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IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C.

ss A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S

I. PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF Page


BRUSHLESS A.C. GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 5
BASIC DESIGN THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 8
OPERATING PRINCIPLES,
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SELF-EXCITED, ROTATING FIELD,
BRUSHLESS A.C. GENERATOR WITH
ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 9
SEPARATELY EXCITED, ROTATING FIELD,
BRUSHLESS A.C. GENERATOR WITH
ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 11
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A BRUSHLESS GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
WORKING MINIATURE MODEL OF A
SEPARATELY-EXCITED BRUSHLESS A.C.
GENERATOR DESIGNED BY ENGR. PASILAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

II. CHOICE OF SIZE OF GENERATORS AND


NUMBER OF UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INTRODUCTION ............................ 2
A. BASE-LOAD GENERATORS
1.0 ELECTRICAL LOAD REQUIREMENT . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3
2.0 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 7
3.0 TYPES OF LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 9
4.0 DETERMINATION OF SIZE OF GENERATOR UNITS AND
NUMBER OF UNITS WITH EXAMPLE;
FURTHER DISCUSSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 9 - 11

B. STANDBY GENERATOR SYSTEM


GENERATOR AND PRIME MOVER SIZING . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 4
1.0 ESTIMATING THE VOLTAGE DIP . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 6
2.0 LIMITING THE VOLTAGE DIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.0 SELECTION OF POWER PLANT FOR
LOAD CONDITION EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 11

III. GENERATING STATION GROUNDING SYSTEM: PART 1:


GENERATOR NEUTRAL GROUNDING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATOINS IN GENERATING STATION
GROUNDING AND TYPES OF GROUNDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 4
UNGROUNDED SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 7
OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS OF UNGROUNDED SYSTEM
DURING FAULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 12
SOLIDLY-GROUNDED SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - 14
NEUTRAL CIRCULATING THIRD HARMONIC CURRENTS IN

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

PARALLEL GENERATORS ON THE SAME BUS AND WITH


SOLIDLY GROUNDED NEUTRALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 - 20
RESISTANCE (Low and High) GROUNDED SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 - 22
LOW RESISTANCE GROUNDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
HIGH RESISTANCE GROUNDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 - 29
REACTANCE (Low and High) GROUNDING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 - 35

IV. LIST OF BOOK REFERENCES

V. LIST OF APPENDICES I to XXI


SYSTEMS COMPONENTS CAPACITANCE DATA (APPENDICES I -XII)
TYPES OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS OF EXISTING GENERATING
STATIONS where Engr. Oscar Pasilan was heavily involved in the
Engineering/Design, Installation, Test and Commissioning Works
(Appendices XIII-XXI)

SAMPLE SINGLE LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT CALCULATIONS FOR TWO


GENERATORS OPERATING IN PARALLEL WITH ONE SOLIDLY GROUNDED AND
THE OTHER ONE UNGROUNDED (APPENDIX XII)

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
CONTRACTORS LICENSE (PCAB) NO. 30891

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN / ENGINEERING, INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE


J ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS
B
R OSCAR P. PASILAN
PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER
ROSARIO A. PASILAN
VICE-PRESIDENT - FINANCE
JURDEN A. PASILAN
OFFICE MANAGER
BRIAN A. PASILAN
VICE-PRESIDENT - ENGINEERING
RALPHA.A.PASILAN
RALPH PASILAN
OPERATIONS
DESIGN AND FIELDMANAGER
ENGINEER
IIEE-Accredited Electrical Consultant Registered Chemical Engineer Registered Occupational Therapist Registered Electrical Engineer Registered Electrical
Registered Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Professional Electrical Engineer PRC Reg. No. 2228, Dec. 17, 1964 PRC Reg. No. 0000597, Sept. 11, 1998 PRC Reg. No. 023866, Dec. 01, 1999 PRC
PRCReg. No.No.
Reg. 0031267,
0031267,Oct. 30,30,
Oct. 2002
2002
PRC Reg. No. 0573, Feb. 05, 1968
Member, Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers of U.S.A.
(since 1996)

OSCAR P. PASILAN
PROFESSIONAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEER - CONSULTANT
PRC. REG. NO.0573, FEB. 05, 1968

1964 Awardee of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) Alumni Association for copping
FIFTH PLACE, whole Philippines, Board Examinations for Assistant Electrical Engineers, given in
Manila, August 1963. Registered Assistant Electrical Engineer No. 1227, June 15, 1964. (Exam
released Feb. 1964 but no given license until June 15, 1964 (under-aged)).
1968 Awardee of the USJ-R Alumni Association for copping SECOND PLACE, whole Philippines,
Board Examinations for Professional Electrical Engineers, given in Manila, August 1967. Registered
Professional Electrical Engineer No. 0573, February 5, 1968 at the age of 26 years old.
1968 Awardee of USJ-R Alumni Association for OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION AND
ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE FIELD OF ENGINEERING.
1993 National Awardee of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. as
the MOST OUTSTANDING ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PRACTITIONER IN THE FIELD OF
CONSULTANCY.
1994 Awardee of the USJ-R Engineering Alumni Association as EXCELLENT ALUMNUS IN THE
FIELD OF ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY.
LIFE MEMBER (No. 6P-0573-1450-89, July 3, 1989), Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of
the Philippines, Inc., (IIEE).
ELEVATED to the grade of SENIOR MEMBER (No. 37) by the Institute of Integrated Electrical
Engineers of the Philippines, Inc., (IIEE), Nov. 16, 1995.
MEMBER, (No. 40198325) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., (IEEE), USA from
1996 to 2004. (Not able to renew as I was out of town for 3 years. Membership under renewal)
MEMBER, POWER Engineering Society, Communications Society & Computer Society, IEEE,
USA.
Accredited Resource Speaker of the IIEE Cebu and Mactan Chapters on Electric Power System
Engineering and Industrial Power Systems Design and Practices.
44 solid years of experience in heavy electrical engineering practice (to 2008).

SPECIALTY JOBS:
General Electrical Consultancy, Electrical Systems Design, Power System Study, Installation, Test and
Commissioning Works of the ff:
Light and Heavy Industrial Plants such as Base-Load Diesel and Coal-Fired (Conventional and
Fluidized Bed) Thermal Power Generating Plants, Emergency Power Generating Plants, Electroplating
Plants, Copper Smelter and Refinery Plants, Steel Mills, Copper and Gold Mining (Open Pit and
Underground) / Concentrate Processing Plants, Paper Mills, Industrial Gas Plants, Food Processing and
Packaging Plant, Industrial Paints Manufacturing Plants, Rubber and Plastic Moulding Plants, Coco
Oil Mills, Electronic Parts Manufacturing Plants, Foundry Plants, Lime Plants, Sugar Centrals,
Fertilizer and Acid Plants, Oxygen/Acetylene Plants, Nickel Plating & Cut Waste Water Treatment
and Recycle Plants, Sand and Gravel Aggregate Plants, Feed Mills, Plastic Manufacturing & Molding
Plants, Furniture Manufacturing Plants, Camera Parts (Xenon Tube) Manufacturing Plant, Sewerage
Treatment Plants, Medium Voltage and High Voltage Electrical Substations/Switchyards.
High-Rise Commercial Buildings and Beach Resort/Hotel Complex.
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.1
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

I. BRUSHLESS A.C. GENERATOR PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this part of the seminar is to describe the basic features of A.C.
Generator. Discussions on the performance and characteristics of generators and the
synchronizing, parallel operation of generators with other generators or with the utility
are out of the scope of the seminar. Another seminar can be scheduled for these
subjects.

A.C. Generators which is also called alternator provides electrical power output from
the input of mechanical power, usually at a fixed voltage and frequency. It comprises a
stationary part and rotating part which needs to be driven by a prime mover. It is usually
surrounded by a metal frame and the main materials are copper wire (for the electrical
windings) and laminated steel (for the magnetic field circuit). Typical machine
arrangements are presented with emphasis on the brushless generator and
descriptions of its components such as rotor, stator and excitation system and
construction.

TERMINOLOGY

A.C. Generator
Also called Alternator. Provides electrical power output from the input of mechanical
power; usually at a fixed voltage and frequency. It comprises a static part and a rotating
part which needs to be driven by the prime mover. It is usually surrounded by a metal
frame and the main materials used are copper wire (for the electrical windings) and
lamination steel (for the magnetic field (circuit)).

Armature
The part of an A.C. Generators which contain windings where the electrical output is
taken and transferred to the external circuits. In most A.C. generators, the armature is
the stationary component.

Brushless
A design of A.C. Generator without sliprings or brushgear. This design needs a stationary
main output winding (called the stator) and a rotating magnetic field system (called the
rotor). If the magnetic field is to be produced electrically an exciter is required.

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)


An electronic unit which maintains the main machine output voltage at a fixed pre-set
level irrespective of load or speed changes. It does this by comparing a reference or set
voltage with the actual output voltage and automatically adjusting the excitation level as
necessary. This is closed loop voltage control system. This unit is sometimes called
voltage control unit or VCU.

Excitation
An A.C. generator usually on the same shaft as the main machine. All the electrical
power output produced by the exciter is rectified and used to establish the magnetic
field of the main machine.

Magnetic Field
A force set up around a magnet. The best known magnetic field is that of the earth,
established by the North and South magnetic poles.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.2
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The existence of a strong magnetic field is a pre-requisite of an a.c. generator. The


magnetic field can be produced by using a permanent magnet material or by electrical
methods. A d.c. supply is necessary for setting up a magnetic field electrically, commonly
called an excitation supply. The magnetic field strength can be varied by varying the d.c.
excitation supply. The number of magnetic field poles must be multiple of 2, as each
magnet comprises a North pole and a South pole. The most common poleages for a.c.
generators are 2 pole, 4 pole or 6 pole for high speed units. Diesel engine driven
generators of continuous duty ranging from 3MW and above have poleages of 8 poles
(900 RPM), 10 poles (720 RPM), 12 poles (600 RPM), 14 poles (514 RPM), 16 poles (450
RPM) and 18 poles (400 RPM).

Permanent Magnet
A magnetic material which once magnetized, retains its magnetic properties. This can be
used as the magnetic field of an a.c. generator, the most common application being the
permanent magnet exciter.

Rotating Field
A type of a.c. generator in which the magnetic field system is the rotating member. All
brushless machines have this kind of component.

Rotor
Generally used to describe all the rotating parts of an a.c. generator. It often refers
specifically to the main magnetic field winding of a brushless machine. High speed
turbine-generators and small diesel-generators of 2-pole or 4-pole construction employs
cylindrical rotors. Lower speed hydro-generators and the medium to large diesel-
generators use salient pole rotors. The field winding in a cylindrical rotor is a distributed
winding placed in slots and giving a near sinusoidal 2-pole field, Fig. O (a & b) shows he
two types of rotor.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.3
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Self Excited
A design of a.c. generator where the source of power for the electrically produced
magnetic field is derived from the main output winding of the machine itself.

Separately Excited
A design of a.c. generator where the source of power for the electrically produced
magnetic field is derived external to the main machine. It may be provided by a
completely independent machine or by an extra machine winding on the same shaft as
the main machine.

Stator
Refers specifically to the main output winding of a brushless machine. Can also mean
the main magnetic field winding of a rotating armature machine.
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.4
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

BASIC DESIGN THEORY

General
One of the simplest ways to remember how every a.c. generator works is to imagine a
magnet and a piece of wire. Move one of them with respect to the other, whilst keeping
them close together, and a measurable voltage will be induced at the ends of the wire.

Immediately then we see that all a.c. generators must have the following, before an
output voltage can be generated:-

a.) A magnet to produce the magnetic field excitation


b.) A piece of wire usually coils of copper wire
c.) Relative movement between these two usually a constant rotational speed.

Theory

In its simplest form an A.C. generator is diagrammatically shown in Fig. 1. All three
criteria stated above are met and a voltage output will be produced. In this case the
magnetic field produced is at a constant level from a permanent magnet. This type of
machine does have practical applications, particularly when supplying a constant load;
for example, a pedal bicycle dynamo.

There are two conditions to consider at this point, the no load condition and the on load
condition. The no load output voltage level is sustained by the constant magnetic field
strength produced and fixed by the permanent magnet. On load, current is drawn from
the machine which will cause the output voltage to fall, since the permanent magnet
cannot produce a change in the magnetic field strength. The typical relationship between
the output voltage and the load current is shown in the graph in Fig. 1. Typically the
relationship is nearly linear between no load voltage (V) at zero current and the short
circuit current (Isc) at zero voltage. In order to maintain the output voltage whilst
supplying current, the magnetic field strength must be increased as load is applied. It is
this requirement that brings us to the next stage of a.c. generator design incorporating
the electrically produced magnetic field system. (Fig. 2).

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.5
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Curve(1) machine characteristic with minimum fixed field to sustain no load voltage
V.

Curve(2) machine characteristic with maximum available fixed field from variable D.C.
supply.

Curve(3) typical desired machine characteristic using variable D.C. supply to provide
variable field.

Again all the basic criteria are met, except that the magnet is now produced electrically
from an external variable D.C. source supplying a coil of wire wound on the magnetic
material. In order to get the supply to the rotating coil, the coil ends have to be brought
to sliprings attached to the shaft and the D.C. source supply connected to the brushgear
assembly which is supported on the stationary part of the alternator. The magnetic field
strength can be increased by increasing the D.C. supply current. When this machine is
run on load, we can increase the magnetic field strength in order to maintain the output
voltage level. See the graph in Fig. 2, Curve 3.

From here onwards there are many design improvements that can be made. For
example a second A.C. generator (an exciter) can be put on the same shaft to make the
basic brushless machine; that is a machine without sliprings and brushgear but which
still maintains control over magnetic field strength. Also instead of having a manual
control over the variable D.C. supply to the field coil, we can provide an automatic
control system. These items are discussed later on in this section.

Now let us consider the factors governing the rotational speed and the output voltage.

Speed
There is a simple relationship between speed, output frequency and the number of
magnetic poles forming the main field excitation system of the machine.

Output Frequency (Hz) = Driven Speed (rev/min) x No. of magnetic poles


120

Obviously the number of magnetic field poles is decided and fixed by the machine
manufacturer. Therefore we can see that output frequency is directly proportional to

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.6
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

driven speed. In other words the only way frequency can change is due to a
corresponding change in driven speed. 50 Hz and 60 Hz are two most commonly used
frequencies. Philippines is using 60 Hz frequency same as the North American Countries
U.S.A. and Canada. 50 Hz and 60 Hz are used in other countries. Table 2.6 from the
book Industrial Power Systems by S. Khan shows countries that are using 50 Hz and
60 Hz. Refer to appendixes.

Voltage
The relationships of the machine governing voltage level are more complex.

Output Voltage (V) depends on 1) Driven Speed (rev/min)


2) Number of turns of copper wire in output
winding.
3) Strength of magnetic field produced by
the main field excitation magnetic poles.

The number of turns of copper wire in the output winding is fixed by the machine
manufacturer. Voltage is also affected by the driven speed. In fact with a constant
magnetic field strength, voltage as well as frequency would be directly proportional to
driven speed.

As the speed is fixed to obtain the correct frequency, the only variable left that can be
used to change and fix the machine voltage level is the magnetic field strength. This is
exactly the parameter that the machines control system does adjust in order to set the
voltage level, and compensate for both speed and load current changes. Let us now take
a look at the control systems that are readily available.

