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IIM IT Q

11 y
Rat
Conditionals - Wishes - Had Better/Would Rather^ Past

O R A jL
Rev)sion Box A c t iv it y
Answ er the q uestions below using I wish then
ju s tify your answ er using the co rrect cond itio na l type,
as in the example.
j ^ Turn the following sentences into reported
J sp e e c h . 1 Whjch CQuntry jn the
. .ia /u u u o- u I w orld w ould you m ost
1 Why are you in such a hurry? she asked me.
...She aeked me why I wae in euch a hurry,... . . , , . . . ..
e.g. I wish I c o u ld visit
2 I met som e friends in town, Brian said, (up-to-date , u ,
^ India. If I ever visited
reporting) /nd/a, I w ould visit the
.................................................................................................... Taj Mahal.
3 W here did you go last n ig h t? he asked her.

4 I w ould go out tonight if I d id n 't have to w o rk , she


said.
.................................................................................................... 2W hat o b je ct w ould
5 You should ask your teacher for help,' he told her. you m ost like to own?
.................................................................................................... e.g. I wish I had ...
6 Clean up this m e ss! he said to them .

7 Birds make nests in trees, he said to me.

8 Belgium is a small country,' he told us.


.................................................................................................... 3 W ho w ould you m ost
9 Til help you paint the garage,' he said, (out-of-date like to meet?
reporting) e.g. I wish I c o u ld m e e t...

10 You can visit w henever you like,' she said to him.


(up-to-date reporting)

4W hat talent w ould


3 2 . Write sentences using have something done ,
^ as in the example. you m ost like to have?
e.g. I wish I c o u ld ...
1 Josie s mum is qoinq to cut her hair for her.
...Joeie ie going to have her h a ir c u t by her mum ...
2 We m ust ask the carpenter to m end those cupboards.

5 W hat period in history


3 Ask Sam to do the sh opping for you.
w ould you m ost like
to have lived in?
4 Tony's tooth was taken out yesterday.
e.g. I wish I had lived
i n ...
5 The doctor is exam ining C laire's broken leg.

6 James asked for the parcel to be sent first-class.

sm
7 We d idn't go out. We asked for a pizza to be delivered. 6 W hat do you regret
.................................................................................................... having done?
8 Frank asked the shop assistant to w rap the gift for him. e g- I wish I h a d n 't...

159
Revision 3 (Units 1 - 9)
19 The boys a d m itte d ...............the window.
1 Choose the correct answer. A sm ash B to smash C sm ashing

20 I d o n t m in d ................ In fact, I quite enjoy it.


1 If you . C... your room , you can go out to play.
A iron B to iron C ironing
A tidied B had tidied C have tidied

21 H e .............me not to go near the river.


2 Alan apologised f o r ..............Ja n e s birthday.
A forgetting B to forget C forget
A exclaim ed B warned C dem anded

3 Y o u ..............report the burglary to the police. 22 N othing will stop her f r o m ..............out.
A ca n t B m ight C ought to A move B to m ove C m oving

4 If I feel better tonight, I ..............to the party. 23 He was t h e ............ person in the com petition. He knew
A w ould go B m ight go C go all the answers.
A cleverest B clever C cleverer
5 M alcolm h a te s ................ so he often eats out.
A cook B co oking C to cook 24 If the tem perature rises above 0C, i c e ...............
A m elts B w ould melt C m ight melt
6 That p ic tu re ...............by som eone very fam ous.
A painted B is painting C was painted
25 They ............. be friends. They never speak to each
other.
7 S a m ..............for his wallet for hours before he found it.
A w ould B could C ca n t
A has been searching B had been searching
C had searched
26 If you ............. to open the box, you w o u ld n t have
8 They advised m e ..............for som e help. broken it.
A asking B ask C to ask A d id n t try B h a d n t tried C havent tried

9 They are identical twins and I cant ............... one from 27 He e n jo y s .............tim e by himself.
the other. A to spend B spending C spend
A told B tell C say
28 ..............I take your order now, m adam ?
10 That office block is m u c h ..............than this one. A Should B Must C May
A taller B tall C tallest
29 Y o u .............finish that exercise before you leave today.
11 They had lots of potatoes so th e y .............buy any more. A m ust B c a n t C w ould
A didnt need to B m ustnt C c o u ld n t

30 Y o u ............. close the door. I like to leave it open.


12 the bank is closed, what will we do?
A c o u ld n t B m ust C neednt
A Unless B Providing C S upposing

13 Jack broke his leg while h e ............... last winter. 31 .............you leave now, you w o n t miss the start of the
A is skiing B was skiing C skiied film.
A S upposing B Providing C Unless
14 If you ............... in such a hurry, you w o u ld n t have
forgotten the file. 32 If you had arrived earlier, y o u ............ dinner.
A ha d n t left B d id n t leave C havent left A w o u ld n t have m issed B w o n t have missed
C w o n t miss
15 If I were you, I ...............a letter of com plaint.
A write B will w rite C w ould write 33 If he had som e m oney, h e ..............on holiday.
A could go B can go C will go
16 M e lis s a ............... in a very busy office now.
A w orks B has w orked C was w orking 34 He ............. that she was the m ost beautiful girl hed
ever seen.
17 He d e n ie d ..............his m o th e rs vase.
A w arned B denied C exclaimed
A break B breaking C to break

35 T h e y ................on paying for the meal.


18 hes with his friends, hes very talkative.
A Providing B W hen C S upposing A claim ed B dem anded C insisted

140
Revision 3 (Units 1 - 9 )
19 If I had realised what time it was, I w ou ld n t have called,
a Complete each sentence with two to
five words, including the word in bold. re a lis e d Had ....................................................................
was, I w o u ld n 't have called.
20 W hat a fantastic view!' they said.
1 You m ust pay for the tickets by Friday, he said to me. e xc la im e d They ...................................................................
on He .. in s is te d on my paying... for the a fantastic view.
tickets by Friday.
2 I d id n t see the car until it was too late.
d id Not until it was ................................................ 3 _ Turn the following sentences into reported
the car. ^ speech.
3 You will miss the bus unless you leave now.
if You will miss the b u s ..................................... 1 Be quiet!' the teacher said to the boys.
...................................................................now. ...The teacher ordered the boys to be o\u\et...
4 I want to go on holiday, but I ca n t afford it. 2 W ould you like to com e to my party?' she said to him.
w ish I ...................................................................... to
go on holiday. 3 I'm the fastest runner in the school,' Paul said.
5 If I were you, I w ould apologise.
yo u W e r e .............................................. apologise. 4 Til phone you every week while Im away,' she said to
6 D ont forget to lock the car d o o r, Dad said to Bill, him.
re m in d e d D a d .....................................................................
the car door. 5 D o n t go near the w aterfall, he said to us.
7 She had no idea she had gone to the w rong house,
kn o w L ittle .................................................................... 6 Could you lend me som e m oney? she said to her
had gone to the w rong house. brother.
8 If you wake up early tom orrow , w e ll go sh opping
together. 7 Everyone wait outside!' the boss said to his employees.
p ro v id e d W ell go shopping to g e th e r .........................
............................................... early tom orrow . 8 Can I borrow your p en? she said to the man.
9 I broke Janes doll, the boy said.
a d m itte d The b o y ............................................................. 9 Would you like to help me make dinner? Mum said to me.
J anes doll.
10 If you d o n t stop shouting, I will tell the teacher. 10 I d id n t borrow your fo o tb a ll, he said to Tom.
else Stop sh o u tin g ....................................................
the teacher. 11 D on't forget to water the plants, Mum said to me.
11 If you d o n t study hard, you w o n t pass your exams,
u n le ss You w o n t pass your exams ........................ 12 T m sorry I was late, he said to her.
.................................................................. hard.
12 D ont touch anything while Im away on any account, 13 Lets go for a w a lk , Linda said.
s h o u ld On no a c c o u n t................................................
..............................anything while Im away. 14 Ive got toothache, Adam said.
13 I d o n t suppose you know where Alison is, do you? Liz
said to me. 15 Please, please help m e, she said to him.
w h e th e r Liz wanted to k n o w ........................................
....................................................... Alison was.
14 They had never heard such an interesting story before,
be fo re N e v e r................................................................. . Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
such an interesting story. 4 J tense.
15 Ruth would prefer to stay at home than go to the party,
ra th e r R u th .................................................................... 1 I wish I ...hadn't broken... (not/break) my favourite toy.
than go to the party. 2 If only she ................................ (listen) to w hat I tell her.
16 I d id n t leave the gate o p e n , he said. 3 I wish I ............................(not/go) to bed late last night.
d e n ied H e .......................................... the gate open. 4 If only Linda ........................................(apply) for that job.
17 Caroline regrets shouting at her friend yesterday, 5 If only the b o y s ................................................ (not/arrive)
w is h e s C a ro lin e ............................................................. so late last night.
at her friend yesterday. 6 If only we .......................................(have) enough money
18 I rarely went to the cinem a before I got married. to buy a car.
go H ardly e v e r ....................................................... 7 I wish I ...................................................................(be) rich.
the cinem a before I got married. 8 If only we ........................... (be) old enough to live alone.

141
R e v isio n 3 (Units 1 - 9)
9 I wish my neighbours ........................................ (not/have) 4 A: Ive been feeling very tired recently.
parties every weekend. B: You c o u ld n t/o u g h t to have a holiday.
10 If only I ................................................... (apologise) for my 5 A: W ould/C ould you tell me where the accounts
bad behaviour yesterday. departm ent is, please?
11 I wish I ............................. (not/make) such a big mistake. B: Its on the third floor.
12 I wish my brother ............................................(not/borrow) 6 A: C an/M ust you cook?
my favourite clothes. B: Not very well, although I enjoy it.
13 If only T re v o r....................................... (remember) to post 7 A: W hy are you w orking late?
the letter. B: I ought to/have to finish updating the files by
14 If only I ......................... (invite) more people to the party. tom orrow m orning.
15 Tara wishes s h e ..............................................(know) more 8 A: There were lots of fast runners in the race, w eren't
people in the area. there?
B: Yes, but Alex was able to /co uld finish second.
9 A: Shall I take the rubbish outside?
g Rewrite the sentences using the words/ B: No, you d id n t need to /n ee dn t. I'll take it in a
phrases given.
minute.
10 A: I phoned Jill and Martin, but there was no answer.
1 He not only dro p p e d the eggs, but he slipped on them .
B: They m ust/can have gone to the superm arket.
Not only ...did he d ro p th e eggst b u t he slipped on
11 A: B arbaras late. I w onder where she is.
them....
B: She co uld/sho uld have got stuck in traffic.
2 She has seldom been to such a good party.
12 A: M ight/M ay not I speak to Miss Andrews, please?
S e ld o m .....................................................................................
B: One m om ent, please. Ill see if sh e s available.
3 I have rarely met such polite people.
13 A: W ill/Shall we rent a video this evening?
Rarely ......................................................................................
B: T hats a goo d idea.
4 They have not once visited the m useum in the town.
14 A: You sh ou ld /m ust wear protective clothing in here.
Not o n c e ..................................................................................
Its a rule.
5 I realised only then that the w indow was broken.
B: Yes, I know.
Only t h e n .................................................................................
15 A: W here is Angela?
6 I not only took the picture, but I developed it.
B: She m ay/can be in her bedroom , studying.
Not only ...................................................................................
7 They have never taken such an im portant exam before.
Never before ..........................................................................
7 ^ Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
8 I had no sooner closed the door than Bill opened it again.
No sooner ................................................................................
9 He has seldom heard such an amusing joke. 1 The police found the m issing jewels.
S eldom ...................................................................................... ...The missing jewels were found by the police,...
10 They have rarely taken a day off work. 2 A w ealthy businessm an donated the money.
Rarely ........................................................................................
11 He has not once asked us to help him. 3 Scientists m ade an im portant discovery last weekend.
Not once ..................................................................................
12 They had no sooner sat down than the film started. 4 W ho painted Susans portrait?
No sooner ................................................................................
13 He noticed only then that the music had stopped. 5 Sim on paid the deposit for the new flat.
Only then .................................................................................
14 She has never attended an audition before. 6 They did the w ashing-up before they watched TV.
Never before ..........................................................................
15 I not only broke the glass, but I cut my finger on it. 7 Jenny m ade the arrangem ents for the school trip.
Not only ...................................................................................
8 What destroyed the village?

