TECHNISCHE HOGESCHOOL
EitWHOVEN
3TUDIEBIBLIOTHEEK 'i!
ELEKTROTECHNIEK. ,~
W.J.W. Kitzen
ET1978
1. Introduotion. 1
2. The N'elmod&l. 4
2.1. The interaotion model. 5
2.2. The Preisaoh diagram. 7
2.3. Caloulations. 9
2.3.1. Distribution of the partioles
over the spaoe. 9
2.3.2. Influenoe of the particle and sample
parameters on the hystresisloop. 11
2.3.3. Typical behaviour of the Preisach fUnotion. 19
2.3.4. Minorloops. 27
2.3.5. Approximation of the different remanenoe
curves of an assembly of identical partioles. 28
2.4. Measurements. 31
3. The StonerWohlfarth model. 33
3.1. A single StonerWohlfarth partiole in free space. 33
3.2. An assembly of two stonerWohlfarth particles. 38
3.3. Calculations. 49
3.4. Comparisons with the Nealmodel. 51
4. Summary of results. 53
5. Conclusions. 54
References. 56
Appendioes. 58
Figures. 69
1
1. Introduction.
So: Nt
H~= ~=~ij
jfi
N 222
Iml 2dzirdXirdyij
t
= 47rIsign(mj)x 2 2 2 572 (2.2)
J=1 (dxij+dy .+dz ij )
j~i ~J
Or: N
t it
i
H.:
].
2.. sign(m
1 j
)xH i J.
J=
j~i
i I Iml
where Hij =4U x
a
Together with the externally applied field H (in the zdirection),
the total field, experienced by the particles is known:
t
where Hi = the total field, experienced by the partiole i.
Ha = the externally applied field.
1
sign( m. )=1
].. 8. ]. condition (2.7)
H.+H
]. > Hcp,]..
7
are easier to handle, one usually omits the faxis and on]y oonsiders
contours of equal values of the density in the (H op ,Hm)plane, Fig. 2.7.
For the special oase that the ooercive foroes of all the partioles
are equal, we plot the total magnetio moment of the partioles ~(nm)
only as a furtction of the interaotion foroe in a twodimensional
plot. We will oall that plot the Preisaohfunotion, Fig. 2.8.
N
M = 1/V
s
~Sign(mi)xlmil
i=1
(2.9)
where V
s
= the volume of the sample (volume in whioh the
partioles are positioned).
2.3. Calcula.tions.
)+ here we mean with homogeneous, that the particles are well dispersed
over the sample.
11
H
cp
~ the ooercive force of the partioles [Aim].
M = the spontaneous magnetization of the particles [Aim].
O
a Ib = axial ratio of the particles.
p p
p = the volume packing fraotion of the assembly
v
= the volume of the magnetic material in the assembly divided
by the total volume of the sample.
the shape of the sample.
if applying the homogeneous distribution method: b , band b
x y z
The magnetic moment of a partiole is given by:
2
[A.m ] (2.10)
where N
a
= the demagnetization faotor of the ellipsoidally
shaped particles in the direotion of the "easy"
axis (a p ).
Nb = the demagnetization faotor of the partioles
in the direotion perpendioula.r to the
direction of the "easy" axis (b ).
p
The demagnetization factors N . and Nb both are determined by the
a
axial ratio a p Ib p
However here we will assume that the ooercive foroe is an independent
variable.
12
a
acoording to condition (2.6) we can write for H. :
1,SW
Hi,sw H cpH~1,SW
a
::I
h(M')
r
::2 Hop/pv MO
where H the ooeroive foroe of the sample [A/m].
os
M' the remanenoe magnetization relative with
r
respeot to the saturation magnetization
of the sample.
lid =  ~.M(Nb 0 0)
where D = 0 Nb 0 , the ellipsoid dema,gnetizs.tion
o 0 N
a tensor.
(2.21 )
M = the ma.gnetization vector.
interaction field
(2.26)
i
and ~H.
1
'" the spatial disturbance.
Hd,s = 1/3.Pv.MO
Now the total interaction field acting on the partiole is given by
HL+H
d ,p
+H d
,s = 1/3.Mo
17
In our simulations with the Neelmodel, the field due to the particle
itself (H ) hes been taken into a.ccount by its ooercive force H
d ,p op
If we don't restrict ourselves to spherioal partioles and a spherioal
sample, but assume the particles and the sample to be ellipsoidal
with demagnetization factors in the zdirection of respectively N
a,p
and Na,s ,Fig.
. 2.24, then we can write I
<Hi>1
sa = HL+H
,s d
= P. v .M0 (Na,pNa,s )
The average cavity in whioh an average particle is located is
assumed to have the same shape as the partiole itself, i.e. an
ellipsoidal one with the same axial ratio a p /bp
The demagnetization faotor N for a homogeneous ellipsoidal body
a
as a function of the axial ratio alb can be found in [33J or [34J and
has been depicted in Fig. 2.25. In our calcula.tions the axial ratio
of the partioles a
p'
Ib p =6, so Na,p .0.045.
ThuB according to Eq.(2.36)s
<Hi>'
s a
= Pv .MO(0.045Na,s )
= Ms (0.045N a,s )
where M = the saturation magnetization of
s
the sample.
and compared the obtained loop with the hysteresisloop for a sample
with axial ratio a /b =1 (p =20%). The results are given in Fig. 2.27.
s s v
As we can see, the "sheared" loop is almost identical to the real
loop for a /b =1.
s s
So from experiments with the Neelmodel it appears that also in
19
the case of a.n inhomogeneous medium the sample shape can be corrected
for with a linear function that can be predicted with an analytical
consideration.