Control System
These are two popular methods of voltage control system for a.c. generators, firstly a
closed loop electronic system and secondly, an open loop transformer system.

a.) Electronic System

This system continually monitors the output voltage and compares it with a
reference voltage level set by the user. Once the reference voltage level is set,
the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) will automatically compare the actual
output voltage with the reference voltage level and if they are different will adjust
the magnetic field strength to make the output voltage the same as the reference
voltage. This system is therefore an accurate close loop control system which
responds very quickly to any voltage fluctuations as it is constantly adjusting
magnetic field strength as required. It is possible to achieve this accurate closed
loop control by using static magnetic amplifiers (combinations of transformers and
controlled reactors). This system is very reliable although slow in operation and
very bulky compared to the electronic systems which have now virtually
superseded it.

b.) Transformer Control

This system is really in two parts, firstly adjustment for no load voltage level and,
secondly, compensation for load current. This system once set up is not normally
adjusted. It is an open loop control system; there is no continuous monitoring to
adjust the output voltage. It can only provide the amount of magnetic field
strength it has been set up to provide.

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IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Operation
In the next part the combined operation of the machine with the control system will be
examined in more detail.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES

Introduction
In the preceding theoretical part, the basic a.c. generator and voltage control system
parameters were discussed. In this part we shall examine several practical machines
with their associated control system. In all cases the basic requirements are the same:

a.) an output voltage is induced between the ends of a conductor (usually copper
wire), when the conductor is adjacent to a magnet and there is constant relative
motion between them.
b.) The output voltage is controlled by variation of the magnets field strength in
order to maintain the output voltage under load and speed changes.

SELF-EXCITED, ROTATING FIELD, BRUSHLESS, A.C. GENERATOR


WITH ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM.

Looking at the title of this machine, it is self excited as the excitation power is derived
from the main output winding of the machine itself. Rotating field indicates that it is the
main machines field system that the prime mover rotates. Brushless means that there
are no sliprings or brushgear needed in this type of machine design.

Let us now consider the necessary motion the mechanical rotational input power. It is
this input power that sustains the correct speed under all load conditions. From this
input power is derived the electrical power output, the field excitation power and all the
machine losses.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.8
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Excitation power is supplied to coils of copper wire wound on some magnetic material. A
characteristic of these materials is that a magnetic field can be easily set up and
controlled in them. In all such materials there already exists a small amount of
magnetism even before any electrical excitation supply is connected. This is called
residual magnetism.

Referring now to Fig. 3, with the machine rotor being driven at the correct speed, we
have a small magnetic field set up due to residual magnetism, rotating adjacent to coils
of copper wire in the main stator output winding. Therefore a small voltage is induced at
the ends of the winding and is termed residual voltage. The minimum residual
voltage required for a reliable build-up is usually about 2.5% rated voltage a level
normally obtained with conventional brushless generator. If no sufficient residual voltage
is experienced, field flashing by means of a separate battery will be applied. The
automatic voltage regulator (AVR) will sense this low voltage and compare it with the
set reference voltage level. The set reference voltage level is an externally
adjustable voltage level, derived by the AVR corresponding to the value of sensing
voltage obtained when the machine is running at nominal speed and at rated output
voltage. The AVR will find initially that the sensed voltage is considerably lower than the
set reference voltage. The AVR will therefore provide such power as is available from
the main stator winding in order to establish the exciter field.

The exciter is made from similar magnetic materials as the main machine, so the exciter
field will also have a small amount of residual magnetism. The power from the main
output winding, which is rectified by going through the AVR now adds to this his residual
level to produce a greater magnetic field strength in the exciter field. It is worth noting
here that correct polarity must be observed, since, if incorrect, the additional excitation
power will subtract from the residual magnetism until zero magnetic field strength is
reached. This means that the output voltage will not build up but remain at zero until an
external D.C. source is applied to re-establish the exciter field.

With the exciter magnetic field strength increased, the A.C. output voltage from the
exciter rotor will also increase. This voltage is rectified by the rotating diodes to provide
additional D.C. excitation to the main machine field. This extra excitation adds to the
residual level of the main field and produces an increase in output voltage from the main
stator. The AVR senses this increase, compares it with the set reference and uses the
increased power from the main stator to further increase the exciter field excitation as
required.

In this way the main stator voltage is progressively built up until the sensed voltage is
the same as the set reference voltage. At this point the exciter field excitation will be
stable and of such a value to just maintain the nominal or rated voltage level. This build
up process in fact starts during the run up of the set. By the time the prime mover speed
is stable, the A.C. generator output voltage will normally be stable and at the correct
pre-set level.

Since this is a closed loop electronic voltage control system, a change in output voltage
due to load current or speed changes is automatically compensated for by the action of
the AVR. This will adjust the excitation under all circumstances in order to achieve
minimum error between the sensed output voltage and the set reference voltage.
There are, however, upper and lower limits of stable excitation voltage and power than
can be provided by the AVR. These limits must be borne in mind during the design of the
field systems.

SEPARATELY EXCITED, ROTATING FIELD, BRUSHLESS A.C.


GENERATOR WITH ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM.
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.9
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

By comparing Fig. 3 with Fig. 4 above, we see the two types of machine are very
similar. The difference is in the source of exciter field excitation power. In this case there
is a separate source of exciter field power from a small permanent magnet field a.c.
generator situated on the same shaft as the main machine. Hence the machine title is
separately excited.

When running at the correct speed, excitation power is always available independent of
load condition. The permanent magnet produces constant magnetic field excitation and
rotates close to the permanent magnet machines output winding. The constant output
voltage is then fed to the exciter field winding through the AVR. By comparing the main
output sensed voltage with the set reference voltage, the AVR decides on the
proportion of permanent magnet machine output to rectify and feed to the exciter field.

The process of initial voltage build up is very positive in this system, as residual
magnetism is no longer continually depended upon. The AVR senses output voltage,
compares it with the set reference voltage and can apply the full permanent magnet
output power rectified to the exciter field if necessary. The exciter rotor output would
then increase, establishing a strong main field and therefore a marked increase in main
output voltage. The AVR senses and compares voltages and adjusts exciter field
excitation until, as in previous machine type, both output voltage and exciter field
excitation become stable.

Another significant advantage of this system is the ability to sustain main field excitation
when the main output winding is short circuited. This means the sensing voltage to the
AVR is forcibly held at nearly zero by the applied short circuit. Since the difference in the
sensed and set reference voltages is not large, the full permanent magnet output is
rectified and applied to the exciter field. This sustains the main field excitation which in
turn maintains the short circuit current. This facility is advantageous wherever positive
voltage build up, high overload capacity, or short circuit current fault discrimination is
required. This combines the brushless style of machine with the open loop transformer

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IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

type of control system. (see machines described under Fig. 1 and Fig. 3). When
rotating, the residual magnetism causes an output voltage, a fixed proportion of it being
rectified and fed to the exciter field. Output voltage will be built up in the way described
previously until the proportion of output voltage fed to the exciter field is just enough to
sustain that voltage. The machine and control gear are designed so that this happens at
the nominal output voltage of the machine. Compensation for load current is achieved by
using a transformer to obtain a voltage proportional to load current. This voltage is
rectified and used to increase the exciter field strength thereby sustaining the output
voltage on load.

Fig. 5 shows the schematic diagram of a separately-excited brushless A.C. Generator.


Most modern generators are of this construction.

Please note that rotating and stationary parts of the generator. Grounding system of the
generator is not shown.

A working miniature model of a separately excited brushless A.C. generator is shown in


the picture (refer to appendixes). The complete constructed model was designed by the
seminar speaker, Engr. Pasilan, using junked electrical components which he made a
redesign of the windings of the permanent magnet auxiliary and main exciter
generators. Only the brush-type alternator of his old car was used as is for the main
generator. Additional components installed were the stationary and rotating rectifiers.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.11
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 5 Schematic Diagram of Brushless Generator

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.12
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

A WORKING MINIATURE MODEL OF A SEPARATELY-EXCITED


BRUSHLESS A.C. GENERATOR
(Model was designed and constructed by Engr. Oscar Pasilan)

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573) Part I - Page No.13
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.1
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

II. CHOICE OF SIZE OF GENERATORS AND NUMBER OF UNITS

INTRODUCTION

There will be two types of Generator service that will be discussed in this seminar paper.
These are as follows:
a. Those generator that will supply continuously electric service for the towns
and cities where there are residential, municipal, commercial, industrial and
government loads; and in mining areas, irrigation loads, etc. These
generators are called Base-Load Generators.
b. Those generators which are on standby to supply power in the event that
the utility power is out of commission.

The discussion of the two types of generator service will focus on the sizing of
generators and number of units to be used to get the most efficient, reliable and
economical operations. The type of power station such as Diesel-Electric, Steam-Turbine
driven, hydro-electric, nuclear, etc. is out of scope of this seminar paper.

A. BASE-LOAD GENERATORS

1.0 ELECTRICAL LOAD REQUIREMENT

In the process of sizing of generators and number of units required, it is first


necessary to find out the load requirement of an area where electricity is to be
supplied. This depends on the ff.
a.) the nature of the area
b.) the population of the town or village under consideration
c.) the density or population
d.) the living standard of the people in the locality
e.) industrial development in the area
f.) cost of electric power

The problem may be the ff:


a.) The load requirement of a new township which is to be set up or supply
of electricity to a village for the first time.
b.) The extension of the supply facilities to a growing city where electricity
has been available for years and the need is continuously increasing
owing to development.
In the first case, no previous data regarding load requirements or trends or
developments which need electric power are available. It is necessary to study the
possibilities for the supply of electric power by considering the ff:
a.) the plans for development
b.) the probable number of consumers
c.) the power requirements of each type of load
d.) the time at which loads might be required
e.) types of loads to be supplied
f.) other factor which determine the total power that should be made
available at the power station to cope with the need.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.2
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

In the latter case, data of power requirements that the last few years may be
available and will be useful as guide for future load prediction.

2.0 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Before considering the methods of load prediction, some of the terms used in
connection with power supply must be defined.

Connected load the rating (in KW) of the apparatus installed on a


consumers premises.
Maximum demand the maximum load which a consumer uses at any time.

The ratio of maximum demand to connected load is called the demand factor

Or Demand Factor = Maximum demand u


Connected load

This can be illustrated by the following example:

A residential consumer has 10 electric lamps of 40W each connected load is thus 400W.
It is possible that the maximum number of lamps that he uses at a time is 9 and that he
may never use all 10 lamps at once. His maximum demand then, is 9 x 40W or 360W.

The demand factor of his load is:

D.F. = 360W = 0.90 or 90%


400W

A consumer of electric power will naturally use the power as when he likes. The load will
therefore always be changing with time or the hour of use and will not be constant. A
curve showing the load demand of a consumer against time in hours of the day is known
as a Load Curve. The curve will show how the load varies with time. If it is plotted for
the 24 hrs of a single day, it is known as a daily load curve. If it is considered for the
whole year and plotted showing load demand of the consumer against the time in hours
of the year, it is known as Annual Load Curve. This type of curve is useful in predicting
the annual requirements for energy, the occurrence of the loads at different hours and
deep in the year, and in power supply economics. As the load is variable, it will be a
maximum only for a certain time and will be less for the remainder of the time,
depending on the nature of the variation.

The average load during a period of 24 hrs or same other period considered for the load
curves will be less than the maximum load. The ratio of the average load to maximum
load is called the Load Factor or

Load Factor = Average Load u


Maximum Load

The area under the load curve represents the energy consumption in KW-Hrs during the
period. The load factor can also be defined as the ratio of the energy consumed during a
given period to the energy which would have been used if the maximum demand had
been maintained through out the period.

Or Load Factor = Energy consumed during 24 hrs u


Maximum demand x 24 hrs.

The terms can be illustrated by an example below:

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.3
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Example A:

A residential consumer has 10 lamps of 40W each connected at his premises. His power
demand is as following:

From 12 midnight to 5 A.M. --- 40W


From 5 A.M. to 6 P.M. --- No load
From 6 P.M. to 7 P.M. --- 320W
From 7 P.M. to 9 P.M. --- 360W
From 9 P.M. to 12 Midnight --- 160W

Plot the load curve and find the average load, maximum load, load factor and electric
energy consumption.

The maximum load is 360W for 2 hrs of the day from 7 P.M. to 9 P.M. The load curve is
plotted in Fig. A. It is the load in Watts against time in Hours of the day.

Fig. A
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.4
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The energy consumption during the day of 24 hrs is:

40W x 5 hrs --- 200 Wh


320W x 1 hr --- 320 Wh
360w x 2 hrs --- 720 Wh
160W x 3 hrs --- 480 Wh
-------------
Total --- 1720Wh

Maximum demand total 360 Wh

Load Factor = Total Energy used during 24 hrs u


Maximum demand x 24 hrs

= 1720 Wh u = 0.199 or 19.90%


360W x 24 h

Average load = 1720 Wh = 71.70W


24 h

Load Factor can also be calculated as follows:

Load Factor = Average load, W u


Maximum demand, W

= 71.70W = 0.199 or 19.90%


360W

Diversity Factor

The needs of a consumer are his maximum demand and his energy consumption
during a day. To supply these needs it is necessary to provide generating capacity
at least equal to the maximum demand. If the consumer used all this capacity
throughout the day, his load factor would be 100% and he would make maximum
use of the available energy. In this case the cost of the electrical energy for Kw-
Hr would be minimum. If the consumers average load is not equal to his
maximum load, the load factor is less than 100% and the cost of electrical energy
is higher than in the last case. The ideal to aim at, therefore, is 100% load factor
so that the equipment is used to its full extent. This is, however, not possible in
practice owing to variable load characteristics. When a number of consumers with
different load requirements at different times during the day are to be supplied,
an attempt should be made to supply these loads in such a way as to smooth out
the load curve of the system and to obtain as high a system load factor as
practicable.

Considering Example A, it would be necessary to provide generation capacity of at


least 360W to supply the consumer and his load factor is nearly 20%. This means
the energy used by the consumer is only about 20% of the possible energy that
could be supplied during the day by an installed capacity of 360W if the maximum
demand persisted uniformly throughout the day and the load factor is 100%.

Consider four consumers each having the same maximum demand, the load
consisting of residential lighting and domestic appliances. Each consumer may
have different habits and ways of living so that there is a difference between the
patterns of the consumers load curves, and all their maximum demands may not

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.5
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

occur at the same time. There is thus diversity or difference in the occurrence of
the loads. The ratio of the maximum demands of the individual consumers and
the simultaneous maximum demands of the whole group during a particular time
is called the DIVERSITY FACTOR.

Diversity Factor = Sum of individual maximum demands u


Simultaneous maximum demand

As the total maximum demand required at any time is less than the sum of the
maximum demands, owing to diversity, the total load factor improves, which is a
desirable result.

Diversity helps in obtaining better conditions for power supply. It will always be
the aim of a power engineer to persuade the department responsible for the load
distribution to encourage loads in some places and to discourage them in other
areas in such a way that the total maximum demand required at any time during
the day is reduced.

This condition would be the basis for determining the proper sizes of generating
station capacity. The load factor is higher and thus the cost of electrical energy is
lower. It will be an expensive proposition of just adding the maximum power
demand of each of the four consumers which in effect will give a higher
generating capacity than required. There will be higher cost of electrical energy
due to lower efficiency in the plant operation.

An example will be presented to find the diversity factor of the four consumer
loads and the simultaneous maximum demand.

EXAMPLE B:

Fig. B shows the load curves of 4 consumers having lighting and domestic
appliance loads. Each has a maximum demand of 2,000W. The maximum
demands of the four consumers are as follows:

CONSUMER NO.1 --- Occurs between 7 P.M. and 9 P.M.


