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Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology of the hair on one's head are in this stage at any

given time. The hair has a follicular tag. The root


Forensic chemistry - is the application of chemistry to bulb is flamed shaped.
criminal investigation. Focuses on the chemical analysis 2. Catagen Phase - also known as the transitional
of substances connected to a crime. phase, allows the follicle to renew itself. During this
time which last about 2 week, the hair follicle shrinks
Forensic Science - is the use of science and due to disintegration and the papilla detaches and
technology to enforce civil and criminal laws. rests, cutting the hair strand off from its nourishing
blood supply while hair is not growing during this
Blood - a specialized body fluid that circulates in the phase. The length of the terminal fibers increase
arteries and veins of vertebrate animals, carrying when the follicle pushes them upward. The root is
oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues. elongated.
3. Telogen phase - or resting phase, the hair and
Semen - the male reproductive fluid containing follicle remain dormant anywhere from 1 to 4
spermatozoa in suspension. months,10% to 15% of the hairs in one's head are
in these phase in any given time. The anagen phase
Moulage - is the art of applying mock injuries for the begins again when this phase is complete. The root
purpose of training emergency response teams and is club shaped.
other medical and military personnel.
Shedding - the process of normal hair loss.
Methods of Identifying Unknown Substance
1. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer - useful Alopecia - a hair loss disease that causes the hair to
method for the simultaneous separation, spontaneously fall out. It is mainly characterized by
identification and quantization of one or more bald patches on the scalp or other parts of the body
individual components of an unknown substance or and can ultimately cause baldness across the entire
mixture. body.
2. Spectroscopy - is the study of the interaction
between matter and radiated energy. Medulla - inner most layer of the hair shaft.

Spectrophotometer - instrument used to aide in the From which part of the body are most often used
identification of compound. for hair comparison? Either head or pubic.

Gas Chromatograph - a chemical analyzer and How to determine the likely race of the person
instrument for separating chemicals in a complex from which a hair originated?
sample. 1. Caucasian - evenly distributed, fine pigmentation
Wavy with round cross section.
Mass Spectrometry - is the analytical technique that 2. Mongoloid - Continuous medullation.
measures the mass to charge ratio of charged particles. 3. Negroid - dense, uneven pigmentation.
It is used for determining masses of particles.
Rate of speed of hair growth - 1.25 cm or .05 inches
Amino Acid - the building blocks of protein coded by per month or about 6 inches or 15 cm. per year.
triplets of bases of DNA blue print.
What aspect of the hair is the criminalist
Ammonia - a colorless gaseous alkaline compound interested in matching?
that is very soluble in water, has characteristics of 1. matching color
pungent odor, is lighter than air and is formed as a 2. Length
result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous 3. Diameter
organic material such as tissue from dead bodies. 4. presence or absence of medulla
5. distribution, shape, and color intensity of the
Anemia - any condition in which the number of red pigment granules in the cortex.
blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin and the volume
of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood are less What types of evidence found at the crime scene
than normal. It may result from increased destruction are most likely to provide evidence? Forcible
of red cells, excessive blood loss or decreased removed hair is most likely to provide useful DNA
production of red cells. evidence because they often bear follicular tags that
are sources of nuclear DNA.
Aplasia - failure of an organ or tissue to develop
normally. Hair from different parts of the body vary significantly
in its physical characteristics.
Autolysis - the destruction of cells after death due to
lack of ability to metabolize oxygen needed by enzymes Forensic Toxicology - deals with the medical and
for cell activity. legal aspects of the harmful effects of chemicals on
human beings.
Hair - any of the fine threadlike strands growing from
the skin of humans, mammals, and some other Forensic - comes from the Latin word "forensis"
animals. meaning forum.

What are the 3 stages of hair growth? Toxicology - from the Greek word toxicos -
1. Anagen phase - the growth phase. It begins in "poisonous" and "logos".
the papilla and can last up to 8 years. The span at - it is the study of the symptoms,
which the hair remains in this stage is determined by mechanisms and treatments and detection of
genetics. The longer the hair stays in the anagen poisoning.
phase, the faster and longer it will grow. About 85%
Poison - a substance that when introduced into or 1. Considered the father of the crime laboratory.
absorbed by a living organism causes death or injury. A. Albert Osborne
B. Walker Mc Crone
Toxin - an antigenic poison or venom of plant or C. Hans Gross
animal origin especially one produced by or derived D. Edmond Locard.
from microorganisms and causing disease when present
at low concentration in the body. 2. Considered the father of microscopic forensics.
- poisonous substance produced during the A. Albert Osborne
metabolism and growth of certain microorganism and B. Walker Mc Crone
some higher plant and animal species. C. Hans Gross
D. Edmond Locard
Venom - poisonous fluid secreted by animals and
typically injected into prey by biting or stinging or other 3. Considered the father of forensic publications.
sharp body feature. A. Albert Osborne
B. Walker Mc Crone
Acute Poisoning - is exposure to poison on one C. Hans Gross
occasion or during a short period of time. D. Edmond Locard