Kahan \)6J, Forrer and Martak [37J, Kranz [38J and Kneller [39J
8.1ready mentioned that there exists an extra demagnetization field
due to the internal structure of the sample in addition to the demagnetization
field as a result of the sample shape. They assume that this
extra field is also directly proportional to the magnetization of
the sa.mple. Then the total demagnetization field for an ellipsoidal
sample is given bYI
Hd '" NtotM
(N g +Ni).M
1/2
dv. (2.44 )
J]
a.nd
<h i ')
s
and
<Hi)I:
s e
1/N ~H~
t i=1J.,s
.
23
j;tk (2.50)
Then we oan write for the varianoe
{a'H i l1
ap 2
.. (N t 1 ).{o'H i
ij
1 2
(index ap of approximate)
{H~laeP}2 =
v 1 ~i';1
IN t 2._ i3
N
(H i
J=1 i!j,s
)2  1 2
(Nt 1 ).N t
~~
L ~N ij
i=1 J=1
.
H1. 1
,8
2
~i ~i
N N
t~i 2 1 il2
et 1/N t ~ 2J H. j )  N 1 H > )
jr;1 j=1 1. ,8 t s e
J,Ji
The values of dHilap obtained with the numerioal simulations are
given in column s e VII] of Table 2.1. If the partial interaction
forces Hi s are really independent of eaoh other then d Hil ap
j, , s 8
would equal d Hi
All values in s e Table 2.1 obtained with the numerioal simulations
were obtained by caloulating the quantities several times, eaoh
time with new random positions of the particles in the sample and
then averaging them to obtain the stati8tioa~ averages.
N
So <Hi>l
s e
= 1/N ~<Hi>1
s~ s e,
j
(f Hi
s e
I= 1/Ns ~l1Hi I .
~ s e, J
N
O'Hifap:lll 1/Ns ~cfHilap
s 9 ~ S e,j
Table 2.1. The mean interactio force <h i > and the variance
s
O'hi calculated with Della Torre's formulae and
obt~ined from numerical simulations with the N~el model.
26
for both values a.re determined with the assumption that all partial
interaction forces are independent of each other (see Eq.(2.50)).
For acicular particles (ap /bp ~6), the actual values of the varianoes
( d hiI) don't differ significantly from the analytioal obtained
valu~se (dhi/ ). However for spherical pa.rtioles (a /b ~1) the
s a P P
values are ra,tner different, so the assumption that all partial
interaction forces are independent of each other is not always
justified. As a matter of fact the dependenoe is caused by the
restriction that the particles oannot overlap eaoh other.
To study the dependenoe of the aotual varianoe d hi I
s e
on the packing
fraction Pv for spherioal partioles, the values of column VII, Table 2.1
a,re plotted as a funotion of p in Fig. 2.31, ourve (a). It appears
v
that the variance is not, as predicted by the analytioal formula (Eq.(2.44)),
inversely proportional to the square root from the paoking fraction
but to the packing fraction itself.
So dhi
8
I
e
1 if a/b p =1 (spherioal particles)
~ Pv (2.58)
d hi'
s e
~ p;i if a, p/b p =6 (acioular particles) (2.59)
so
2.3.4. Minorloops.
a
If we increase the applied field strength H , starting from
the negative saturation state, to a value H < H t (H t= the applied
1 sa sa
field strength neoessary to reaoh the saturation state) and
a
successively decrease H to a value H sa t' then the magnetization
will traverse a minor loop, Fig. 2.34.
Wi th our computerprogram we have oaloula,ted several minor loops.
Their course appeared to be always nearly completely horizontal
within the major loop, Fig. 2.34. Apparently, if we are in situation (1),
the applied field strength must be decreased with a large amount
before a particle switohes from the positive magnetization direction
to the negative magnetization direction. The place in the MHaplane,
where the first pa,rticle reverses (situation (2, nearly coincides
with the major loop. From that point the magnetization follows
more or less the majorloop, if the field strength is decreased more.
In some cases we observed that the course of a minor loop is not
completely situated within the major loop. This, never measured,
feature also oocurs in the negative interaotion model as desoribed
by Wohlfarth [16J, if the coeroive foroes and the magnetic moments
of the particles have appropriate values.
The negative interaction model oonoerns two particles with the
magnetic moments both parallel to the externally applied field,
Fig. 2.35a. This model is called "negative" interaction model,
28
because all the interaotion foroes are negative when all 'tlJ.e
particles are positively magnetized and equal
m
211'd = n.m
3
where n =
Fig. 2.35b shows how we can divide the H 1,H 2plane into
f f op, cp,
7 regions (B, Cl' C2' Cl' C2' K1 , K2 ), ea,oh region corres ponding
with another typical hysteresisloop, Fig. 2.350. As we oan see,
f ,
the casee C , C , K and K show the feature that the minor loops
1 2 1 2
are not completely situated inside of the major loop.
The fact that the course of the minor loops within the major loop
is nearly completely horizontal can be made plausible with the aid
of the Preisach diagram. This is shown in Fig. 2.36. All points
in the diagram are situated on the line H = H ,for our oaloulations
c cp
have been carried out for identioal particles (H i= H for all
cp, cp
particles i). In situation (S) all particles are negatively
magnetized. If the applied field strength is increased to a value
H , then all pa:tioles with an experienced interaotion force
1
H
1
>H 1 +H cp cp
1
(_H < H H
) will switch to the positive magnetization
1
state.Now assume that in situation (1) all positively magnetized
i
particles are represented in the diagram beneath the line _H = H H
1 c
Theoretically this is not always necessary, beoause the particles
me,y change place in the diagram due to the ohanging of the interaotion
forces. However, as said before in section 2.3.3, page 20, the
assumption appeared to be justified in our numerical simulations.
Now we can see from Fig. 2.36b that the decrement of the applied
field strength must be at least 2.H before a positively magnetized
cp
particle will switoh back to its negative magnetization state.
a
So the minor loop will be horizontal over the interval H > H > H 2.H
1 1 cp
if M
r
< M <M r
,
a.o. demagnetization remanence curves In(H) (Fig. 2.38).
