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Engineering Standard

SAES-B-005 14 June 2011


Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks
Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................. 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations................................. 2
3 References..................................................... 3
4 Definitions...................................................... 4
5 Design............................................................ 5

Previous Issue: 30 March 2011 Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 13
Primary contact: Ashoor, Esam Ahmed on 966-3-8728431

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2011. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

1 Scope

1.1 This Standard provides the minimum mandatory requirements for spacing and
diking of tanks located onshore and above grade that store or process flammable
or combustible liquids at atmospheric and at pressures up to 100 kPa(ga)
(15 psig) and temperatures at or above ambient. Tanks include vertical
cylinders with fixed or floating roofs, horizontal cylindrical drums, spheres,
spheroids, and any other configuration used for the above purpose and designed
per the requirements of SAES-D-100 or SAES-D-109. For refrigerated storage
vessels, or for pressure storage vessels designed to store flammable materials per
the requirements of SAES-D-001, refer to SAES-B-057.

1.2 The requirements of this Standard do not apply to skid-mounted tanks that are
temporarily located at wellsites and are directly associated with drilling and
workover operations.

1.3 Tanks of 190 m (50 000 gal) or less capacity and built per SAES-D-100 shall
have spacing, remote impounding, or diking in accordance with NFPA 30.
Spacing between such tanks and other equipment not specified in NFPA 30 shall
conform to SAES-B-055 requirements.
Exception:

Remote impounding or diking of such tanks is not required if they are located in a
process area that is provided with industrial oily water sewers or surface drainage
to remote impounding per SAES-S-020.

1.4 The requirements of this Standard do not apply to fuel tanks under 2500 liters
(660 gallons) capacity that provide day-tank fuel supply to portable, skid-
mounted, engine-driven rotating equipment, or vehicles.

2 Conflicts and Deviations

2.1 Any conflicts between this Standard and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards (SAESs), Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs),
Standard Drawings (SASDs) or industry standards, codes and forms shall be
resolved in writing by the Company or Buyer Representative through the
Manager, Loss Prevention Department, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

2.2 Direct all requests to deviate from this Standard in writing to the Company or
Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302
and forward such requests to the Manager, Loss Prevention Department, Saudi
Aramco, Dhahran.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

3 References

All referenced Specifications, Standards, Codes, Forms, Drawings, and similar material
shall be considered part of this Standard to the extent specified herein and shall be of
the latest issue (including all revisions, addenda, and supplements) unless stated
otherwise.

3.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure


SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-B-014 Safety Requirements for Plant and Operations
Support Buildings
SAES-B-018 Air Foam Systems for Storage Tanks
SAES-B-054 Access, Egress, and Material Handling for Plant
Facilities
SAES-B-055 Plant Layout
SAES-B-057 Safety Requirements: Refrigerated and Pressure
Storage Vessels
SAES-D-001 Design Criteria for Pressure Vessels
SAES-D-100 Design Criteria of Atmospheric and Low Pressure
Tanks
SAES-D-109 Design of Small Tanks
SAES-F-007 System Design Criteria of Flares
SAES-Q-006 Asphalt and Sulfur Extended Asphalt Concrete
Paving
SAES-S-020 Industrial Drainage and Sewers

Saudi Aramco Material System Specification


09-SAMSS-097 Ready-Mixed Portland Cement Concrete

Saudi Aramco Engineering Report


SAER-5800 Use of Aluminum Geodesic Roofs on External
Floating Roof Tanks

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

3.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Petroleum Institute


API STD 620 Design and Construction of Low-Pressure Storage
Tanks
API STD 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API STD 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage
Tanks

American Society for Testing & Materials


ASTM E814 Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops
ASTM D323 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of
Petroleum Products (Reid Method)

British Standard
BS 476 Part 22 Fire Test on Building Materials and Structures
Part 22: Methods for Determination of the Fire
Resistance of Non-Load Bearing Elements of
Construction

National Fire Protection Association


NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code

Underwriters Laboratories Inc.