CONSUMER NO.2 --- Occurs between 9 A.M. and 11 A.M.
CONSUMER NO.3 --- Occurs between 12 Noon and 2. P.M.
CONSUMER NO.4 --- Occurs between 3 P.M. and 6 P.M.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.6
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. B
From the load curves, it will be seen that the maximum simultaneous demand of all four
consumers occurs between 7 P.M. and 8 P.M. with the following demand loads of the
four consumers:

CONSUMER NO.1 DEMAND ---- 2000W


CONSUMER NO.2 DEMAND ---- 1200W
CONSUMER NO.3 DEMAND ---- 1800W
CONSUMER NO.4 DEMAND ---- 1900W

Maximum Simultaneous Demand of 4 consumers --- 6900W

Sum of individual maximum demands of the 4 consumers --- 4 x 2000W = 8000W

Diversity Factor = 8000 = 1.16


6900

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.7
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

3.0 TYPES OF LOADS

a.) Residential or Domestic Load. This consist mainly of lights and fans,
domestic appliances such as heaters, refrigerators, air conditioners for rooms,
radio receives, electric cookers, electric water heaters and small electric
appliances for use in the home. This type of load also includes small motor for
pumping and household appliances. Most of the residential consumers use all
of the lighting load as their connected load is small. The demand factor can be
taken as 100%.

A consumer having 4 or 5 lamps may use all of them at once for a few hours
during the evening, at least on festive occasions. There is however, diversity
between various consumers and the diversity factor may be taken as 1.2 to
1.3. Most of the residential load occurs only part of the time during the 24-hrs
day, that is, the lighting load during nighttime only, and the domestic
appliance load for only a few hours. If the load curve is plotted, it is generally
seen that the load factor is very low. It may be taken as 10% to 12%.

b.) Commercial Load. This type of load consists mainly of lighting for shops,
advertisements, etc., fans, electrical appliances used in commercial
establishments shops, restaurants, market places, etc. It includes small
motors and loads similar to residential loads but larger. The demand factor
maybe taken as 100% and the diversity factor, as 1.1 to 1.2 for preliminary
prediction of load. This class of load is spread over more hours of the day
compared to residential loads and the load factor maybe between 25% to
30%. Commercial loads are not as large as industrial loads.

c.) Industrial Load. This type of load can be subdivided into sections depending
on the power range required.

Examples are as follows:

c.1) Cottage Industries --- not more than 5KW each.


c.2) Small-Scale Industries --- up to 25KW
c.3) Medium-Scale Industries --- between 25KW and 100KW
c.4) Large-Scale Industries --- 100KW to 500KW
c.5) Heavy Industries --- More than 500KW

The last two types of loads need power over a longer period and fairly uniform
throughout the day.

For large-scale and heavy industrial loads, the following are the demand and
load factors:

Type of Load Demand Factor Load Factor


a.) Large-Scale Industries 70 to 80% 60% to 65%
b.) Heavy Industries 85% to 90% 70% to 80%

d.) Government Load. This maybe classified as a separate type of load when it
has separate feeders and special working conditions, that is, defense factories.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.8
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

e.) Municipal Load. Street lighting is one of the loads of the municipalities or
municipal corporations. The amount of load will depend on how much these
authorities can afford to make more and better lighting available for their town
and cities. This type of load is practically constant throughout the hours of
darkness so that the demand factor is 100%. The diversity factor can be taken
as 1.0 or 100% when considered for the duration of street lighting load. All
street lights have to be put on and off approximately together. This is done by
means of time switches so that the lights are automatically controlled at the
required time, that is, the time switch may be set so that the lights will be on
at 7 P.M. and off at 6 A.M. The time settings can be arranged to suit the local
requirement. The street lights will be required mainly at night, but there will
be small load of traffic signals throughout the day and night. The load factor
for street lighting maybe taken at 20% to 25% on a 24-hr basis.

Another type of municipal load is for water supply and drainange. Water is
pumped to overhead tanks from the source of water supply. This needs pumps
driven by electric motors. This type of load can easily be fitted at a suitable
time on the load curve so as to improve the load factor of the whole supply
system if it has its own generating station. The normal load on the generating
station will be much less after 11 P.M. or midnight. If the pumping load is
supplied during this off-peak period, it will improve the load factor. This may
be accompanied by offering cheaper rates-tariffs-for the consumption of
electricity during off-peak hours.

Other loads that are not considered in this seminar paper includes Irrigation
load, Mining load, traction loads, etc. as they are in isolated places and not in
urban areas where application of gensets are very common.

4.0 DETERMINATION OF SIZE OF GENERATOR UNITS AND NUMBER OF


UNITS.

The load of a generating station is never constant, owing to variable demands to


different times of the day. The nature of these demands is seen approximately
from the predicted load curve. The variation is greater with a poorer load factor.
The minimum capacity of the generating plant must suffice to meet the maximum
demand. The minimum number of units chosen could be one. In this case,
however, the prime mover and generator would be working on full load only for a
short-time during the period of maximum demand or whenever the load
approximated to the maximum demand. As the load is variable and the load
factor less than 100%, there is a considerable period during the day where the
load on the generating plant and on one unit in this particular case, is much less
than full-load. Often it may be on half-load or even practically on no-load. The
generating set is therefore not running at all times under conditions best suited
for its operation giving maximum efficiency. The fuel costs will be greater and it
will be uneconomical to run the generating set under low-load conditions. It is
essential for a generating station to maintain reliability and continuity of power
supply at all times. If this requirement is to be satisfied, another set of equal
capacity must be installed for use when the first set is out of order or is being
opened for overhaul or repairs. So the capital cost would be for two sets, each of
capacity corresponding to the maximum load on the generating station. The use
of one unit only to supply the whole of a variable load where reliability of supply
is essential is neither practical nor economical. We are at present considering an
isolated station which supplied the system alone without any other stations in the
same system for interconnection.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.9
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The alternative way of deciding the size and number of generating sets in the
station is to choose the number of sets to fit the load curve as closely as possible,
that it, to choose the number of sets and work them on suitable portions of the
load curve in such a way that each will operate on about full load or the load at
which it can give maximum efficiency. The reserve required would only be one
unit of the largest size chosen. This unit would be much smaller than the
maximum load capacity required in the last case.

This method of choosing the generator sets could mean the ff:

a.) Needs a large number of units


b.) With increase in the number of sets, the area required for the building
increases and so does the building costs.
c.) More sets involve more starting, stopping and parallel operation of the
equipment.
d.) Maintenance costs increases
e.) The capital cost of the larger number of sets is greater than that of
same capacity of plant in smaller number of units of larger size.

There hand to be a compromise in the selection of the size and number of


generator units in the station, and avoidance of both the extremes or alternatives
mentioned above. The aim should be to have a small number of units and fit
them as well as possible on the load curve. There should not be only one unit, nor
should there be a large number of small sets of different sizes.

Plant Capacity Factor and Plant Use Factor

Load factor and diversity factor do not give any idea about the reserve capacity
required in a generating station. A new term is therefore, introduced, defined as
follows and called the plant capacity factor, that is:

Plant Capacity Factor = Actual energy produced u


Maximum possible energy that could have
been produced during the same period.

If taken for a day, the plant capacity factor would be the area under the load
curve (KW-HRS) divided by the total plant capacity installed in the station,
including the reserve plant or unit multiplied by 24 hrs. If taken for the whole
year, it would be the ratio of the energy produced the whole year to the energy
which could have been produced if all the plant capacity, including the reserve
plant or unit had been run continuously throughout the year. The factor is thus
known as the annual plant capacity factor. The difference between the load factor
and the capacity factor is an indication of the reserve capacity installed in the
generating station.

Another factor is defined to indicate the actual use that is made of the plant and
is called the annual plant use factor.

Or Annual Plant Use Factor = Annual Energy Produced (KW-Hrs) u


Capacity of Plant (KW) x number of hrs.
plant is in operation during the year.

The choice of the size and number of generating units in a station is governed by
the best compromise between Plant Capacity Factor and Plant Use Factor. This
discussion is illustrated by the following example.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.10
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

EXAMPLE C.

A generating station has to supply load as follows:

TIME KW LOAD
11 P.M. to 5 P.M. 500
5 A.M. to 6 P.M. 750
6 A.M. to 7 A.M. 1000
7 A.M. to 9 A.M. 2000
9 A.M. to 12 NOON 2500
12 NOON to 1 P.M. 1500
1 P.M. TO 5 P.M. 2500
5 P.M. to 7 P.M. 2000
7 P.M. to 9 P.M. 2500
9 P.M. to 11 P.M. 1000

Undertake the ff:

a.) Draw the load curve


b.) Choose the number and size of the generator units to supply the load
c.) With reliability of supply to be maintained
c.1.) find the reserve capacity of station
c.2.) calculate the plant capacity factor
c.3.) determine the operating schedule of the units in the station
c.4.) calculate the plant use factor

Fig. C

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.11
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. C is the load curve plotted from the above data. The maximum demand is
2,500KW. If water resource were not available in the vicinity, the plant would
normally be Diesel electric. For privately owned plant, it could be a steam station
if local conditions were suitable. The method and consideration for the selection
of size of generating units, are however common to all types of station so far as
fitting in the load curve is concerned.

CALCULATIONS WILL BE AS FOLLOWS:

ENERGY GENERATED DURING 24 HRS.

500 KW x 5 HRS. = 2,500 KW-HRS


750 KW x 1 HR. = 750 KW-HRS
1000 KW x 1 HR. = 1,000 KW-HRS
2000 KW x 2 HRS. = 4,000 KW-HRS
2,500 KW x 3 HRS. = 7,500 KW-HRS
1,500 KW x 1 HR. = 1,500 KW-HRS
2,500 KW x 4 HRS. = 10,000 KW-HRS
2,000 KW x 2 HRS. = 4,000 KW-HRS
2,500 KW x 2 HRS. = 5,000 KW-HRS
1,000 KW x 2 HRS. = 2,000 KW-HRS
500 KW x 1 HR. = 500 KW-HRS
---------------------
38,750 KW-HRS

Load Factor = Energy generated during 24 hrs u


Maximum demand x 24 hrs

Maximum demand = 2,500 KW

Then, Load Factor = 38,750 KW-Hrs u


2,500 x 24 hrs

= 0.6458 or 64.58%

From the nature on the load curve, it will be seen that this is the load of a small
industrial town, well distributed during the day and night. From the load curve, it
will also be seen that 3 generating sets will suffice, with the ff. rating:

Two sets each of 1,100 KW capacity.


One set of 500 KW capacity.

The reserve capacity required will correspond to the largest size of unit in the
generating station. In this case, a set of 1000KW will have to be bought and kept
as reserve. The total installed capacity of the station will therefore will be the
following:

2-1000KW + 1-500KW + 1000KW (Reserve) = 3,500KW

Plant Capacity Factor = Energy produced during 24 hrs (KW-HR) u


Installed capacity (KW) x 24 HRs

= 38,750 u = 0.4613 or 46%


3,500 x 24

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.12
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The capacity of the individual sets is chosen so far as possible to fit the load curve
approximately. Then it should be decided how and when and in what sequence the sets
should be started and run. This arrangement is known as the operating schedule of the
station. In arranging this schedule, care is taken to see that plant of the required
capacity is kept ready for loading at the expected time of the load. The capacity of the
plant started and kept ready might be larger than necessary but should not be
inadequate.

With the type of load curve in Fig. C, and the sizes of units chosen above, the operating
schedule can be arranged as follows:

OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Number of Gensets
Time of Operation and Plant Load, KW
Size of Gensets
in operation
During this period, only
a.) 11 P.M. to 5 A.M. One 1-500KW unit 500
Is run.
b.) 5 A.M. to 6 A.M. Just before 5 A.M., 750
the first 1000KW genset
is started and paralleled
with the 500KW genset.
All the load will
be transferred to
the 1000KW genset
after which the 500KW
is
stopped. Thus the
1000KW genset is run
from 5 A.M. to 7 A.M.

c.) 6 A.M. to 7 A.M. 1-1000KW continue 1000


to run as load is
now 1000KW.
d.) 7 A.M. to 9 A.M. Just before 7 A.M., 2000
the 2nd 1000KW genset
is started and paralleled
with the first 1000KW
genset. The two
1000KW
gensets will serve
the 2000KW loads.

e.) 9 A.M. to 12
NOON At A.M. still more load 2500
is expected. The 500KW
genset is started and
paralleled with the
2-1000KW gensets on
the main bus and loaded
together with them to
serve the 2,500KW
load

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.13
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Number of Gensets
Time of Operation and Plant Load, KW
Size of Gensets
in operation
f.) 12 NOON to
1 P.M. Between 12 Noon and 1500
1 P.M. the load is
reduced, owing to
recess, lunch time in
industrial plants. One of
1,000KW gensets is
stopped after the load
has dropped to
1,500KW.

g.) 1 P.M. to 5 P.M. Just before 1 P.M. the 2500


1000KW genset that
was stopped will be
started and paralleled
with the 1000KW and
500KW gensets that
were still running as the
load will be increased
to 2500KW.
h.) 5 P.M. to 7 P.M. At 5 P.M., the load 2000
again drops owing to
the working shift
being over. The load on
the 500KW genset is
removed and then the
500KW genset
decommissioned.
Two 1000KW gensets
are operating.
i.) 7 P.M. to 9 P.M. At 7 P.M. the load 2500
increases owing to
lighting. Just before
7 P.M. the 500KW
genset is started and
paralleled with the
Two 1000KW gensets.
The 3 gensets will
serve the load.
j.) 9 P.M. to 11 P.M. At 9 P.M. two gensets 1000
(500KW and 1000KW)
are taken out of service
and only one 1000KW
And will remain
operational Until 11 P.M.

k.) After 11 P.M. Just before 11 P.M. 500


the 500KW genset is
started and paralleled
with the 1000KW
genset in operation.
The 500KW will now
take up the load on the
system. The 1000KW
will be stopped.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.14
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

In the above example, the load curve variation and the exact size of plant to fit the load
curve are chosen as ideal, the Plant Use Factor being practically 100%. This would rarely
be achieved in practice. It would be difficult to choose units of such capacity that when
in use they could be run continuously on full load. In practice, the Plant Use Factor
would be much smaller than 100%. It is, however, higher than the Plant Capacity Factor
when some reserve plant is necessary. A number of starting and loading operations can
easily can be handled in hydro and diesel electric stations but are time-consuming in
steam power stations.

The decision to shut down a genset and restart it later should be made after considering
the economics of such a move and restart it later should be made after considering the
economics of such a move. On one hand, to shut down and restart involves certain
losses, which should be determined. On the other hand, to deload partially generators
which are on load also involves certain losses, the magnitude which depends on the
length of time they are running at reduced load.

This will be discussed further as follows:

Assume the generating unit is Diesel-Electric which is very common here in Cebu
whether used as BASE-LOAD units (ATLAS MINING, SALCON POWER, EAST ASIA
UTILITIES and CEBU PRIVATE POWER CORP.) and in various standby units in
commercial complex and industrial plants.

Heat is produced in the engine owing to the burning of fuel. The engine converts this to
heat input into mechanical energy or work at the coupling. The consumption of fuel oil
depends on the load of the engine. From half-load to full load, the Diesel engine has a
nearly flat efficiency characteristics and the fuel consumption increases very little. Fig. D
shows the consumption of fuel oil per unit of output energy plotted against the
percentage of rated load on the engine.