Chronic Poisoning - is long term repeated or 4. The Father of Document Examination.


continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do A. Albert Osborne
not occur immediately or after each exposure. B. Walker Mc Crone
C. Hans Gross
Antidote - a medicine taken or given to counter act a D. Edmond Locard
particular poison.
- a substance which can counteract 5. The Father of Bloodstain Identification.
poisoning. A. Calvin Goddard
B. Leone Lattes
Mathieu Orfila - is considered to be the modern father C. Francis Galton
of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal D. Alphonse Bertillon
treatment in 1813 in his "traite des poisons" also called
toxicologie generali. 6. The Father of Anthropometry.
A. Calvin Goddard
Dioscorides - a Greek physician in the court of Roman B. Leone Lattes
emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants C. Francis Galton
according to their toxic and therapeutic effect. D. Alphonse Bertillon

Jean Stas - a belgian analytical chemist who in 1850 7. The Father of Fingerprinting.
gave the evidence that the Belgian count Hypolite A. Calvin Goddard
Visart de Bocarme killed his brother in law by poisoning B. Leone Lattes
with nicotine. C. Francis Galton
D. Alphonse Bertillon
Celsus - a roman physician from the first century,
considered the father of toxicology. He is credited with 8. The father of Toxicology.
the toxicology maxim "all things are poison and nothing A. Mathiew Orfila
is without poison. This is often condensed to "the dose B. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
makes the poison" or in latin "sola dosis facit C. Hans Gross
venenum". D. Walter Mc Crone

Paracelsus - "Theophrastus Phillipus Aureleus 9. Popularized Scientific Crime Detection methods


Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541) - believe that through his fictional character Sherlocke Holmes.
his studies were above and beyond the work of celsus. A. Mathiew Orfila
B. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
LD50 - is the dose required to kill half the members of C. Hans Gross
a tested population after a specified test duration. D. Sir William Herscel

Dose - a quantity of medicine or drug taken or 10.The Application of Scientific Techniques in collecting
recommended to be taken at a particular time. and analyzing physical evidence in criminal cases.
A. Ballistics
Overdose - the ingestion or application of a drug or B. Criminalistics
other substance in quantities greater than are C. Forensics
recommended. D. Criminal Investigation

Carcinogen - any substance capable of causing cancer Remember The Following:


in living tissue.
1. Edmond Locard - Considered the father of the
Corrosive substance - is one that will destroy or crime laboratory.
irreversibly damage another surface or substance with 2. Walker Mc Crone - Considered the father of
which it comes into contact. microscopic forensics.
3. Hans Gross - Considered the father of forensic
publications.
Forensic Chemistry Reviewer 1 4. Albert Osborne - The Father of Document
Examination.
5. Leone Lattes - The Father of Bloodstain
Identification. 7. A single cell with a complete set of chromosomes
6. Alphonse Bertillon - The Father of Anthropometry. that normally develops into an embryo.
7. Francis Galton - The Father of Fingerprinting. A. Zygote
8. Mathiew Orfila - The father of Toxicology. B. Gamete
9. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle - Popularized Scientific C. Embryo
Crime Detection methods through his fictional character D. Sperm
Sherlocke Holmes.
10.Criminalistics - The Application of Scientific
8. The sex chromosome that is present in both sexes.
Techniques in collecting and analyzing physical
evidence in criminal cases. Singly in males and doubly in females.
A. Zygote
Answers: Forensic Chemistry B. X chromosome
1. D C. Gamete
2. B D. Y chromosome
3. C
4. A 9. The sex chromosome that is carried by men.
5. B A. Zygote
6. D B. X chromosome
7. C C. Gamete
8. A D. Y chromosome
9. B
10. B
10. Father of micro biology and considered to be the
first microbiologists.
Forensic Chemistry Reviewer 2 A. Antonie Philips Van Leeuwenhoek
B. Bridgett Bardot
C. Andy Warhol
1. Is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
D. Emma Stone
A. Blood
B. Urine
Remember the Following:
C. Semen
D. Saliva
1.Semen - Is an organic fluid that may contain
spermatozoa.
2.The mature motile male sex cell of a male organism
- the male reproductive fluid containing
by which the ovum is fertilized, typically having a
spermatozoa in suspension.
compact head and one or more long flagella for
swimming.
2. Spermatozoa - The mature motile male sex cell of
A. Spermatozoa
a male organism by which the ovum is fertilized,
B. Protozoa
typically having a compact head and one or more long
C. Plagella
flagella for swimming.
D. Semen
3. Plagella - A slender thread like structure especially
3. A slender thread like structure especially a
a microscopic whip-like appendage that enables many
microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many
protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa to swim.
protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa to swim
A. Spermatozoa
4. Protozoa - A phylum or group of phyla that
B. Protozoa
comprises the single celled microscopic animals which
C. Plagella
includes amebas, flagellates, ciliates, spocozoans and
D. Semen.
many other forms.