UL 1479 Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops
UL 2079 Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Joint Systems

4 Definitions

Asphalt: Highly viscous residual mixture of paraffinic, aromatic, and heterocyclic


hydrocarbons obtained in petroleum refining. For purposes of this Standard, the
significant feature of asphalt is that, when heated in its usual cut-back state, it is
considered to be a flammable liquid.

Combustible Liquid: A liquid that has a flash point greater than 54C (130F).
Examples are fluids such as diesel, C7+ feed stocks, bunker fuel, and sulfur.

Fire Resistant Sealant: A sealant that has been subjected to a test furnace environment
such as ASTM E814, UL 1479, UL 2079, or BS 476 or other fire test procedure
accepted by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

Flammable Liquid: A liquid that has a flash point equal to or less than 54C (130F).
Examples would be fluids such as stabilized crude, gasoline, Jet A-1, Jet JP-4, Jet JP-8,
C6 and lighter feed and blending stocks, and methanol. For purposes of this Standard, a
combustible liquid stored or processed at a temperature equal to or higher than 8C
(15F) below its flashpoint shall be considered to be a flammable liquid.

Flashing Liquid: A flammable liquid with a vapor pressure greater than 90 kPa (abs)
(13 psia) at maximum product temperature. Examples are fluids such as gassy crude
oil, C5 feed streams, and other products which due to their high vapor pressure cannot
be stored in atmospheric storage tanks, not including refrigerated liquids and not
including fluids with vapor pressures exceeding 67 kPa (ga) (10 psig).

Hot Oil: A flammable or combustible liquid stored at a temperature equal to or greater


than 90C (195F). Examples would be fluids such as the storage of hot diesel or fuel
oils for a hot belt tank heating system, emulsion breaking, or viscosity reduction of
heater fuels.
Commentary:

The primary hazard with hot oil storage tanks is a froth-over problem in the event that
water is admitted to the tank, either due to accident or during emergency response.

Linear fire detection: Fire detection using a heat sensitive cable, optic fiber or
pneumatic tubing. They respond to heat at a predetermined temperature which fuses,
melts or otherwise changes the properties of the cable/tubing and provides an alarm.
The cable is installed above the seal of a floating roof tank to detect a seal-rim fire.

Molten Sulfur: Sulfur in the liquid state (119C to 154C) produced as a by-product of
petroleum production/refining. For the purposes of this Standard, molten sulfur is
treated as a combustible liquid.

Secondary Containment Tank: A tank that has an inner and outer wall with an
interstitial space (annulus) between the walls and that has a means for monitoring the
interstitial space for a leak.

Stile: One or more steps that form a stairway for passing over a pipe, fence, or dike
wall.

Wall Sleeve: A flange and sleeve assembly used to prevent passage of liquid around a
pipe that penetrates a masonry or concrete dike wall. Wall sleeves are also known as
seep rings or puddle flanges.

5 Design

5.1 General Requirements

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

5.1.1 A flashing liquid that has a vapor pressure higher than 90 kPa (abs)
(13 psia) shall not be stored in a cone roof or a floating roof tank.

5.1.2 Flammable liquids other than asphalt or hot oil shall not be stored in
cone roof tanks larger than 600 m (3775 bbl).

5.1.3 Covered or internal floating roof tanks that are designed and
constructed in accordance with API STD 650 and vented in accordance
with API STD 2000 shall be treated as floating roof tanks for the
purpose of spacing.

5.1.4 Roof selection for internal and external floating roof tanks shall be in
accordance with SAES-D-100. Pan type floating roofs or covers are
prohibited.

