a cell
Number of established RRC connection per cell
Number of active UEs (users) per cell
RAC controls number of DRB in a cell DRB: Data Radio Bearer
SRB: Signalling Radio Bearer
Number of data radio bearers (DRB)
Number of DRB with QCI=1
RAC controls emergency calls and emergency sessions
Special margin considered for emergency calls
Special margin considered for IMS emergency sessions
Radio Admission Control Introduction (2/3)

RAC applies different criteria for call estblishment and Mobility (HO)

offset in terms of number of rrc connections or active users used, etc


aim is to keep the already established sessions active and support user mobility

RAC interacts with other RRM entities


Packet Scheduler
Mobility management
Radio Bearer Management
UE State Management

RAC acts based on events like:


paging
Handover Request
Call establishment request
Radio Admission Control Introduction (3/3)
Smart Admission Control
Service management
Necessity when offering high bit rate services High RB requests with
Configuration of access control threshold per cell simplified for GBR congestion control by using of
priority and smart admissions
traffic
Rejected UE requests due of too
RAC reacts on measurements and therefore is adapted in a dynamic high RB utilization
way Only for QCI 2-4
S-RAC
Not for VoIP
Congestion control function allows more optimistic admission
decisions, and the system corrects overbooking situations using
preemption according to priorities (Radio) Descriptions / Objective:
To admit or to reject the
ARP based admission Control requests for esta0blishment of
Prioritize the availability of different services Radio Bearers (RB) on a cell
basis
Lower availability services may be offered without jeopardizing
higher available services Based on number of RRC
connections and number of
Must availability services like emergency sessions need no active users per cell and
dedicated (reserved) resource allocation and retention priority
Dynamic adaptation of resources to actual need (ARP)

ARP = Allocation and retention/maintenance Priority


Smart Admission control

S-RAC only for GBR traffic


to avoid congestion on guaranteed resources
Counter based RAC will not work in case of serving high bit rate users
Replaced by a measurement based function
S-RAC predicts load required/caused by each new GBR radio bearer
Reflecting requested transmission rates in UL/DL under given radio conditions
Considering existing GBR load
S-RAC offers congestion handling when overbooking of resources is
detected e.g.
Radio conditions of high bit rate users getting worse
Too optimistic admission was done
Bursting traffic cannot be served over time.
Admission Control Algorithms
and Thresholds
Radio Admission Control

RAC checks against operator configurable thresholds


on Call Establishment:
max_number_of_rrc_connection
max_number_of_rrc_connection_emergency_calls
max_number_of_active_users
max_number_of_active_DRB
max_number_of_QCI1_DRB

on Intra-Frequency (incoming) Handover:


additional offsets can be defined for
time critical handover (event A5)
handover desired for radio reasons (event A3)
all or nothing SRB && DRB must be admitted in target cell
Admission of SRB1

RAC compares the number of currently allocated RRC connections in the cell
against following parameter:

Name Range Default Description

0...840, step Maximum number of UEs in the cell with an


maxNumRrc 1 240 established RRC connection.
(LNCEL) (420)* Note*: min(ulChBw,dlChBW) is set to value '20
MHz'

Admission Control criteria for Signalling Bearer:


Number of currently established RRC connections < maxNumRrc
Admission of SRB1

if min(ulChBw,dlChBw) has value ' 5MHz' and '10 MHz'


- maxNumRrc value range is restricted to 0...480 (default value 240)
- maxNumRrc+max(addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo) <= 480

if min(ulChBw,dlChBw) has value '15 MHz ' and '20 MHz'


- maxNumRrc value range is restricted to 0...840 (default value 420)
- maxNumRrc+max(addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo) <= 840

addAUeRrHo addAUeTcHo
Additional # of active UEs, which are allowed Additional # of active UEs, which are
to access a cell via handover with HO cause: allowed to access a cell via handover with
"HO desirable for radio reasons", when RRC HO cause: "Time critical handover", when
connection (maxNumRrc) or active UE RRC connection (maxNumRrc) or active
(maxNumActUE) limit already reached. UE (maxNumActUE) limit already reached
LNCEL; 0...840;1; 15 LNCEL; 0...840;1; 20