4. A phylum or group of phyla that comprises the single


5. Sperm cell - The haploid cell that is the male
celled microscopic animals which includes amebas,
gamete.
flagellates, ciliates, spocozoans and many other forms.
- the male reproductive cell.
A. Spermatozoa
6. Embryo - An unborn or unhatched offspring in the
B. Protozoa
process of development.
C. Plagella
- An unborn human baby especially in the
D. Semen
first 8 weeks from conception, after implantation but
before all organs are developed.
5. The haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A. Spermatozoa
7. Zygote - A single cell with a complete set of
B. Protozoa
chromosomes that normally develops into an embryo.
C. Sperm Cell
D. Semen
8. X chromosome - The sex chromosome that is
6. An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of present in both sexes. Singly in males and doubly in
development. females. Human females normally have two X
A. Zygote chromosomes.
B. Gamete
C. Embryo 9.Y chromosome - The sex chromosome that is
D. Sperm carried by men. Human males normally have one X
chromosome and one Y chromosome.
B.Mercury
10.Antonie Philips Van Leeuwenhoek - Father of C. Arsenic
micro biology and considered to be the first D. Corrosive
microbiologists.
7. A chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic
Answers: Forensic Chemistry number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and
was formerly named hydiargyrum.
1. C A. Cyanide
2. A B. Corrosive
3. C C. Arsenic
4. B D. Mercury
5. B
6. C 8.One that will destroy and damage other substances
7. A with which it comes contact
8. B A. Cyanide
9. D B. Corrosive
10. A C. Arsenic
D. Mercury

Forensic Toxicology Reviewer 1 9. He was a French surgeon and the inventor of the
tourniquet.
A. Joseph Lister
1. A substance that when introduced into or absorbed B. Jean Louis Petit
by a living organism, causes death or injury, especially C. Pierre Tourniquet
one that kills by rapid reaction. D. Peter Norton
A. Tetanus
B. Venom 10.A British surgeon and pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
C. Toxin A. Joseph Lister
D. Poison B. Jean Louis Petit
C. Pierre Tourniquet
2. An antigenic poison or venom of plant or animal D. Peter Norton
origin especially one produced by or derived from
microorganisms and causing disease when present at
low concentration in the body. Remember the Following:
A. Tetanus
B. Venom 1. Poison - A substance that when introduced into or
C. Toxin absorbed by a living organism, causes death or injury,
D. Poison especially one that kills by rapid reaction.

3. Poisonous fluid secreted by animals such as snakes 2. Toxin - An antigenic poison or venom of plant or
and scorpions and typically injected into prey or animal origin especially one produced by or derived
aggressors by biting or stinging. from microorganisms and causing disease when present
A. Tetanus at low concentration in the body.
B. Venom
C. Toxin 3. Venom - Poisonous fluid secreted by animals such
D. Poison as snakes and scorpions and typically injected into prey
or aggressor by biting or stinging.
4. A disease marked by rigidity and spasms of the
voluntary muscles caused by the bacterium clostridium 4. Tetanus - A disease marked by rigidity and spasms
tetani. of the voluntary muscles caused by the bacterium
A. Tetanus clostridium tetani.
B. Venom - The prolonged contraction of a muscle
C. Toxin caused by rapidly repeated stimuli.
D. Poison
5. Sting - A small sharp-pointed organ at the end of
5. A small sharp-pointed organ at the end of the the abdomen of bees, ants and scorpions capable of
abdomen of bees, ants and scorpions capable of inflicting a painful or dangerous wound by injecting
inflicting a painful or dangerous wound by injecting poison.
poison.
A. Sting 6. Cyanide - A chemical compound that contains the
B. Toxin cyano group, -C=N which consists of carbon atom
C. Venom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.
D. Poison.
7. Mercury - A chemical element with the symbol Hg
6. A chemical compound that contains the cyano group, and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as
-C=N which consists of carbon atom triple-bonded to a quicksilver and was formerly named hydiargyrum.
nitrogen atom.
A. Cyanide 8. Corrosive - One that will destroy and damage
other substances with which it comes contact.

9. Jean Louis Petit - He was a French surgeon and the


inventor of the tourniquet.

10.Joseph Lister - A British surgeon and pioneer of


antiseptic surgery. He is credited for being the first to
use a tourniquet device to create a bloodless surgical
field in 1864.

11.Antidote - is a substance which can counteract a


form of poisoning. Derived from Greek word which
means "given against"
- a medicine given or taken to
counteract a particular poison.

Answers: Forensic Toxicology

1. D
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. A
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. B
10. A