9 Melissa ate all the fruit.


6 ^ Underline the correct w ord(s) in bold.

10 Mother decorated Jim s birthday cake.


1 A: S hould/M ay I speak to you in private, please?
B: Of course. C om e into my office. 11 Gordon introduced me to the managing director of the
2 A: When sh all/w ill we meet to discuss the plans? company.
B: Next week.
3 A: Those files m ustn t/c o u ld n t be moved. 12 The cat broke the vase in the dining room.
B: Alright. Ill leave them where they are.

142
Revision 3 (Units 1 - 9 )

8 p Underline the correct preposition. io > Cross out the unnecessary word.

1 Rarely |> < r do I go to the theatre.


1 He was sentenced to/at/for tw o years in prison for his
2 Tony likes horror film s and so does like Marilyn.
crime.
3 You'd better to tell the boss w hat has happened.
2 Your sister is very similar with/for/to a girl I used to know.
4 I wish if they w ould stop giving me so much w ork to do.
3 Is James worried? He seems to have som ething in/on/
5 All they did it was to move the furniture.
off his mind.
6 It was Brian who he borrowed the bicycle.
4 Alison suffers from/of/for lots of allergies.
7 No sooner had he locked the door than when the phone
5 He was very upset of/for/about failing the exam.
rang.
6 That entry w asnt w orthy to/of/for w inning first prize.
8 What I really like to do it is eat out with my friends.
7 It's typical for/of/from Lilian to be late.
9 He said that everyone should to sign the card.
8 I'm not sure on/for/about the answer to that question.
10 I asked her that w hat she w ould like to drink.
9 She has terrible taste in/from/of clothes.
11 Do you help yourself to coffee and biscuits, please.
10 You should be suspicious at/of/for anyone w ho you
12 If you will get up early, you may catch the early train.
d o n t know well.
13 Jack prefers reading magazines than to reading novels.
11 Her novels have been translated for/to/into twelve
14 She told to him that she had m ade a mistake.
languages.
15 Mum told me do not to touch the oven.
12 The fire brigade soon had the blaze into/under/out of
control.
13 They emptied all the cupboards in search for/of/to the a j Fill in the correct form of the word in
money. 1 brackets.
14 You waste too m uch m oney on/for/with sweets and
magazines.
1 My uncle know s lots o f ...fa m o us ... (fame) people.
15 At/To/By my surprise, he bought me flowers.
2 Have you m ade a ........................ (decide) about w hich
jo b to take yet?
3 The sunflow er grew to a ............................(high) of two
Q Fill in the gaps with the correct particle metres.
^ from the list. 4 He is well-known for his ........................ (kind) to others.
5 Everyone w ho know s him adm ires his ..........................
away, on, off, out, back , up, up to (generous).
6 He passed the exams because he had done a lot of
1 The fact that the house was very isolated put me ............................... (revise).
...off... buying it. 7 G unpow der is a highly .....................................(explode)
2 The car pulled ...............outside the house and a man substance.
got out. 8 I have no ............................. (complain) about the service
3 The crim inals were put .....................for five years after in that hotel.
they were found guilty. 9 S a ra h 's ............................................ (impatient) makes her
4 The man asked me to h o l d ........... while he answered unpopular with lots of people.
the door. 10 She felt a sense of ....................................(relieve) when
5 Im tired of telling him to do things. He k e e p s .............. she realised that she h a d n t lost her bag.
ignoring me. 11 The sports car was so ..............................(expense) that
6 You must tell me everything. D ont keep a n y th in g ...... he needed a loan to buy it.
7 Keep ........... from the main road. Its very dangerous. 12 My contacts in the business w orld have been .............
8 Do you think the wood supplies will h o ld ................. until .................. (benefit) to my career.
the spring? 13 Our neighbours have had a la r g e .....................................
9 Annie lo o k s ................her older sister. (extend) built on their house.
10 She thought of a way to pay him ...............for his lies. 14 This do cu m e n t requires a ......................................(sign)
11 It's too dark in here. I c a n t m ake ................ w here the from the m anager.
light switch is. 15 The ..............................................(compete) was won by a
12 This skirt is too tight. Ill ask Mum to let i t ........... for me. young boy from the village.
13 The prices in the superm arket have been p u t .............. 16 New technology makes ..................... (com municate)
this week. between countries very easy these days.
14 The thief m ade ............ with the m oney from the safe. 17 Sarah has always been a ..................... (sense) girl. She
15 Ill look ............John's telephone number in my address rarely takes risks.
book. 18 Kerry has a v e r y ..................... (act) lifestyle. Thats why
shes very fit.

145
UNIT 10
Claui ^ L in k in g W ords
lim e CleiUbefc tim e ConfuneiLomi,

They had booked ago - before


tickets before they
ago = before now
went to the cinema.
e.g. My parents got married twenty years ago.
They will go home
(= twenty years before now)
when the film is over.
before = before a past tim e
e.g. Helen and Mike got married last month.
They had met six months before. (= six months
before last month)

u n til/till - by the tim e

We use the fo llo w in g tim e c o n ju n c tio n s to untilAIII = up to the tim e when


introduce tim e clauses. e.g. You must stay in the office until/till you finish/have
finished the report.
when - as - while - before - after - since - until/till -
(= up to the time when you finish the report)
whenever - as long as - by the time - as soon as -
Theyll be at their summer house until/till Sunday.
the moment that - no sooner ...than - hardly... when
- once - immediately - the first/last/next time etc. (= up to Sunday)
by the tim e + clause = not later than the moment
When the tim e clause precedes the main clause, a som ething happens
comm a is used. e.g. I will have set the table by the time you come
e.g. Whenever he is in town, he visits us. home. (= before, not later than the moment you
tim e clause main clause come home)
He visits us whenever he is in town. by = not later than
main clause tim e clause e.g. I ll let you know my decision by Friday. (= not
later than Friday)
Sequence of Tenses
Note: a) n o t ... u n til/till
Tim e clauses fo llo w the rule of the sequence of e.g. I won't have finished my work until/till/
tenses. That is, when the verb o f the main clause before Thursday.
is in a present or fu tu re form , the verb of the tim e b) Both until/till and before can be used to
clause is in a present form . When the verb of the say how far away a future event is.
main clause is in a past form , the verb o f the tim e e.g. There's only one week until/till/before
clause is in a past form too. my summer holidays.

d uring - w hile/as
Main clause Time clause
present / future / present simple or d u rin g + noun = in the tim e period
im perative present perfect e.g. We learnt several interesting facts during the
She takes off her shoes the moment that she gets lecture.
home. w hile/as + clause = in the tim e period
I ll call you as soon as I get to my hotel. e.g. We learnt several interesting facts while/as we
Turn off the lights before you leave. were listening to the lecture.
past sim ple / -* past sim ple or
past perfect past perfect when = (tim e conjun ction ) + present tense
e.g. We 'II order some pizzas when our friends get here.
He took a shower after he had finished painting the
room. when = (question w ord) + w ill/w o uld
They had reserved a table before they went to the e.g. I'm not sure when his next book will be published.
restaurant.

144
u n it m
UIMII IU
C lau ses - Linking
F ill in th e g a p s w ith by, until, while, before, 3 Underline the appropriate time phrases
1 a hardly ... when, as soon as, when, as long as o r and put the verbs into the correct tense.
by the time .

1 You can keep those CDs for ...ae long ae... you like. 1 I'll call you whilelthe moment I ...get... (get) home.
2 I can't do any washing ...............................the w ashing 2 You can visit me whenever/till you ...............................
machine is repaired. (want) to.
3 We saw the sm oke ......................... we turned into our 3 We went for a walk after/until we ..................................
street. (eat) breakfast.
4 We had ......................... gone to b e d ..................... there 4 Once/Before he ..............................(read) the manual,
was a knock at the door. he knew how to operate the machine.
5 Sarah parked the car ........................ Paul dashed into 5 I was doing the ironing during/while he ......................
the bank. (wash) the car.
6 I have to finish these letters ........................ I can leave 6 They didnt get married until/by the time they ...............
the office. .................... (save) enough money for their honeymoon.
7 Wait h e r e .......................................................... I get back. 7 I'll write to you as soon as/immediately I ...................
8 I was w ashing my hair ........................ the phone rang. (have) the results.
9 You m ust be hom e ................. eleven o clock tonight. 8 I got to the station till/just as the train ..........................
10 Sue reached the bank, it had closed. (pull in).
9 We w o n 't m ove to a new house since/before the
c h ild re n ............................(leave) school.
^ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
10 They had fixed the roof until/by the time John
^ tense.
.......................... (come) back.
11 The students d o n t know when/till the results ...........
1 A: I m ust tell Steve the good news.
................................. (announce).
B: D on't worry. I ...7/ tell... (tell) him w hen I ...eee..
(see) him.
2 A: How did your tear your dress? a C o m p le te e a c h s e n te n c e w it h t w o t o fiv e
B: I .......................... (step) on it as I ........................(get) J w o r d s , in c lu d in g t h e w o r d in b o ld .
out of the car.
3 A: Have you finished with the newspaper? 1 As soon as he w oke up, he jum ped out of bed.
B: Alm ost. You can have it after I .......................(read) m om ent He jum ped out of bed ...the moment he
the sports section. woke... up.
4 A: When will they announce the results? 2 She did som e research before she w rote her report,
B: They ......................................... (not/announce) them a fte r She w rote her report ......................................
until they ................................ (mark) all the papers. ............................................... som e research.
5 A: When did you realise you had been burgled? 3 I had no sooner entered the house than the phone rang,
B: I knew it the m om ent I ......................(arrive) home. h a rd ly I h a d ....................................................................
6 A: You should be in bed by now. ............................................... the phone rang.
B: I ................... (go) to bed as soon as I ........................ 4 Simon hurt his leg clim bing a tree.
(finish) this chapter. w h ile Sim on hurt his leg .............................a tree.
7 A: Has your boss signed the contract yet? 5 We ca n t go. We have to wait for the taxi to arrive,
B: No. Im not sure when h e ........................... (sign) it. u n til We ca n t go ....................................... arrives.
8 A: Have you spoken to Uncle John? 6 We opened the gate. The dog ran tow ards us.
B: Yes. I ......................................... (phone) him before I sooner We h a d .............................................. than the
................................... (leave) the house. dog ran tow ards us.
9 A: Did your friends organise a surprise party for your 7 The shop will open at nine o clock. The staff will have
birthday? com e in to work by then.
B: Yes! No sooner .............................(I/open) the door tim e The staff will have com e in to work ...........
than all my friends ............................... (jump) out to .............................................. the shop opens.
surprise me! 8 Moira bought the ring only after she had made sure it
10 A: Do you see Catherine very often? was solid gold.
B: We meet whenever she ................ (have) the time. b e fo re Moira made sure the ring was solid gold
11 A: Can I borrow your dictionary, please? ..........................................................................it.
B: You can have it once I ......................(finish) with it. 9 Her phone card ran out during her conversation with
12 A: Has Lee cleaned his room yet? her m other.
B: No, but he will have done it by the tim e Mum ....... w h ile Her phone card ran out ................................
(get) home. ....................................................... her mother.

145
UNIT 10 r
Clau ^ " lin k in g W o rd s

C ici u S'eb o v Ives u Ii 5 ^ F ill in so, such o r such a/an .