0 implies that no admission priority is granted for UEs accessing the cell via HO
Admission of SRB1 for Emergency Call

RAC compares the number of currently allocated RRC connections in the cell against following parameter:

Name Range Default Description

0...840, step Maximum number of UEs in the cell which


maxNumRrcEme 1 440 may establish a RRC connection for an
rgency (800)* emergency call.
(LNCEL) Note*: min(ulChBw,dlChBW) is set to value
15 MHz or '20 MHz'

Admission Control criteria for Signalling Bearer:


Number of currently established RRC connections <
maxNumRrcEmergency

Note: maxNumRrcEmergency should be greater than the actual configured threshold maxNumRrc
Admission of Single non-GBR radio bearer

As part of the S1AP initial context setup, the bearer management function requests RAC to admit the
single non-GBR data radio bearer setup request for UEs for which the SRB1 and SRB2 have been
successfully established.
RAC compares the number of currently UEs with established DRB in the cell against following
parameter:

Name Range Default Description

0...840, step Maximum number of UEs in the cell with


maxNumActUE 1 120 established DRB.
(LNCEL) (240) Note: default 240 for 20MHz

Admission Control criteria for non-GBR radio bearer:

number of currently active UEs < maxNumActUE


Admission of single non-GBR radio bearer

if min(ulChBw,dlChBw) has value '10 MHz'


- maxNumActUE value range is restricted to 0...480 (default value 120)
- maxNumActUE +max(addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo) <= 480

if min(ulChBw,dlChBw) has value '20 MHz'


- maxNumActUE value range is restricted to 0...840 (default value 240)
- maxNumActUE +max(addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo) <= 840

addAUeRrHo addAUeTcHo
Additional # of active UEs, which are allowed Additional # of active UEs, which are
to access a cell via handover with HO cause: allowed to access a cell via handover with
"HO desirable for radio reasons", when RRC HO cause: "Time critical handover", when
connection (maxNumRrc) or active UE RRC connection (maxNumRrc) or active
(maxNumActUE) limit already reached. UE (maxNumActUE) limit already reached
LNCEL; 0...840;1; 15 LNCEL; 0...840;1; 20
Admission of Multiple EPS bearers

The bearer management function requests RAC to admit the Data Radio Bearer setup request for UEs for
which the SRB1 and SRB2 have been successfully established.
RAC compares the number of currently established DRB in the cell against following parameter:

Name Range Default Description

0...4200, maximum number of established DRBs in the cell.


maxNumActDrb step 1 360
Note: default 720 for 20MHz
(LNCEL) (720)

Admission Control criteria for Multiple EPS bearers:

number of currently established DRBs < maxNumActDrb

LTE7: Support of multiple EPS bearers


Admission of Multiple EPS bearers

If dlChBw is set to '5 MHz' or '10 MHz'


- maxNumActDrb + max(addNumDrbRadioReasHo, addNumDrbTimeCriticalHo) <= 2400

If dlChBw is set to '15 MHz' or '20 MHz'


- maxNumActDrb + max(addNumDrbRadioReasHo, addNumDrbTimeCriticalHo) <= 4200

addNumDrbRadioReasHo addNumDrbTimeCriticalHo
Additional margin for the maximum number of Additional margin for the maximum number
active DRBs in the cell accessing the cell via of active DRBs in the cell accessing the cell
HO with HO-cause: "HO desirable for radio via HO with HO-cause: "Time Critical HO".
reasons. LNCEL; 0...4200;1; 60
LNCEL; 0...4200;1; 35
Admission of QCI1 Conversational bearers

The bearer management function requests RAC to admit the data radio bearer setup request for UEs
conversational voice
RAC compares the number of currently established QCI=1 DRB in the cell against following parameter:

Name Range Default Description

0...200, step
maxNumQci1Drb 100 Max Number QCI1 DRBs (GBRs)
1
(LNCEL)
Admission Control criteria for QCI=1 Conversational EPS bearers:

number of currently established QCI=1 DRBs <


maxNumQci1Drb

LTE10: Conversational Voice


Admission of QCI1 Conversational bearers

If dlChBw is set to '5 MHz'


- maxNumQci1Drb + max( addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo, addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo)
<= 150,

If dlChBw is set different to '5 MHz'


