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For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space.
Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your
answers in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

Example: WHERE

Is the space (0) .. you work or study comfortable? Is it specifically designed
to ensure that whatever stresses and strains you have to (1) . up with in the
course of your work, your surroundings make life just that little bit (2)
bearable? Are you greeted each morning (3) . a colour scheme that is easy
(4) the eye, and the smell of freshly-cut flowers? Or (5)
you instead have to settle for a desk embellished with (6) .. manner of pen
marks, coffee rings and other reminders of its former occupants?

(7) . the second scenario sounds more familiar, you are by (8)
.. means alone. A recent survey found that 38% of employees feel the
interior design of the space they work in prevents (9) . from
performing to the (10) .. of their abilities. It's easy to underestimate
the importance of a working environment, (11) . , though it's where you
spend a good part of the working day.

Needless to (12) , many employers balk at the thought of improving

and updating their offices, often because of the costs involved. In (13)
long run, however, it (14) .. be unwise of them to be too tight-fisted when
it (15) . to looking after their employees' working environment, because
this, it has been shown, has a direct effect on productivity.
For questions 16-25, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of
some of the lines to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0). Write your answers in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate
answer sheet.


Caffeine is a (0) .. mild drug which produces a mood RELATE
rather than a (16) and doesn't induce its consumers SENSE
to lose their grip on reality. Uniquely discreet, it passes almost
(17) . in many of its preparations, such as fizzy drinks NOTICE
and chocolate, which perhaps provides the best (18) .. EXPLAIN
for why nine people in every ten around the world use it with
such (19) .. . This, after all, is a drug which can be taken REGULAR
first thing in the morning, at work or at school, without fear
of rebuke.

What's more, the (20) ..nature of caffeine seems to OBTRUDE

extend to its scientific profile. Ideas about what it does as it
percolates through billions of (21) systems remain NERVE
tentative, and studies of its effects on (22) .. are equivocal. BEHAVE
Some investigations have found that it only improves mood or
(23) . when the experimental subjects know they have PERFORM
taken it, suggesting a placebo effect. And as researchers have
pointed out, the extremely (24) .. use of caffeine raises a SPREAD
question about the accuracy of certain studies. If people given
the drug perform better at certain tasks than those denied it,
might it not be because the latter group are suffering from the ill
effects of withdrawal from caffeine itself? Caffeine (25) . STARVE
is, after all, a syndrome familiar to many.
In Olden Times
Tim went to evening classes to learn car maintenance and (32) .. save on.
garage bills. He was not a technically competent person, not the sort of man who is
always about the place with spirit-level and power drill, who swarms confidently up
stepladders. He would peer disconsolately into the car's innards, the (33) .. in
his hand, frowning and fiddling. She felt an ache of pity, and wanted to help, but she
knew she would probably do no better. The car was a tyrant, and a saviour. It gobbled
money, lost (34) . , would eventually have to be replaced; and they could
not (35) . it. Should it break down, then the whole delicate precise
timetable of the day was destroyed - laid waste by long waits for buses, the (36)
.. across town to the children's school or the shops. As she drove, she was
always on edge for those ominous little sounds - a squeak, a rattle, an alien note to the
engine, the heralds of disaster. The car was five years old, vulnerable, on the (37)
of decline. She was locked into a hatred of it.

32 A thus B since C whence D herein

33 A catalogue B brochure C guidebook D manual
34 A income B worth C value D profit
35 A do without B get over C deal with D come across
36 A step B ramble C trudge D stroll
37 A brink B slope C depth D crest
You are going to read an extract from a magazine about designing products. Seven
paragraphs have been removed from the extract. Choose from the paragraphs A-H the
one which fits each gap (38-44). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.

The Morality of Design

Do designers have moral responsibilities? Josh Howard-Saunders attempts to find an

Morality is not absolute. Rather it is a mutable quantity that is continuously shaped and
adapted by the society in which it operates. And in turn, society is constructed, in part at
least, by its moral codes. In this respect, morality is similar to law. Law, however, and its
attendant penalties for disobedience, are formally enshrined in statute. They are imposed
upon the citizen by a judiciary working for, and as part of, society as a collective entity.

In the area of product design and manufacture, there are increased, marketers and
designers have milked every area principle aspects to which a moral code may be
applied. of life for maximum financial reward. Initially these may be concerned with the
sourcing of raw hobby is left untapped. Perhaps the ultimate pinnacle of materials, and
what resultant damage will be caused to achievement for consumer society is that 'for
many people the surrounding environment. With an average of one shopping seems to be
a form of leisure in itself, major oceanic spill every second day for the past 18 years, and
safety procedures at numerous industrial plants 1431 I failing regularly, our material
world comes at a high price.
Generally speaking, people are ambitious, and arrive at
139 j I their own self-image by comparison with others, creating
a strong, if unspoken personal hierarchy. In the same way A product itself, however, is
not inherently moral or that currency is used as the simplest way to create a immoral
although in the fulfilment of its intended purpose language of value between items of
different nature, our it may achieve a moral status. Rifle associations and gun material
possessions are the most immediate way of clubs frequently assert in their defence that,
'Guns don't displaying our worth to society. In a world where image kill people. People
kill people.' This attitude shifts the takes precedence over wisdom, it is a strong-willed
burden of morality from the designer onto the end user. individual indeed, who can resist
the lure of While it is true that someone has to pull the trigger, that unquestioning
trigger has to be made in the first place. 1441 I
140.1 I '-j I
. . . In other words, as long as we know the nature of the Less obVIously, moral1ty may
relate to questions on the
tBt. ,., . eas , we may c oose weer or no we em race 1. U nature of the product such as 1S
1t des1gned to last as long
hrtblht. . 7'" , . . 1S 1S no 0 sugges a es1gners ave ca e anc e 0
as 1S reasonably poss1ble. , Wlll1t perform 1ts function as .
thtthhtf.ts" engage 1n any wor. or ven ure Wl ou oug or 1
well as reasonably expected? and 'what Wlll happen to the .
tsbll.f7' enVlronmen a an SOCla consequences. pro u w en 1 reac es een 0 1 usea e.l e.

Nevertheless, as the expendable income of the public has

Not a pastime or
products and their accompanying marketing packages are
With these carrot-and-stick practices, we have reached a
state where 'we must consume more and more, whether we
want to or not, for the good of our economy'. Increasingly
concerned with the 'mass production of myth'.