Here the material is also firstly saturated. Then the field is reduced
to zero. Next a slowly decreasing alternating field is applied of
I
ini tial amplitude H. From Fig. 2.38a we oan see that ID(Hl)=O if H >H
cs
(H = the ooercive force of the sample) and if the alternating
cs
field decreases very slowly. From Fig. 2.38b and c we can see that
,
ID(H)= M(H) if 0 <II <Hos. After the second peak of the alternating
field the magnetization doesn't change anymore.
,
So In(H) = M(H) if o <H <H cs
(2.66)
= 0 if H >H
cs
Or with ( 2.65 )s
,
In(H) = In(H) if O<H<H
08
0 if H >H
os
o if H
os < H <H os
M(H) if H<H
cs and M>M (2.68)
r
M(H) if' H>H
cs
and M<M r
Or with (2.65):
IR(H) :: 0 if H 08 < I[ <H cs
ID(H) if H<H and M>M
os r
:: ID(H) if H >H and M <M
cs r
2.4. Measurements.
if H >0
if H <0
H
r
. In(H r ) =0
,
then from (2.70) and (2.71) can be seen that H =H if the interaction
r r
fo:rces can be neglected.
Corradi and Wohlfarth D1J define an interaction field factor
IFF and a coercive factor CF as follows :
1M I ~ M
a
is constant and independent of the applied field strength H
First we will derive a relation for the total magnetic energy of
the particle.
Due to the ellipsoidal shape of 'lihe particle and the uniform
magnetization, the demagnetization field within the particle will
be also uniform.
Ma M.cos If
Mb = M.sin rp
Ed .. ,)lo!Rddi
o
= LL
/0
[faN
L.. a .Ma .dM a
o
2 2
.. i~(NaMa +NbMb )
The energy per unit volume associated with the applied field is
....
where ~= the angle between the magnetization M
and the applied field direotion.
= ~[trif(Na+Nb) 2
iM (NbNa).COS2\f Ha.M.COSlY]
2
Dividing (3.10) by the positive quantity ..A (NbN ) .M gives the
l o a
reduced energy ~ t
t
I t:.
E :::I
t
Nb+N
:: 1.. a _ .Joe 00s2 UJ h.oos lTr
4 NN 4" I r
b a
Nb+N
:: t N N
a  t oos2(11r e)  h.oos 1Tt
~ '!
(3.11 )
b a
Treating hand
I
e as fixed, the stationary values of the funotion
E are given by
t
I
aE t
 :::I t sin2(1 e) + h.sin If ",,0
c}"qr
The value of the function is a minumum if
'\ 2 I
o t
E
  : : cos2(1J!B)
2
+ h.cos1y >0 (3.14)
dW
With Eq.(3.13) and (3.14) it is easy to find the stable states
for the magnetization (i.e. lJ! or Cf ) as a function of the field
strength h. From Eq.(3.13) we obtain:
>0   . minimum
<0 ~ maximum
36
,
In Fig. 3.1b the energy E has been plotted as a function of the
t
0
angle lfI with the field strength h as parameter (8=10 ). From
Fig. 3.1a and j.1b we can see that for Ih l<h</h I (h =0.6738)
o 0 ~
there are two possible values of lJ! where the energy E is minimal.
t
If the field strength h is reduced from a positive value greater
than Ihol, then the course of the change in 1 will be as indicated
by the arrows in the figures 3.1a and 3.1b. The state h==/ho " '=1Yo
(~o=39.28) is instable because then the equality
:\ 2 E '
u
t
=0
0".2
holds. At that field strength an irreversible magnetization jump
will occur. For one single partiole it is easy to determine the
final state after the irreversible jump, beoause there is only one
posGible final state that is stable, namely the state h;lh I,
'0/= Wo" (Wo = 185.97 0 ). As we will see later this is not the case
0
Elimination of h gives!
o
or in terms of tp o.
(3.21 )
37
It is convenient to write
1
tan / 3 e= tan <Po
Ll.
= t
So 'Po = tan1 t
t
and tan Vlo "" tan( ep 0 + e) = (1_t 2 )
For h we can write now
o
i min2( 10 e)
h ::
o
sin 1fo
(1_t 2+t4r~
= 
(1+t )
2
H
cp :: Ih0 i . (NbNa ). M
:: (NbNa)M
38
Naoos 1 z }e e
(3.31)
N
a
.C06 8 2 .ez )
(3.32)
The energy per unit volume due to the demagnetizing fields is (from
Eq. 3.8)
Ed , 1 := t~{(Na+Nb ) .M 2  2
(NbNa)M .OOS28 1] (3.33)
2 2
Ed ,2 = iA[(N a +N b )M  (NbNa)M .OOS28 2] (3.34)
a
The energy per unit volume due to the applied field H is t
4rrl~15
.....
where m ~ the magnetic moment of particle 2.
2
Vp = the volume of the particles.
o
sin e
t
oos e
I
where r = li72 I
So
40
(3.41 )
2
,II
. /.......0
.M .V. P
= [ sin 82 000s 1f2os i n 81 000s lf1
4rrr 3
82 .sin ~2.sin e
l
+3(sin + oos 8 2 .cos Sf)
l
x( sin 91 .sin VJ1 .sin e + cos 81 .cos eI)
2
11 .M V
/0 P
= [ sin 61 osin 82 ( oos If 1 oOos 1f2 + sin Cf 1 sin 1f2)
4Trr 3
I ell
+3(sinB2.sinif2.sinB + cose ecos )
2
x(sin 9 1 .sin l.p1.sin Sl + cos 6 1 .cos e')
2
 t/40.M (NbNa)(cos2 e1 + cos28 2 )
2
,A .M .V (
 0 3 p sin B1 .sin 82 (cos <fJ 1 .oos 'P 2 + sin lfJ 1 sin 1fJ 2 )
41l'r
 009 e1. e2 J
009 (3.44)
, ,
+3(sin 8 2 .sin Y'2.ein e + cos 8 2 .cos e
)
, ,
x(sin 6 1 .sin <f1.sin e + cos e 1.cOS e )
3V
where k ~ P (reduced interaction strength) (3.46)
2( NbNa ) .411r3
Ha
and h A (N :til ).M (reduced field strength) (3.47)
b a
,
The reduced energy E will be further represented in text by the
t
symbol E. This total energy of the system is a function of the
applied field strength h, the bond angle e, , the oonstant k and
the directions of the magnetic moments, (e l' CfJ 1) and ( e2' l(J2)
42
to zero.