5.1.5 Open-Top Floating Roof Storage Tank


a) Access to an open-top floating roof from the wind girder platform
shall be provided by an inclined stairway with self-leveling tread.
Inclined ladders with rungs are prohibited.
b) Open-top floating roof tanks shall be provided with linear seal-
rim fire detection.
Commentary Notes:

For all existing open-top floating roof tanks, the retrofit of linear
seal-rim fire detection is recommended. Installation of the
systems may be phased in, possibly combined with other
projects or T&I activities.

c) Foam fire protection for these tanks shall meet SAES-B-018.


d) Where an existing open-top floating roof tank is retrofit with an
aluminum geodesic dome (AGD), the existing fire protection
systems shall be retained and kept in operable condition.

5.1.6 Access to Tank Storage Sites


a) A 6 m wide ramp shall be provided over tank dikes for access of
mobile equipment.
b) Ramps shall have approach and departure angles not exceeding
fourteen percent (14%), for fire truck access.
c) Ramps shall have a flat crest 3 m long.
d) Each tank diked area shall be provided with a total of two stiles
located on opposite sides of the diked area if the dike is over

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

910 mm high. The stiles shall be located as near as practicable to


fire hydrants. Stairways and stiles shall meet SAES-B-054.

5.1.7 A diked area shall contain only that piping that is directly associated
with tanks permitted within that diked area. All other piping shall be
located outside the diked area and a minimum distance of 7.5 m (25 ft)
from any tank in the diked area.

5.1.8 Pumps shall be located outside diked impoundment areas and no less
than 7.5 m away from dike walls. Pumps shall also meet the minimum
spacing requirement for process equipment in Table 1.

5.1.9 The minimum distance between a tank and any associated dike wall
shall be 3 m (10 ft).

5.1.10 A tank shall be at least 30 m (100 ft) from the edge of any diversion
channel or impounding area serving process areas or tanks located in
other diked areas.

5.1.11 In addition to the requirements in Table 1, the distance between a tank


and a flare shall be governed by the limitations on exposure to flare
heat radiation provided in SAES-F-007.

5.1.12 Each tank shall be located so that it is adjacent on at least one side of
the tank's dike wall to a road or accessway that would permit access for
emergency vehicles during a fire.

5.2 Spacing

5.2.1 Tanks and associated equipment shall be located such that they are
more than 450 m from any other Saudi Aramco plant or facility or
other industrial, commercial, or residential land use, that is at a lower
elevation.

5.2.2 The minimum distance between a tank located inside a common diked
area and any other tank located outside that diked area shall be 30 m.

5.2.3 For tanks larger than 190 m (50 000 gal), the shortest straight-line
horizontal distance between the surface of a tank and the facing surface
of another tank, process equipment, or structure shall be according to
Table 1.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

Table 1 Minimum Distance between Two Tanks


or between a Tank and other Equipment

Other Tank Service Service of Tank (>190m) Which Has Diameter D (Note 2)
or Equipment (Note 1) Flammable Liquid Flashing Liquid Combustible Liquid Asphalt or Hot Oil
Flammable Liquid 0.75 D 1 D or 30 m Note 5 Note 7
Flashing Liquid 1 D or 30 m 1 D or 30 m Note 6 Note 8
Combustible Liquid Note 5 Note 6 0.5 D Note 9
Hot Oil or Asphalt Note 7 Note 8 Note 9 1.5 D
Process Equipment
1 D or 60 m 1 D or 30 m 0.5 D or 30 m 1.5 D or 60 m
(Notes 3 and 4)
Building Note 3 Note 3 Note 3 Note 3
Utility and Support
1.5 D or 60 m 1.5 D or 60 m 0.5 D or 30 m 1.5 D or 60 m
(Note 3)
Tankage Area Fence
60 m 60 m 45 m 60 m
(Note 10)
Elevated Flare
1 D or 60 m 1.5 D or 60 m 1 D or 30 m 1 D or 60 m
(Note 11)
Burn Pit or Ground
150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m
Flare (Note 11)

