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Acoustics Research Group

Peter T Gough

Visiting Professor

**Acoustics Research Group,
**

Department of Electrical &

Computer Engineering,

University of Canterbury,

New Zealand

Contents

Acoustics Research Group

**Why measure temperature?
**

Characteristics of interests

Types of temperature sensors

– 1. Thermistor

– 2. RTD Sensor

– 3. Thermocouple

– 4. Integrated Silicon Linear Sensor

Sensor Calibration (throughout)

Signal Conditioning Circuits (throughout)

E 80 Lecture 2

**Why we need to measure temperature
**

Acoustics Research Group

**Ideal gas law is PV = nRT
**

Sensors such as strain, pressure, force, flow, level,

and position many times require temperature

monitoring in order to insure accuracy.

As an example, pressure and force are often

sensed with resistive Wheatstone bridge

configurations. The temperature errors of the

resistive elements of these bridges can exceed the

actual measurement range of the sensor, making

the pressure sensor’s output fairly useless unless

the temperature of the bridge is known.

E 80 Lecture 3

Important Properties

Acoustics Research Group

Sensitivity

Temperature range

Accuracy

Repeatability

Relationship between measured quantity and

temperature

Linearity

Calibration

Response time

E 80 Lecture 4

**Main single probe types
**

Acoustics Research Group

1. Thermistor

– Ceramic-based: oxides of manganese, cobalt , nickel and

copper

2. Resistive Temperature Device -RTD

– Metal-based : platinum, nickel or copper

3. Thermocouple

– junction of two different metals

4. Integrated Silicon Linear Sensor

– Si PN junction of a diode or bipolar transistor

E 80 Lecture 5

Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture More than $10 6 .

– PTC also possible R-T mode (zero-power mode): – nonlinear relationship between R and T E 80 Lecture 7 . Part I Thermistor Acoustics Research Group High sensitivity Inexpensive Reasonably accurate Lead resistance ignored Glass bead. disk or chip thermistor Typically Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC).

Thermistor resistance vs temperature Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 8 .

Simple exponential Thermistor model Acoustics Research Group RT = R0 x exp[ β(1/T -1/T0)] – RT is the thermistor resistance (Ω). – T is the thermistor temperature (K) • β is a curve fitting parameter and itself is temperature dependent. T0 and an average value for β E 80 Lecture 9 . • Manufacturers will often give you R0.

15oK – So R0 = R25 RT = R25 x exp[β(1/T – 1/298.15) Not very accurate but easy to use E 80 Lecture 10 .15)] – where β ≈ ln (R85/R25) /(1/358.15-1/298. Simple exponential Thermistor Model Acoustics Research Group Usually T0 is room temp 25oC = 298.

B. Better Thermistor model Acoustics Research Group Resistance vs temperature is non-linear but can be well characterised by a 3rd order polynomial.C.005oC E 80 Lecture 11 . in this case RT in terms of T. ln RT = A + B / T +C / T2 + D / T3 where A. Total measurement uncertainty = +/.0.D are the characteristics of the material used.

Inverting the equation: T in terms of R Acoustics Research Group The four term Steinhart-Hart equation T = [A1 +B1 ln(RT/R0)+C1 ln2(RT/R0)+D1ln3(RT/R0)]-1 Also note: A. C1 & D1 Manufacturers should give you both for when R0 = R25 C1 is very small and sometime ignored (resulting in the three term SH eqn) E 80 Lecture 12 . C & D are not the same as A1. B1 . B.

. Aside that has nothing to do with temperature sensors but is useful. i. Acoustics Research Group Both differentiating and integrating measured data is difficult because of noise and unknown DC offsets.e. Assume we have a 3rd order Voltage to Temp relationship. V ≈ Vmeasured where V = A + B T + C T2 + D T3 Then dV/dT = B + 2 C T + 3 D T2 And ∫ V dT = K + A T + 1/2 B T2 + 1/3 C T3 + 1/4 D T4 E 80 Lecture 13 .

Thermistor problems: self-heating Acoustics Research Group You need to pass a current through to measure the voltage and calculate resistance. Power is consumed by the thermistor and manifests itself as heat inside the device – P = I2 RT – You need to know how much the temp increases due to self heating by P so you need to be given θ = the temperature rise for every watt of heat generated. E 80 Lecture 14 .

Heat flow Acoustics Research Group Very similar to Ohms law. ∆C=Wxθ – W in Watts – θ in oC /W E 80 Lecture 15 . The temperature difference (increase or decrease) is related to the power dissipated as heat and the thermal resistance.

5 degrees higher than ambient Now try it for I = 1mA with RT = 15kΩ – ∆oC = ______________________________________ E 80 Lecture 16 . – I = 5mA – RT = 4kΩ – θDevice to ambient = 15 oC /W ∆oC = (5e-3)2 X 4e3 X 15 = 1.5 oC This means the temp will read 1. Self heating calculation Acoustics Research Group ∆oC = I2 RT θ Device to ambient Example.