E
e1
E
\l E == ~1 .. 0
E e2
E<P2
dE = t( d e 1 ,d cp 1 ,d e 2 ,d if 2 >0
where
Ee
1
8 1 Ee1~1 Ee 1 B ES <P2
2 1
=~
E<P1 e 1 E'P 1 t.p1 E(f71 02 E({J11fJ 2
A ... (3.51 )
E e2 e 1 Ee2'P1 E e282 Ee2if2
where A....
1.
ilth eigenvalue of the matrix i.
dV ... the deviation from equilibrium in the direction
i ......
of the eigenveotor Vi
81 81
1f1 _1
!P1
1=  A .V'E (3.53)
82 82
Cf2 J2
44
dv
n
.vn
So , 81 81
e2 ,.
C{J1 C(J1
e2 + dv
n
.vn (3.56)
'f2 Cf2
 s. VE
 B. VE
(3.59)
46
where 
M .. the magnetization of the particle.
t = the time.
The torque T may be derived from the free energy E by the relations I
.....::.
F = 'i7E
(3.61 )
'>.
where F = the generalized force acting
on the partiale.
....::.. ~
M = M.e r
So
where a,nd
So (3.66)
E
M(de.ee + sinB.dtp.elp) Odt(E e .erp + Sie.ee )
So M.d e = r dt ~
sine + r'l(M .Sine.dlf}
2
de ::
r( 0<. E e sin
1
e .E lp )
(3.70 )
IT 2
M(1+oe )
There are two sets of equations like (3.69) and (3.70) to be solved
simultaneously, one for particle 1 (9 ,
1
V( 1 ) and one for pa,rticle 2
(e2' lf2) After the small initial changes of the magnetization
directions (Eq. 3.56), the behaviour of the magnetic moments can be
completely calculated with the two sets of equations like (3.69) and
(3.70). The first derivatives E e1 ' E (f)
T1
, E e2 and E (f)
T2
are
determined and the angles el' If l' 62 and 'f 2 are succesively
changed with the amounts I
"'"
..  s.g
48
1
g1 .. ol E e1  ~
sin CJ 1
.E to
T 1
g2 = .1
8 1 (E e1 + '~e .E(f) )
s ln S ln 1 T 1
1 (E
g4 =
sin 8
2
e2 + s n
i0(9 .Etp )
2 2
So 81 61
f{J1 tp1 ...>0.
s'"  e.g
82 92
f2 tp2
3.3. Calculations.
The }1lirameters the.t oan be varied and that determine the magnetic
,
properties of the e.ssembly of two particles, are the bond angle e,
the interaotion strength k and the damping parameter cJ...(if the Gilbert
equation is used to caloulate the irreversible processes).
Firstly we will study the influenoe of the interaotion strength k.
In Fig. 3.6 the magnetization directions, i.e. (e l ' If(1) and
( 8 2, ~2) , are plotted if the field strength h is decreased from
positive saturation to negative saturation. The caloulations of
the irreversible processes are carried out with the Gilbert
equations (0<:,=2). The cases B., band c refer to three different
0
values of the interaction strength k ( 8'=60 for all the cases).
As we can see the three oases all exhibit a different behaviour
of the magnetization directions.
In oase a the magnetization directions of the particles rotate
ooherently to the final state.
In case b, the directions initially rotate coherently untill an
instable state is a.chieved. The field strength where this occurs is
called the nuoleation field strength (h 1). At that fixed field
n,
strength an irreversible process will be traversed and the course
of the magnetization directions becomes different for the particles.
The final states of the magnetization directions after the irreversible
process are respectively (8 1 , C(1 )= (116 ,90 ) and (8 , tf )= (26 ,210
0 0 0 0
).
2 2
Now the situation is sta.ble and the rotation process continues
reversibly if the applied field strength is deoreased more. At a
certain field strength the situation beoomes instable again (a second
nucleation field strength h 2 is aohieved), and again an irreversible
n,
process will occur. The final states after this second irreversible
process are (8 1 , lf1 ) == (8 ,VJ ) == (169 ,210 ), so both magnetization
0 0
2 2
directions are parallel again. Further decreasing of the applied
field strength leads to ooherent rotation of the magnetization
directions to the negative saturation state. The rotation prooess
in case b is called fanning. Because of the more or less anti
parallel state of t~e magnetization directions after the first
50
a/ coherent rotation.
b/ fanning to the antiparallel state.
c/ fanning to the parallel state.
These processes are also illustrated in Fig.1.8. Depending on the
value of the interaction strength k, one of these modes will oocur
(the bond angle a' is kept fixed). In Fig. 3.7 the nucleation field
strengths h 1 and h 2 (if there exists a seoond nucleation field
n, n,
strength) are plotted as afunction of the interaction strength k
0
and with e'.80 As we can see, the kaxis oan be divided into
three regions, each region oorresponding with one of the three
possible modes. The values of k on the boundaries of the different
,
regions will be different for different values of the bond angle e.
By carrying out a lot of calculations for different combinations
,
of the bond angle e and the interaction strength k, it appeared
to be possible to divide the entire ( e ,k)plane
I
into thre& regions,
each region corresponding with one of the three possible modes.