Notes:
1 See Section 4 of this Standard for explanations of the headings.
2 See Section 5.2 of this Standard for guidelines in applying this table. For vessels under the scope of
SAES-B-057, use the spacing found in that Standard.
3 See requirements in SAES-B-055 and SAES-B-014.
4 The process equipment category is not intended to include flowlines or pipelines.
5 0.5 D of the combustible liquid tank or 0.75 D of the flammable liquid tank, whichever is greater.
6 0.5 D of the combustible liquid tank or 1 D of the flashing liquid tank, whichever is greater.
7 0.75 D of the flammable liquid tank or 1.5 D of the hot oil/asphalt tank, whichever is greater.
8 1 D of the flashing liquid tank or 1.5 D of the hot oil/asphalt tank, whichever is greater, but in no case less
than 30 m.
9 0.5 D of the combustible liquid tank or 1.5 D of the hot oil/asphalt tank, whichever is greater.
10 Security spacing requirements may, in some cases, exceed these minimums. Refer to O-series standards.
11 See SAES-B-055 and SAES-F-007. Where SAES-F-007 requires greater spacing, that Standard shall
govern.

5.2.4 All the relevant spacing requirements and combinations per Table 1
shall be evaluated. For spacing between two tanks, each tank must be
considered in turn as the tank of diameter D. In all cases, the greater of
the maximum computed distance or the default is the required spacing.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

5.3 Diking Requirements

5.3.1 Tanks of over 190 m (50 000 gal) capacity shall be located in an area
bounded by dike walls.
a) The only break permitted in such walls is an access to a diversion
channel intended to direct liquids from the diked area to a remote
impounding basin.
b) Tanks of 190 m capacity or less shall have diking that meets the
requirements of NFPA 30.
c) Double wall tanks (secondary containment-type aboveground
storage tanks) shall not be used in lieu of providing dikes and
spacing.

5.3.2 Any tank with a capacity in excess of 64 000 m (400 000 bbl) shall be
individually diked.

5.3.3 Tanks containing asphalt, hot oil, molten sulfur, or slops shall be
individually diked.

5.3.4 The arrangement of tanks in a diked area and the minimum usable
retention capacity of the diked area shall be in accordance with Table 2.
Exception:

Where the minimum retention capacity requirements per Table 2


cannot be met by enclosed individual or common diking, a remote
impounding area and associated diversion channel may be provided
upon prior approval by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer.

a) The minimum capacity of a remote impounding area shall be the


maximum required retention capacity of any tank in the diked
area per Table 2, assuming a full tank.
b) Remote impounding areas and the system of related diversion
channels shall be designed to prevent the overflow of one diked
area into another.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

Table 2 Diking Capacity

Number of Tanks in Common Diked Area


Service of Tanks (Note 1)
One Two Three or More
Flammable Liquid 100% 100% of larger tank 100% of largest tank
2
Crude or Other Boil-Over Liquid 100% 100% of larger tank Not Permitted
2
Hot Oil, Asphalt, Slops 100% Not Permitted Not Permitted
Flashing Liquid 100% 100% of larger tank Not Permitted
2 2 2
Combustible Liquid 100% 100% of larger tank 100% of largest tank

Note 1: See Section 4 of this Standard for explanation of the headings.


Note 2: Increase in diking capacity is not retroactive.

5.3.5 The useable retention capacity of a diked area for any one tank shall be
estimated by:
a) Calculating the gross volume of the diked area.
b) Calculating for the other tanks located in the diked area the total
tankage volume that is located below the top of the dike wall.
c) Calculating the volume of other features that reduce volume such
as access road ramps inside the diked area.
d) Deducting the total calculated volumes in b) and c) from the
gross volume of the diked area calculated in a).

5.3.6 The rate of flow for design of diversion channels to remote


impounding shall be based on the maximum of the following:
a) Maximum pumping rate into any tank in the diked area.
b) Flow from the failure of one half of the gasket in any flanged
piping joint within the drainage pattern (based on tank storage
pressure).
c) Flow from failed tank mixer seal.
d) Fire water flow rate for cooling against the heat from fire at an
adjacent tank.
e) Failure of the roof drain hose or pipe while the roof drain valve is
open.
f) Maximum flow from the tank process water drain valve if left
open.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

5.3.7 Common Diked Areas


a) All tanks located in a common diked area shall be in the same
service, e.g., tanks that contain flammable liquid may be located
in a common dike. See Table 2 for service groups.
b) The total capacity of tanks located in a common diked area shall
not exceed 64 000 m (400 000 bbl).
c) Each diked area containing two or more tanks shall be subdivided,
by drainage channels (preferred) or by intermediate dikes.