As the load is reduced to less than 50%, the rate of fuel consumption increases and at
very low loads, it increases very rapidly. Compared to other types of prime mover using
fuel heat input, the performance illustrated by the type of curve in Fig. D shows the
diesel engine is much better and the thermal efficiency is higher. It is however, so
uneconomical to run Diesel engines at loads of 10% or less. Fig. E shows the electrical
energy produced by the coupled set per unit weight of fuel oil plotted against the plant
capacity factor. It can be seen that operation is best at 100% plant capacity factor.

Therefore, if it is possible to forecast the length of time during which the station would
be running at reduced load, it is easy to estimate whether it is economical to take a
genset off or to run all the gensets at slightly lower load, and of course, the decision
would be made in the light of minimum losses.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.15
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. D.

Fig. E
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.16
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION REFERENCE BOOKS


by Westinghouse Electric Corp., 1950 edition

2. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK by D. Beeman., 1955 edition

3. IEEE STANDARD 141-1993 (Red Book) 1976 and 1993 ed. entitled
IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION
FOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers of U.S.A.)

4. IEEE STANDARD 142-1991, 1991 ed. entitled IEEE RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE FOR GROUNDING OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
POWER SYSTEMS by the IEEE, U.S.A.

5. IEEE STANDARD 666-1991, 1991 ed. entitled IEEE DESIGN GUIDE for
ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE SYSTEMS FOR GENERATING STATIONS by
the IEEE, U.S.A.

6. ANALYSIS OF FAULTED POWER SYSTEMS by P. Anderson, 1973 edition.

7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR INDUTRIAL


PLANTS by Erwin Lazar, 1980 edition

8. IEEE STANDARD 446-1995, 1995 ed., entitled IEEE RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE for EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS FOR
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS by the IEEE, U.S.A.

9. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING by J.


Lewis Blackburn, 1993 edition.

10. PROTECTIVE RELAYING PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS by J. L.


Blackburn, 1987 edition

11. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS by S. Khan, 2007 edition

12. ALTERNATING CURREN MACHINES by A. Puchstem, T. Lloyd and A. Conrad,


1954 edition

13. DIESEL GENERATOR HANDBOOK by L. Mahon, 1992 edition

14. NEWAGE STAMFORD GENERATOR MANUAL


15. G.E. TECHNICAL MANUAL ON CABLES, CM Series, 1964-1972

16. IEEE STANDARD 665-1995, 1995 ed. entitled IEEE STANDARD FOR
GENERATING STATION GROUNDING by the IEEE, U.S.A.

17. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT GROUNDING by the G.E. Industrial Power


Systems Data Book 1951-1964 Series.

18. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER STATION DESIGN by M.V. Desphande,


1966 ed.

19. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part II - Page No.17
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.1
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

III. GENERATING STATION GROUNDING SYSTEM:


PART 1 GENERATOR NEUTRAL GROUNDING SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

One of the most important and controversial problems in industrial power systems is the
selection of system grounding for each particular case.

The term grounding in electric power system is used to indicate both system and
equipment grounding which are different in their objectives. The basic difference
between system and equipment grounding is that system grounding involves grounding
of current-carrying circuit conductors or at least one conductor or point (in case of wye-
connected generators, the neutral of the generators windings) either solidly or through
a current limiting device where equipment grounding involves grounding of all non-
current carrying metallic parts that enclose the circuit conductors. As used in this sense,
the term equipment grounding includes such metallic parts as metal conduit, metal
raceways, metal armor of cables, metal outlet boxes, metal switchboxes, switchgear
panels or enclosures, metal cabinets, motor and generator frames, transformer tanks
and metal enclosures of motor controllers, circuit breakers and other electrical
equipment. The main purpose of equipment grounding is personnel safety. A grounding
electrode or several grounding electrodes tied together as a system provides the
reference ground and the means for connection to earth. The portion of the seminar will
be on system grounding of 3-phase A.C. generators on single or multiple (paralleled)
operations. Discussions will also put emphasis on system grounding of low voltage (600V
and below) and medium voltage (2.4KV, 4.16KV, 6.9KV and 13.8KV) A.C. Generators.

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN GENERATOR GROUNDING

The principal objective of grounding generator systems is the protection of the generator
and associated equipment against damage caused by abnormal electrical conditions. In
the sections which follow the various generator neutral connections shown in Fig. 1 are
analyzed with the view of selecting the method of grounding most suitable.

Generator system grounding is obtained in two ways by connecting the neutral of the
rotating machine to ground through some form of impedance or by connecting the
generator neutral directly to ground with no impedance intentionally inserted (solidly
grounded.) The specific objectives in the protection of the generator are as follows:

1.0 Minimize the damage from internal ground faults.

2.0 Limit mechanical stresses in the generator for external ground faults.

3.0 Limit temporary and transient over-voltages on the generator insulation system.

4.0 Providing a means of generator system ground fault protection.

5.0 Coordinating the protection of the generator with the requirements of other
equipment connected at generator voltage level.

6.0 Limitation of damage at fault point.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.2
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The choice of grounding type is largely determined by the relative importance to the
user of each of the above objectives.

The most important and frequently used neutral grounding methods for generators are
the following (refer to Fig.1).

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.3
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

A. Ungrounded Denotes no intentional connection of a system conductor to


ground.

B. Solidly Grounded grounded through an adequate ground connection in


which no impedance has been intentionally inserted.

C. Low-Resistance Grounded grounded through an impedance, the principal


element being resistance provided by a low ohmic value resistor.

D. High-Resistance Grounded grounded through an impedance, the


principal element being a high ohmic value resistance, provided by either a
high ohmic value resistor or by a distribution transformer with a low ohmic
value resistor connected to the low voltage secondary of the distribution
transformer. The high voltage primary of the transformer is inserted in the
neutral conductor of the generator to transform the low ohmic value of the
resistor in the low voltage secondary to a high ohmic value in the primary.

E. Reactance Grounded grounded through an impedance, the principal


element being a reactance.

F. Ground Fault Neutralizer (Resonant Grounding) A ground fault


neutralizer is a reactor connected between neutral of a system and ground
and having a specially selected high value of reactance which is tuned to the
system charging current so that the resulting ground fault current is resistive
and of low magnitude.

The types of grounding will be discussed in the order as itemized Fig.1.

A grounding system which is termed Ungrounded denotes no intentional connection of a


system conductor to ground. This type of grounding has found much usage before 1920
in the U.S. It is not recommended anymore for use due to some problems that were
encountered especially the generations of transient over-voltages in the operation of this
system. Ungrounded system will be discussed first.

A. UNGROUNDED SYSTEM

Historically ungrounded systems were the first to be used. This type of grounding
has found much usage before 1920 in the USA. Most power system then were
operated with their neutrals free, that is, unconnected to ground.

The reason for this is that the ground connection was not useful in the actual
transfer of power. Thus, it was the natural thing to do. It is not recommended
anymore for use due to some problems that were encountered especially the
generation of transient overvoltage in the operation of this system. However,
there are installations here in Cebu that are still using the type of grounding
system. The theoretical aspects of the system will be brought out in the
succeeding discussions.

A simple ungrounded-neutral system is shown in Fig. 2a with its phasor diagram


in Fig. 2b.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.4
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The line conductors have capacitances between one another and to ground as
represented by the Delta and Star-connected Wye connected sets of capacitances. The
delta set of capacitances has little influence on the grounding characteristic of the
system and will be disregarded. An ungrounded system with no intentional conductive

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.5
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

path to ground has a path for alternating currents to flow between the phase conductors
and ground through the naturally distributed capacitance-to-ground of total connecting
cables, equipment (motors, generators and transformers) windings and any surge
capacitors or power factor correction capacitors connected to ground. Data for these
capacitances are shown in the last pages of this seminar paper. In a sense, the system is
a capacitance-grounded.

In a perfectly transposed line, each phase conductor will have the same capacitance to
ground. Also, with balanced capacitance of other contributing components such as
motors, generators, transformers, surge capacitors and power factor correction
capacitors connected to ground and with a balanced 3-phase voltage applied to the
lines, the line current in each of the equivalent capacitances will be equal and displaced
120o. From each other. The phasor diagram for the system in normal operation is shown
in Fig. 2b. Please note for 3-phase system of assume sequence in clockwise direction,
current Ia leads Eag by 90o, Ib leads Ebg by 90o and Ic leads Ecg by 90o.

If one conductor phase a for example, becomes faulted to ground, there will no longer
be any current flowing in that capacity branch between the line and ground because the
difference in potential no longer exists. However, the voltage across the capacity
branches of the two unfaulted lines will increase, rising to line-to-line voltage or 1.732 of
the normal line-to-ground voltage. Moreover, the voltages to ground of the capacity
branch of the two unfaulted lines are no longer 120o. out of phase but 60o. Hence the
sum of the currents is no longer zero but 3 times the original current flowing to neutral
of each capacity branch. With the increase of the line-to-ground voltage by 73.2, the
current to each capacity branch has increased also by 73.2. In phase position, the
current IF flowing from the faulted conductor to ground, which is the usual connection,
leads the original phase-to-neutral voltage Eag by approx. 90o. The faulted condition of
the ungrounded system is shown in Figs. 3a & 3b. The additional charging current
caused by a ground fault may materially increase the line-to-line voltage if the
generating capacity is small.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.6
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Notes:

The electrostatic capacitances of each line to ground were assumed equal in the
discussion above. This will be substantially the case for a transposed lines. With
untransposed lines, this will not be true, particularly if the configuration of the
conductors is flat or vertical such as cables laid flat on cable tray and those cables
installed on secondary racks. The exact amount of unbalance can be calculated by
determining the capacity coefficients of the conductors. In extreme cases, the unbalance
with either configuration (flat or vertical) may give as much as 5 percent zero sequence
voltage. Therefore in practice, the system neutral on an ungrounded neutral system,
say, on Wye-connected ungrounded neutral generators may be displaced from ground
as much as five percent of the normal line-to-neutral voltage under unfaulted conditions.
This may not be objectionable, although sometimes interferences maybe caused with
communication circuits.

In reality, the so-called ungrounded system whether the power sources (generators and
transformers) have windings delta-connected or wye-connected with neutrals free,
unconnected to ground is capacitively-coupled to ground. This system can be aptly called
capacitance-grounded, the principal element is the distributed capacitances-to-
ground of the system. In most systems, this is an extremely high-impedance as the
capacitances-to-ground of the energized components of the system are low. Thus, the
resulting system relationship to ground are weak and easily distorted.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.7
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

OPERATIONAL CONDITION OF UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS DURING FAULTS

1.0 BOLTED OR SOLID METALLIC-CONNECTED GROUND FAULTS

Any contact between one phase and ground (or a single line-to-ground fault) will
not cause an immediate shutdown of any part of the system as the currents are
very small ranging from a few amperes to 25 amperes or more on larger systems.
With these low currents, equipment damage is minimal so it is not necessarily
essential that the faulted area be isolated rapidly.

However, the voltage to ground on the two unfaulted phases rise to 173.2% of
normal line-to-ground voltage or 73.2% higher than the normal line-to-ground
voltage, that is, this will now be the same as the line-to-line voltage. Due to the
increase of the line-to-ground voltage of the two unfaulted phases by 73.2%, the
charging current of these two unfaulted phases increase by 73.2% also. The total
fault current that will flow on the faulted phase will be the vectorial sum of the
charging currents flowing in the two unfaulted phases. This will be equal to 3
times the original charging current flowing in each capacity branch before the
occurrence of the line-to-ground fault.

The insulation between line and ground of the system can withstand a line-to-line
voltage but prolonged exposure may result in a failure or degradation of the
insulation. There is a potential danger that will exist after the occurrence of the
first ground fault prior to the time of its removal. If a second ground fault should
occur before the first ground fault is removed, a major fault could develop
between two phase lines and ground. Extensive damage and greater system
involvement is bound to result if the second ground fault occurs on another circuit
of the system. The amount of damage would be directly limited by the amount of
impedance in the circuit and the length of time until the faults was cleared by
normal phase over-current devices.

Ground faults in ungrounded system are very difficult to locate, requiring time and
shutdown. Maintenance costs are relatively high because of reduced insulation life
and labor involved in locating the fault. Also, ground faults in motors can not be
easily detected and removed until fault is burned into another coil, resulting in
greater damage.

2.0 ARCING GROUND FAULTS

The capacitance-to-ground of the system is a significant factor in the generation


of transient over-voltages during arcing faults. Since in this particular case, the
intermittent arcing takes place in a fault to ground, it is called an arcing ground
fault. A fault element that is alternately initiated and cleared on otherwise
ungrounded system can result in transient over-voltages. The capacitance and
inductive elements of the system could cause the voltage of the two unfaulted
phases to ground to reach over-voltage conditions of four to five times normal
value of the line-to-ground voltage. Theoretically, the maximum over-voltage
possible is limited only by the dielectric strength of the arc path and that of the
insulation of the unfaulted phases.

An arcing or intermittent fault is equivalent to switching and charging a capacitor


every half-cycle of the system frequency with the theoretical line-to-ground
voltage has build-up. See Fig. 5 The combination of capacitance and source
inductance may result in a build-up of peak voltage at every restrike of the fault.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.8
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Arcing ground fault are more common and occur frequently in both commercial
and industrial systems. They usually result in considerable damage and are
initiated by a variety of conditions. Some of the most common causes have been
attributed to damaged conductors, insulation failure caused by overheating, loose
connections, accumulation of dust, dirt, moisture, construction damage, rodents
and numerous other conditions that will initiate a ground fault.

Fig. 5
Theoritical Buildup of Voltage During an Intermittent Ground Fault

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.9
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Electrical cables have much more capacitance to ground than overhead circuits or
buswork. Most of the conductors in power plant service system are cables. These
systems are vulnerable to arcing or intermittent ground faults and the resultant high-
transient voltages. Accordingly, additional conductor insulation and/or voltage surge
suppressors is required for reliable operation of ungrounded systems. This is why
medium voltage cables have insulation levels which are as follows:

100% Level Cables in this category may be applied where the system is
provided with relay protection such that ground faults will be
cleared as rapidly as possible, but in any case within one minute.
While these cables are applicable to the great majority of cable
installations which are on grounded systems, they may be used
also on other systems for which the application of cables is
acceptable provided the above clearing requirements are met in
completely de-energizing the faulted section.

133% Level This insulation level corresponds to that formerly designated for
ungrounded systems. Cables in this category may be applied in
situations where the clearing time requirements of the 100% level
category can not be met, and yet there is adequate assurance that
the faulted section will be de-energized in a time not exceeding
one hour. Also, they maybe used when additional insulation
strength in the 100% insulation level category is desirable.

173% Level Cables in this category should be applied on system where the
time required to de-energize a grounded section is indefinite.

Arcing ground faults which begin with an insulation breakdown usually starts but at low
level. However, as the arcs continue to strike and restrike, the surrounding air becomes
ionized or air becoming a conductive path and heat creates a chimney effect which can
elongate this arc. In many instances an arcing ground fault in low voltage underground
system has mushroomed into a phase-to-phase or even a 3-phase arcing fault with
tremendous amounts of energy at the fault point accompanied wit violent hot gas
generation and arc plasma. The heat produced may vaporize the copper or aluminum
conductors and even the surrounding steel enclosures.

Transient over-voltages of several times (about 2 to 3 times) normal are likely to appear
from line-to-ground during normal switching of a circuit having a line-to-ground fault of
an ungrounded system.

Tests had shown that over-voltages maybe developed by re-striking arcs during
interruption of a line-to-ground fault particularly in low voltage systems. Since arcing
occurs in a circuit-interrupting device, say a circuit breaker the voltages produced are
called switching surges. These surges are of short-duration only. Transient over-voltage
comparisons between isolated or ungrounded and grounded systems showed that
isolated or ungrounded systems are subject to higher over-voltages during interruption
of line-to-ground fault.