The results of these caloulations are plotted in Fig. 3.8. These
calculations have been carried out earlier by Bertram and Mallinson [14J,
however they only oonsidered values of k<0.5 (small interaction forces).
For 8'=80 0 the hysteresisloops for several values of the interaction
strength k are plotted in Fig. 3.9. The initial switching mode in
the cases 1 and 2 is coherent rotation, in the cases 3, 4 and 5
fanning to the antiparallel state (two nucleation field strengths
where irreversible rotation ocours) and in case 6 fanning to the
parallel state is observed.
As to the damping parameter oC, the influence of this parameter is
shown in the figures 3.10a,b,c and 3.11a,b,c. For different values
of oC the courses of the magnetization directions during the
51
i
H
i ...
A ij
h
ij
(NbNa)M
V (3.C08 2 e I
1)
~
P
411(N bN a ) .r 3
H
A c,p
h
c,p
". ". 1 (3.80 )
The a.pplied field strength has been normalized with Eq. (3.47) I
h III (3.81 )
The obtained hysteresisloops have been plotted in Fig. 3.15 and oan be
compared with the loops in Fig. 3.9 (oaloulated with the Stoner
Wohlfarth model). If we define the mean value of the nucleation
fields h 1 and h 2 (in the Neelmodel the field strengths where
n, n,
the particles reverse their magnetization directions) as the coercive
force of the assembly, then we oan Bee that this ooeroive force
h
c,s
4. Summary of results.
Neelmodel.
a I I
H (M ) ... H + P .M .h(M )
cp v 0
i
<H > ... P(M) + Q(M)
1/ coherent rotation.
5. Conclusions.
References
(A.1 )
Now all the interaotion fields are negative when the particles are
positively magnetized.
Dependent on ooercive force and magnetic moment we obtain for the
positive interaotion model one of the five possible hysteresisloops,
I ,
defined as A, C ' C ' C ' and C (C 1 and C are defined in the
3 3 4 4 2
negative interaction model, [16J), Fig. A.2. Beoause the underlying
assumptions are the same we oan now desoribe Neel's model with
,
the aid of the Preisach diagram. For instanoe, ourve C is oharacterized
3
by the conditions, Fig. A.3a ,
H
cp,2 > Hop,1 + n( m1 +m 2 )
Hcp, 1 < n.m 2 (A.2)
n = 1/( 21Td 3 )
l.et Ill' now both partioles to be positively magnetized due
ml!~ume
a
to a large external field in the positive direotion, H = Hsa t.
In that case both particles experience a positive interaction field,
Eq.(A.1). Hence, H is negative and the particles are represented
m
in the Preisaoh diagram by plus signs in the lower half plane, Fig. A.3b.
Decreasing the field to Ha = H 2n.m1 will not effeot partiole (2)
cp,
due to Eq.(2.6) and (2.7), Fig. A.3c. Also partiole (1) stays
a
unchanged when the field passes the value H = Hop, 1n.m2' but
a
when the field reaches the value H = H cp, 1n.m2' particle (1)
59
I' ,
f C
.. d ... : 4
H H
cp,1 cp,2
1.
Fig. A.1. Neel's positive
interaction model. ..
A
HOP ,1' m H mH
H' m satH c
n(m +m )
1 2
nrn 2
H
op,1
I
fB (1)
I
H
op,2
I
I
I H
c
..
nID
2
nID
1   4 (2)
nm
1
n(m 1 +m )
@
2
H
op,2
...
H ,
m m
H'
Ha=H nID nm
op,2 1 1
nrn 2
H
I
I
op,1
(1) H
0
.. nm 2
____ J
4
Ho
..
nID
1  nID
1
0 @
H
o
Fig. A.4. Bate's method of showing
statistioal stability.
H
o
Appendix 3.
b z/b x
:r
<H '>s
0.25 0.16
1.0 0.23
2.0 0.34
Table A.1
64
a
p p
/b = 6
p =
v 20%
 . a /b 1
s 6
\.. .
\\ ....... .. '
/p e
  a s /b 6 = 2
.... a /b S = 6
6
\
\
\
\
,
' ........ .
\ ,
................................................
....... .....
........
o
  .. '.
'.
....
'..... . ..... .
'0
........................... .....
.. . . ....
.... .
..
F'ig. A.6. The mean interaotion force <Hi>1 and the function
P as a function of the magnetiz~tion for several
v~luee of the axial ratio a /b of the sample.
s s
a p /b p = 6
p
v
=20%
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 ..
M/M s
i
Fig. A.7. The function Qe (M)= <H >/ e (M)P e (M).
66
V rr( 2
T (r.. ) . dv .
p~ zz ~J J
2
V1+k2 .sin2e I
V fII a b
T2 (r ). dV '" p. p
2
[1'de( .sin 8 {V1+k 2 .sin29 '}3 (1300s 28
p V zz ij j 144 a
2 0 P
(A.13)
For cases where k,tO, the values of SO' S2 and S4 can be found
in Table A.2. As we can see, for a /b =6 the variance U_i beoomesl
p p r
M
s
(f Hi ""'vPv' 0.168 (A.14)
a
p
/b p := Vk!J
3 33.7 6.28 2.61
4 77.8 13.82 5.51
5 150.3 26.1 10.18
6 258 44.2 17.05
7 408 69.5 26.6
8 608 102.9 39.2
9 864 145.8 55.4
10 1184 199 75.5
11 1575 265 100.0
(x.,y.,z.)
J J J
,,
I
I 
I
1  
I
   
I
I
I
1
I ap
I
I
1 2.ap '
Fig. A.8. To the integration in Eq.(2.44).
i.
l.n
partioles
plastic binder
 :..  
.....