5.3.8 Dike Design and Construction


a) Dike walls shall be of steel, concrete, solid reinforced masonry or
other appropriate civil design (Figure 1) that is liquid tight and
able to withstand the hydrostatic head when the dike is full.
b) Dike walls shall not exceed 2.0 meters above interior grade.
Provision for safe access and egress shall be according to
SAES-B-054. The top of any intermediate dike wall shall be at
least 300 mm below the top of the peripheral dike. The minimum
height of an intermediate dike wall shall not be less than 450 mm.
c) Provisions made for vehicular and foot traffic shall not
compromise the continuous integrity of containment.
d) Dike wall penetrations shall be avoided where possible.
Where necessary, penetrations for piping, conduit, or cable shall
be sealed with three (3) hour rated (minimum) fire resistant
sealant or other appropriate sealing system such as a wall sleeve,
while maintaining the same tightness and hydraulic requirements
as the dike walls. The dike wall penetration shall be designed to
withstand anticipated loads due to movement of the piping.
e) Joints in dike walls shall be sealed with a three (3) hour rated fire
resistant sealing system. Fire resistant materials shall meet
ASTM E814, UL 1479, UL 2079, or BS 476 or other fire
exposure test procedure accepted by the Chief Fire Prevention
Engineer or his designated representative.
f) Dike construction shall incorporate a water stop (also known as a
water bar) into dike wall expansion joints (see Figure 2). Water
stop bars are only required for concrete or solid reinforced
masonry wall diking.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

g) For existing dikes, expansion joints shall be retrofit with a rated


fire resistant sealant or other system to meet 5.3.8 d).

5.3.9 The minimum height of dike walls shall be 300 mm. The maximum
height shall be 2 m measured from grade on either side of the dike wall.

5.3.10 Surfaces inside a diked area shall be sloped according to NFPA 30,
away from the tank, away from piping, and other equipment to a single
point near the dike wall. The minimum slope shall be 1:65 (1.5%).

5.3.11 A drainage system inside the dike area shall be provided in accordance
with SAES-S-020.

5.3.12 The inside surface of diked walls shall not be asphalted.

Figure 1 Typical Section of Filled Engineered Dike Wall


Notes:
1. Dike fill material shall comply with SAES-Q-006, sub-base material Class A placement
and compaction shall be in accordance with SAES-Q-006.
2. Lean concrete shall comply with 09-SAMSS-097 and shall have contraction joints
12 mm (1/2) wide at 6000 mm (20 ft) centers.
3. All dimensions are in millimeters unless noted otherwise.
4. Dike wall shall be liquid tight and able to withstand the hydrostatic head.

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Document Responsibility: Loss Prevention Standards Committee SAES-B-005
Issue Date: 14 June 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2015 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Tanks

Figure 2 Example of Expansion Joint Showing a Water Stop


or Water Bar (Plan View - New Construction Only)
Notes:
1. Fire retarding rope placed on both sides of an internal wall and on internal side only
of an external wall.
2. Water stop, fire retarding rope and sealant may be omitted for dike wall footings.
3. Based on the recommendations from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) report Safety
and Environmental Standards for Fuel Storage Sites Buncefield Standards Task Group (BSTG),
Final Report, 24 July 2007.

Revision Summary
25 December 2010 Major revision.
20 February 2011 Editorial revision to clarify 5.3.12.
30 March 2011 Editorial revision to clarify 5.3.8.
14 June 2011 Minor revision to clarify 5.1.6 (b,c) & 5.3.8 (b,c,f) and add Figure 1.

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