1 The party next d o o r last night was ...eo... loud that I


c o u ld n t sleep.
2 They sell .............. ................lovely things in that shop.
3 I b o u g h t......................... lot of shopping that I c o u ld n t
carry all the bags.
4 It was ................... late when I got hom e that I d id n t
have dinner.
5 She dresses .....................elegantly that everyone
adm ires her.
6 I had ..................... bad headache yesterday that I had
to leave w ork and go home.
7 Im ........................ hungry that I could eat anything
for lunch.
Dolphins are so appealing (that) it is hard not to like them. 8 He had p u t .......... .......little salt in the soup that it was
They are such intelligent creatures (that) they can tasteless.
communicate with each other. 9 It w a s .................... am using film that I laughed all the
Clauses of result are used to express the result of way through.
som ething. They are introduced w ith the fo llo w in g 10 They have got ...................... fashionable furniture in
w ords/expressions: their house that it is often photographed for magazines
11 She i s ................... .........interesting person that I could
as a result - therefore - consequently/as a
spend hours talking to her.
consequence - so - so/such ... that etc.

as a result/therefore/consequently
e.g. The president was taken ill and, as a result / C Complete each sentence with two to five
therefore/consequently the summit meeting ^ words, including the word in bold.
was cancelled.
The president was taken ill. As a result/therefore/ 1 I had a lot of hom ew ork to do, so I c o u ld n t go out.
consequently, the summit meeting was cancelled. so I had ...eo much homework... to do that I
so e.g. It was hot, so I turned on the air-conditioning. c o u ld n t go out.
2 The bus was very late. We decided to take a taxi.
such a/an + adjective + singular countable noun
so The bus was .........................................................
e.g. It was such an interesting book (that) I couldnt
put it down. we decided to take a taxi.
3 He was sleeping soundly. We c o u ld n t wake him.
such + adjective + plural/uncountable noun
so He was ...................................................................
e.g. They are such good friends (that) theyve never
we c o u ld n t wake him.
had an argument.
4 It was very exciting news and I c o u ld n t wait to tell
It was such expensive jewellery (that) it was kept
everyone.
in a safe.
such It w a s .......................................................................
such a lot of + plural/uncountable noun I c o u ld n t wait to tell everyone.
e.g. She invited such a lot o f guests to her party that 5 She is a very clever girl and her parents are very proud
there wasnt enough room for all of them.
of her.
He has such a lot o f money (that) he doesnt
such She is ......................................................................
know what to do with it.
her parents are very proud of her.
so + adjective/adverb 6 Jane d o e sn t spend m uch tim e studying. She may fail
e.g. He is so devoted that he deserves praise. her exams.
He speaks so quickly that I cant understand him. little Jane spends .........................................................
so much/little + uncountable noun she may fail her exams.
so many/few + plural noun 7 Peter did a lot of work yesterday, so he has nothing to
e.g. There is so much traffic that we w ont be on time. do today.
He pays so little attention to what I say that it much Peter d i d .................................................................
makes me angry. yesterday that he has nothing to do today.
He made so many mistakes that he failed. 8 His luggage was heavy. He decided to call a porter,
There are so few wolves left that we have to such He had ...................................................................
protect them. that he decided to call a porter.

146
C lau ses - Linking"
7 Rewrite the sentences using the w ord(s)
Clauses el IvJc-asej.i Jt in brackets.

1 She w ent to bed because she was tired, (since)


...She went to bed eince ehe wae tired....
Traffic is getting
2 The singer cancelled her appearance. She was feeling
worse because/as
unwell, (on account of)
more people
are buying cars.
3 She h a d n t eaten all day, and therefore she was hungry,
Traffic is getting
(as)
worse on account
of the fact that
4 He was rude and, as a result, the teacher punished him.
more people are
(because of)
buying cars.

5 The reason why the Prime Minister did not attend the
press conference was that he was out of the country, (for)

6 He has passed his exams, so his parents are pleased


with him. (now that)

Clauses of reason are used to express the reason fo r 7 The jo b was very dangerous, so she turned it down,
som ething. They are introduced w ith the fo llo w in g (the reason for)
w ords/expressions:

because - as/since - the reason forlwhy - because 8 His car ran out of petrol, so it w o u ld n t move, (due to)
of/on account of/due to - now that - for etc.
9 He was late. He took a taxi, (since)
because e.g. I took a taxi because it was raining.
Because it was raining, I took a taxi.
as/since ( = because) e.g. They bought him a gift
as/since it was his birthday. As/Since it was his O Complete each sentence with two to five
birthday, they bought him a gift. words, including the word in bold.
the reason fo r + noun/-ing form
the reason w hy + clause 1 It was very cold, so I w ore my coat.
e.g. The reason for his resignation was (the fact) as I wore my coat ...ae it wae... very cold.
that he had been offered a better job. 2 We d id n t go for a walk because it was raining,
The fact that he had been offered a better job was account We d id n t go for a walk ...................................
the reason for his resigning. ................................................................ the rain,
The reason why he resigned was (the fact) that 3 He didn't tidy his room. As a result, his mother shouted
he had been offered a better job. at him.
because His m other shouted at him ...........................
because of/on account of/due to + noun
because of/on account of/due to the fact th at + ............................................................. his room
clause 4 She d id n t close the gate. As a result, the dog escaped
e.g. All flights were cancelled because of/on account due The dog escaped .............................................
of the thick fog. ................................ she d id n t close the gate
All flights were cancelled due to the thick fog. 5 The reason why she got a lot of presents was that it
He asked for a few days off because of/on was her birthday.
account of the fact that he was exhausted. fo r The fact that it was her birthday was ...........
He asked for a few days off due to the fact that ................................................ a lot of presents.
he was exhausted. 6 We d id n 't understand the lecture, so we asked the
tutor to explain.
now (that) + clause e.g. Now (that) they have
children , they have less free time. since We asked the tutor to explain..........................
...........................................................the lecture.
fo r = because (in form al w ritten style) 7 The car skidded on the road because it was icy.
A clause of reason introduced w ith for always due The car skidded on the r o a d .................. ice.
com es after the main clause.
8 I c o u ld n 't sleep because it was noisy.
e.g. The citizens of Harbridge were upset, for a new
of I c o u ld n t sleep ..................................................
factory was to be built near their town.
noise.

147
UNIT 10
Cla -Linking W o rd s
i r

Clauses of purpose fo llo w the rule of the sequence


of tenses, like tim e clauses (page 144).
e.g. He borrowed some money so that he could pay
his phone bill.

Note: We can express negative purpose by using:


They met in a cafe
to discuss their a) prevent + noun/pronoun + (from ) + -ing form
holiday. e.g. She covered the sofa with a sheet to prevent
They met in a cafe it (from) getting dirty.
so that they b) avoid + -ing form
could discuss e.g. They set off early in the morning to avoid
their holiday. getting stuck in traffic.

Underline the correct word.


C lauses of purpose are used to express the purpose
of an action. That is, they explain w hy som eone does
som ething. They are introduced w ith the fo llo w in g It was three o clock on Saturday
w ords/expressions: afternoon and Ben was in the
to - in order to/so as to - so that/in order that park. He had taken his sister,
- in case - for etc. Katy, with him 1) s o th a tlfo r she
could play on the swings. While
to -In fin itiv e they were playing, Ben noticed
e.g. She went shopping to look for some new clothes. that a small bird was sitting
in o rd er to /so as to + In finitive (form al) near a tree. He walked towards
e.g. He did a postgraduate course in order to/so as it 2) in order to I so that have a
to widen his knowledge of international politics. closer look. He walked slowly and
In negative sentences we use in order not to or so quietly 3) not to Is o as not to
as not to . We never use not to alone. frighten it. The bird had a broken
e.g. He wrote the number down in order not to/so as wing, so Ben and Katy went home
not to forget it. and got a box 4) for /to carry it in.
When they had put it in the box,
so th a t + ca n/w ill (present or fu tu re reference)
e.g. Emma has booked a first-class ticket so that she they took it to the vet 5) to I for treatment. The vet was
can travel in comfort. very gentle 6) in order to/ so that he wouldnt hurt it. The
bird recovered a few weeks later and the vet released it
so th a t + co uld/w o uld (past reference)
in the park again.
e.g. He recorded the match so that he could watch it
later.
Note: In order that has the same structure as so
, ** Join the sentences using the word(s) in
that. However, it is not used very often as it is v brackets.
form al.
e.g. We will send you the forms in order that you can
make your application. 1 He got the car out of the garage. He wanted to wash it.
(so that)
In case + p re se n t te n s e (p re se n t o r fu tu re
...He got the car out o f the garage eo th a t he could
reference) waeh it....
in case + past tense (past reference) 2 I always lock the doors and w indow s. I d o n t want to
In case is never used w ith w ill or would. be burgled, (avoid)
e.g. Take your credit card in case you run out of cash.
He took a jum per in case it got cold. 3 The d o cto r exam ined the patient. He w anted to find out
fo r + noun (when we w ant to express the purpose w hat was w rong with him. (so as to)
of an action)
e.g. He went to the d octo rs for a check-up. 4 Ive taken out a loan. I want to buy a car. (to)
fo r + -Ing fo rm (when we w ant to express the
purpose or fu nctio n of som ething) 5 W ell take som e food with us. We m ight get hungry, (in
e.g. We use a spade for digging. case)

148
Clauses - Linking
6 She is studying m edicine. She w ants to becom e a
doctor, (so that) I z K c l c i l l l C l l l O Li b'

7 He put his keys in his briefcase. He d id n t w ant to lose


them, (in order not to) Exclam ations are w ords or sentences used to express
adm iration, surprise, etc.
8 They will take som e m agazines with them . They may To form exclam atory sentences we can use what
get bored, (in case) (a Ian), how, such, so or a negative question.
so + adjective/adverb
9 She set her alarm clock. She d id n t w ant to oversleep,
(so that) e.g. This cake is so tasty!
He works so hard!
10 We put the letters on the table. We d id n t w ant to forget such + a/an (+ adjective) + singular countable noun
to post them, (so as not to) e.g. This is such an original design!
such (+ adjective) + uncountable/plural noun
e.g. You gave me such valuable inform ation!
Shes wearing such elegant clothes!
j j C o m p le te e a c h s e n te n c e w ith tw o to fiv e
^ w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o rd in b o ld . what + a/an (+ adjective) + singular countable noun
e.g. What a lovely view!
What an unusual pattern! What a day!
1 We took a taxi. We d id n t want to be late.
what (+ adjective) + uncountable/plural noun
not We took a taxi ...eo ae n o t to... be late.
e.g. What expensive furniture!
2 Tony is em ploying more staff. He w ants to expand his
What comfortable shoes!
business.
that Tony is em ploying m ore staff ...................... how + adjective/adverb
................................................... his business. e.g. How clever he is! How well she behaved!
3 Take your m obile phone. It is possible that som eone negative question (+ exclam ation mark)
may call you. e.g. Isn't she a graceful dancer!
case Take your m obile p h o n e ...............................
.....................................................................you.
4 We use a microwave to cook food quickly. 12> Fill in what (a/an), how, so or such (alan).
fo r We use a m ic ro w a v e ......................................
food quickly. 1 ...How... sweetly she sings!
5 We took a camera. We wanted to take som e p h o to 2 scary film that was!
graphs. 3 S hes .................................. pretty!
that We took a c a m e r a ........................................... 4 loud m usic!
........................................ som e photographs. 5 clever man he is!
6 She applied sunscreen. She didn't want to get sunburnt, 6 This i s .................................. great news!
not She applied sunscreen ................................. 7 tired they look!
.......................................................... sunburnt. 8 He b e h a v e d .................................. rudely!
7 I did my hom ew ork. I d id n t w ant the teacher to be 9 awful thought!
angry with me. 10 Its .................................. tiring journey!
that I did my hom ew ork ........................................ 11 lazy of you to stay in bed all day!
12 He i s .................................. am azing m usician!
................................... not be angry with me.
8 Mark called John. He wanted to ask him for som e
advice.
to Mark called J o h n .............................................
13* Rephrase the sentences in as many ways
^ as possible, as in the example.
..............................................for som e advice.
9 He checked his answ ering m achine. There may have
1 W hat delicious food!
been a m essage for him.
...How delicioue thie food iel Thie ie euch delicioue foodI
case He checked his answ ering m achine .........
Thie food ie eo delicioueI len't thie food delicioue!...
........................................... m essage for him. 2 This is such an interesting story!
10 She put her jewellery in the hotel safe. She d id n t w ant 3 How young he looks!
it to get stolen. 4 H es so handsom e!
prevent She put her jew ellery in the hotel safe ...... 5 D ont they have a lovely house!
................................................................ stolen. 6 D oesnt she look happy!
n k in g W o rd s

C ici u s e s cn C c Lii l a si j . C ho ose th e c o r r e c t a n s w e r.

1 ...A... the heavy snow, we managed to get to the office.