,  ,
,/ ~
 ,
    _ fIIIIII"   ,

Fig. 1.1. General scheme of the magnetio
recording prooess.
1 micron
,
tape I
surface

~i
I
~
I
nonaligned
particles
embedded in
a plastic
binder
glass
plate

~:
I
~
I
" '\
\
\
 }
I
I
/
/
b. Curling.
"
\
""
~
~
r~  ~
./
I~
'I
/'''
~
~ 
.
c. Buckling.
....
.
.......
i
0.5
COBf
o++.l~___f'I'_It_+__I
0. 5++,H....,.~_I_lI_t
1 .0't===.,.41I+I
1.5 1.0 0.5 o 1.0 1.5
y!c.
I I
I I : I
I~
I
r +
I I
~ ~
I
: I I I
+~~ ~t+
I I I I
I I I ,
: I , I
1.......;. ~  1"+ ~1....
I I I
I 1 I I
I I I I
 ~~  ....,..1+
I I 1 I
I I I I
a. Coherent.
b. Fanning to the
antiparallel
state.
c. Fanning to the
parallel state.
.. H a
z
M/M s
1 ___
a
H
I
I
H
cp
b. Hyeteresisloop.
Fig. 2.2. The magnetio behaviour of one single
partiole in the Neelmodel.
,,
'.
\
i
\
\ j
\'
\ "',1
\"',
I
I
I
/
/
/
I
I
I
/
/
~
z
..
\ I, /
, I ,/ /
'I /', /
~/ ", , //
____ ' " ~...Y
I /
..
s s
"
I
H~
~ ., Hit
I
,
H cp,i Hcp,~.
t t
e. Hi < H cp, i b. Hi> Hcp, i
i

Determination of partiole whioh will
first ohange its magnetization direotion.
.,
Deorement of the applied field strength
,
to value where the most vulnerable partiole
will ohange its magnetization direotion.
Caloulation of the new interaotion foroes.
no
I
I Is the negative saturation state aohieved ? r
, yes
ISTOpl
,. '" H =H i
, / '"
H
c HmH i"
H
1
+ H
2
+ + +
+
+ +
+ + + +
+
+ +
+ H
0
.. +
+ + + H
0
..
+ +
+ + + +
Hm=H H 0
4
+ + H + H
+
o
+ + o
+ + + + +
+ +
L...t.z
Yi  ;~
, ')0
I
0 _1
/
  
/ /
xi,L~ J
/
I zi I
~I .~I
S I
z
b
p
t
I
1
 4     ~,
,
I
1
L. a
..I
p
//
.,{!
Y
l_~~K
/
/oJ&,.,w.
/ .. 6 ~/
/ z
,,
'R
cp
i
fx Hi,SY
I
I
i Itt
Hi SY
t
Fig. 2.19. Definition of the M Hproduct.
b
s
I
I
I
I
I
..
I
I ,
r ...1
a
s
I
.
I
,.
2xr1
I I
I
I
,..
I 2xr2
~
I
~~ 
P4 :':'~l~c
'"
b
s
I r  _t_
I 1' ..  
I
I
I I I
I
J ~I..:Ili= T    :     
I I : I
J
I
~I:;apI I
... I
I J I I I
I
1 :..
ao
~ J
I
I
~
a
~
s
Fig. 2.24. Zijlstra's model applied to a medium with identical ellipsoidally
shaped particles, whioh are perfeotly aligned. The particles are
assumed to be randomly distributed over an ellipsoidally shaped
sample.
0.5
0.3
0.2
o
o 1 2 3 4 5 6
alb
Fig. 2.25. The demagnetization factor Na of a homogeneous
ellipsoidally shaped body as a function of the
axial ratio alb of the body.
N
e
Na,sN a,p
f
0.5
.,,
\
\
, packing fraction pv ~20 %
\
, axial ratio of the particles
, NN
\/a,s a,p a/b p a 6.
,,
0.2
,
\
0.1
o +~~...;,..:~:.::
0.5
1.0
Fig. 2.27. "Shearing" of the hysteresisloop if the axial ratio a s /b s of the sample is changed.
9'C Hi )t f(H
i
)' f (H
i
)1
H/M s =1 H/M s =0.75
~ :+ a
H H cp ~
H~ H~ H
i
f(H ) f f' (Hi)t
}1/M s =0.25 M/M s =0
_Ha_H
.. . a ~
cp Hi Hi H H cp Hi
_Ha_H
cp
~
Hi _Ha_H
cp 
Hi 
Hi
o
Fig. 2.29. To the integration in Eq.(2.44).
a.xial ratio of the partioles a/b p =6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.0 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0 ..
M/Ms
Fig. 2.30. The varianoe dhile as a funotion of the magnetization
01
0.1 0.2
Pv
Fig. 2.31. The varianoe c:J hi as a funotion of the paoking fraotion pv.
s
i
ourve (ah <h)
s e
, Eq.(2.55), oolumn VI of Table 2.1. I
ourve (bh <hi)
s a I ' Eq.(2.39), oolumn IV of Table 2.1.
,
~ (b)
\
\
\ axial rB.tio of the partioles a /b =6
p p
\
, paoking fraotion p =20%.
\ v
\
0.3 \
\
(a) \,
\
\
0.2 \
\
\
\
,
0.1
' ...
"'",
o
;;;~ 
0.1 +"T"'""rrr...,r,r
o 1 2 3 4 5 6
a
s
/b s
Fig. 2.32. The mean interaotion foroe <hi) at saturation as a
s
funotion of the axial ratio a /b of the sample.
s s
o
\
\ axial ratio of the partioles a /b =1
0.1
\ , p P
\ paoking fraotion p =20%.
\ , ... v
... ....
,,
....
0.2 ..... ... ..... a)
......
(b'\"......_..
