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86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.


86 AL Physics: Essay
Marking Scheme

1. (a) The coefficient of viscosity is defined for laminar flow

when the tangential stress between adjacent layers of the
fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient perpendicular
to the direction of flow. 1
u + du


F du F du
For a Newtonian fluid or 1
A dz A dz
unit is Nm-2s or kgm-1s-1 1




Ball bearings of radius a dropped in liquids and passage

timed between marks A and B, where they should have reached
a constant terminal velocity v0, using a stop-watch. 1

According to Stoke, the viscous force is

6av0 = Weight W - Upthrust U
4 3
= a ( )g ,
where is ball bearing density and the liquid density 1
1 v2( 1)
For two liquids, 1
2 v1( 2)

Precautions/Procedures :
(I) ensure terminal velocity reached (vary position of A)
(II) drop ball bearings vertically and along axis of cylindrical container
(III) use wide container or make correction for walls
(could be estimated using different sizes)
(IV)timing accuracy could be increased by using laser
beams/photo-diode gates in positions A and B and
counting cycles of an a.c. oscillator ( f 1 kHz)
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.2

(V) rub ball bearings in liquid before dropping in to

prevent air bubbles from adhering onto the ball
(any 4) 4

(c) (I) time to reach terminal velocity (greater) increases -

need to move starting mark level lower 1
(II) time to fall between marks decreased - and also
accuracy of measuring vT 1
(III) for very large sizes flow of liquid becomes
turbulent and Stokes law invalid 1
(viscous force vT2)

(d) (I) for Newtonian liquids as the tangential stress

increases so does the velocity gradient keeping
the viscosity (the ratio) constant
for Non-Newtonian liquids the viscosity varies 1
as the tangential stress increases

(II) examples are :

Newtonian - most common liquids, e.g. water
Non-Newtonian - paints, glues, liquid cement 1

2. (a) At low frequencies the mass/spring vibrates with forced

when oscillation amplitude a maximum, resonance takes
place with the frequency of the hand oscillation the same
as the natural frequency of oscillation of the mass/spring, 1
and at higher frequencies forced oscillations occur again.

Phase difference


0 hand frequency 1

At first the mass moves in the same direction as the

hand-in-phase. 1

After resonance the mass moves more and more in the

opposite direction - out-of-phase. In fact, at resonance
phase difference is /2. 1

(b) Considering a capacitor C across which is applied V = V0 sin t.

dQ d
Corresponding current, I = = (CV0 sint) = CV0 cos t
dt dt
that is voltage across capacitor lags behind current by /2. 1
Consider an inductor L through which is passed I = I0 sin t.
To keep this current flowing the applied supplied voltage
dI d
= back e.m.f. = L = L (I 0 sint) = LI0 cos t
dt dt
that is voltage across inductor is ahead of current by /2. 1
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.3


For a pure resistance R, the current and voltage will be

in phase. The coil will have both resistance (R) and
inductance (L).

The instantaneous voltages across the components may

be represented by the following phasors :
VL = LI, /2 ahead of I; VR = IR, in phase with I, and 1
VC = I , /2 lag behind I.




f0 applied frequency



f0 applied frequency

-/2 1

From phasor diagram it can be seen that :

(I) at low frequencies VC >> VL and phase angle
will be -ve, tend -/2, that is I ahead by /2. 1
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.4

(II) at high frequencies VL >> VC and will be +ve,

tend +/2, that I lags applied voltage by /2. 1

(III) at resonance, VL = VC ( L ) - at natural
oscillation frequency of circuit.
Then I = V/R and is a maximum. 1

(IV)also at resonance = 0, the current is in phase

with the applied voltage. 1

(c) Any real practical examples of resonance acceptable, e.g.