A In spite of B However C While
2 needing a rest, the team continued to work.
He prefers to make
A In spite B Despite C A lthough
things by hand
although/even 3 I like peaches. I d o n t like b a n a n a s ,...............
though he could use A whereas B on the other hand C though
a machine. 4 The film was g o o d ,.............it was also very frightening.
A despite B but C in spite
5 Paul drives a c a r , .............Charles rides a m otorbike.
A w hereas B even though C despite
6 she isnt fond of classical music, she went to
Clauses of contrast are used to express a contrast. the concert.
They are introduced with the following words/phrases: A However B Even though C While
7 being hungry, Sally d id n t eat anything.
but - although/even though/though - in spite
A However B Yet C In spite of
of/despite - however - while/whereas - yet -
nevertheless - on the other hand 8 The alarm w ent o f f , .............he d id n t wake up.
A whereas B yet C while
but e.g. It was cold, but she wasnt wearing a coat. 9 we left the house early, we still missed the bus.
A A lthough B Despite C In spite of
although/even though/though + clause
Even though is more emphatic than although. 10 He w a sn t w earing a c o a t,.............it was very cold.
Though is informal and is often used in everyday A whereas B even though C despite
speech. It can also be put at the end of a sentence.
e.g. Although/Even though/Though it was summer,
it was chilly.
> Complete the sentences.
It was chilly although/even though/though it was
summer.
It was summer. It was chilly, though. 1 In spite of the rain, the football m atch took place.
A lthough ...it wae raining , th e fo o tb a ll m atch to o k
in spite of/despite + noun/-ing form place...
e.g. In spite of/Despite his qualifications, he couldnt 2 Even th o u g h we w ere late, we stopped to have
get a job. som ething to eat.
He couldnt get a job in spite of/despite (his) D e s p ite ...................................................................................
being qualified. 3 Even though they are good friends, they argue a lot.
in spite of/despite the fact that + clause In s p it e ...................................................................................
e.g. In spite of/Despite the fact that he was qualified, 4 In spite of having a lot of money, they are very mean.
he couldnt get a job. Although ................................................................................
5 In spite of w inning the com petition, he w asnt satisfied.
however/nevertheless A comma is always used
Even though .........................................................................
after however/nevertheless.
6 Even though he w oke up early, he was late for his
e.g. The man fell off the ladder. However/Nevertheless,
appointm ent.
he wasnt hurt.
Despite ..................................................................................
while/whereas
e.g. She is tall, while/whereas her brother is rather short.
yet (formal)/still Ag Rewrite the sentences using the word(s) in
e.g. The fire was widespread, yet no property was brackets.
damaged.
My car is old. Still, it is in very good condition. 1 I live in London. Sarah lives in Manchester, (w hile)
...I live in London while S arah livee in M anchester....
on the other hand 2 We w ent to the party. We were very tired, (th o u g h )
e.g. Cars arent environmentally friendly.
On the other hand, bicycles are./Bicycles, on the 3 She d o e sn t earn m uch money. She works very hard,
other hand, are. (in s p ite of)

150
UNIT 10
Clauses - Linking ords
4 He was ill. He went to work, (despite)
C l a u s e s o v 1 \ \ l\ L U i e i
5 This appliance is very expensive. It is im practical, (yet)

6 The teacher explained the question in detail. I d id n 't


understand it. (still)
They look as if/as
7 I drank a bottle of water. I was still thirsty, (even though) though they are in a
hurry.
8 The film was boring. We continued to watch it. (in spite of)

9 David can't play football. He is good at basketball, (on


the other hand)

10 It was very late. The guests d id n t leave, (nevertheless) Clauses o f m anner are introduced w ith as if/as though
and are used to express the way in w hich som ething is
11 Lisa went shopping. She d id n 't buy anything, (but) done/said, etc.
We use as if/as though after verbs such as act,
12 The boy fell off his bicycle. He w asnt hurt, (however)
appear, be, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound,
13 He was tired. He co u ld n't sleep, (although)
taste to say how som ebody or som ething looks,
behaves, etc.
14 Brian is good at Maths. His sister is good at Science, e.g. He is acting as if/as though he's had bad news.
(whereas) We also use as if las though w ith other verbs to say
how som ebody does som ething.
15 Janet is clever. She finds som e subjects difficult, (still) e.g. She talks as iflas though she knows everything.

16 He is rich. He is not happy, (despite)


We use as if/as though + past tense when we are
ta lkin g about an unreal present situation. Were can
be used instead o f was in all persons.
e.g. He spends his money as if/as though he
was/were a millionaire. (But he isn't.)
4 7 Rephrase the sentences using the words He behaves as if/as though he owned the place.
^ in brackets, as in the example.
(But he doesn't.)

1 Dennis is tired. He doesn't want to go to bed. (although, Note: We can use like instead of as if/as though in
despite) spoken English.
a) Although Dennie ie tire d , he d o e e rit w an t t o go e.g. She looks like she's going to faint, (informal
to bed. spoken English)
b) D eepite (hie) being tire d , Dennie d o e e n 't w an t
t o go to bed.
2 It was a lovely day. They stayed inside, (however, in 18 * Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
spite of) # tense.
3 Martin is a good cook. He rarely cooks for his friends,
(still, though) 1 She was w andering up and dow n the street. She
4 The house is in bad condition. They paid a lot of looked as though she ...wae... (be) lost.
m oney for it. (even though, nevertheless) 2 Although he had a degree in French, it sounded as
5 The lecture was very im portant. Few students attended, though he .......................................... (not/speak) it well.
(despite, yet) 3 The sky is dark. It looks as if it .............................(rain).
6 There w asnt m uch food in the fridge. We m anaged to 4 There is a strange smell in the kitchen. It sm ells as
make a meal, (although, however) th o u g h som ething ................................................. (burn).
7 She h adnt slept well. She looked fresh and lively, 5 Tom is tw enty-five years old, but he som etim es acts as
(still, in spite of) th ough h e ....................................................... (be) a child.
8 His parents are very rich. He never asks them for 6 Colin was out of breath. He sounded as though he
money, (nevertheless, yet) ................................................. (run).
9 I had seen the film before. I enjoyed w atching it again, 7 Jim has only just learned this game, but he plays it as
(though, despite) if h e ........................................................ (play) it for years.
10 Celine Dion is my favourite singer. I havent been to 8 We had never met before, but she greeted me as if we
any of her concerts, (even though, however) ........................................... (know) each other all our lives.
UNIT 119
C la y * uni
^Linking W o rd s
We u s u a lly a void usin g p re p o s itio n s before
ive [cii lv e C ia u s?e s relative pronouns.
e.g. a) The person to whom the money will be
entrusted must be reliable, (formal English -
unusual structure)
b) The chair that you are sitting on is an antique,
(usual structure)
c) The chair you are sitting on is an antique,
(everyday English)
W hich can refer back to a w hole clause.
e.g. He helped me do the washing-up. That was kind
of him.
He helped me do the washing-up, which was
A camel is an animal which/that lives in hot countries. kind of him. (Which refers back to the whole
A computer is something which/ that we use for storing clause. That is, it refers to the fact that he helped
information. the speaker do the washing-up.)
A firefighter is someone who/that puts out fires and
We can use the structure all/most/some/a few/half/
whose job is very risky.
none/two , etc. + of + whom /which.
R ela tive c la u se s are in tro d u c e d w ith a) re la tiv e e.g. a) He invited a lot of people. All of them were his
pronouns (who(m ), w hich, w hose, that) and b) relative friends.
adverbs (when, where, why). He invited a lot of people, all of whom were
his friends.
We use: b) He has a number of watches. Three of them
w ho/that to refer to people. are solid gold.
He has a number of watches, three of which
w hich/that to refer to objects or animals.
are solid gold.
W ho/w hich/that can be om itte d when it is the
o bject of the relative clause; that is, when there is That is never used after a comma or preposition.
a noun or subject pronoun between the relative e.g. a) The Chinese vase, which is on the coffee
pronoun and the verb. It cannot be om itted when it table, is very expensive.
is the subject of the relative clause. We can use (NOT: ..tf& lis on the coffee table ...)
w hom instead of who when it is the object of the b) The bank in which the money was deposited
re la tive clau se. Whom is not o fte n used in is across the street.
everyday English. (NOT: The bank in tfroCthe money ...)
e.g. a) I saw a friend. I hadnt seen\him\ for years. We use that with words such as all, every(thing),
I saw a friend (who/whom/that) I hadn't seen some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), none, few, little ,
for years. (Who/whom/that is the object, much, only and with the superlative form.
therefore it can be omitted.) e.g. Is this all that you can do for me? (more natural
b) I met a woman.\She\was from Japan. than ... all which you can do ...)
1 The only thing that is important to me is my family.
I met a woman who/that was from Japan.
It s the best song that I've ever heard.
(Who/that is the subject, therefore it cannot be
omitted.)
w hose instead of possessive adjectives (my, your,
his, etc.) w ith people, objects and anim als in ord er w ho/that subject cannot be omitted
to show possession. (people)
e.g. a) That's the boy - \ his \ bicycle was stolen
yesterday. v w ho/w hom /that object - can be om itted
That's the boy whose bicycle was stolen (people)
yesterday.
b) That's the building - \ its \ windows were w hich /th at subject - cannot be omitted
smashed. v (objects, anim als) object can be om itted
Thats the building whose windows were
smashed. w hose (people, possession - cannot be omitted
objects, animals)

152
C lau ses - L in k in g !* !
10 Name the c i t y ................ the H unchback of Notre Dame
lived.
A Paris B Prague

We use:

where to refer to place, usually after nouns such aa C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s w ith who3 which
> o r where.
as place, house, street, (own, country, etc.
It can be replaced by which/that + preposition
and, in th is case, which/that can be om itted. The C oca-C ola C om pany, 1) ...which... was founded in
1892, is fam ous all over the world.
e.g. The house where he was born has been
The com pany, 2 ) ..................................... produces many
demolished.
soft drinks, is based in Atlanta.
The house (which/that) he was born in has been
John S. Pemberton, 3) .......................................invented
demolished.
Coca-Cola, intended the drink to be used as a cure for
when to refer to tim e, usually after nouns such as com m on illnesses.
time, period, moment, day, year, summer , etc. It Frank Robinson, 4) ........................................worked for
can either be replaced by that or can be om itted. John Pemberton, chose the name Coca-Cola.
e.g. That was the year when she graduated. Fanta, 5 ) ..................................... was originally produced
That was the year (that) she graduated. in Germany, was bought by the Coca-Cola Company.
Sprite, 6 ) ......................................was introduced in 1961,
w hy to give reason, usually after the w ord reason. is also made by the Coca-Cola Company.
It can either be replaced by that or can be om itted. The US Patent Office, 7 ) ......................... the tradem ark
e.g. The reason why she left her job was that she C oca-C ola was registered, has also registered the
didn't get on with her boss. tradem ark C o ke and the glass C oca-C ola bottle.
The reason (that) she left her job was that she In America, 8) .............. Coca-Cola was first produced,
didn't get on with her boss. there is a large soft drink industry, but the Coca-Cola
C om pany is the m ost successful.

a j F ill in th e c o r r e c t r e la tiv e p ro n o u n /a d v e rb .
How much do you know about films? F ill in th e If i t c a n be o m itte d , p u t it in b ra c k e ts .
1 9l 9 ^ p s w ith who , which , whose, where o r when,
th e n a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s .
W hen did you buy the jacket ...(w hich/that)... you are
wearing?
1 Name the actor ...who... plays Mr Bean. 2 Is that the g i r l ....................sent you a V alentines card?
(S ) Rowan Atkinson B Rolph Harris 3 The reason ....................... John is successful is that he
2 Name the US president ............... was first an actor. w orks very hard.
A James Carter B Ronald Reagan 4 What did you do with the m o n e y ......................... I gave
you?
3 Name the US c i t y ......... H ollyw ood can be found.
5 Sam is m ending the c h a ir ................................. he broke
A Los Angeles B Las Vegas yesterday.
4 Name the film .............. tells the story of a strong 6 Is this the p la c e ..............................you lost your jacket?
mythical character. 7 Have you met the people .................................. live next
A Aladdin B H ercules door to you?
5 Name the character nose grows when he tells lies. 8 Ill never forget the day ...................... my daughter was
born.
A Pinocchio B Peter Pan
yQ Claire is reading the book ........................... she bought
6 Name the y e a r ............. the first studio was built in yesterday.
H ollywood. 10 Ive been running. Thats ...................Im out of breath.
A 1991 B 1911 11 This is the town ...................... my favourite singer lives.
7 Name the y e a r .............. Titanic was released. 12 What is the name of the w om an .......................... works
A 1998 B 1988 in the chem ists?
8 Name the superhero ........... lives in G otham City.
13 Is this the b o y ......................... parents own the factory?
1A
14 Ill never forget the t im e ......................... she fell into the
A Superm an B Batman
sw im m ing pool.
9 Name the p la c e ........... The Lion King is set. 15 W here are the children .............................ball broke our
A Africa B Am erica window?