With the rapid growth of electrical systems both in mileage and voltage, limitation of
ungrounded operation become necessary. The increase of ground-fault currents,
prompted an increase of transient grounds, which were no longer self-clearing.
Furthermore the arcing grounds phenomena as discussed earlier bring high transient
over-voltages which became a big problem for engineers.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.10
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The typical area of application for ungrounded systems is in the process industries and in
manufacturing operations where immediate shutdown at the first ground fault is
undesired, preventing an immediate shutdown avoids the ff.

1.) Severe financial losses.


2.) Damage to equipment.
3.) Danger to equipment and personnel.

However the ungrounded power distribution systems have the ff. disadvantages.

1.0 Insulation failures on motors, cables, etc.


2.0 Increased shock hazards from transient and steady-sate overvoltage
conditions.

These disadvantages have brought about the gradual diminishment of its use. By 1920,
the majority of power systems became either a solidly or resistance-grounded.

As published originally on Jan.2, 1951 by G.E. of USA in their book INDUSTRIAL


POWER SYSTEMS DATA BOOK, sec. 2201 entitled CASES OF FAILURES DUE TO OVER-
VOLTAGE, eleven cases of failures in different plants in USA showed the power systems
of all these plants were ungrounded. One of these cases, Case F in the above
mentioned data book is being included in the seminar paper as this kind of failure could
possibly happen in industrial plants and commercial buildings here in Cebu whose
substations and generators are ungrounded. The said case F was called the BEEMAN
Story in the technical seminar Importance of Grounding System in Industrial Plants
conducted by the IIEE-Mactan in Oct. 26, 2007. BEEMAN STORY was only briefly
discussed in that 2007 seminar, hence the full story is worth appreciating. This particular
case of arcing ground fault was also contained in Chapter 6 of the book entitled
Industrial Power Systems Handbook 1955 edition written by several engineers
and edited by Donald Beeman, Manager, Industrial Power Engineering G.E. of USA.
Chapter 6 of this handbook was written by L.J. Carpenter and L.G. Levoy Jr.

The ff. is the so-called BEEMAN STORY:

A West Coast industrial manufacturing plant suffered this severe prolonged experience of
over-voltage of repetitive restrike origin on a 480 volt ungrounded system.

About mid-afternoon one day, normal operations became suddenly disrupted. The first
evidence of trouble came in the form of a motor failure, then another, and still another
in close succession. An inspection of switchboard voltmeters (measuring line-to-line
voltage) and ammeters indicated no unusual conditions. System equipment continued to
fail. A test voltmeter was rigged up having a full scale calibration of 1200 volts. Upon
connecting it phase-to-ground, the pointer went off scale. A phase-to-ground potential
on a 480 volt system of more than 1200 volts existed!

At once the incoming service transformers were suspected of internal breakdown


between high and low voltage windings. As the last of these transformers was isolated
and individually tested it became evident that they were not at fault. System equipment
continued to fail and the situation was desperate.

A frantic group went into a huddle and decided that the only way out was to trip the
main incoming service breaker which would de-energize the entire system. At this point
one of the workmen noticed a small whisp of smoke coming from a motor starting
autotransformer and upon approaching could hear a buzzing noise inside. This circuit

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.11
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

was switched clear of the system and the overvoltages disappeared. During the two hour
period that this arcing fault existed, between 40 and 50 motor windings had failed.
Finally it was found that the autotransformer enclosing case had been bashed in and
was practically in contact with the coil. The spot where arcing had taken place was
evident although not badly burned.

An attempt was made to show the plant engineer what had been the trouble. A solid
connection was made between the frame and the burned spot on the coil. Much to the
bewilderment of the operating men and the expectations of the plant engineer no more
than the 73% per cent increase in voltage on the other two phases occurred. The main
ingredient of the overvoltage (discontinuous conduction) had been omitted.

The cause of failure of the motors was due to the high voltage-to-ground applied to the
winding insulation which the insulation was not able to withstand.

B. SOLIDLY GROUNDED SYSTEM

Solid grounding refers to the connection of the neutral of a power source


(generator or transformer) or grounding transformer directly to the station ground
or to the earth without any impedance intentionally inserted. If looks like this
system of neutral grounding provides a zero impedance in the neutral circuit. This
is not so as there is a reactance of the generator or transformer in series with the
neutral circuit. If the reactance of the system zero-sequence circuit is much
higher than the system positive sequence reactance, the objectives sought in
grounding, especially freedom from transient overvoltages may not be achieved.

Thus it is necessary to determine now how solidly the system is grounded. The
higher the ground fault current in relation to 3-phase current, the more solidly
grounded the system is grounded. For nearly all solidly grounded systems, it is
necessary for the ground fault current to be in the range of 25 to 100% of the 3-
phase fault current to protect development of high transient overvoltages. This
may mean symmetrical RMS fault current in the order of 10,000 to 40,000 Amps.

This is rarely a problem in typical industrial and commercial power systems. In


most generators used in these systems, the zero sequence impedance is much
lower than the positive sequence impedance of the said generators. This means
that it is likely that the fault current for single-line to ground fault will be higher
than that for three-phase fault. It is therefore necessary to check the ground fault
current level when performing switchgear rating studies in solidly grounded
networks.

The solidly grounded neutral system is the most effective system in controlling to
safe levels the transient and steady-state overvoltages due to insulation
breakdown, resonant inductive-capacitance circuits, restriking ground faults, etc.
but results in high magnitude of ground faults of this value of ground fault current
may introduce more problems and intensify problems in the equipment grounding
system. Solidly grounded systems are used extensively at operating voltages of
600V and less. A large magnitude available ground fault current is desirable to
obtain optimum performance of overcurrent trips or interrupters. Large magnitude
of ground fault currents generally do not affect electrical equipment braced for
that high current stress on medium voltage system, the amount of insulation for
the cables will be affected. The low line-to-neutral driving voltage (346V in the
600V system and 277V in the 480V system) lessens the likelihood of dangerous
voltage gradients in the ground return circuits even when the higher than normal
ground return impedances are present. Also, shock hazard from neutral to ground

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.12
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

during a line-to-ground fault is also zero voltage for low impedance main
grounding conductors.

zero sequence impedance generator may possibly exceed the positive sequence
impedance of the generators.

The solidly grounded system has the ff. disadvantages:

a.) Highest probability of escalating into a phase to phase or 3-phase arcing fault
particularly for the 480V and 600V systems.

b.) High probability of sustained arcing for line-to-ground fault also on 480V and
600V systems and low or near zero for the 208V system.

For this reason, the PEC and NEC (National Electrical Code of USA) require ground fault
protection for systems with 1000A or more ground fault current. A safety hazard from
severe flash, arc burning and blast hazard exists from any line-to-ground fault in a
solidly grounded system.

Solidly grounding the generator neutral results in maximum fault current flow and
consequently, cause the maximum damage at the point of fault. Refer to Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 Ground Fault on Phase a


Please note in Figure 6 above that systems behavior during bolted ground fault close to
the source which could be a generator or transformer (ZG = 0) and ground fault remote
from the source (ZG greater than zero). For faults near the source, the unfaulted phase
voltages during a ground fault are held to the rated phase-to-ground voltage. For faults
more remote from the source, the healthy phase voltage will rise but will always be less
than the phase to phase voltage. Ground fault current is calculated as follows:

For a bolted ground fault near the generator,

Ground fault current Ig = 3 EL-N


X1 + X2 + X0

where, EL-N = Line-to-Neutral voltage


X1 = Positive sequence reactance of the generator or
generators in parallel.
X2 = Negative sequence reactance of the generator or
generators in parallel.
X0 = Zero sequence reactance of the generator or
generators in parallel.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.13
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

X0 of a generator is usually lower than the X1 and X2. X1 and X2 is generally larger than
X1 or sometimes equal. It can be seen from the equation the single-line-to-ground fault
will be higher than the 3-phase fault.

Solid grounding of generator neutral is not recommended for industrial and utility
generators where the service is continuous for the ff. reasons:
1.0 Ground fault currents is high and with damage proportional to the square
of the ground fault current multiplied by duration of use (or I2g x t). There
is possibility of extensive damage due to internal stator winding ground
faults.
The physical limitation imposed by the generator construction results in
less available insulation thickness which in effect will result in the reduction
of voltage stress capability as compared to non-rotating electrical
equipment such as transformers.
As compared to transformers, generators has lesser capability to withstand
the heating effects or mechanical forces of short-circuits. Manufacturing
standards (NEMA or National Electrical Manufacturers Association) require
of a generator to withstand a short-circuit current of less than 10 times the
generator rated current. By comparison, NEMA requires a transformer to
withstand a current of 25 times the transformer rated current.
2.0 Most generator windings are normally designed to withstand stresses
associated with 3-phase faults at the generator terminals because of the
low zero-sequence impedance of the generator windings. A solid line-to-
ground fault at the machine terminals will produce higher winding current
than those from a three phase faults. With this, there is a risk of
mechanical damage.
3.0 There is a risk of abnormal third harmonic current flow. Third harmonic
current or voltage has a frequency of 3 times the fundamental frequency. A
generator can develop significant third harmonic voltage when loaded. A
solidly grounded neutral and lack of external impedance to third harmonic
current will allow flow of this third harmonic current whose value
approached rated current of the generator. In the case of a generator with
a 2/3 pitch winding, the triplen (3rd harmonic and its odd multiples like 9th,
15th, 21st, 27th harmonics) will be practically zero and no triplen harmonics
will flow. The zero-sequence reactance of the 2/3 pitch generators is quite
low and it would be the likely path for the flow of triplen harmonics
generated by other machines on the same bus. Shown on the book
ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINES by A. Puchstein, T. Lloyd and A.
Conrad, is Table A which tabulated the Pitch Factors for various
Harmonics. Pitch factor reflects the magnitude of harmonics for different
generator winding pitch.
TABLE A

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.14
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

NEUTRAL CIRCULATING THIRD HARMONIC CURRENTS IN PARALLELED


GENERATORS ON THE SAME BUS AND WITH SOLIDLY GROUNDED NEUTRALS

When two generators are operated in parallel at generated voltage as shown in Fig. 7,
there is a possibility of neutral circulating harmonic currents. There are two conditions
necessary for the flow of harmonic current:

1.0 The presence of a resultant harmonic voltage.


2.0 Path for the flow of current.

Fig. 7 Two generators operating in


parallel at generated voltage.

If the two machines are duplicate and are being operated under identical conditions,
they will probably generate the same harmonics of about the same magnitude and
phase position. If the harmonics are thus equal and opposite, there will be no resultant
voltage available to circulate harmonic current. If, however the machines are dissimilar,
one may generate harmonic voltage that the other does not. This will result in a
circulating harmonic current between them whose magnitude is equal to the resultant
harmonic voltage divided by the impedance at the harmonic frequency.

For line-to-line harmonic, the impedance at the harmonic frequency is approximately


equal to the product of the negative-sequence reactance and the order of harmonic. For
two machines in Fig. 7, the resultant reactance would be the sum of the harmonic
reactances of the two machines as they are in series for harmonic current flow. If more
than two machines are in parallel, but only one generating a high harmonic voltage, the
harmonic reactance of the one machine is added in series with the parallel reactance of
the remaining generators.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.15
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

With respect to neutral harmonics, this is very similar to that for line harmonics
discussed earlier except that only triplen series harmonic currents can flow in the neutral
are the triplen harmonics, that is, the 3rd harmonic and its odd multiples such as the 9th,
15th, 21st, 27th, etc. This is because the 120 deg relationship of the phases causes all
other harmonics to be balanced and thus will add up to zero in the three phases.
Referring again to Fig. 7 above, it is apparent that the neutral circulating harmonic
currents, that is, the triplen harmonics can not flow unless both neutral circuit breaker or
disconnect switches are closed. Then if there is a resultant zero sequence harmonic
voltage, current will flow equal to the resultant zero sequence harmonic voltage divided
by the zero sequence reactance at the harmonic frequency.

The harmonic currents circulating in the neutral are likely to be higher in magnitude than
the line-to-line harmonic currents. This is due to the following:

1.0 The 3rd harmonic voltage is usually higher than any other.
2.0 The zero sequence reactance is usually lower than the negative sequence
reactance.

In the case of two-thirds pitch generator, the triplen harmonics will be practically zero
and there will be no 3rd harmonic current created by the generator. On the other hand,
the zero-sequence reactance of a two-third pitch generator is quite low so that it is likely
path for the flow of triplen harmonics generated by the other generator.

The most pronounced magnitude of the triplen harmonics is the 3rd harmonics. The
harmonic current circulating in the neutral are likely to be somewhat higher than the
line-to-line harmonic current as discussed earlier.

The circulation of system harmonic frequencies is related to the three sequences, that is
the positive, negative and zero sequences as follows:

1.0 Balanced fundamental frequency has positive sequence.

2.0 THIRD HARMONIC frequency (3 x fundamental frequency) is in time


phase and so flows like zero sequence quantities. Hence, they can flow
only when:
a.) Neutral is grounded.
b.) A fourth wire wye is used. They also circulate inside a delta
winding similar to zero sequence.
3.0 Fifth harmonic frequency (5 x fundamental frequency) is similar to negative
sequence.

4.0 Seventh harmonic frequency (7 x fundamental frequency) is similar to


positive sequence.

5.0 NINTH HARMONIC frequency (9 x fundamental frequency) is similar to


zero sequence.

6.0 Eleventh harmonic frequency (11 x fundamental frequency) is similar to


positive sequence.

7.0 Thirteenth harmonic frequency (13 x fundamental frequency) is similar to


positive sequence.

8.0 FIFTEENTH HARMONIC frequency (15 x fundamental frequency) is


similar to zero sequence.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.16
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The higher the frequency, the higher the inductive reactance and the lower the
capacitive reactance.

In summary:
a.) THREE-PHASE WYE SYSTEMS
The fundamental, 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, etc. harmonics can all flow in the
3-phase system without a neutral conductor or ground return. The 3rd, 9th,
15th, etc. harmonic can flow only when a ground or neutral return exists.

b.) DELTA SYSTEMS


The 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc. harmonics can flow in the lines and in the
separate phases of the Delta. The 3rd, 9th and 15th, etc. harmonics can flow
inside the delta and not in the system.

As a rule the magnitude of each of these harmonics decreases with increase in the order
of harmonics, and so the higher the harmonics are of less consequence. Please note
there are NO EVEN HARMONICS that can appear since the waves of the EMF
generated in rotating machinery are of similar shape above and below the axis.

As can be deduced from the harmonics frequency tabulation above the triplen harmonics
are the only harmonic currents that will flow to the ground. The most pronounced of the
triplen harmonics is the third harmonics while the rest is of small values compared to the
3rd harmonic. The other higher order triplen harmonic (9th, 15th, 21st, etc.) will be
neglected.

The 3rd harmonic current is limited only by the leakage reactance of the machines and
can, therefore be fairly large possibly of the order of 60% of the full load current of one
generator. A circulating neutral current of 60% would mean 20% harmonic current per
phase. The resultant RMS value in combination with the full current of the generator
would be equal to:

= (IFL)2 + (3rd harmonic I)2

= (100%)2 + (20%)2

= (100)2 + (20)2

= 10000 + 400

= 102% or 1.02 times the full load current of the generator

With 2% overload, heating effect on the winding is (1.02)2 or 1.0404 or an additional of


4.04% heating effect or loss. The usual value of generator efficiency is about 95% at full
load.

