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Typical Cross Sections for Composite Columns

Sections are generally double symmetric and can be divided into three groups:

- Fully cast in Profiles (Fig a)

- Partly cast in profiles (Fig b & c)

- Hollow profiles filled with concrete (Fig e & f)

Advantages of Composite Columns

- Minimization of floor space occupied by column

- Can be pre fabricated

- Filled sections can be connected as in steel constructions.

Comparative Advantages of Composite Columns

- Compared to concrete column cross-sections and higher ductility

- Compared to steel column better performance in fire

The following requirements are to be observed for the design:

- Consider long term creep and shrinkage unless effect on strain is less than 10%

- Second order moments are to be accounted for unless < 10%

- Tensile capacity of concrete is to be neglected

- Steel profiles can yield before there are subject to local buckling.

To prevent local buckling the following width to thickness ratios are to be observed.
Limiting width/thickness ratio:

- For circular hollow profiles filled with concrete

d = outer diameter

t = wall thickness of profile

- Filled rectangular hollow sections

h: Larger length of side Plates

- Partly cast in I-Section

b: flange Width
tf: flange thickness

- Fully cast in profiles

- No check required

Concrete cover for composite columns with I-Sections

Functions of cover:

- Limit local buckling

- Ensure composite action can develop

- Corrosion protection

- Fire protection

Minimum concrete cover:

Simplified Design Proposal procedure for composite columns

The following requirements apply for the simplified procedure

- Section to be double symmetric

- Concrete cover
Maximum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement

max = 4% with

A = Cross sectional area of reinforcement

Ac = Cross sectional area of concrete

Maximum slenderness of composite column


with : Axial capacity of cross section

And : Buckling load of column

- Cross sectional parameter

To classify Rc column composite column and steel column

With : Plastic axial capacity of composite section

With Design as Rc column

Design as steel column


Typical cross section for composite columns Axial capacity of composite section

The plastic axial capacity npl.Rd of a composite column is calculated as:

With for filled hollow sections

For all other sections

Column buckling is to be checked using the relative slenderness ratio

Buckling need not to be considered for:

Or Axial force 0.1 Ncr
With Stress distribution for full plastic resistance

In filled circular sections the concrete is in a three dimensional stress state because of
constraint lateral strain. This leads to a higher axial capacity, However the axial
capacity of the tube is reduced due to loop tension.

Over all there is an increase in axial capacity which can be taken into account for:
And The positive effect of the constraint condition maybe considred only for:

Eccentricity of axial force

: Max design moment from external applied load

: Design axial force

Plastic axial capacity for constraint filled sections:

For The specific slenderness is calculated neglecting the constraint condition.

Effective stiffness Calculate the effective stiffness by adding the stiffness of

individual components. Moment of inertia of steel, concrete reinforcement.

Of reinforcement structural steel

Effective stiffness of concrete

Specific slenderness

The specific slenderness calculated using the buckling load and the axial section
capacity on the column
Buckling length of column

The influence of shrinkage is only to be considered for very slender columns and can
be neglected if conditions of table 12 are met.


Show for each axis that the design load NSD is smaller than capacity NRD.

Reduction factor for various buckling curves

Curve a Filled hollow section

Curve b Cast-in-sections major axis bending

Curve c Cast-in-sections minor axis bending

Reduction Factor


Curve a = 0.21

Curve b = 0.34


The moment capacity under plastic stress distribution is to be calculated depending on

position of plastic neutral axis which is to be found under equilibrium of axial stresses.


Do not consider in tension

The moment capacity is to be determined taking consideration of axial force with the
interaction diagram.

Interaction for section capacities M and N

Interaction curvature is calculated as follows:
Point A

- Plastic axial capacity

NA.Rd = Npl.Rd
MA.Rd = 0

Npl.Rd = Aa fyd + Ac c fcd + As fsd

with c = 1.0 for filled sections

with c = 0.85 for other sections

Point B

- Plastic moment capacity

NB.Rd = 0
MB.rd = Mpl.Rd

Point C

NC.Rd = Npm.Rd
MC.Rd = Mpl.Rd

Point D

ND.Rd = Npm.Rd
MD.Rd = Mmax.Rd

Calculating Point D: Npm.Rd and Mmax.Rd

Stress distribution in Point D

The neutral axis is equal to the mid section line. All stressed areas contribute to positive


Wpa,c,s plastic section modules of structural steel concrete and rebar

Inner axial force is determined by concrete section only as axial components of steel
cancel each other.

Determine point B Mpl.Rd

For sections subject to moments only the plastic neutral axis is shifted from the midline
by hn because the internal axial force must be zero. Therefore the resulting axial force in
D must result from additional section areas in compression.

For a cast-in I section the shift hn is calculated as

The additional moment is calculated as:

Therefore the plastic moment capacity is equal to:

Mpl.Rd = Mmax.Rd Mn.Rd

Determine Point C Mpm.Rd and Mpl.Rd

The internal moment is Mpl.Rd

The internal axial force is :

NC.Rd = Npm.Rd

Point E