- maxNumQci1Drb + max( addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo, addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo)
<= 200

addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo
Additional margin for the maximum number of Additional margin for the maximum number
active DRBs in the cell accessing the cell via of active DRBs in the cell accessing the cell
HO with HO-cause: "HO desirable for radio via HO with HO-cause: "Time Critical HO".
reasons. LNCEL; 0...200;1; 20
LNCEL; 0...200;1; 15
Radio Bearer Management
Main feature of RL20 is retrieval & utilisation of UE capabilities in RRM
A Layer 3 RRC signaling procedure
3GPP TS 36.306 defines UE capabilities
Radio Bearer Management

Radio Admission Control may select UL/DL maximum bitrates for a UE:
based on UE capability information received from UE (mbrSelector=0)
based on O&M parameters maxBitRateUl and maxBitRateDl
(mbrSelector =1)
mbrSelector
LNCEL; 0 (ueCapability), 1 (OaM) ; 0

The max. Bitrate for a UE in UL & DL for all radio bearers incl. SRBs are
limited to O&M parameter setting:

maxBitRateDl maxBitRateUl
LNCEL; 50300000kbps;50 ; LNCEL; 5075000kbps;50 ;
170000 Kbps 50000 Kbps
Radio Admission Control for Intra-Frequency HO

For LTE intra-frequency handover there can be separate admission control


thresholds defined depending on HO trigger cause:

Time Critical Handover flag is set when HO trigger is event A5 (urgency


is high for coverage handover (event A5))

Handover Desirable for Radio Reasons flag is set when HO trigger is


event A3 (urgency is low for power budget handover (event A3))

Better to support the call with Handover rather than rejecting and/or dropping
Radio Admission Control for Intra-Frequency HO

Definition of new admission control threshold for time critical HO:


HoThreshRrc = maxNumRrc + max(addAUeTcHo, addAUeRrHo)
HoThreshUe = maxNumActUe + max(addAUeTcHo, addAUeRrHo)
HoThreshDrb = maxNumActDrb + max(addNumDrbRadioReasHo, addNumDrbTimeCriticalHo)
HoThreshGbr = maxNumQci1Drb + max( addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo, addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo)

If NumRRC < HoThreshRrc (SRB1 &2)


AND NumActUE < HoThreshUe (Single Non-GBR RB)
AND NumActDrb < HoThreshDrb (Multiple EPS bearers)
AND NumQci1Drb < HoThreshGbr (Conversational Voice)
then
admit HO request in target cell

Otherwise
reject HO request for target cell
Smart admission Control

Smart Radio Admission Control


Default: max 75% of PRBs (air transmission resources) available for GBR traffic

RAC checks unchanged compared to RL40 maxGbrTrafficLimit


Maximum radio resource consumption
Amount of RRC_Connections (SRBs) (PRBs) for GBR traffic in UL and DL
Amount of active Ues LNCEL; 30... 90; 75
Amount of active DRBs

New addGbrTrafficRrHo
Estimation of needed resources for GBR-DRBs Additional margin on the threshold
Load measurements are base for admission decision "maxGbrTrafficLimit" in case of handover
for radio reasons.
Max. amount of GBR-DRBs (CR ongoing) LNCEL; 0... 30; 5

addGbrTrafficRrHo
Additional margin on the threshold
"maxGbrTrafficLimit" in case of handover
for time critical reasons .
LNCEL; 0... 30; 10
Smart admission Control RL40

GBR-DRB admission takes into account:


Requested bit rate UL/DL (incl. corrections for header info, etc)
Radio conditions derived from CQI information etc (=> transmission efficiency in bits/PRB)
Current load in cell (available PRB resources)
Configured threshold for GBR traffic
Congestion Handling
If GBR-traffic cannot be scheduled according to QoS requirements RAC is informed to select
candidates (with the help of ARP-AC) to be kicked out in order to free resouces.
Emergency Handling:
No resources reserved for emergency traffic, because this is handled by ARP-AC
Smart admission Control RL40

Estimate throughput capacity

eNodeB estimates throughput per User requested GBR


capacity efficiency; kbit/s possible per
RB from CQI / SINR
Calculate required RB
eNodeB knows GBR requested by new
user

eNodeB calculates from efficiency


number of RBs to fulfill requested GBR no
Is # PRBs required less
than PRB max
reserved ?