For a 500KW generator, the input is approx. (500/0.95) = 526.315 or say 526KW.

Then power loss = 526 500 = 26KW with an additional of 4.04% loss, this is
equivalent to 0.0404 x 26 = 1.0504 KW.

As a guide in the installation of neutral grounding system of generators, the neutrals of


the generators of the dissimilar construction and differing output and power factor
ratings should, therefore, never be interconnected except if the generator are of 2/3
pitch winding. But even if the generator is of 2/3 pitch winding, due to its low zero
sequence reactance, there will greater ground fault current due to the other generator

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.17
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

which is not of 2/3 pitch winding. Each generator neutral should be provided with circuit
breaker or disconnect switch and it is equally important that the operating personnel of
the plant must make sure the system grounding is not interrupted when machines are
taken out of service. When a machine is pulled out of service, the neutral disconnect
switch or circuit breaker of another generator paralleled on the bus must be put on first
before deactivating a generator for servicing. This will maintain continuity of the
grounding system. It is a normal practice that the largest running machine in the system
will have its neutral switch or circuit breaker closed to handle the plants grounding duty.
As a general view on single-line-to-ground fault currents that will be expected in parallel
generators, an example system will be presented. These values of ground currents will
be compared with the 3-phase fault current of the system.

Example system:

GENERATORS PARALLELED WITH OTHER SOURCES

This category describes generators connected to transformers that are, or can be,
connected to other power sources. The use of a delta-wye transformer with the Wye
facing the generators offers the advantage of providing neutral grounding solid on
impedance, in the generator feed bus when the generator is not connected. It has a
disadvantage of not offering grounding to the system connected to the delta side of the
transformer. It presents a hazard if both the transformer and generator neutrals are
solidly grounded. The wye winding with a delta primary is a short circuit to any third-
harmonic current produced by the generator. The ground fault delay on the bus will be
greater than the arithmetical sum of the ground-fault currents supplied by the
transformer and generator when each is connected to the bus independently. The
ground-fault current in the generator will exceed that which would occur when the
generator is not parallel. A generator rated for grounded service not specified is normally
rated the ground-fault current flowing not paralleled.

Figs. 8 & 9 are taken from the book entitled Electrical Transmission and Distribution
Reference Book by Westinghouse Electric Corp. 1950 edition. Fig. 9 shows graphical
results of fault current with the aid of symmetrical components.

A sample calculation (see appendices) is undertaken by this seminar speaker for two
identical generators in parallel at generator voltage with one generator solidly grounded
while the other generator is ungrounded. Please compare the calculated results with the
curves shown in Figure 9. Calculations for 3 or 4 generators can be undertaken based on
the sample calculation for two generator units. This is left to the electrical engineers
attending the seminar to undertake the calculations which can be used to check the
ground fault currents of generators that are operating in their respective industrial plants
or commercial buildings under their responsibility.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.18
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 8 Single line-to-ground fault on four generators operating


in parallel with only one machine grounded.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.19
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 9 Total fault and machine currents for single


line-to-ground and three-phase faults.
A Current in any machine three phase fault
B Current in one machine single-line-to-ground fault with all
Machines grounded.
C Total current three-phase fault.
D Total current single line-to-ground fault with all machines
grounded.
E Current in grounded machine single line-to-ground fault
with only one machine grounded.
F Total current singe line-to-ground fault with only one
machine grounded.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.20
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

RESISTANCE (Low and High) GROUNDED SYSTEM

In resistance grounding, the neutral is connected to ground through one or more


resistors. In this system of neutral grounding with resistor values normally used and
except for transient overvoltages, the line-to-ground overvoltages that exist during a
line-to-ground fault are nearly the same as those for the ungrounded system.

A system properly grounded by resistance is not subject to destructive transient line-to-


ground overvoltages. Also, grounding through a resistance immediately disposes of two
defects:

a.) Permits ready relaying of ground faults


b.) Minimizes hazards of arcing grounds.

In general, the grounding resistance to be used will limit the ground-fault current to a
magnitude less than the 3-phase short-circuit current. This is almost imperative in order
to limit the power loss in the grounding resistor to a reasonable value. However, the
result is that the systems neutral will almost invariably be fully displaced in case of a
ground fault, therefore necessitating the use of full-rated lightning arresters (100% line-
to-line voltage) at an increased in cost and sacrifice in protective performance.

Also, a resistance grounded system will have materially much lower ground fault current
than solidly-grounded system and hence will have bas inductive influence on parallel
communication circuit. Large zero sequence currents flowing in the ground will effect
extraneous voltages which in nearby communication circuits by magnetic induction.

The main reasons for limiting the ground fault current by resistance grounding may be
one or more of the ff:

1.0 To reduce burning and melting effects in faulted electrical equipment such
as switchgear transformers, cables, and rotating machines. Arcing fault
tests conducted showed that it takes about 0.1485 KW-Hrs to vaporize 1/8
cu.in. of aluminum and 1/20 cu.in. of copper.

2.0 To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and apparatus carrying fault


currents.

3.0 To reduce electric shock hazards to personnel caused by stray ground


currents.

4.0 To reduce the arc blast of flash hazard to personnel who may have
accidentally caused or who happened to be in close proximity to the
ground fault.

5.0 To reduce the momentary line voltage dip occasioned by the occurrence
and clearing of a ground fault.

6.0 To secure control transient overvoltages while at the same time avoiding
shutdown of a faulty circuit or the occurrence of the first ground fault. This
is applicable only to high resistance grounding.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.21
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The level of systems voltage system that high resistance and low resistance neutral
grounding are being applied to generators are as follows:

1.0 LOW RESISTANCE GROUNDING is used for generators with voltages ranging
from 2.4KV to 15KV. Low resistance grounding is achieved by the intentional
insertion of resistance between the generator neutral and ground. The resistance
maybe inserted either directly in the connection to ground. The main advantage
of low resistance grounding is the ability of neutral resistance to limit ground fault
current to a moderate value (less than 25% of the 3-phase short-circuit current)
without exceeding the safe value of the transient line-to-ground voltage or 2.5
times the crest of the pre-fault line-to-ground operating voltage for a simple linear
circuit. This value of maximum transient line-to-ground voltage will not be
exceeded if the ff. conditions will be met:

a.) X0/X1 ranging from 0 10


b.) R0/X0 equal of greater than 2.0 as the percent ground fault current in
terms of 3-phase current less than 25%.

The current through a neutral resistor can be limited to any value but usually it
ranges from about several amperes to 1.5 times the normal rated current of the
generator. The lower limit may be based on the operation of the generator
ground differential relays. The upper limit of 1.5 times normal rated current is
related to the loss in the resistance during single-phase-to-ground fault. A value
of 1.5 times normal current through a neutral resistor gives a power loss of 50%
of the rating of the generator. The main disadvantage of low-resistance grounding
is the cost of the grounding resistor. Low-resistance grounding typically uses
ground fault current levels of at least 100A with currents in the 200-1000A range
being more usual. The ground fault protection is provided with zero sequence
current transformers. The value of the resistor can be determined by dividing the
line to neutral voltage by the neutral current desired. The resistor has a short
circuit time rating of 10 secs.

Attention should also be given to third harmonic current flow. Since the generator
neutral is grounded through a low resistance, a path is provided for third
harmonic current from the generator neutral to ground. If, however, another
ground current source (that is, wye/delta transformer or another grounded
generator) is also connected to the generator bus, than third harmonic current
will circulate between the ground and the other source under normal operating
condition. Third harmonic current flow between generator was fully discussed in
the earlier pages of this seminar page.

2.0 HIGH RESISTANCE GROUNDING is used where power interruptions from


single-line to ground faults is detrimental to the process operations. A ground
fault on one phase will not require removal of the faulted circuit as the fault
current on a generator terminal is usually limited to between 5A and 15A,
depending upon the generator size and the zero sequence capacitance to ground
in the circuit operating at generator voltage. The resistor current must exceed the
total systems charging current of the system to which the generator is directly
connected. Also, the vector sum of the systems charging current and the resistor
current must not exceed 8.0 Amps. Above this value, the ground fault current, if
sustained, will escalate to phase-to-phase or 3-phase faults. The maximum safe
transient line-to-ground overvoltage of 2.73 times the normal line-to-ground
voltage will not be exceeded if the ff. conditions will be met:
a.) R0/X1 greater than 100
b.) The percent ground fault current in terms of 3-phase fault current
less than 1%.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.22
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

High resistance grounding can be achieved by the ff:

a.) Connecting the high ohmic value resistor directly between the generator
neutral and ground (Fig. 10)
b.) Connecting the low-ohmic value resistor to the L.V. secondary of a
distribution grounding transformer with the primary winding of the
transformer connected from the generator neutral to ground. (Fig. 11).
Single-line to ground faults can be detected by a voltage or current relay in
the secondary of the distribution grounding transformer.

The advantage of item b.) above (distribution transformer/resistor combination) is


that the low-ohmic value resistor is a rugged construction. A directly connected
resistor is shown in Fig.10 is not recommend as high resistance and low current
make the resistor more fragile and prone to mechanical damage. Construction of
the high-ohmic resistor is more costly than the low ohmic resistor of Fig.11.

The resistor of item a.) is a small-sized conductor of high resistance but of high
voltage (line-to-line voltage) construction. Thus its construction is bulky and costly
compared to the low-voltage, low ohmic value resistor of item b.). The low
resistance neutral resistor is made of corrosion-resistant stainless steel and can
withstand a max. temperature rise of 760oC above ambient temperature of 930oC.

Fig. 10

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.23
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 11
For high resistance grounded systems at 15 KV and below, such overvoltages will not
ordinarily be of serious nature if the following design criteria will be followed:

a.) R0 should be equal or less than XC0. This implies that the resistor current must
be equal or greater than the total system charging current of the system
naturally distributed capacitances to ground of cables, generators and other
energized electrical equipment on the system such as motors, transformers,
surge capacitors and power factor correction capacitors connected to the
ground.

b.) R0 must be equal or greater than 2X0 where R0 is the resistor value in ohms
and X0 is the zero sequence reactance of the generator or transformer.

The corresponding ground fault current is very much less than what is normally used for
low resistance grounding. In this set-up, the total current at the point of the fault to
ground is the vector sum of the capacitive component of current and the resistive
component is made equal to the capacitive component (90o out of phase), the vector
sum is 1.41 times as much as the capacitive component. See Fig.12 for the curve taken
from the IEEE Guide C62.92 1989.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.24
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 12
Transient Voltage in Percent of Rated Peak
Line-to-Ground Generator Voltage for Any
Number of Restrikes in the Fault Arc or
Across Circuit Breaker Contacts with
Distribution Transformer and Secondary
Resistor Scheme of Grounding
As seen from the curve on Fig. 12, increasing the resistive current (effected by reducing
the ohmic value of the resistor) beyond equality with the capacitive current produces
little further reduction in transient overvoltage but increases the energy in the arc and
the damage therefrom. It has become more or less standard practice to apply the
resistor to develop energy loss equal to or slightly exceeding the capacitive KVA during
ground fault condition. Please refer to Fig.11. The KVA of the neutral distribution
transformer is determined by the product of the neutral current and the rated primary
voltage divided by an overload factor as follows (From IEEE Guide C62.92-1989):
And Electrical Transmission and Distribution reference book by Westinghouse Electric
Corp.)

PERMISSIBLE SHORT TIME OVERLOAD FACTORS

DURATION OF OVERLOAD MULTIPLE OF RATED KVA


10 secs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 (IEEE and Westinghouse
reference book)
5 minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 (Westinghouse reference book)
10 minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 (IEEE)
30 minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.90 (IEEE)
1.80 (Westinghouse reference book)
1 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.60 (Westinghouse reference book)
2 hrs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.40 (IEEE & Westinghouse
reference book)

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.25
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

This is based on operational experience and informed engineering judgment and will
permit safe and reasonable overloads for various short period of time. These factors can
be applied to the maximum thermal rating to permit the use of a lower KVA rated
transformer. The rated primary voltage of the transformer should be approximately 1-
1/2 times the generator line-to-neutral voltage in order to avoid excessive magnetizing
inrush when a ground occurs. An operational preference is to disconnect a generator for
the system and remove excitation upon the occurrence of a fault, in order to confine the
damage as much as possible. On small-sized generator, some operators prefer to have a
ground relay sound an alarm, giving system operator a chance to make provision for the
loss of the generator. In any case, automatic tripping should follow after a reasonable
time delay.

High resistance grounding is applicable to generator with medium voltage rating ranging
from 2.4Kv to 24KV. This type of neutral grounding is also applicable to 480V and 600V
where plant processing requires continuity of operation even with a ground fault on one
phase. The system charging current is usually less than 5.0. Resistors rated 3.0 to 5.0
Amps are common and the system continues to operate for a ground fault on one phase.

Generally, solidly grounded system is desired systems rated 600V and below. Only
special cases as discussed above that High Resistance Grounding is used.

An example for sizing of generator neutral equipment is shown in the succeeding 3


pages. This example is taken from the book INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS by S.
Khan, 2007 edition. This is a high-resistance grounding system utilizing a transformer-
resistor combination as shown in Fig. 10 & 11 of this seminar paper.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.26
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 13 HR grounding of
generator neutral

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.27
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.28
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The following are the standard BIL (Basic Insulation Level) of Distribution Transformers
as taken from IEEE STD. C57. 12.00-1993):

APPLICATION DISTRIBUTION

NOMINAL SYSTEMS VOLTAGE BASIC LIGHTNING IMPULSE


(KV RMS) INSULATION LEVEL (BIL) IN
COMMON USE
(KV CREST)

1.2 ------------------------------------------------------ 30
2.5 ------------------------------------------------------ 45
5.0 ------------------------------------------------------ 60
8.7 ------------------------------------------------------ 75
15.0 ------------------------------------------------------ 95
25.0 ------------------------------------------------------ 150-125
34.5 ------------------------------------------------------ 200-150
46.0 ------------------------------------------------------ 250-200
69.0 ------------------------------------------------------ 350-250

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.29
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

REACTANCE (Low and High reactances) GROUNDING SYSTEM


(refer to Fig.1)

This is a grounding system wherein a reactor is connected between the generator


neutral and ground. Since the ground fault that may flow in a reactance-grounded
system is a function of the neutral reactance, the magnitude of the ground fault current
is often used as the criteria for describing the degree of grounding. In the case of small
systems supplied by generators, reactor grounding producing no less than 25% of the 3-
phase fault current may be used in the interest of economy and also because ground
fault currents are not too large. The required ground fault current is at least 25% and
preferably 60% of the three-phase fault current with X0/X1 equals or less than 10. X0 is
the zero sequence inductive reactance of the system and X1 is the positive sequence
reactance of the system. For the generator alone, X0/X1 is equal to or greater than 1
with X0 the generator zero sequence inductive reactance and X1 the positive sequence
reactance of the generator. In terms of X0/X1 ratio, a system being reactance grounded
if X0/X1 exceeds 3.0 up to a maximum of 10. Thus defined, putting a low reactance
between a generator or transformer neutral and ground such that X0/X1 remains 3.0
does not constitute reactance grounding. Similarly, if a grounding transformer has its
neutral solidly grounded but X0/X1 exceeds 3.0, the system is presumed reactance
grounded.