0.3 )
0.4 +,r__  " " " T " "   " T " " "   r   __   
o 1 2 3 4 5 6 ...
i S S
a /b
Fig. 2.33. The mean interaotion foroe <h > at saturation as a
s
funotion of the axial ratio a /b of the sample.
s s
......     ;:....,
~"
I
/
~r+lIfu
I
I
,,
I
H sat ,
,,
r
m1 :
HCp ,1
H.p,~ C1
K
I 2
a ~
dt I
I
H
m2
+ I
HCP ,2
n(m m ) C
,
1 2 2
@ n.m
2
C'1
n(m 1m ) n.m ~
2 1
H
cp,2
C1
t C
I
B
2
@
Fig. 2.35. Neel's negative interaction model.
~ ..     , 
, ,~
....
.",~
...
,
,~ 2 ,,
,,
I
,
,,,
I
,
,,,
H
sat ,
,,, H12.H op
a"
, ,, H
,,,
,
,
,,,
,
,,
......;' "
s
H
op
2.H op H
o
H 2.H _
1 op
O+tr
time~
H
sat
M r
01_ _"""'"" _
M r
@
Fig. 2.37. D.c. demagnetization remanenoe ourve.
Heat
..
M
r
OLJt
H
os H
@
Fig. 2.38b and o. The a.o. demagnetization prooess.
H
eat
M r
H oe
H
oe H
..
M
r @
Fig. 2.39. The d.o. remanenoe ourve.
time~
I
ar
(H~J\
M
r
M r
12 10 8 6  2 2 4 6 8 10 12 ( x1 0 )
o+....,..=::::::::.r+:::=.....~.....,...
0.5 2.0 ~
HIH cs
0.5
"' '
O+r~~::::............,....=::::::===~~ ....
o 1.0 2.0 ~
H/H cs
Fig. 2.44. The functions [IR(oo)+ID(H)} /2, I~(H), IR(oo)IR(H) and I ar (H), measured (drawn curves),
and calculated from the measured ID(H)curve with the assumption that all minor loops
are completely horizontal (dashed curves).
,
,,,
,, ~~+/80 ,h0 )
I
1
I",
I'
I
I
I
I
Va. 39.28
0
.,
o
,,
I
, ,,
'\ Va . . 185.97 0
1
\
f
#'
 (~,ho
,,
, ho 0.6738
( . h \
1, 0 r \
\
,,
\
1/ h. 1.4
2/ h 0.67
3/ h 0
4/ ho.67
5/ h1.4
..
Fig. 3.1b. Relation between energy and direotion of magnetization
for several values of the applied field strength h
0
(8=10 ), aooording to Stoner & Wohlfarth [4J.
1 o +1
J
.. 0
. 1.0
(e =10 )/
o o
~
I .1
1.0 I
1.0
J
1 o +1
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0
0 15
s
Fig. 3.2. The critioal field strength lhol as a funotion
of the angle e between the applied field and
the "easy" axis of the particle.
1./, " .... ,/
_________'.J/
/
,
l'
,.
particle (1) and (2) both
are positioned in the yzplane,
I , :0.
so also the veotor r
I " 12
In I / l'
r2. ... I ,'
~
x
/
Fig. 3.3. An assembly of two StonerWohlfarth partioles.
~
e
r
tp
______ I /
~J,/
/
/
l'
,
_ . deorease the applied field strength Ha.1
yes
no _
 'P1
82
1=
l(J1
92 A
1
.'VE
I Vf2/ \tp2
1
yes
l'
,is I definite positive
l _______ ?I reversible process
   Ufo
no
     _J
r                      
oalculation of the eigenvector assooiated
.
with the
eigenvalue that has beoome negative I V
n
81 e1
'P1
82
1=
92
~1 + s.v
...:..
n (s ... stepsize) 
\ 'P2/ \1fJ2j
,
calculation of the first and the second derivatives
of the energy (1 and V'E) 
(81\ re 1,
U lf71
no lf1
is VE ... 0 ?' I  s. VE I
82 62
,(e8 \'f2/ If2/ (s ... stepsize)
yes no
I
1 is A definite positive ?I
1
I irreversible process
L _
Fig. 3.5a. Flowdiagram of computerprogram used to calculate the
hysteresis loop of two interacting StonerWohlfarth
particles (irreversible process with steepest descent).
initialization I 81 1== 82 :== 0
0
_J
....   l__
, decreasfJ the applied field strength Ha
,a
H 1== H.J.nJ.. ti a 1 > Hsa t
I
t
is H < Hs~ t
a
I _ _.,=~~ STO~
YK..,.;,,;leB :1
"no
r                          ""'.
I calculation of the first and the second derivatives, I
of the energy (X and ~E). ~
I
I , 16 \
1
'8 1 \ _1
I is "V E ==0 ? I no:: l.f1 I LP1  A VE I
I 82 e2 I
I yes W'2) \l(J2/ I
I ., I
I yes lis A definite positive? reversible process I
L          1";;:0                  ...J
I
:
, (8~~ 1
)
,
(e~~
1
)
+ s.vn
""
(s: stepsi.e)
n 
I tfJ2 lf2
I oalculation of the first and the second derivatives I _
of the energy (1\ and VE).
11.1.,
I
I
I
is ~ E III 0 ? :....~n;.;;.o_1;....
.... g1 1 == oG. Ee 1 sine1E\f1
1
I g2 1 = sin
1
e1 (E 8 1+ sind.. e 1 .Elf1)
I
yes 6 E lf2
I
g3 1 ';' o(,E
1
82 sih
2
0'..,

j g4 1 = Bine (ES 2+ sine E lp2)
2 2
., (s = stepsize)
(~i2) (ii2) 
r
1=
,T
s.g
I yes :is A definite positive ? I                 ......
no
L _ irreversible prooess _..J
Fig. 3.5b. Flowdiagram of the computerprogram used to calculate the
hysteresisloop of two interaoting StonerWohlfarth
partioles (irreversible prooess with Gilbert equations).
o )0 60 90 , 20 , 50 HIO 210 240 270 )00 )30 360
)0 t 
D particle (1) and (2)
(reversible process) k 0.05
~ ...
e' 60
0 t 30
60 \ par~iola
,j.,. 2
60
"
(1) and (2)
90
(irreversible prooese)
90
120  1\ 120
120 150 1 80 210 240 270
and (2) par~iol. (1)
30 (revereible prooes.)