E 80 Lecture 17 . Linearization techniques Acoustics Research Group Current through Thermistor is dominated by 10k resistor.

Linearization of a 1kOhm Thermistor Acoustics Research Group This plot Ti = 50 0C. Ri = 275 Ω E 80 Lecture 18 .

covert all temps to same scale) E 80 Lecture 19 . R0 = 1 kΩ.2Ti)/(β+2Ti) – where T0 . – For example • T0 = 25oC (289 oK). R0 and β are given. Linearization math Acoustics Research Group Vout/Vin = Ri/(Ri+ RT) Find Ti from d(Vout/Vin)/dT =0 @Ti – then RT = R0 x exp[β/Ti– β/T0] x (β. β = 3560 oK • (NB.

Linearization techniques Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 20 .

Part II RTD Acoustics Research Group Resistive temperature devices (or detectors) E 80 Lecture 21 .

cRTD and nRTD Acoustics Research Group The most common is one made using platinum so we use the acronym pRTD Copper and nickel as also used but not as stable E 80 Lecture 22 . pRTD.

. resistance increases with temperature) so that RT = R0(1+ α)(T –T0) Recognized standards for industrial platinum RTDs are – IEC 6075 and ASTM E-1137 α = 0.00385 Ω/Ω/°C E 80 Lecture 23 . RTD are almost linear Acoustics Research Group RTDs have a + slope of α relating the Resistance vs Temp (i.e.

Linearity: The reason RTDs are so popular Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 24 .

Measuring the resistance is easy using a constant current source Acoustics Research Group NB You can also use a simple voltage divider and linearize it inside the ADC processor E 80 Lecture 25 .

or No voltage drop = No current” E 80 Lecture 26 . With long wires precision is a problem Acoustics Research Group Two-wire circuits. Three-wire circuits and Four-wire circuits. Most of the following circuits can be understood using GΩhms law (Gough’s version of Ohms Law) which I define as “No current = No voltage drop.

Two wire: lead resistances are a problem Acoustics Research Group Power supply connected here No current flows in here The IDAC block is a constant current sink E 80 Lecture 27 .

Three wire with two current sinks Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 28 .

Three wire with compensation with two current sinks Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 29 .

Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 30 . Four wire with one current sink.

4 wire with precision current source Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 31 .

775 x e-7 oC-2 – C = -4.9083 x e-3 oC-1 – B = -5. Mathematical Modelling the RTD Acoustics Research Group The Callendar-Van Dusen equation RT = R0 (1 + A T + B T2 + C T3(T-100) for T < 0 oC = R0 (1+ A T + B T2) for T > 0 oC – where R0 is the resistance at T0 = 0 oC and For platinum – A = 3.183 x e-12 oC-4 E 80 Lecture 32 .

Experimentally Acoustics Research Group Mostly you need to derive temperature (+/-) from the measured resistance (+/-). errors and uncertainties need to be considered. E 80 Lecture 33 . Easiest way is to construct a Look-Up table inside LabVIEW or your uP Precision. accuracy.

each sensor needs to be calibrated at more than one temperature and any modelling parameters refined by regression using a least mean squares algorithm. E 80 Lecture 34 . MATLAB and Excel have these functions The 0oC ice bath and the 100 oC boiling de-ionised water (at sea level) are the two most convenient standard temperatures. Experimental uncertainties Acoustics Research Group For real precision. – LabVIEW.

Part III Thermocouples Acoustics Research Group Type J thermocouple E 80 Lecture 35 .

Thermocouples are very non-linear Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 36 .

Doesn’t like high temperatures Type E (chromel–constantan) has a high output (68 µV/°C) which makes it well suited to cryogenic use. Wide range is −50 to 740 °C and Narrow range is −110 to 140 °C. 2% aluminium and 1% silicon}) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 µV/°C. 2% manganese. Type K and E Acoustics Research Group Type K (chromel {90% nickel and 10% chromium}— alumel {95% nickel. Additionally. it is non-magnetic. E 80 Lecture 37 .

E 80 Lecture 38 . but higher sensitivity of about 55 µV/°C. Type R (platinum–rhodium alloy) containing 87% platinum + 13% rhodium for the positive conductor and pure platinum for the other conductor. Type J and R Acoustics Research Group Type J (iron–constantan) has a more restricted range than type K (−40 to +750 °C). Type R thermocouples are used up to 1600 °C.

43 °C). Since both conductors are non-magnetic. Type T sensitivity of about 43 µV/°C. T (copper – constantan) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the −200 to 350 °C range. there is no Curie point and thus no abrupt change in characteristics. Type S and T Acoustics Research Group Type S (platinum-rhodium alloy) containing 90% platinum + 10% rhodium for the positive conductor and pure platinum for the other conductor. type S is used as the standard of calibration for the melting point of gold (1064. E 80 Lecture 39 . In particular.