The characteristics of the low impedance grounded system are the ff. (taken from
ANSI/IEEE Standard C67.92-1987 entitled IEEE GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION OF
NEUTRAL GROUNDING IN ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEMS PART. 1)

a.) X0/X1 = 3 to 10
b.) R0/X1 = 0 to 1
c.) Ground fault current in percentage of
the 3-phase fault current minimum of 25%
d.) Maximum transient line-to-ground voltage on the unfaulted
Phases in the percent of normal line to ground voltage
Following initiation of the fault 230%

Increasing the value of X0/X1 by increase the ohmic value of the reactor, the following
are the grounding characteristics:

a.) X0/X1 = greater than 10


b.) R0/X0 = less than 2
c.) Ground fault current in percentage
Of the 3-phase fault current less than 25%
d.) Maximum transient line-to-ground voltage in percent of normal
Line-to-ground voltage on the unfaulted phases following
Initiation of the fault 273%
e.) The voltage-to-ground at the neutral will not exceed 1.67 times normal
line-to-neutral voltage.

At less than 25% of 3-phase fault, transient line-to-ground overvoltages due


to repetitive restriking in an arc of a ground-fault current can become
dangerous. This is not the case with a resistance grounded systems because
the electric energy is absorbed by the resistor. The resistor can not return the
energy to the system as the reactive equipment can.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.30
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Low voltage (600V & below) generators are usually neutral reactance
grounded, with ground fault limited to a maximum 100% of the 3-phase fault
thus facilitating selective operation of direct acting trips on low-voltage
breakers. Without some impedance to ground, the ground fault current from
an A.C. generator would exceed the 3-phase fault for which the generators are
usually rated.

Medium voltage generators are generally resistance grounded because this


type of grounding restricts ground fault current to low values often less than
5% of the 3-phase fault current. Reactor grounding requires a minimum of
ground-fault current of 25% of the 3-phase fault current to limit transient line-
to-ground overvoltage to 230%.

Advantages of reactor grounding of generators (see Fig.1):

a.) It limits line-to-ground voltage on two unfaulted phase during line-to-


ground fault.
b.) It limits transient line-to-ground overvoltages to a safe value if X0/X1 is
from 3 to 10.
c.) It is preferred on generator directly feeding cable networks provided the
main objective is to keep dynamic overvoltages on the cables at low
values. This is especially true where there are considerable amount of old
cables with weak spots. If, on the other hand, the cable fault current is to
be kept at low value, the resistor method of grounding is recommended.
d.) Where overhead feeders connected to the generator bus may expose the
generator to lightning surges, neutral reactor is recommended. Reactors
should be selected to give a ratio of X0 between 1 and 3 for the system.
This allows the use of grounded neutral type of lightning arresters.
e.) It allows for satisfactory differential relay operation for ground faults.

Disadvantages connected with neutral reactor grounding are:

a.) Ground fault current may be relatively high (approximately 25 to 100% of


3-phase fault currents) with the possible damage at fault point. There is a
possibility of significant winding iron core (in slot) damage for internal
(stator) faults.
b.) Ground fault current for feeders rated at generator voltage will have a wide
range of magnitudes (as between faults near the bus and those remote
from the bus).
c.) It is difficult to apply reactor suitable for both initial conditions as will as
future system expansion (additional equipment and cablings that will
contribute capacitance to ground).

The upper limit of reactance to be used is the value giving a maximum X0/X1 =
10 with values greater than this amount, serious transient overvoltage may be
generated. The lower limit of X0/X1 = 1 on limiting the maximum generator
winding ground fault current to the 3-phase fault current. This is true as X1, X2
and X0 are equal.

Thus the ground fault current, IF

= 3 EL-N = 3 EL-N = EL-N


X1 + X2 + X0 3 X1 X1

= 3-phase fault current

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.31
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

GROUND FAULT NEUTRALIZER (RESONANT GROUNDING)

This type of grounding method as a reactor that has specially selected, relatively high
ohmic values of reactance connected between the neutral of the system and ground.
This neutral reactor is the ground fault neutralizer having characteristics such that the
systems capacitive charging current during a line-to-ground fault is neutralized by an
equal components if inductive current contributed by the ground-fault neutralizer. As
commonly used, the neutralizer is simply a tapped reactor to properly tuned the
inductive reactance with the system capacitive reactance.

When one phase of the system is grounded, a lagging reactive current will flow from the
neutralizer through the generator to the fault and then to ground. At the same time, the
capacitance current will be flowing from the faulted line to ground. The lagging current
from the reactor and the leading current from the system capacitance and practically
180 degree out of phase and therefore the actual current to ground at the fault is equal
to the difference between them. By probably tuning the reactor (selecting the right tap),
the two currents can be made almost exactly equal so that in general the arc will not
maintain itself and the fault is extinguished or quenched. This condition is shown in
Fig. 14. This is taken from the book ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
REFERENCE BOOK by Westinghouse Electric Corp. 1950 Ed.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.32
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Fig. 14

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.33
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

When extinguishing a ground fault, the combination of neutralizer reactance and


systems capacitance constitutes a parallel resonant circuit. This is brought out clearly by
the zero sequence diagram in Fig. 15 (taken from the book ELECTRICAL
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION REFERENCE BOOK by Westinghouse Electric Corp.

Fig. 15
In actual operation, theres always a resistance in the circuit components thus with
capacitive component and inductive component of the system equal in values, the small
resultant current is resistive and in phase with the voltage.

In theory with an assumption of negligible resistance in the circuit components and


referring to Fig. 15, XL is the neutralizer inductive reactance and XC is the systems
capacitive reactance. G is an equivalent generator of zero-sequence voltage
numerically equal to the system line-to-neutral voltage and notation X the fault. With X
closed, there will be a current circulating between XC and XL but no current through the
fault X. If X is assumed open as by the extinguishment of the arc, the resonant
combination of the XL and XC will continue to produce an alternating voltage of about the
same frequency and magnitude as the original applied voltage from G. Consequently the
actual voltage across the arc is small when it first extinguishes. This is a condition
favorable to preventing restriking. In other word, the successful extinguishing of ground
faults by neutralizes result in part from the low current and in part from the low voltage
appearing across the arc when it goes through a current zero.

Application of the ground fault neutralizer is on generator systems with heavy charging
currents and directly connected to overhead lines subject to lightning exposure in which
damage to the generators or rotating equipment may result from a ground fault if the
system is left ungrounded. Care should be taken to keep the ground fault neutralizer
tuned to the system capacitance to minimize the generators of transient overvoltages.

Resonant grounding using fault neutralizers has also a number of desirable features that
applied to unit connected generator system. This is a system in which a single generator
is connected directly to a delta/wye step-up transformer with the delta windings at
generator voltage. The ff. are important desirable features as applied to unit connected
generators:

1. Limits the ground fault current to practically zero, thus minimizing


the mechanical stresses and possibility of iron core burning for faults
within the generator windings.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.34
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

2. Permits the option of continued operation of the generator after the


occurrence of a phase to ground fault until such time that an orderly
shutdown can be arranged. However, in this situation, there does
exist the possibility of progressive fault damage and the hazard of
two phases being raised to full phase-to-phase voltage above
ground. The experience of arcing in regard to resonant grounding of
generators has neither shown progressive fault damage nor the
need to trip immediately.

3. Prevents the occurrence of transient overvoltages as a consequence


of intermittent grounds.

4. Allows high sensitivity during operating conditions for the detection


of localized deterioration of generator system insulation

The basic and commonly used components of a ground fault neutralizer are a
distribution grounding transformer and reactor combination. This is almost the same as
that of the high resistance grounding as in Fig. 11 except that a reactor is used instead
of a resistor. The reactor is selected so that the resultant reactance as seen from the
high voltage side of the distribution grounding transformer just matches the 3-phase
capacitive reactance to ground of the generator windings, generator leads, step-up
transformer, station service transformers, surge protection capacitors and all other
equipment connected directly between the generator terminals and the low side of the
step-up transformer. Single phase to ground faults are detected by voltage or current
relay in the secondary of the distribution grounding transformer.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968) Part III - Page No.35
LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION REFERENCE BOOKS


by Westinghouse Electric Corp., 1950 edition

2. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK by D. Beeman., 1955 edition

3. IEEE STANDARD 141-1993 (Red Book) 1976 and 1993 ed. entitled
IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTRIC POWER
DISTRIBUTION FOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS by the IEEE (Institute of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers of U.S.A.)

4. IEEE STANDARD 142-1991, 1991 ed. entitled IEEE RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE FOR GROUNDING OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
POWER SYSTEMS by the IEEE, U.S.A.

5. IEEE STANDARD 666-1991, 1991 ed. entitled IEEE DESIGN GUIDE for
ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE SYSTEMS FOR GENERATING STATIONS by
the IEEE, U.S.A.

6. ANALYSIS OF FAULTED POWER SYSTEMS by P. Anderson, 1973 edition.

7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR INDUTRIAL


PLANTS by Erwin Lazar, 1980 edition

8. IEEE STANDARD 446-1995, 1995 ed., entitled IEEE RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE for EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS FOR
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS by the IEEE, U.S.A.

9. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING by


J. Lewis Blackburn, 1993 edition.

10. PROTECTIVE RELAYING PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS by J. L.


Blackburn, 1987 edition

11. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS by S. Khan, 2007 edition

12. ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINES by A. Puchstem, T. Lloyd and A.


Conrad, 1954 edition

13. DIESEL GENERATOR HANDBOOK by L. Mahon, 1992 edition

14. NEWAGE STAMFORD GENERATOR MANUAL

15. G.E. TECHNICAL MANUAL ON CABLES, CM Series, 1964-1972

16. IEEE STANDARD 665-1995, 1995 ed. entitled IEEE STANDARD FOR
GENERATING STATION GROUNDING by the IEEE, U.S.A.

17. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT GROUNDING by the G.E. Industrial Power


Systems Data Book 1951-1964 Series.

18. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER STATION DESIGN by M.V. Desphande,


1966 ed.
19. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS by C. Wagner and R. Evans, 1933 edition.

20. MAJOR FAULTS IN POWER SYSTEMS by A.G. Lyle 1952, edition.

21. J & P SWITCHGEAR BOOK by R. Lythall.

22. POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING by I. Nagrath and D. Kothaire, 1994


edition.

23. ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS by B.M. Weedy and B. Cory, 1998 edition.

24. POWER SYSTEMS PROTECTION vol.1 (4 volumes in all) entitled Principles


and Application 1995 edition, published by the Institution of Electrical Engineers,
U.K.

25. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS, DESIGN AND ANALYSIS by M. EL-Hawary,


published in 1995.

26. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS by Myatt.

27. IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL


POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, IEEE STD. 399-1990.

28. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING by C.


Bayliss, 1996 edition.

29. IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTRIC DISRIBUTION FOR


INDUSTRIAL PLANTS. IEEE STD.-141, 1976 & 1993 ED.

30. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY SERIES, VOL.1 ELEMENTS OF STABILITY


CALCULATIONS, 1948 ed. by E. Kimbark.

31. THE PRINCIPLES OF POWER-NETWORK CALCULATION, 1968 ed. by C.H.


Lackey, A. Reyrolls and Co. Ltd.

32. IEEE GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING IN


ELECTRICAL UTILITY SYSTEMS, PART II GROUNDING OF
SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR SYSTEMS, IEEE STD. C62.92 1989.

33. PLANNING OF DIESEL POWER STATIONS, 1960 Ed. by MAN B&W,


Germany.

34. ONAN TECHNICAL BULLETIN entitled SELECTING ELECTRIC


GENERATING SETS FOR ELECTRIC MOTOR LOADS.

35. A TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY by B. Theraja and A. Theraja,


1959 e.d
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System. A P P E N D IX X III

CEBU PRIVATE POWER CORP.,


Ermita, Cebu City
(1998)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System. A P P E N D IX X IV

CARMEN DIESEL POWER PLANT OF ATLAS MINING


Toledo City, Cebu
(1979 & 1982 - Additional one unit)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System. A P P E N D IX X V

MONDE ENERGY PHIL.,


Sta. Rosa, Laguna
(2004)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


A P P E N D IX X V I
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

EAST ASIA UTILITIES CORP.,


Mactan, Cebu
(1997)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


A P P E N D IX X V II
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

BANTAYAN ISLAND POWER CORP.,


Bantayan Island, Cebu
(2005)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


A P P E N D IX X V III
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

LAZARD POWER CORP.,


Pasig City, Metro Manila
(2007)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System. APPENDIX XIX

LAZARD POWER CORP.,


Tanza, Cavite
(2003)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System. A P P E N D IX X X

MINDANAO ENERGY SYSTEMS INC.,


Tablon, Cagayan de Oro City
(1994)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.
A P P E N D IX X X I

80MW ATMOSPHERIC FLUIDIZED BED BOILER PROJECT


(Made by VKW of Germany, the first in the world) of
ATLAS MINING, Toledo City, Cebu
(1983)

eminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573)


IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

3.0 Selection of power plant for load conditions

The following example has been devised to demonstrate the practical


methods used for assessing the sizes of a.c. generator and prime mover
required for a given installation.

Example:

A standby generator is required to supply the following essential loads


within a commercial building with 240V/139V 3-phase, 60 hertz, in the
event of a utility supply failure.

Load Details

Single phase 240V

a. 15 high-pressure mercury vapour, high bay luminaries (400w nominal


each) and 150 fluorescent lighting fixtures (40W nominal each), all
corrected to 0.95 P.F. lagging.
b. 30 convenience outlet at 300 watts, 1.0 P.F., maximum allowable for
each outlet.

Three phase 240V

The following motor drives (motor voltage 230V, 3-phase, 60 Hz):


a. One elevator 30 kW, Auto-transformer started.
b. One blower 20 HP, Wye-Delta started
c. One Compressor 15 HP, D.O.L. started
d. One air conditioning unit 10 HP each, D.O.L.
started.

Governing Conditions

a. For safety and operational reasons the essential lighting loads and
convenience outlet load will be started first, then succeedingly other
loads as mentioned above (3-phase, 240 W loads)
b. All loads will tolerate a 20% voltage dip.

Procedure

The running (steady-state or continuous) and starting (transient) kVA


and kW requirements of each load elements must be first be analyzed.

Motor nameplates or manufacturers literature will provide details such


as;

Full load power in kW or HP


Efficiency

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Power factor
Starting current or code letters (American practice)
Starting torque or NEMA design letters (American practice)
Peak or (pull out) torque

Given such data, it is possible to calculate;

a. The starting kVA, which may be obtained directly from the starting
current. However if the starting current value is not available, electric
motors manufactured by American companies have code letter
designation such as A to H stamped on the motor nameplate. Refer
to Table 1. The code letters are the values of starting kVA per HP
rating of the motor. Please note the starting kVA is the input kVA from
the supply and HP rating of the motor is at the motor shaft. Table 1
also shows the running kVA and running kW values at full load of the
motor as measured at the supply line side.

b. The running kW at any load is the ratio of the operating load divided
by the motor efficiency at that load. If the operating load is not known,
assume the worst case, that is, the motor is running on full load.
Table 1 will be of good help for this condition.

c. The running kVA: this is given by the running power as at b. above


divided by the power factor. It should be appreciated that power
factor will vary considerably with the operating load. Typical values of
power factor at different loads of some motor sizes are shown on
Table 2 below:

kW Full Load 75% f.I 50%f.l

80 0.92 0.91 0.88

30 0.90 0.88 0.83

3 0.85 0.81 0.73

1 0.80 0.75 0.65

d. The maximum kW demand at starting: since information on the


maximum power factor during starting is seldom available, a
reasonable estimate of the maximum peak starting power
requirement can be obtained from the expression:

Rated motor kW x peak torque in p.u.


Maximum starting power =
Motor rated efficiency
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Peak or pull-out torque is usually between 2 and 2.8 times.