1+:fr~I1~+
parUole (2)
60  (irrevereible prooe.. )
60
90
120 120
150 150
180 180
o 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 )00 330
...
)60
"'
~
/'
I ) j I k 0.5
60 ~~ par~iole
(2) . Q' ~ 60 0 60
@) 90 \
(Irreversible prooeos)
IpakroJ(1)L
\ rJ.,. 2
90
180
o 60
1/ (reverwible proo".~1 180
30 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
0.5
o I
coherent I fannd.ng to the
rotation fanning to the antiparallel I parallel state'
state,
I
0.4
o 1.0
11:
Fig. 3.7. The initial switching mode and the nucleation field
strenrths h n ,1 and hn ,2 versus the interaotion strength
k ( e 80 0
).
fanning to the
parallel state fanning to the
antiparallel state
0.5
o
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
e "" 80
l 0
I
i
1/ k = 0 I
2/ k "" 0.2~
3/ k "" 0.5
4/ k "" 1.0 I
5/ k "" 1.25
6/ k = 1.52
1.0
'\. 0/.. 1
,
60 60
Nartiole t 1 and t2'
(irrever8ible prooess)
90 90
120 120
150
180
o 30 60 90
particle 1) and {2~,
(reversible prooe.s)
120 150
"'~
180 210
::.::::
240 210
 .. ....
]00 330 360
150
180
90 \ ~(irreTersible prooess)
90
120 1\ 130
150 \ partiole (1) aDd (2)
150
(Tvers~e troOjU)
180
o 30 60 90 120 150
" r
180 210 2> 210 ]00 330 360
180
90 ~ ~(irreTersible prooe ) 90
120 \\ 120
150 particle (1) and (2)
(ieTej'le, prooi;
180
o 60 90 120
I" 150 180 210 240 210 ]00 330
180
360
Fig. 3.10. Coherent rotation process of a dipole pair for
three different values of the damping parameter~.
~
I
,
60
~ particle (2) _ S' ~ 60 0 60
90 \
(irreversible prooejs)
~ahrOI~(1) \ ... 2
,(irreversible prooese)
120
,..... 120
150 I ) 150
part .ole ,1). and (2  ~
1/ (revereible prooeBB~'
..
180 180
o 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 210 300 330 360
"
~
30 ) (reversible process /" k 0.5 30
i'...: ...J
II
particle
!
(2)
.
.~
60 r
9'. 60
(iireve,Biblj proiess1 0(,4
90
120
;4 ~. partiole (1)
(irreversible process)
120
150 I I I ) 150
particle {1} and {2,~~ "I
180 II (reversible prooess 180
o 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 210 )00 330 360
~
30
o 30
,
60
~
90 120 150 180 210 240
partiole '( 1) and (21
> (reversible prooes8)
210 300 330 360
30
@ 90
"' ~
I T'I
partiole (2)
(irrrTIrooar) 
I k 0.5
e'. 60
0(,. 10
0
60
90
~ partiole (1)
1..
(irreversible prooees)
120 120
150 1'1=1 I
partiole (1) and (2)~ ~
150
e'
initial
state 80 0
k 0.25
h 0.3843 h n~ 1
mode I coherent rotation
final
2
o .L:;;'~~ state
I
~ , "
"", ,
"" ,.
,,
, ""
"" , " ",
, ,,
" "
o 90 180 270 360
Fig. 3.12. The total energy E versus the angles e*1 and 82'* at the nucleation field h 1
* ~2*
( ~1 0 n,
90 ). The course of the magnetization directions during the irreversible
process is given by an arrow.
4
et
80 0
k 0.15
h = 0.0463 ... hn, 1
2
mode I fanning to the anti
parallel state.
2
o final
state
"", ,
", , ,
,,
,,
o 90 180 210
* 71
Fig. 3.13a. The total energy E versus the angles 81 and 82 at the nucleation field h ,1
n
( * *" ... 900) The course of the magnetization directions during the irreversible
~1'" ~2
process is given by an arrow.
4
e' 800
2 k 0.15
h 0.6516 h n, 2
mode I fanning to the anti
parallel state.
o
final
__ ...::IIIIo....~
state
,,
,,
,
""
" ",
", ,
o 90 180 210 360
e*1
* *"
The total energy E versus the angles 8 1 and 82 at the nucleation field h 2
*" *" n,
(tp1 lf2., 90 0 ). The course of the magnetization directions during the irreversible
process is given b7 an arrow.
+3
E
+1 e' 80 0
k 1.5
h 0.2617 hn, 1
mode I fanning to the
1 parallel state.
3 final
o ~p..114+ 1....  ..... state
""
..:::Jlf:t:;~       " "
27
"
~. ""
o 90 180 270 360
The total energr E versus the angles 81'* and 92* at the nucleation field h 1
*
( Lf 1 LP *'2 900 ). The course of the magnetization directions during the irreversible
n,
process is given by an arrow.
M/M e
1.0
e I
80 0
1/ k .. 0
2/ k 0.25
3/ k 0.5
4/ k ..
1.0
1 2 3 4 5 6
~ 0.5
5/ k ..
1.25 ,0
 '.
U~
6/ k .. 1.52 '. I
.
2.0 1.0 0
.
1.0
I r Ir r , 'H
I
h
6 5 4 2 1 0.5
.. 1.0
o
o
k