Refer to ARP for


GBR-DRB request is admitted when; possible pre-emption
yes
k
( PRBi + PRBnew) PRB max PRBres Admit bearer

i =1

grossreqbitrate
PRBnew <
transm.efficiency
ARP Based Admission Control RL40

Basic rules for preemption (according to 3GPP)


Priority Level
Values between 1 and 14
1 highest priority; 14 lowest priority
Only E-RABs with lower priority may be preempted
Note: Value 15 is no priority and correspond to preemption capability and vulnerability unset
Preemption Capability maxNumPreEmptions
Limits the number of pre-emptions which
If set, this E-RAB may preempt others the admission of a set of E-RABs may
Preemption Vulnerability cause.
LNBTS; 1..32; 20
If set, this E-RAB may be preempted by others
LTE534 extension to 3GPP rules
If preemption needed, useful and allowed, it shall happen
Preemption done in order of decreasing priority level for vulnerable E-RABs
Multiple vulnerable E-RABs with same priority, the most resource consuming shall be
preempted first
ARP Based Admission Control RL40
Examples
Example 1: Single commercial operator
Offered services:
Background TCP-based data transfer (e.g. e-mail, ftp, ..)
Foreground TCP-based data transfer (e.g. Web browsing, chat)
Conversational video (live streaming)
Conversational voice
Emergency calls
Proposed ARP Settings

Service Priority level Capability Vulnerability

Emergency calls 7 Y N

Conversational voice 10 Y Y

Conversational video 12 Y Y

Foreground data 12 Y Y

Background data 14 N y
ARP Based Admission Control RL40
Examples
Example 2: Single commercial operator and one public safety (PS) operator
Additional offered services compared to example 1 :
PS Background TCP-based data transfer (e.g. e-mail)
PS Foreground TCP-based data transfer (e.g. database access)
PS Conversational voice
PS Emergency calls
Proposed ARP Settings

Service Priority level Capability Vulnerability


PS Emergency calls 2 Y N
PS Conversational voice 4 Y Y
PS Foreground data 5 Y Y
PS Background 6 Y Y
Emergency calls 7 Y N
Conversational voice 10 Y Y
ARP Based Admission Control RL40

Emergency session handling


ARP based admission control for E-RABs means no reserved resources for IMS emergency session E-RABS are longer
necessary. Therefore, the eNB capacity for normal E-RABs can be used more effectively.

Values for ARP handling for emergency IMS sessions done on a per PLMN basis.

LNBTS managed object;

emerSessArpPreemCap Whether a service data flow can get resources that were already assigned to another service
data flow with a lower priority level.
emerSessArpPreemVul Defines whether a service data flow can lose the resources assigned to it in order to admit a
service data flow with higher priority level.
emerSessArpPrioLev For emergency sessions, only ARP priority levels 1-8 may be applied
Huawei - Admission Control
Huawei Admission Control - Overview

During admission control, an eNodeB decides whether to accept a guaranteed bit rate (GBR) service request (either new
service or handover) based on
the physical resource block (PRB) usage and
the quality of service (QoS) satisfaction rate of GBR services.

During congestion control, the eNodeB controls system load to ensure a high overall QoS satisfaction rate and stable
system operation.

Benefit
Load control maintains system stability by rejecting certain admission requests or releasing some admitted services,
while maximizing resource usage.
Load control ensures the quality of admitted services by controlling the cell load. It also provides the required QoS for
individual radio bearers and maximizes cell capacity.
Admission Control

Radio-resource-based admission control is categorized into user admission and service admission
When a piece of user equipment (UE) requests access to a network, that is, when a UE requests setup of a radio
resource control (RRC) connection or requests an incoming handover, the E-UTRAN NodeB (eNodeB) performs the
user admission procedure
When a UE that has accessed a cell requests a new service, that is, when a UE requests establishment of an E-UTRAN
radio access bearer (E-RAB) or requests an incoming handover, the eNodeB performs the service admission
procedure
User Admission

User admission Procedure :