(i) useful - L/C/R tuned circuit for radio, frequency

trap for interfering signal, vibrating
galvanometer, musical instrument involving
tensioned string (not organ pipe!) etc. 1

(ii) non-useful - car-vibration at particular engine

speed, unwanted oscillations in
amplifiers at high frequencies
(stray Cs), oscillations in suspended
bridges due to wind/marching across etc. 1

3. (a) (i) Refraction

i P
P D v1 air
O v2 water

On the wavefront OA, the points P becomes centres

of disturbance and send out spherical waves, while
in turn the points P become centres of disturbance
along the interface. (If the time taken to travel
A D is t, distance AD is v1t. Since the speeds of
waves differ in the water (v2 < v1) the distance
travelled OB < AD.) The tangent to the wavefronts
of the secondary disturbances BD is the wavefront of
the wave travelling in the water and since r < i,
refraction occurs. 3
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.5

(ii) Dispersion

air P D
glass B

White light consists of a continuous spectrum of

light of various wavelengths, and for these the
speeds of the waves differ - blue light, v1 < red
light, v2. Consider the centre of disturbance A
on the interface, in the time t taken for the wave
in air to travel CD the waves sent out into the
glass will have travelled AB for the blue light
and AR for the red light. BD and RD are the new
wavefronts - and clearly dispersion occurs. 3


C - collimator
T - Telescope

Optical Instrument Adjustments
(I) Telescope
- move the eyepiece until a clear image of the
cross-wires is observed to be in focus.
- the length of the telescope is adjusted until
a focused image of a distant object can be
observed at cross-wires location. 1

(II) Collimator
The collimator and telescope are rotated to being
in-line, with the prism removed from the table.
The slit of the collimator is illuminated by a
monochromatic light source and its position varied
so that a sharp image of this is observed, looking
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.6

through the telescope. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.7

(III) Reasons
- telescope is adjusted so that parallel light rays
entering it will be brought to a focus on the
cross-wires. 1
- collimator is adjusted so that light emerging from
the slit will be converted into parallel light
ray-beam, on exit. 1

(c) Advantages of diffraction grating

(I) Easier to calibrate spectrometer/measure wavelength

- simple relation n = d sin . 1
(II) By using gratings of different line-spacing (d) a
wide spectrum range possible. Absorption serious
for glass lenses/prisms in U.V./I.R. Expensive/
practical difficulties using, e.g. rocksalt components. 1

4. (a)

F1 F2 B


On the vertical wires there is a force F1 which rotates

the coil. 1

The forces F2 cancel one another; no contribution

to rotating torque. 1

Reversal of current by commutator

(b) Electrical conduction in metals

(I) Due to free electrons which due to thermal energies
are able to move randomly from atom to atom. 1

(II) On applying an electric field across the ends of a

metal the electrons are accelerated (gaining K.E.)
between collisions with the vibrating atoms. 1

(III) Energy is given up on collisions and electrons carry

on moving erratically in direction, but nevertheless
drifting with a mean speed against the direction of
the electric field forming an electrical current. 1
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.8


C t
conventional D
current eE VH
electron d
metal 1

There will be a force F, as indicated, acting upon the

electrons and they will be moved to the lower surface. 1

The charged surface will give rise to a downward electric

field E and an upward force eE on each electron. When 1
eE = F no further build-up of charge will take place on
the lower surface. A p.d. (or Hall voltage) will be formed
between the upper/lower surfaces. 1

A electron copper wire


P v
conventional electron flow
If there are n free electrons per unit volume, in 1 second
a total charge of n(Av)e passes through the plane AP that is
current, I = nAve ..............(1) 1
at equilibrium, Ee = F = Bev ..........(2)
Since E = VH/d, then VH = Bvd 1

Using (1) we obtain VH = BI/(net), because A = td. 1

Factors adjustable :

(I) For high sensitivity,

n, carrier concentration to be small -

use semiconductor. 1

t, thickness to be small -
(enscapulated in plastic to give mechanical
protection.) 1

(II) For good spatial resolution,

the area surface of probe placed perpendicular to

magnetic field should be small. 1

5. (a) (i) Gas discharge tube

In a gas discharge tube a high voltage (~ 1,000 V)
is applied across electrodes in a tube containing a
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.9

low pressure gas. 1

Due to the large electric field breakdown of gas

takes places with free electrons accelerating and
and on collisions with gas atoms raising these to
high internal energy states. 1