15?
UNIT 10
C lause* r - Linkin

22 Fill in who, which, whose, where or why. 24 Jo in the sentences, as in the example.

1 My brother has lots of friends. Many of them are in his


class.
...M y b ro th e r hae lo te o f friende, many o f whom are
in hie claee ....
2 My father has a large collection of coins. Many of them
are foreign.

3 I baked lots of biscuits yesterday. Very few of them are


left now.

4 She knows lots of people at work. A few of them are


One of the most famous buildings in the world is the White from New Zealand.
House. 1) ...which... is the official home of the US president. The
White House is in Washington DC. 2 ) ..................there are many 5 I have four aunts. None of them are married.
other important buildings and monuments. The city. 3 ) ..................
was founded in 1790. was deliberately planned as a national 6 There are thousands of trees in the forest. Some of
capital. George Washington, 4) ................. was the first US them are very old.
president and 5 ) ..................name was given to the city, wanted it
to be the place 6) .................. the nation's government would
permanently reside.
The White House. 7 ) .................was originally named Executive oc Link the sentences in order to produce
Mansion, was built in pale grey sandstone. The colour of the stone. ^ one sentence. Th e beginning is given.
8) .....................was so different from the surrounding red brick
buildings, was the reason 9 ) ...............the mansion became known 1 The coach was packed with tourists. The coach was
as the White House. The main building. 10) .................... many driving around London. The tourists had gone there to
presidents have lived, is part of a large complex 1 1 ) .................. see the sights.
consists of over 130 rooms. The coach. ...which wae driving around London, wae
People find the White House fascinating and that is the reason packed w ith to u rie te who had gone th e re to eee th e
12) .....the parts of the complex 1 3 ).............. are open to the e ig h te ....
public are toured every year by one and a half million people 2 I went to the d e n tists. He is a friend of mine. I met him
at university.
14) .... want to see the place 1 5 )...............their president lives
The dentist ............................................................................
and works.

aa Com plete the pairs of sentences, as in 3 A song won the com petition. It was written by a
the exam ples. schoolboy. He was thirteen years old.
The song ................................................................................
Tom is playing football with a boy. The boy is his cousin.
A The boy ...who/whom Tom ie playing fo o tb a ll w ith
ie hie couein,... 4 I helped som eone with his hom ework. His name is
B The boy ... Tom ie playing football with ie hie couein .... Alec and h e s a classm ate of mine.
Sam has gone to a party. The party is at his frie n d s I helped ..................................................................................
house.
A The p a r ty ...........................................................................
B The p a r ty ........................................................................... 5 E laines house is going to be pulled down. She is
I was talking to a w om an. The w om an is my boss. looking for a new flat.
A The w om an ...................................................................... E laine.......................................................................................
B The wom an ......................................................................
She w orks for a writer. The w riter is very fam ous.
A The writer .......................................................................... 6 The book is a bestseller. Its written by Nathan Davis.
B The writer .......................................................................... He has written ten novels.
I lent my jacket to Pam. The jacket is m ade of leather. The b o o k .................................................................................
A The jacket .........................................................................
B The jacket .........................................................................

154
UNIT
W il l m
IU
C lau ses - L in kin g ^ o r d s

Id e iim y iu c : / N on-identifying relative clauses are introduced w ith:


c /
bibu 4 a S ilily lliu Cieus.es;.' who, whom, w hich. They cannot be om itted or
replaced by that.
e.g. a) Jenny Ladd is my favourite author. (The
meaning of the sentence is clear.)
There are tw o types of relative clause: identifying
Jenny Ladd, who has written a lot of
relative clauses and non-identifying relative clauses.
successful books , is my favourite author.
An identifying relative clause g ive s necessary
(The relative clause gives extra information.)
inform ation and is essential to the m eaning of the main
b) My cousin Peter is a doctor. (The meaning of
sentence. It is not put in comm as. A non-identifying the sentence is clear.)
relative clause gives extra inform ation and is not My cousin Peter, who(m) you have just met,
essential to the m eaning of the main sentence. It is put is a doctor. (The relative clause gives extra
in commas. information.)
c) His flat is modern and spacious.
Identifying relative clauses are introduced w ith:
His flat, which he bought two years ago, is
modern and spacious.
who, w hich, that. They can be om itted if they are
the object of the relative clause. whose, where, when. They cannot be omitted.
e.g. a) People are prosecuted. (Which people? We e.g. a) The bride looked stunning. (The meaning of
don't know. The meaning of the sentence is the sentence is clear.)
not clear.) The bride, whose wedding dress was designed
People who/that lie in court are prosecuted. by Valentino, looked stunning. (The relative
(Which people? Those who lie in court. The clause gives extra information.)
meaning of the sentence is clear.) b) Stratford-upon-Avon is visited by thousands of
b) The papers are missing. (Which papers? We tourists every year.
don't know. The meaning of the sentence is Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare was
not clear.)
born, is visited by thousands of tourists every
The papers (which/that) you gave me to check
year.
are missing. (Which papers? The ones you gave
c) The best time to visit the island is in May.
me to check. The meaning of the sentence is
The best time to visit the island is in May, when
clear.)
it isn't too crowded.
whose, w here, when, (the reason) w hy. Whose
cannot be om itted. Where can be om itted when
there is a preposition. When and why can either be Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put
replaced by that or can be om itted. 26* com m as w here necessary. Write I for
e.g. a) The man was angry. (Which man? We don't identifying, Nl for non-identifying and say
know. The meaning of the sentence is not whether the relative can be omitted or not.
clear.)
The man whose car was damaged was angry. 1 Paul. ...whoee... birthday is on Friday, is having a party
(Which man? The one whose car was damaged. tonight. (Nl, ca n n o t be o m itte d )
The meaning of the sentence is clear.) 2 My office .............. ...........is very big is on the first floor.
b) The shop is near my house. (Which shop? We 3 Martin .................... works in the library writes poetry
don't know.) in his spare time.
The shop where I bought this shirt is near my 4 Thats the woman ............................house was burgled
house. OR The shop I bought this shirt from is last week.
near my house. (Which shop? The one I 5 The d a y ................ I left school was hot and sunny.
bought this shirt from.) 6 Sarah Jones ......................... I knew at university is
c) The day was the happiest day of my life. a doctor now.
(Which day? We don't know.)
7 This is the girl ......................letter was printed in the
The day (when/that) I got married was the
newspaper.
happiest day of my life. (Which day? The day I
8 This CD ............... .............. I bought yesterday is awful.
got married.)
9 Tina ...................... lives next door is a wonderful cook.
d) I was upset. This is the reason. (The reason for
10 P e o p le .................. ............ play musical instrum ents are
what? We don't know.)
called musicians.
I was upset. This is the reason (why/that) I
didn't call you. (The reason I didn't call you.) 11 The c a fe .............. we had lunch served delicious food.
12 This is the reason ................................ I haven't finished.

155
UNIT 10 r
Claus ^"Linking W o rd s
13 My friend P e te r.............. has just m oved to Wales sent
me a long letter. LiiiLuiej Wo i ds
14 My b o s s ................................. office is next to mine is on
holiday at the moment.
15 London .............................the Houses of Parliament are Linking w ords show the logical relationship between
is the capital of England. sentences or parts of a sentence.
16 My favourite time of the year is sum m er ........................
Positive A ddition
the weather is hot.
17 The wom an ...............................won the lottery gave an and, both ... and, too, besides (this/that), moreover, what
interview to the newspaper. is more, in addition (to), also, as well as (this/that),
furtherm ore etc.
She is both intelligent and beautiful.
07 Complete each sentence with two to five
Negative Addition
J words, including the word in bold.
n e ith e r... nor, nor, neither, either
Neither John nor David goes to university.
1 This is Mark. His sister is a fam ous author.
w hose This is Mark ...whoee e ie te r ie a... fam ous C ontrast
author.
but, although, in spite of, despite, while, whereas, even
2
This is the m otorbike. I repaired it myself.
though, on the other hand, however, yet, still etc.
th a t This is the m otorbike ......................................
Sarah is kind but not very reliable.
..................................................................myself.
3 Mr Smith owns the com pany. He is a wealthy G iving Examples
businessm an.
such as, like, for example, for instance, especially, in
w ho Mr S m ith ...............................................................
particular etc.
.............................is a wealthy businessm an.
All the food was delicious, but the steak in particular was
4 Im afraid of water. T hats why I never swim in the sea. excellent.
w h ic h Im afraid of w a te r..............................................
............................................... swim in the sea. Cause/Reason
5 You were talking to a girl. She is my niece. as, because, because of, since, for this reason, due to, so,
whom The girl ............................................................... as a result (of) etc.
....................................................... is my niece. I stayed in bed because I felt ill.
6 The boy broke the w indow . He said he was sorry,
w ho The boy .............................................................. C ondition
............................................said he was sorry. if, whether, only if, in case of, in case, provided (that),
7 Bath is the city he lived in when he was young, providing (that), unless, as/so long as, otherwise, or (else),
w h e re Bath is the c i t y ................................................... on condition (that) etc.
...................................................he was young. We took an umbrella with us in case it rained.
8 People should be punished if they com m it crimes,
w ho People ................................................................ Purpose
....................................... should be punished. to, so that, so as (not) to, in order (not) to, in order that, in
9 The best tim e to go shopping is in the m orning. The case etc.
shops are not very busy then. I took some paper and a pen so that I could make notes.
w hen The best tim e to go shopping is in the
m o rn in g ................................................................ Effect/R esult
............................................are not very busy. such/so ... that, so, consequently, as a result, therefore, for
10 He lent me som e money. That was very kind of him. this reason etc.
w h ic h He lent me som e m o n e y ................................. It was so cold that we decided to light a fire.
................................................................ of him.
11 Michael lives next door to me. He is an architect, Time
w ho M ichael................................................................. w hen, whenever, as, as soon as, while, before, until/till,
.....................................to me, is an architect. after, since etc.
12 This is the suit. I bought it last week. It d o e s n t fit me. We did not leave until/till the babysitter arrived.
w h ic h This s u it................................................................
.................................................. d o e s n t fit me. Place
13 She interviewed a man. He is my father. where, wherever
w hom The man ............................................................. We can't decide where to go on holiday this year.
.......................................................is my father.

156
UNIT 10
Clauses - Linking' fi/ords
3 I was tired. I w atched the late film, (despite)
Exception
except (for), apart from 4 John did his hom ew ork. His brother tidied the kitchen,
The party was good fun , apart from the problem with the (while)
stereo.
5 Tom likes football. Stuart likes basketball, (whereas)
Relatives
who, whom , whose, which, what, that 6 He fell asleep. The phone rang, (as soon as)
That's the horse which/that won the Grand National.
7 She brushed her teeth. She w ent to bed. (then)
Listing Points/Events
To begin: initially, first, at first, firstly, to start/begin with, 8 We went to the shops. We had lunch, (after that)
first of all etc.
First of all, we greeted the guests. 9 I enjoy reading books. I enjoy w atching TV. (as well as)
To continue: secondly, after this/that, second, afterwards,
then, next etc. 10 Jason d o e s n 't like to m a to e s. Paul d o e s n t like
Then, we offered them drinks. tom atoes (neither)

To conclude: finally, lastly, in the end, at last, eventually


etc.
Finally, we served them the meal.
Join the sentences using a suitable word
Sum marising 30> or phrase from the list.
in conclusion, in sum m ary, to sum up, on the whole, all in n e ith e r... nor, as well as, after, provided (that), in
all, altogether, in short etc. order to, which, as a result, so ... that, even
To sum up, I firmly believe that animals have the right to a though, where
happy life.
1 I enjoyed the party. I d id n t know anyone there.
...I enjoyed the party , even though I didn't know
Read the sentences and underline the anyone there ....
28V correct lin k in g w ord /ph ra se . 2 She invested som e of her m oney in bonds. She
w anted to increase her incom e.
1 Ive never been here before as/but my friend has.
2 You can have som e friends over, apart from/as long 3 He is a g ood sportsm an. He is a talented writer.
as you play quietly.
3 Afterwards/In conclusion, I think that Mark is the best 4 Sandra c a n t cook. Louise ca n t cook.
person for the job.
4 I went to the bank in case/in order to get som e money. 5 I will drive you to school. You are ready on time.
5 We took a taxi in short/because we were late.
6 This house is beautiful. In addition to/However, it is in 6 T hats the house. My uncle built it.
poor condition.
7 I was tired, so/for example I w ent to bed early. 7 She left the taps running. The bathroom flooded.
8 All in all/Although she felt ill, she d id n t call a doctor.
9 We laughed then/when we heard the funny story. 8 They did the w ashing-up. They had eaten lunch.
10 Some foods, moreover/such as chocolate, are very
fattening. 9 It was very hot. We decided to go for a swim.
11 Everyone attended the m eeting whereas/apart from
Steve, w ho was on holiday. 10 This is the restaurant. We had lunch here.
12 I typed the reports despite/while Joanne interviewed a
client.