1. The eNodeB checks whether the CPU resource is
limited. If the CPU resource is limited, the eNodeB
rejects the access request.
2. The eNodeB checks whether the sounding reference
signal (SRS) resource is successfully allocated.
3. The eNodeB checks whether the PUCCH resource is
successfully allocated. If the PUCCH resource allocation
fails, the eNodeB rejects the access request.
4. The eNodeB checks whether the number of users is
limited. If the number of admitted users has reached the
maximum or the licensed user number, the eNodeB
determines that the number of users is limited and the
admission fails.
5. For the user that is admitted by the eNodeB, if the UE
requests a service (that is, to establish an E-RAB), the
eNodeB performs the service admission procedure.
6. If the UE's access request is rejected by the eNodeB, the
UE can initiate a user preemption procedure.
User Admission - AcReservedUserNumber

In user admission, UE numbers are reserved for privileged UEs to increase their admission success rates. Privileged
UEs include emergency UEs and high-priority UEs with a "highPriorityAccess" cause value in an RRC connection
establishment request. Other UEs are common UEs.
The prioritized access to services of privileged UEs can be achieved based on user preemption. However, user
preemption is not allowed in some areas according to local regulations. Therefore, UE numbers are reserved for
privileged UEs to ensure the admission of these UEs.
The UE numbers reserved for privileged UEs are controlled by the CellRacThd.AcReservedUserNumber parameter.

Actual Recomm
MO Parameter ID Meaning Value ended
Range Value
Indicates the UE numbers reserved for UEs initiating emergency calls and
high-priority UEs. If this parameter is set to 0, no UE number is reserved
CellRacThd AcReservedUserNumber for UEs initiating emergency calls and high-priority UEs. A non-zero value 0~30 0
of this parameter represents the maximum UE number reserved for UEs
initiating emergency calls and high-priority UEs.

When the CellRacThd.AcReservedUserNumber parameter is set to 0, user-number-reservation-based admission


control is disabled. In this case, the eNodeB rejects the access requests of high-priority UEs when the number of
admitted users has reached the licensed user number
Service Admission

Non GBR service Admission:


If the SRS or PUCCH resource allocation fails, the
eNodeB rejects the access request.
If both the SRS resource allocation and the PUCCH
resource allocation are successful, the eNodeB accepts
the request. In the admission procedure, the eNodeB
does not check the UE capabilities or whether the cell is
congested, or make the admission decision based on the
QoS satisfaction rates.

GBR Service Admission


If the SRS or PUCCH resource allocation fails, the
eNodeB rejects the access request.
If both the SRS resource allocation and the PUCCH
resource allocation are successful, the eNodeB makes
the admission decision as follows:
For an emergency call, the eNodeB accepts the request.
For a non-emergency call, the eNodeB checks the UE
capabilities and whether the cell is congested, and then makes
the decision based on the QoS satisfaction rates.
Ericssons - Admission Control
Admission Control

The purpose of Admission Control is to control the admission of UEs and E-RABs in such a way that requested Quality of
Service can be achieved for the UE or E-RAB seeking admission, as well as for the UEs or E-RABs previously admitted.

Admission control can also be configured to reserve a share of system resources to be used only for privileged access, for
example emergency calls. By reserving system resources, the accessibility and mobility success rate increases for UEs and
bearers assigned with privileged access.

The following types of admission control are defined in the LTE basic system:
Emergency Call Prioritization
Transport Network Admission Control
Monitored System Resources (MSR)

To understand whether the RBS can admit a request, it considers its Monitored System Resources (MSRs),
as shown in figure below.
Each MSR represents the utilization of a system resource that potentially is a bottleneck in the RBS.
Moreover, the MSRrepresents the accumulated resource utilization from all admitted requests.
Admission Control - Parameter

MO Class Name Parameter Name Parameter Description Range and Values Default Value
AdmissionControl resourceReservationForPAState Activates or deactivates the Resource Reservation for ACTIVATED DEACTIVATED
Priviliged Access. DEACTIVATED

AdmissionControl nrOfRbReservationsPerPaConn Number of Radio Bearers to be reserved per privileged 0..10 4


access connection. This includes SRB1, SRB2 and DRBs.
AdmissionControl nrOfPaConnReservationsPerCell Number of privileged access connections to be reserved 0..20 1
per cell.
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