9686)2) for T>0oC Or more usefully T = a0 +a1 x V + a2 x V2 +++++ a10 V10 E 80 Lecture 40 . we need a 10th order polynomial to describe the relationship between the voltage and the temperature difference between the two junctions Either V = b0 +b1 x T + b2 x T2 +++++ b10 T10 + bo exp(α1(T-126. Mathematical Model Acoustics Research Group To cover all types of thermocouples with one equation.

Vsmooth. %Now think about how you might use this concept to differentiate and to integrate E 80 Lecture 41 . polycoeffs = polyfit([1:432]. % Compare with the original data Error = Vmeasured . Vmeasured . number_of_coeffs) % Since there is no semicolon. command above will print out all 10 % coefficents for you to check. % Recreate the noise free approximation from the coefficients Vsmooth = polyval(polycoeffs. Approximating noisy data with a polynomial having an arbitrary number of coefficients Acoustics Research Group % MATLAB script % Assume we have measured at least 432 samples of the Voltage for monotonically increasing % temperature T (say every one degree from 0 to 434 degrees C) and then fit a 10th order polynomial % Find the first 10 coefficients number_of_coeffs = 10.[1:432]).

10th order polynomial fit: Find T from measured Voltage Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 42 .

Filtering out the noise: thermocouples are very noisy Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 43 .

Look-up table with hardware compensation is easier than using a polynomial Acoustics Research Group Note 8 bit accuracy E 80 Lecture 44 .

0. What does 8 bit accuracy mean? Acoustics Research Group Eight bits = 28-1 levels = 255 levels Assume supply voltage between 0 and 5 volts Minimum V step between each level ≈ 20mV Temp range required say 0 to 400 oC Minimum temperature step ≈ 1. Temp = T +/.8oC – This determines the quantisation error of the result regardless the accuracy of the sensor – However since the Temp often changes quite slowly you can use averaging to increase the apparent accuracy E 80 Lecture 45 .e..6 oC i.

Thermocouple with compensation and filtering Acoustics Research Group Thermocouples are very noise prone & usually need filtering Instrumentation amp Low pass filter E 80 Lecture 46 .

Using a uP to toggle between sensors Acoustics Research Group Useful when the reference junction is not close to the preamp & ADC E 80 Lecture 47 .

Part IV: Si sensors Acoustics Research Group (semiconductor details for reference if ever needed) The silicon bipolar transistor bandgap VBE temperature sensor is an extremely common form of temperature sensor used in electronic equipment: E 80 Lecture 48 .

often 300oK – VG0 = bandgap voltage at absolute zero – VBE0 = bandgap voltage at temperature T0 and current IC0 – k = Boltzmann's constant – q = charge on an electron – n = a device-dependent constant Change in VBE with Temperature ≈ --2mV/oC E 80 Lecture 49 . The VBE as a function of T Acoustics Research Group VBE = VGO (1 – T/T0) + VBEO (T/TO) + (nkT/q) ln(T0/T) + ( kT/q) ln(IC/IC0) – where – T = temperature in oK – T0 = reference temperature.

Matching transistors at different temperatures Acoustics Research Group Difference in VBE = -2mV/oC E 80 Lecture 50 .

IG1 and IG2 and where IG2 = N IG1. resulting in ∆VBE = (kT/q) ln (IG2/IG1) = (kT/q) ln (N) Usually this small voltage is multiplied by internal amplifiers E 80 Lecture 51 . many of the variables in the VBE equation can be eliminated. Determining the Voltage change wrt Temperature Acoustics Research Group By comparing the bandgap voltages of the same transistor at two different currents.

Switch the same transistor between two different currents. Acoustics Research Group E 80 Lecture 52 .

Rats and Mice (not covered in this lecture) Acoustics Research Group Noncontact IR single sensors. Noncontact IR imaging cameras. E 80 Lecture 53 .

pg 24. E 80 Lecture 54 . Baker. Bonnie. Nov 17. Sept 22.” EDN. 2011. So. Oct 20. 2011. pg 24. AN684. “Designing with temperature sensors.. AN871. Bonnie. part three: RTDs. Harris and Q. part two: thermistors. Baker. pg 22. 2011.. AN687. Yang Wikipedia Microchip Application Notes AN679. part one: sensor types. part four: thermocouples. “Designing with temperature sensors.” EDN.References Acoustics Research Group Previous years’ E80 lectures on Temperature by Professors S. AN893 Texas Instruments SBAA180 Baker.. “Designing with temperature sensors. 2011.” EDN.” EDN. AN685. pg 24. “Designing with temperature sensors.. Baker. Dec 15. Bonnie.. Bonnie.

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