Join the sentences using the correct word(s)


OQ Join *he sentences using the word(s) in 31 in brackets.
/ brackets.

1 He was hungry. He bought a sandw ich, (so) 1 C om puters are very useful. You can use them to store
...He wae hungry, eo he bought a eandwich,... inform ation, (for exam ple/w hereas)
2 Claire is very tall. She is very thin, (what is more) ...Com putere a re very ueeful. F or example , you can
uee th em to e to re inform ation....

157
UNIT 10 V
Claus ^"Linking W o rd s
2 Simon is often invited to parties. He is a popular person, Replace the words in bold with appropriate
(for exam ple/since) 34 synonyms from the list.

3 I had a great holiday. It rained all the time, (and/even while, at last, until, in short, in order that, so long
though) as, for instance, apart from, provided that, due to
the fact that, what is more, that
4 Paul is a builder. Robin is a plum ber, (whereas/too)
1 D ont m ake the announcem ent before I arrive.
5 We had salad for lunch. We both want to lose w eight, ...D on't make th e announcem ent u n til I arrive,...
(in addition/because) 2 Everyone passed the exam except fo r Paul, who hadn't
revised.
6 My teacher is very kind. She can be strict at times,
(then/on the other hand) 3 In summ ary, we had a w onderful tim e at the concert.

4 T hats the dress w hich I got for my birthday.

Fill in the correct word/phrase from the


32 lists. 5 Finally, the g roup was ready to leave.

6 Ill give you a lift, pro vid ing you are ready on time.
a on the whole , finally, firstly, furthermore,
wherever, so 7 Steve is very clever. For example, he got top marks in
all his exams.
There are many advantages to ow ning a m obile phone.
1) F irs tly people can reach you imm ediately with 8 I bought som e stam ps so that I could post some
im portant news, 2 ) .................................. you happen to be. letters.
3) you can call for help in an
em ergency, 4) .................. ................... a m obile phone is 9 She was hungry because she h a d n t eaten all day.
im portant fo r personal safety. 5 ) .................................. lf y u
are late for an appointm ent, you can use a m obile phone 10 Jane likes classical music, whereas Susan doesn't.
to call and explain. 6 ) ............................... 1 think everyone
should have a m obile phone. 11 You'll be on time, as long as you hurry.

12 M oreover, the problem affects our custom ers.


b to sum up, to begin with, however, because,
so as not to, as a result, whenever

I have been playing the guitar for ten years. 1 ) ..................... 35> Choose the correct answer.
................., I found it very difficult 2 ) .......................... I w asnt
used to playing a m usical instrum ent. 3 ) ...............................
I soon becam e quite good and, 4) .................................. I There are m any reasons for visiting the city of Rome.
was asked to play in a local restaurant. I practised all the 1) ...C..., it is a city with an interesting history. 2) ........... it
tim e 5) ............................................... make a m istake in was the capital of the Roman Empire. 3 ) ........... Rome is very
public. 6) .............................................. I perform ed, people beautiful, 4 ) .......... its m any palaces, churches and squares.
w ould always applaud. 7) ............................................... I 5) m any of the c itys classical m onum ents have
becam e a very popular musician. been preserved, 6) .......... it is possible to see how the city
used to be. 7) ........... m any people travel to Rome every
year. 8) ........... I believe that, 9) .......... a trip to Rome may
be expensive, it is well worth visiting such a wonderful city.
33 Underline the correct word/phrase.
1 A Since B On the w hole C Firstly
2 A Secondly B Finally C Therefore
The party was a disaster. 1) Although/To begin with, there
3 A In order to B M oreover c All in all
were hardly any people there. 2) All in all/As a result, there
4 A due to B because C so
w asnt a very exciting atm osphere. 3) After thatlln addition , 5 A Apart from B However c In addition
the stereo had broken, 4) because/so there was no m usic to 6 A because B so c and
dance to. 5) On the whole/ln the end, we all watched a film 7 A Because B But c For this reason
on television. I left 6) before/as soon as I could. 7) In short/ 8A To sum up B A lthough c For example
Next, it was a terrible evening. 9 A m oreover B although c due to

158
Clauses - Linking1
IN OTHER WORDS 6 Having forgotten her birthday. Tom apologised,
because Tom a p o lo g is e d .......................................
Study these e xam ples. T h e seco nd se n ten ce ............................................her birthday.
has a sim ila r m e an in g to the first se n ten ce . 7 The photograph published in that m agazine was not
genuine.
1 The man w aving at me is my cousin Stewart. w hich The photograph .......................................
who The man who is waving at me is my cousin in that m agazine was not genuine.
Stewart. 8 Although she was hurt, she d id n t say anything,
2 She got up early because she w anted to do som e spite In ..................................................................
shopping before she w ent to work. ........................ she d id n 't say anything.
so She got up early so as to do som e 9 He has decided to give up his job and there's nothing
shopping before she w ent to work, you can do to stop him.
that She got up early so that she could do prevent You c a n t ....................................................
som e sh opping before she w ent to work. ...................................................... his job.
3 The jewellery kept in that safe belongs to my mother, 10 Her feet hurt because her shoes were too tight.
w hich The jewellery w hich is kept in that safe so Her shoes were .......................................
belongs to my mother. ............................................ her feet hurt.
4 The party was a success, so we all stayed very late, 11 It was snow ing heavily, so the village was cut off.
such The party was such a success that we all due The village was cut o f f ...........................
stayed very late. ........................ it was snow ing heavily.
5 Having missed the last bus, Laura had to walk all the 12 She looked like she was going to explode w hen she
way home. heard his rem arks.
because Laura had to walk all the way hom e if She lo o k e d ................................................
to explode when she heard his remarks.
because she had m issed the last bus.
13 The hotel was rather expensive, so we decided to look
6 A lthough he is hardw orking, he is not paid well,
for accom m odation elsewhere.
spite In spite of his being hardw orking, he is
such It w a s ...........................................................
not paid well.
............................we decided to look for
7 Children grow ing up in cities often get very little
accom m odation elsewhere.
exercise.
14 Have a spare key cut; you may lose the original,
who C hildren who grow up in cities often get
case Have a spare key c u t ..............................
very little exercise.
............................................... the original.
8 Thats the cafe where we used to go w hen we were
15 Always make a shopping list if you d o n 't want to forget
students.
anything im portant.
to T hats the cafe we used to go to w hen we
avoid Always make a shopping list ...............
were students. ............................... anything im portant.
16 She invited a lot of people to her party. She knew m ost
of them from work.
Complete each sentence with two to five whom She invited a lot of people to her party.
^ words, including the word in bold. ..............................she knew from work.
17 He missed his flight, so he was the only one who didn 't
1 He d id n 't say anything because he d id n t w ant to spoil attend the conference.
the surprise. consequently He missed his flight ................................
so He d id n t say anything ...eo ae n o t to ......................... the only one w ho did n 't
epoil... the surprise. attend the conference.
2 Thats the theatre w here he gave his first perform ance, 18 S om eone m ust have put too m uch sugar in my coffee,
in That's the th e a tre ..................................... if My coffee ta s te s .......................................
.............................his first perform ance. ..............................too m uch sugar in it.
3 Her room was in a mess, so she had to spend hours 19 She introduced me to all her friends. This was very
tidying it up. polite of her.
such Her room was in ...................................... w hich She introduced me to all her friends.
she had to spend hours tidying it up. ......................................................... of her.
4 Drivers parking in this area will be fined. 20 This is John Daniels. His novel becam e a bestseller,
who Drivers ........................................................ whose This is John D aniels.................................
............................................. will be fined. ............................................... a bestseller.
5 The w om an driving that car is a fam ous journalist, 21 People living abroad often miss their friends and family,
who The w om an ............................................... who People ........................................................
.......................... is a fam ous journalist. often miss their friends and family.

159
UNIT V10 ^
C la iira ^ S lm ting W o rd s
10 Is she the w om an w ho she lives next door to you?
11 Y o u d better take a ju m p e r in case it will be cold.
12 The tow n w here I grew up in has changed a lot.
CoLuiuoii Luib'ieLcrb'
This is the wallet w hich I bought it yesterday. X j0 Cross out the unnecessary word.
This is the wallet w hich I bought yesterday. /
Is he the man w ho he stole your bag? X 1 Take your credit card with you in case you will want to
Is he the man w ho stole your bag? / do som e shopping.
2 They held a sponsored parachute jum p in order that to
My car, that cost me a fortune, was badly dam aged in
raise m oney for the disabled people.
the accident. X
3 It was such an awful w eather that it ruined our holiday.
My car, which cost me a fortune, was badly dam aged
4 Andrew, w ho he is my friend, has been prom oted.
in the accident. /
5 She has always wanted to visit the place where her
Carol found a jo b last week. She had started looking parents were born there.
for one a m onth ago. X 6 Despite of the traffic, I got to the station on time.
Carol found a job last week. She had started looking 7 T hats the boy w hose his father is a surgeon.
for one a m onth before. / 8 When you will finish your work, we can go out.
When hell call, Ill give him the message. X 9 She called Marie for to invite her to her birthday party.
When he calls, Ill give him the message. / 10 W hat an expensive furniture y o u ve got here!
11 You can go out after you will have finished cleaning
He gave me so helpful advice that I was able to your room .
solve the problem . X
12 He w ent to the bank so to w ithdraw som e money.
He gave me such h elpful advice that I was able to
solve the problem . /
on Add the correct prefixes to the beginning
He took a taxi not to be late. X
of the words to form the opposites.
He took a taxi so as not to/in order not to be late. /
Y oud better book a table in case the restaurant w ill 1 It was very ...unkind of you to laugh at E m ilys haircut.
be busy. X 2 M any p e o p le ....... a p p ro ve of vio le n t film s and
Y oud better book a table in case the restaurant is television program m es.
busy. / 3 We b e c a m e .......patient with the slow service.
4 It is .......legal to leave school before the age of 16 in
Despite of her wealth, she is still unhappy. X
many countries.
Despite her wealth, she is still unhappy. /
5 He was sacked due to h i s .......professional behaviour.
He often speaks as if he is an expert on every 6 The nurse who treated me was gentle b u t ...... personal.
subject. X 7 Som e frozen food does not have to be ........frosted
He often speaks as if he w as/were an expert on before cooking.
every subject. / 8 My hom ew ork was w rong because I .......understood
the instructions.
This is the man w ho s dog attacked me. X
9 Dave w a s ........successful in his attem pt to clim b Mount
This is the man whose dog attacked me. /
H oughton.
The hotel where we stayed at was very luxurious. X 10 You c a n t tru st him to do a nything. He is very
The hotel where we stayed was very luxurious. / .......responsible.
The hotel (which) we stayed at was very luxurious. /

j a Fill in the correct form of the words in


37> Correct the m istakes. # brackets.

Running a business involves many 1) ...difficulties... (difficult).