When these revert to the (normal) ground state,

photons of energy, e.g. h40 = E4 - E0,
Where E4 is the energy of excited state and E0 the
ground state. 1

E2 photon emission

E4 - E0 = h40


violet green
blue blue red
440 nm 660 nm

e.g. hydrogen

There are lines of discrete frequencies n0 radiated

in emitted spectra; with lines closer at low end
of the spectrum. Intensities of lines depend upon
transition probabilities. 1

(ii) X-ray tube

In an x-ray tube the electrons, emitted from a heated
filament are accelerated to much greater kinetic
energies by a voltage ~ 100,000 V, in a vacuum, and
x-rays are emitted when they impinge upon a metal
anode. 1
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.10

characteristic lines

~ 0.05
nm 40 kV

min ~ 1 nm
( max) 1+1

KS hLK = EL - EK

Electrons are arranged in shells around nucleus,
with K-shell nearest (lowest energy).

This is due to, e.g. the expulsion of an electron

form the K-shell begin followed by a transition of
an electron from, say, the L-shell to the K-shell,
this being accompanied by the radiation of a K
photon (see diagram). 1

The energy changes ~ 100 - 1000 times greater than

those for a discharge tube emission and so the
wavelength ~ 1 nm. 1

The continuous part of the emitted electromagnetic

wave spectrum is produced by the deceleration of
the electrons inside the metal anode and is continuous
since the radiated energy loss per atomic collision
varies (and also heat produced). 1

There is a min (or max) since if V is electron

accelerating potential, hmax = eV. 1
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.11


(1) (2) 1
(3) A B C D
P crystal
d L N
Q atomic
B 1 planes
A d M
crystal R

Interference takes place between mono-chromatic X-rays 1

reflected from atoms spaced throughout crystal and in some
directions of reflection maxima are detected - enables the
separation of planes to be determined, since 2d sin = n. 1

6. (a) (i) For a body moving in a circular orbit there must be

a force acting on it and directed towards centre of

the circle. Magnitude = mr2, where the angular

velocity = 2/T, T being period.

For the satellite this force is provided by the

attraction of the earth. Magnitude = GmM/r2,
G being the gravitational constant.

2 2 mM
Hence, mr ( ) = G 2 - which leads to relation,
T r
T r3/2.

(ii) Also we can write mv2/r = GMm/r2, where v is satellite

speed. Hence v2 = GM/r.
Kinetic energy of satellite, K.E. = mv2 = GMm/(2r)
Potential energy, P.E. = -GMm/r
Total energy of satellite, E = K.E. + P.E.
= -GMm/(2r)
(or E = mv2 )

(b) (i) Due to the frictional force there must be a reduction 1

in the total energy, E. It follows from expression
for E that r must reduce, making E a larger -ve value. 1
From relation for v, i.e. v2 = GM/r it follows that if 1
r is reduced v increases.

(ii) Rate of loss of energy is :

dE dE dr GMm dr
dt dr dt 2r 2 dt

This must be equivalent to the rate of doing work by 1

the drag force, which is (Cv2)v.

GMm dr
Hence, 2
( ) = Cv3. 1
2r dt
86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.12

dr 2Cv
Using relation v2 = GM/r, we obtain = r
dt m

(iii) Assuming small changes, by differentiation of relation

T = Kr3/2, K constant - we obtain
3 r
T/T = . 1
2 r
If (dr/dt) can be considered constant over an orbit
dr 2r dr
change in r, r = T = 1
dt v dt
T 3 r 3 dr 3 2Cv
and = = = r
T 2 r v dt v m
T 6Cr
that is = 1
T m

(iv) Path taken by the satellite is spiral towards centre

of earth. 1

The density, , of the earths atmosphere will

increase with time and so drag force will increase,
as well as the satellite speed - which increases
drag force even more. 1

Heating of surface of satellite takes place and,

eventually, satellite burns up (vaporises). 1