Use average value of 2.4 p.u.
Another approximation to get the maximum starting kW is by using the
following power factor during starting of the motor:

10 Hp or larger 0.40 PF
Hp less than 10 Hp 0.50 PF

The higher values of the two formulas maybe used to get the maximum
kW demand at starting.

In figure 1 of this section B (standby generator system), the size of the


generator is determined by the vector sum of the standby or running
load in kVA and the incoming load kVA or starting kVA. However it is
normally acceptable for sizing up of generator using arithmetical addition
instead of vectorial addition as it will give a larger kVA load demand
figure than the vectorial addition.

A convenient tabulated form is shown on separate sheet for the sample


selection of electrical generating set. The following step-by-step
procedure shows how to fill out the form shown on separate sheet;

a. List all the loads in the order they will be applied to the generating
set. For the smallest generating set, the larger motors should be
started first if possible.

b. On the first line under Accumulated load (columns L & M), list all the
non-motor loads such as lighting and outlet receptacles.
If no lighting and other non-motors load are on the circuit list on line one
the first motor to be started. Step C will show the process of undertaking
this.

c. In columns A, B, C and D enter the Hp, code letter, phase and


voltage of each motor. List the motors in the sequence they will be
started and use a separate line for each motor.

d. Decide what generator voltage that will be used. In our sample


calculation, the generator voltage is 240V; see Table 1. The different
voltage combination are listed on the left side obtain the starting kVA
under the proper code letter for each motor. Enter this value in
column 6, if across- the- line starting.

e. For reduced voltage starting, enter the tap and multiplier, in column
E. Enter the product of starting kVA times the multiplier in column F.
Refer to Table 2 below for the values of multiplier for various types of
reduced voltage motor starting methods.
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

TABLE 2. REDUCED VOLTAGE MOTOR STARTING

STARTING METHOD TAP MULTIPLIER

Full Voltage 100 1.0

Auto-Transformer 80 0.64
65 0.42
50 0.25

Series Reactor 80 0.80


Or Resistor 65 0.65
50 0.50

Star-Delta 0.336

Wound- rotor - Note: Starting kVA will vary from full-load


input kVA of motor with starting
torque of 40% of full-load torque
and 100% external resistance cut
in the circuit to a starting kVA of
630% of full load input kVA of
motor with starting torque of about
250% of full load toque and 20%
of the rotor external resistance in
the circuit.
Intermediate values of starting
kVA and starting torque are
available for different values of
rotor external resistance cut in the
circuit. With zero external
resistance in the rotor circuit, the
starting kVA is about 450% of the
full-load input kVA to the motor but
the starting torque is only 80% of
the full-load torque.
Data on the characteristic of the
wound-rotor motor will be given by
motor manufacturer. The
application of wound- rotor motor
is on heavy industrial loads such
as crusher, mills, long belt
conveyors, ect, which require high
starting torque and low starting
kVA. Overhead crane motors are
usually wound-rotor motors in
which the external resistance will
be adjusted for speed changing
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

and high torque applications. The


starting kVA will be determined
based on the specific usage of the
motor.

f. Multiply the starting kVA (column F) times the starting power factor
(PF) and enter this value in column G.
g. Obtain the running kVA and running kW for each motor from Table 1
and enter these values in column H and I.

Determining Maximum and Continuous Load

The electric generating set chosen must be capable of supplying the


maximum load during the starting of each motor and the continuous load
when the motors are running. Progressive totals of the accumulated load
and incoming motors starting load will show the maximum kVA and kW
demand during the time each motor is starting.
h. Start with the first motor after loads on loading stage 1 are entered
already; add the kVA from column F to the kVA from column L of
the line above. Enter this total in column J.
i. Start with the first motor (same condition as step h); add the kW from
column G to the kW from column M of the line above. Enter the total
in column K.
j. Add the kVA from column H to the kVA from column L of the line
above. Enter this total in column L.
k. Add the kW from column I to the kW from column M of the line above.
Enter this total in column M.
l. Repeat steps h through k for each motor in turn. This complete the
calculations
m. Underline the largest numbers in columns J, K, L and M. These are
the ratings for the selected genset.

The following paragraphs explain each of the first 9 columns with letter
markings (A to I) on the tabulated form entitled SAMPE SELECTION
OF ELECTRIC GENERATING SET.

a) MOTOR HORSEPOWER (Hp).


NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) list standard
horsepower ratings of through 200 horsepower for induction
motors. Except for certain motors, a standard horsepower rating is
found on the motors nameplate.
b) MOTOR CODE LETTER.
A code letter can be found on the nameplate of alternating current
motors. The letter is a code for starting kVA per horsepower. Staring
kVA per horsepower has been compiled for 1 through 200 Hp in
Table 1. Please note that there is also a NEMA design letter on the

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

motor nameplate. This should not be confused with the code letter.
NEMA design letter denotes locked rotor torque (or starting torque) in
percent of full-load torque of integral Hp squirrel-cage, single-speed,
3-phase motors with full voltage applied to the motor.
c) Phase ()
Both single-phase and 3-phase motors are available in rating up to
7 horsepower. Motors more than 7 Hp are usually 3-phase.
d) When listing the voltage, list the motor nameplate voltage and not the
generator voltage. The generator voltage is always higher than the
motor voltage to account for the voltage drops due to the impedances
of the generator and the cable lines supplying the motor.
e) REDUCED VOLTAGE MOTOR starting.
List the amount of voltage reduction in percent (%) tap. Use a value
of 1.0 when across the live or direct on- the line starting (D.O.L.) the
starting kVA is proportional to the square of the voltage. If 50%
voltage is applied during starting, the starting current is 50% of the full
voltage starting current. Therefore the starting kVA will be
proportional to square of the applied voltage.
f) KVA STARTING ( KVAst)
Starting kVA required by a motor is found in Table 1 under the
appropriate code letter column. For any motor of a given horsepower
and code letter, the starting kVA draw is the same regardless of the
phase, speed and voltage rating on the motor nameplate (provide the
proper table is used). The table used must be based on the
relationship between the motor voltage and the generator voltage.
g) KW STARTING (KWst)
Starting kW is determined by multiplying the starting kVA (kVAst) by
the motor starting power factor (P.F.). As discussed earlier (item c of
the step-by-step procedure), if the motor power factor at starting is
unknown, the power factor will be assumed as 0.40 PF for 10Hp or
larger and for less than 10Hp, use a 0.50 P.F.
h) MOTOR RUNNING KVA
KVA for a running motor is the input kVA (a apparent power) required
by the motor at rated speed and load. This can be found in Table 1.
i) MOTOR RUNNING KW
KW for a running motor is the input real power required by the motor
at rated speed and load. It should be noted that the motor rated
output power is measured at the motor shaft and not as measured in
the supply line. The input kW includes already the motor friction and
windage losses, core loss and winding loss. Refer to Table 1 for the
values of running kVA and kW for different motor ratings.

A final check on the generator size should be based on the maximum


voltage dip of 20% as specified in the governing condition. The
generator selected must also have an overload capability greater that
the largest peak kVA or maximum kVA. This should be within 2.0 PU (or
2 times) capacity for 10 secs. This data should be given to the genset
manufacturer for them evaluate the suitable size for the requirement.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Calculation for the data required to fill out the sample tabulated form for
the selection of the electric generating set are shown hereunder:

a. Lightings and outlet receptacles loads

Mercury vapor lamps, 400w each and 150 fluorescent lamps, 40w to be
distributed to the 3-phase of the supply lines. These are corrected to
0.95 P.F lagging, refer to Fig, 1. power consumption of 40w fluorescent
lamp is 46w including ballast. Starting currents for both mercury and
fluorescent lamps are 1.7 times the normal values. Starting power for
mercury is 50% of normal while for fluorescent lamp is about 65% of
normal.

RUNNING STARTING

Mercury vapor - 15 X 400 = 6.0 KW 6.0 X 0.50 = 3.0KW


1000

AT 0.95 P.F

6.0 = 6.32 KVA 6.32 X 1.7 = 10.74KVA


0.95

Flourescent - 150 X 46 = 6.90 KW 6.9 X 0.65 = 4.49 KW


1000

AT 0.95 P.F

6.9 = 7.260 KVA 7.260 X 1.7 = 12.34 KVA

Outlet
Receptacles - 30 X 300 = 9.0 KW 9.0 KW
1000

AT 1.0 P.F

9.0 = 9.0 KVA 9.0 KVA


1.0

TOTAL 3-PHASE 21.9 KW 16.49 KW


LOAD
22.580 KVA 32.08 KVA

The total values will be the data on line 1 after this, process of selecting
genset will proceed on the tabulated form for simplification. Use Table 1
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

for starting and running characteristics of the motor. Motor voltage is


230V, 3-phase and generator voltage is 240V, 3-phase, 60Hz.

Please note that the highest accumulated load (continuous load) plus
load of the incoming starting motors and non-motors (columns J and K)
are 168.98 kVA (max.) and 104.20 kW (max.). For the continuous load,
these are 97.84 kVA (max. as shown in Fig. 4) and 86.90 (max.). The
generator must meet these requirements. Also the 20% max voltage dip
as shown on fig. 4 shall also be meet by the generator.

Referring to Figure 4 of section B (Standby Generator System), a 20%


voltage dip will have a maximum ratio of 1.15 for the max. applied load
in kVA (momentary, see column J) over maximum rated or continuous
kVA (see column. L) of the generator frame.

168.98kVA (max. applied kVA at column J)


The actual load ratio is: =
97.48 kVA (max. continuous kVA at column L)

= 1.733 . This exceeds the requirement of 20%


voltage drop.

The air compressor will be started with an autotransformer reduced-


voltage starter to reduce the starting kVA. This will be at 80% tap which
will be assumed for calculation purposes only without consideration if
the torque developed by the motor can handle the inertia loads of the
compressor and the motor rotor.

In actuality, the type of compressor (centrifugal or reciprocating) and


motor type (example: NEMA Design A to E) will have to be considered
so that the torque required on the motor to accelerate the mechanical
load can be determined.

Corrected data for the compressor motor using autotransformer reduced


voltage starters are as follows:

Multiplier ---------- 0.64


kVAst (col. F.) ------ 97 x 0.64 = 62.0
kWst (col. G.) ------ 0.4 x 62 = 24.8

Then, Max. kVA (col. J) = 62 + 71.98 = say 134.0 (from 168.98 at col. J,
loading stage 4)

Max. kW (col. K) = 24.8 + 65.0 = 89.80 (from 103.80 at col. K,


loading stage 4)
Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

The maximum kVA of the whole loading stages will now be 152.80 kVA
(col. J) which is on loading stage 5. The maximum kW will sill be 104.20
kW (col. K). The Loading Ratio will now be:

152.80 (col. J, stage 5)


= 1.5675
97.48 (col. K, stage 5)

To limit the voltage dip to 20%, the genset continuous capacity will be:

152.80 (col. J stage 5)


= 132.87 or say 133 kVA
1.15 (see Fig. 4)

and maximum kVA (continuous plus starting) capacity of no less than


152.80 kVA.

Special study / attention should be made on elevator system which has


an overhauling characteristics when it is in descending operation. With
power supply to the motor disconnected and without the use of
mechanical braking, the elevator will speed up and effect a speed on the
motor beyond its synchronous speed. Mechanical braking will have to be
applied to show down or stop the elevator movement.

However, with electric power continuously supplied to the motor and


with the overhauling effect of the elevator in its lowering operation, the
motor is made to run as generator when the elevator speed will effect a
speed on the motor beyond its synchronous speed. Electrical energy will
be feed back to the supply as the motor voltage will be higher than the
supply voltage. The tendency is to slow down the motor speed to a little
higher than synchronous of the motor if the supply capacity is big, such
as the utility. The feed back power can be easily absorbed by big
capacity electrical supply system. The slowing down of the motor is with
the above-mentioned condition is called regenerative braking but this is
not a holding brake.

Problem now lies when a generator of limited capacity will supply the
elevator motor. The feed back power from the motor to the generator
line will relieve the generator of some loads thus may cause generator
and motor to over speed.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

In specifying or sizing generator properly if there is an elevator load,


discussions / consultations with elevator supplier to prevent over speed
of the elevator must be done. The sample calculation for generator
sizing did not consider the effect of feedback power generated by the
motor. As per practice and by theoretical calculation the feedback power
allowed on generator is 20% of the genset rated capacity. In checking
the amount of power feedback to the supply line, the total downward
force on the elevator system and the efficiency of elevator system must
be known and a constant downward velocity of the elevator must be
specified. This data can be had from the elevator supplier. The
calculated feedback power can be added to the initial sizing of the
generator capacity based on the tabulated sample calculation form. If
the feedback power to be absorbed by the generator is more than 20%
of the genset rated capacity, there are corrective measures that can be
applied. One is a dummy resistor bank which will be automatically
switched on to the elevator motor supply line when the generator is in
use instead of the utility.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573, 1968
IIEE Cebu Chapter Seminar on Principles and Construction of Brushless A.C. Generator, Generator Sizing and Generating Station Grounding System.

SAMPLE SELECTION OF ELECTRIC GENERATING SET


REDUCED RUNNING (OR ACCUMULATED LOAD OF
DATA OF MOTORS (FROM ACCUMULATED
VOLTAGE STARTING LOADS OF CONTINUOUS) IMMEDIATE PREVIOUS LOADING
NAMEPLATE DATE) AND NON- CONTINUOUS LOAD AT
STARTING (FOR MOTOR AND NON-MOTOR LOADS OF MOTOR STAGE PLUS LOAD OF INCOMING
MOTOR LOADS (LIGHTINGS ETC) LOADING STAGE NOTES:
MOTORS ONLY) & NON-MOTOR STARTING MOTOR & NON-MOTOR
NAME OF
J K L M LOAD,
A B C D E F G H I
VOLTAGE
P.F. Max. KVA Max. KW Cont. KVA Cont. KW DIP, ETC
Loading CODE
HP Volts % Tap Multiplier KVAST KW ST KVARUN KW RUN
Stage LETTER Add L to F Add G to M Add H to L Add I to M

N.A as this is the N.A as this is the Lighting & Receptacle


1 - - 3 240 - - 32.08 16.49 22.58 21.90 22.58 21.9
first loading stage first loading stage Heat Load

ELEVATOR (2 units
173 x 0.42 = 73 x 0.40 = 73 + 22.580 = 29.2 + 21.90 = 29.6 + 22.58 26 + 21.90 =
2 30 F 3 230 65 0.42 0.4 29.60 26.00 but operating one at a
73 29.20 95.58 51.10 = 52.18 47.90
time).

116 x 0.336 39.0 x 0.40 39.0 + 52.18 = 15.6 + 47.9 = 19.8 + 52.18 17.1 + 47.9
3 20 F 3 230 - 0.336 0.4 19.80 17.10 BLOWER
= 39.0 = 15.60 91.18 63.50 = 71.98 = 65.0

97 x 1.0 = 97.0 x 0.40 97 + 71.98 = 38.8 + 65.0 = 15.2 + 71.98 13.2 + 65.0
4 15 G 3 230 - 1.0 0.4 15.20 13.20 AIR COMPRESSOR
97.0 = 38.80 168.98 103.80 = 87.18 = 78.20

65 x 1.0 = 65.0 x 0.40 65 + 87.18 = 26 + 78.20 = 10.3 + 87.18 87.0 + 78.2


5 10 G 3 230 - 1.0 0.4 10.30 8.70 AIR-CON UNIT
65.0 = 26 152.18 104.20 = 97.48 = 86.90

Seminar Resource Speaker : Engr. Oscar P. Pasilan, P.E.E. No. 0573 (1968)