1 He ran dow n the road not to m iss the bus.
Its 2) ............. (benefit) to have some 3) .............. (know) of
2 Despite of his talents, he is very shy. management, but you could employ a 4) .............. (manage)
3 This is the girl w h o s parents own the hotel. instead. Of course, you must make a 5 ) ...............(commit) to
4 She often acts as if she is better than everyone else. the business and that will mean working for very long hours at
5 She m akes so delicious food, she o ught to be a chef. the beginning. You may need to get some 6) ..............
6 When Ill see her, I'll invite her to the party. (finance) support to start your business, and you must be able
7 His house, that is very old, is o p posite the post office. to make the 7) .................. (repay) regularly. It is 8) ............
8 This is the book w hich I borrow ed it from the library. (essence) to have loyal 9) ............. (employ) to work for you.
9 Jane finished w riting the letter at 8 o clock. She had Eventually, your business could be a great 10) ..............
started w riting it an hour ago. (succeed).
UNIT 10
Clauses - Linking ( A / o r d s
Phrasal Verbs 11 The politician ran ................ great o p position in his
election cam paign, but he still m anaged to win.
run across: (tr) meet sb/find sth by chance 12 He's g oing to see the rest of his c o n tr a c t...............and
run away: (int) escape (from home. duty, etc); then leave the com pany.
run off 13 They r a n ..............som e difficulties when the jeep got a
run away w ith: (tr) steal sth and leave with it flat tyre w hile they were on safari.
run down: 1) (tr) knock dow n and dam age or 14 We saw L in d a ................ at the airport, and then w ent
w ound (with a vehicle), 2) (tr) speak
home.
badly of sb/sth, 3) (int) (of a clo ck/
15 Neil ran .............. from hom e when he was 17, but
batteries) stop w orking
regretted it w hen he saw how hard life could be.
run into: (tr) 1) m eet sb unexpectedly,
16 W eve run ................ m ilk again. Ill go and buy som e
2) collide with sth in a vehicle,
more.
3) experience (difficulties)
17 It isn't nice to run people ................ all the time. You
run out (of): (tr) no longer have a supply of sth
ou g h t to be m ore tolerant.
run over: 1) (tr) knock dow n and dam age or
w ound (with a vehicle); run down, 18 Lucy s a w ................ the m a n s tricks im m ediately.
2) (int) overflow 19 He lost control of the car and r a n ................ a tree.
run through: (tr) repeat; practise 20 The farm er saw the boys ................ his land, and told
run up: (tr) allow (debts, bills, etc.) to them not to com e back.
increase 21 His parents saw him ................ the difficult year, and
run up against: (tr) face, (difficulties, problem s, etc.) gave him all the su p p o rt they could.

see about: (tr) make enquiries about or arrange Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition
ments about sth 42 * from the list. Some prepositions can be
see off: (tr) 1) accom pany a traveller to used more than once.
his/her plane, train, etc., 2) make
at, by, for, in, on, out of, off, under, from, without
sure that sb leaves (ones property,
etc.)
That style of skirt w e n t................ fashion years ago.
see out: (tr) last until the end of (a period of
time) We heard about the e a rth q u a k e .............the news.
see through: (tr) 1) not be deceived by sb/sth, 2) This m ust be finished by five o c lo c k ................ fail.
support sb in difficulties Paul and I arrived at the p a r ty ................ the same time.
see to: (tr)care for sb We were ................ the im pression that they were
m oving to France.
Crim e i s ................ the increase in m any cities.
The knock at the d o o r took m e ................ surprise.
4 i> Fill in the correct particle. He erased his project from the co m p u te r and had to
s ta r t................ scratch.
1 I ran ...into... an old teacher of m ine last w eekend at ................ my opinion, he is the greatest m usician of
the superm arket. our time.
2 Be careful crossing that road. I d o n t w ant you to get 10 I d o n t know ................ certain, but I think sh es gone
r u n .................. on holiday.
3 The bath water ran ................ because Dean forgot to 11 Y oure looking a b i t ..............colour - are you feeling
turn off the taps. alright?
4 T h e baby's crying again.' D on't worry. I'll s e e .............. 12 The cerem ony is being held ................ honour of the
him this tim e.' Pope's visit.
5 Henry r a n ................a huge telephone bill and then he 13 He put salt in his t e a ................ mistake, thinking it was
co uldn't afford to pay it. sugar.
6 You'll never guess what I ran .................. at a car boot 14 I ca n t stop and talk. I 'm ................ a hurry.
sale yesterday. 15 She waved until the car w a s ................ sight.
7 The garage roof is leaking. I m ust s e e ..............getting 16 We always stay in. W hy d o n t we go out ................ a
it fixed. change?
8 The actor ran ................ his lines once m ore on the 17 He told us the plan ................ brief and d id n t go into
night of the opening perform ance. detail.
9 One of the em ployees ran ................ the m oney from 18 I m ustn't eat any chocolate. I 'm ................ a diet.
the till. 19 Peter has gone to L o n d o n ................ business.
10 The alarm clock isn't w orking. I think the batteries m ust 20 She selected a C D ................ random and put it in the
have r u n .................. CD player.

161
in k in g W o rd s

sion Box

4 3 * Put the verbs in brackets into the correct 7 They let me go to the rock concert last Saturday,
* tense. allowed I ......................................................... to the rock
concert last Saturday.
1 A: You had better ...get up... (get up) early tom orrow . 8 He began to play the guitar w hen he was seventeen,
B: I know. I have to be at the audition by eight o clock. since He has ................................................... he was
2 A: The teacher shouted at me today. seventeen.
B: Well, if you .......................... (do) your hom ew ork, 9 He was annoyed by her behaviour and left the party,
she w o u ld n t have shouted at you. found He .........................................and left the party.
3 A: Stop m aking that noise, or else I ............................ 10 Someone should tell David about the changes weve
(send) you to your room . made.
B: Im sorry, Mum. Ill be quiet. be David ............................................. the changes
4 A: I wish S a m ............... (help) m ore around the house. w eve made.
B: Why d o n t you ask him? 11 It w asnt necessary for her to do the washing-up, but
she did.
5 A: Did you enjoy your steak?
B: Not really. Id ra th e r .......................... (eat) pizza.
have S h e ..........................................the washing-up.
12 Why are you so angry? Anne said to Michael.
6 A: I wish I ....................................(not/forget) my purse.
was Anne wanted to k n o w .......................................
B: It d o e s n t matter. Ill lend you som e money.
so angry.
7 A: I d o n t think Louise liked the film.
13 The question was so difficult that I couldnt answer it.
B: Well, she looked as th ough s h e ................ (enjoy) it.
too The question ................................... to answer.
8 A: Id rather you ................................. (not/play) your
14 Martin is repairing the car.
m usic so loudly. by The car ....................................................Martin.
B: Sorry. Ill turn it dow n. 15 We had no idea the car was stolen.
9 A: S upposing you were rich, w hat ................................ know Little .................................... the car was stolen.
(you/buy)? 16 He ca n t carry that box. He is too weak.
B: A big house and a sports car. enough He ..........................................to carry that box.
10 A: I w ould have w orn an evening dress if I .................... 17 Som eone sent us a large parcel.
(know) it was a form al occasion. were W e .............................................. a large parcel.
B: It d o e s n t matter. You look lovely. 18 You had better phone your parents.
ought You .............................................. your parents.

Fill in the gaps with the word which best fits


44 * Complete each sentence with two to five 4 5I a each space. Use only one word in each
^ words, including the word in bold.
space.

1 Ive never travelled by aeroplane before. One of 1) ...the... greatest tennis players 2 ) ......................
firs t Its ...the f i r s t tim e... Ive travelled by the 20th century was Frenchm an Rene Lacoste, 3 ) ...............
aeroplane. success in the sport reached its peak in the 1920s.
2 Is this the fastest you can type? He 4 ) ..................... several tennis cham pionships, both in
faster C ant ................................................. than this? Europe and in America, and 5) ...................... nicknamed
3 We will probably have a dinner party next weekend, T h e C ro co d ile due 6 ) ..................his method of playing the
likely I t ...................................................have a dinner game. He never attacked at the start of a match. Instead he
party next w eekend. w ould wait 7) ...................... his opponent had a m om ent of
4 Alright, Ill help you with your research, he said to me. w eakness and he would win the match.
agreed He ................................................ my research. In 1929, Lacoste retired from tennis. Some years later, he
5 Som eone stole my bag while I was shopping. brought 8) ...................... a range of sports and leisure
had I ........................................................ while I was clothing with his own cro co d ile em blem. These designs
shopping. quickly becam e popular 9 ) ....................... people all over the
6 Ive never heard such a w onderful song. w orld and today Lacoste is still 10) ....................... of the
the Its ............................................Ive ever heard. favourite labels on the market.
Clauses - Linking

O R A L

Re^l
evision Box > ^ A c tiv it y S > s '

Mr Blythe is a teacher at a secondary school. His class


want to put on a play in order to raise money for charity.
Look at the prompts below and make sentences using
4 6 . Put the verbs in brackets into the p re se n t relative pronouns and adverbs, as in the example.
J sim ple or the p re se nt c o n tin u o u s .
e.g. The sch oo l hall is the place where we hope to
1 A: That suitcase looks heavy! stage the play.
B: It is! It ...wcighe... (weigh) nearly thirty kilos!
2 A: My f e e t ...............................................(ache).
B: Sit dow n and put them up, then.
3 A: This t e a .................................(taste) awful.
B: Oh dear. I think the m ilk has gone off.
4 A: What are you doing?
B: I ........................ (weigh) the ingredients for a cake.
5 A: Have you been to Peter's house before?
B: Yes. but I .......................................... (not/rem em ber)
how to get there.
6 A: W ho is that woman?
B: I .......................(think) she w orks in the bookshop.
school hall/place/hope to stage/play
7 A: I love this music!
15th June/day/wish to perform/play
B: I ................................... (not/see) how you can like it.
'MacbethVplay/want to put on
It's awful!
David Lee/boy/play Macbeth
8 A: Why .......................................... (you/taste) the soup?
Sophie Jenkins/girl/mother/offer to make/costumes 1
B: To see if it needs more salt.
Mark Taylor/boy/father/agree to advertise/play
9 A: Are you busy this evening?
B: Yes. I .....................(see) some friends at eight o clock. 250/amount/hope to raise for charity
RSPCA/charity/wish to donate money to
10 A: You look happy.
B: I am. I ................................(think) about my holiday.

There are ten unnecessary words in the


47 text below. Cross them out.

" ^ A c t i v i t y ^
W h a ts in a N am e?
Mr Blythe is now w ritin g a letter to the headm aster to
ask fo r p erm ission to put on the play. Look at the Oral
1 Many everyday objects are being given their names for A c tiv ity a g a in and use y o u r n o te s to c o m p le te th e
2 a reason. The Biro (a ballpoint pen) was invented by letter below.
3 Georg and Josef Biro, so that it was named after them.
4 The sandwich, on the other hand, it was named after the Dear Mr Johnson,
5 4th Earl of Sandwich in 1762. Despite of the fact that the I am writing to request permission for my class to
6 idea of eating slices of meat between slices of bread was put on a play in order to raise money for charity. The
7 not a new one, the Earl of Sandwich made it popular. He school hall is the place where we hope to stage the
play. 15th June is ................................................................
8 would ask to be served this dish at his card table so that
9 he could play the all day. Morse code (the use of long
10 and short sounds to send the messages along a wire) was
11 been invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and Bermuda
12 shorts were so named because they at first became popular ... I hope you will allow us to put on the play, as it
13 in Bermuda. So, next time you will use an everyday would be both educational and enjoyable for the
14 object, why not to stop and think about where its name class, as well as beneficial to our chosen charity.
15 came from? You might be surprised! Yours sincerely,
Mr Blythe
ossessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers
In short answers and after as and than we use an
i- 1 o l i o U US' object pronoun (inform al) or a subject pronoun +
auxiliary verb (form al).
e.g. 7 hate jazz. OR Me too. 77 do too.
She spends more money than me/than I do.

j Fill in the blanks with the correct subject


J ) or o b je ct p ro noun .

1 Jo e s late. Has ...he... called? Its not lik e ........to be late.


2 Nick is lu c k y .............has a good jo b a n d ............ earns
m uch m ore t h a n .......... do.
3 Marie w orks hard, because .......... wants the boss to
g iv e .......... a pay rise.
This is Mr Bransons class. He is writing an example 4 W here is Sarah? Isnt t h a t .......... over there?
on the board. The students are reading it. 5 S hes older t h a n .......... am, but Im taller th a n ..............
He will ask them some questions later. 6 Im sick and tired of this jo b . .......... to o .
7 John g a v e ............. a great idea. ............is so inventive,
Personal Pronouns
isnt ........... ?
subject pronouns: I , you, he, she, It, we, you, they
object pronouns: me, you, him, her, It, us, you, them

Subject pronouns go before verbs as subjects and object F ill in th e g a p s w it h there, it or one .
pronouns go after verbs or prepositions as objects, e.g. I
like him a lot. 1 A: Did you enjoy the party?
We do not use a noun and a personal pronoun B: No. ...There... w e re n t m any people there .............
together, e.g. Jim is at work. (NOT: he is ...) was boring.
We use there + be to m ention som ething fo r the 2 A: .......... is som eone on the phone for you. I think
.......... is David.
firs t tim e or to say that som ething or som eone
exists. We use it + be to give m ore details about B: Hold on. Ill be there in a minute.
som ething or som eone that has already been 3 A: W as that a Ferrari going past?
m entioned. We also use it to refer to a person B: I d id n t s e e .............
when we are identifyin g him or her. 4 A: Look! .......... is your friend!
e.g. There is a message for you. It is from your boss. B: Oh yes! .......... s Ian.
Whos on the phone? Its Mr Fox. 5 A: W hen did you last see a film?
(NOT: Fpg^Mr Fox.) B: I havent s e e n .......... for months.
6 A: Have you got your um brella with you?
We can use it as the subject to ta lk about weather,
B: N o ........... w a sn t raining this m orning, so I le ft..........
distance, tem perature and tim e and also w ith: It
at home.
seems/appears that/It is said that, It doesnt matter,
A: Did you sleep late yesterday?
It looks like, etc.
B: Yes. By the tim e I w oke u p , .......... was lunch time.
e.g. Its a ten-minute drive to the station. Its 23 C
A: Have you got a com puter?
outside.
B: No. I h a d .......... , but I s o ld ...............
It seems that there are some problems with the
A: Look at this mess! .......... are toys everywhere.
new management OR There seem to be some
B: Sorry. Ill tid y up.
problems with the new management.
10 A: Did you visit the Acropolis?
We use it to ta lk about som ething that has already B: N o .............w a sn t enough time.
been made clear. We use one when it is not clear 11 A: Could I have the bill, please?
w hich th ing in p articula r we are ta lkin g about. B: Certainly. Ill b r in g .......... at once.
e.g. I cant find my wallet. Have you seen it? (The 12 A: .......... seem s to be a m istake in this report.
speaker is talking about a specific wallet.) B: Oh, sorry. Ill t y p e .......... again.
I havent got any nice jumpers; I need to buy 13 A: Josie is very pretty.
one. (The speaker is not talking about a specific B: Y es................ d o e s n t m atter w hat she wears, she
jumper.)
always looks good.
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - ftiantifiers
Note: its = possessive adjective
l:o bbo-b b i v (| A-l! jo-ci i v o b / e.g. The cat is licking its paw.
[: io no u lib its = it is or it has
e.g. It's (it is) raining. It's (it has) got one room.

I?obbobbivo o o bo

The possessive case can be used to talk about ownership


or the relationship between people. It is formed in two
ways:

1. w ith s / fo r people or anim als

singular nouns + s e.g. Bob's dog


plural nouns ending in -s + ' e.g. my parents' car
plural nouns not ending in -s + s e.g. the men's department
This is Melanie. She is sitting at her desk. She is giving a compound nouns + s e.g. my sister-in-law s family
file to her colleague, Samantha. The files behind her are
hers Melanie's boss asks her to update them every week. We use s after the last of two or more names to
show common possession.
e.g. Jackie and George's camera. (The camera belongs
Possessive A djectives Possessive Pronouns
to both of them.)
my our mine ours
We use s after each name to show individual
your your yours yours
possession, e.g. Peter's and Mike's cameras. (Each
his "j his "j 1 boy has his own camera.)
her v their hers I th eirs
its J - J 2. with of for inanimate things

Both p osse ssive a d je c tiv e s and p oss e s s iv e of + inanimate thing or abstract noun
pronouns can be used to talk about ow nership or e.g. the wheels of the car, the price of fame
the re la tio n s h ip betw een p eo ple. P ossessive a/the/this/that + noun + of + possessive
a d je ctive s are fo llo w e d by nouns, w hereas e.g. She's a colleague of mine. That friend of Pamela's
possessive pronouns are not. is a doctor.
e.g. This is her bag. It's hers.
Note: When we refer to a certain place or tim e, the
We norm ally use possessive adjectives w ith parts possessive case is form ed as fo llo w s:
of the body and clothes. phrase of place (shop/home/business, etc.) + s
e.g. Lucy twisted her ankle. e.g. at the chemist's (we mean the shop),
He put on his jacket and his hat and left. at Susan's (house)
phrase showing length of tim e/specific moment or
We use the and not possessive adjectives w ith
event + s/
prepositional phrases m ostly when we are talking
e.g. a year's savings/two hours' drive/today's news
about th ing s that happen to parts of peo ple s
bodies, fo r exam ple blow s, pains, etc. Verbs We can use e ith e rs or of when we talk about places
usually used in th is pattern are: hit, punch, slap, or organisations.
bite, touch, pat, sting , etc. e.g. Rome's population OR the population of Rome
e.g. She patted him on the shoulder.
He 's got a pain in the chest.
We use the w ord own in the fo llo w in g structures to
em phasise the fact that som ething belongs to 3 C o n n e c t th e n o u n s u s in g -s , o r ...of... .
someone.
noun + of + m y/your, etc. + own 1 husband/S arah ...S arah's husband...
m y/your, etc. + own + noun 2 teacher/the children ........................................................
e.g. I wish I had a room of my own. 3 coats/Sally and J a n e .......................................................
OR I wish I had my own room. 4 the Prime M inister/England ..........................................
5 CDs/m y s is te rs ..................................................................

165
UNIT 11
Pronoi ssessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers
6 the end/the road .......
7 books/the students .... 7 ^ Fill in its o r it's .
8 the owner/the building
1 My new bike is great. ...It's... got lots of gears on it.
2 The house next door has got a fence around ........
Fill in the correct possessive a d jective or
4 1 pronoun.
garden.
3 Lets go hom e................ getting late.
4 I love this shop................ got lots of lovely things in it.
1 A: Why did you lend Alt ...your... jacket? 5 the most beautiful house Ive ever seen.
B: Because he fo rg o t..........and it was cold. 6 That dog has got a white patch over .................. eye.
2 A: Chloe looks upset............eyes are very red.
B: Yes. She had an argument w ith .......... best friend.
0 Rewrite the sentences using the correct
3 A: Tom looks nice.............new clothes suit him.
p o s s e s s iv e fo rm .
B: Yes. I lik e .......... new shirt.
4 A: Have you m e t...........new boss yet? 1 He put his briefcase on the c a r - th e roof.
B: No, but I have m e t...........secretary. ...He put hie briefcase on the roof o f the car. ..
5 A: Mr and Mrs Ford must be rich.............. car is very 2 The w alk to school takes ten minutes.
expensive.
B: Yes, and its much faster th a n ............ 3 We are going on holiday two weeks from now.
6 A: I lik e ..........dress.
B: Oh, its n o t ............My sister lent it to me. 4 She received the parcel in the post this morning.
7 A: Celia e n jo y s ..........job.
B: Yes, and she gets on very well w ith ......... colleagues. 5 Paul never pays attention to his parentsthe advice.
8 A: Have you s e e n ......... keys?
B: Yes. They're on the table b e s id e ............ 6 That girl on the stage is a frie n d -m y .

7 Sarah David bicycles are being repaired

5 Fill in a posse ssive adjective or the. 8 Simon lost a week of pay when he was ill.

1 We always wash ...our... hands before eating anything. 9 The girl shook the man the hand.
2 W ip e ......... feet before you come in.
3 She looked him i n ..........eye and told him the truth. 10 Can I see the menu for today, please?
4 I tra p p e d ..........finger in the door.
11 We had a barbecue in Bob-Marie-garden.
5 He lo s t..........jacket at the party.
6 Julia says that Mike p u lle d ..........hair.
12 The inspector looked at the passeng ers-the tickets.
7 He h it ..........knee on the table.
8 She felt something tap her o n ..........shoulder.
9 The branch snapped back and hit him i n ..........face.
10 I lik e ........... shoes. I wonder where she bought them. 9 M Fill in the correct pronouns or possessives.

r Fill in the gaps with of where necessary, Dear Carol,


J and my, your, etc, own.
Thank you for D .your... last letter. I really enjoyed
reading 2 ) .............. Have 3 ) ........... children started
1 If they had a garden ...of th e ir own..., they could grow 4 ) ............ new school yet? Im sure 5 ) ............ will
flowers.
enjoy 6 ) ............. very much once they settle in and
2 John is lucky. He has got a computer .........................
make new friends. Mary and John asked me for
3 Don't treat me like a child! I've got a mind .................
7) ............. new address, so I gave 8) ............ to
4 I dont need a lift to work. Ive g o t .........................car.
5 They hope to set u p ...................... business one day.
9 )............. I hope 10)................dont mind. I saw Anne
6 Haven't you g o t ..........................book? Youre always last week. She said 1D............. would phone you this
taking mine. week to invite you to 12)............ birthday party Well,
7 Their new house is big, so Harry can have a room Pm going to 13) ............ aerobics class now. Please
write to 14)............. soon.
8 We re saving up to buy a f la t...........
Love,
9 You cant eat my sweets. Buy some
Rachel

166
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - ?motifiers

Each other means one another. Study the following


U _ e v le ) U Y ( r L' L O LlO U Lli>
examples:

Subject Reflexive Subject Reflexive


pronouns pronouns pronouns pronouns
I myself it itself
you yourself we ourselves
he himself you yourselves
she herself they themselves

We use reflexive pronouns: They are feeding They are feeding


themselves. each other.
with verbs such as behave, burn, cut, enjoy, hurt,
introduce, kill, look at, teach, etc., or with prep
ositions when the subject and the object of the C om plete th e se n te n ce s using verbs fro m
verb are the same person. We do not use reflexive 1 0 ^ th e lis t be lo w and a reflexive pronoun, as
pronouns after prepositions of place. in th e exam ple.
e.g. Sara (subject) has taught herself how to play the fix, make, organise, teach, paint, decorate, dress,
guitar. grow
You look pleased with yourself. 1 Annie didnt buy her wedding dress. She ...made it
BUT: She looked behind her because she heard herself....
footsteps. (NOT: She looked behind V...) 2 Do you like these flowers? I ...........................................
with the preposition by when we mean alone = 3 Look at this picture. My son ..........................................
1) without company = on ones own, 4 What a beautiful room! Did y o u .................................. ?
2) without help 5 I didnt call the plumber to fix the pipe. I .....................
e.g. Dad fixed the roof by himself.
6 He didnt have piano lessons. He ................................
(= Nobody helped Dad fix the roof.)
7 My son is only three, but I dont dress him. H e ..........
He hates travelling by him self Ion his own.
(= He hates travelling alone, without company.)
8 Nobody helped Julie with the party. She ....................
in the following expressions: enjoy yourself (have a
good time), behave yourself (be good), help
yourself (you are welcome to take something if you
want). 11 !> Fill in the appropriate reflexive pronoun or
each other/one another.
to emphasise the subject or the object of a
1 A: Who built your shed for you?
sentence.
B: No one. We built it ...ourselves....
e.g. I spoke to the manager himself. (I spoke to the
2 A: Will you keep in touch with Lucy when she moves?
manager, not somebody else.) B: Oh, yes. We will write t o ...........................................
Note: 1) We do not use reflexive pronouns with the 3 A: Paul and Sue dont get on very well.
verbs concentrate, feel, meet and relax. B: No. Theyre always arguing with ............................
e.g. I feel nervous. (NOT: I feel nervous.) 4 A: Did Mum help Jane to cook dinner?
B: No. She did it all b y ..............................
2) The verbs dress, wash and shave are not
5 A: Why are you and Marie going into town?
normally followed by a reflexive pronoun.
B: We are going to b u y ............... some new clothes.
However, we can use a reflexive pronoun
6 A: Did you switch the heating on?
with these verbs when we want to show that B: No. It switches ..........................on every morning.
someone did something with a lot of effort. 7 A: Help .....................................to coffee and biscuits.
e.g. She washed, dressed and then had B: Thank you. I will.
breakfast. 8 A: How is Sarah?
He had a broken arm, but he managed to B: I dont know. We havent s e e n ...........for months.
shave himself. 9 A: Whats the matter with Steve?
B: I think he wants to be b y ..................... for a while.
But we always say dry myself.
10 A: Do Mark and Ellen work well together?
B: Oh, yes. They often help ..............with their work.

167
UNIT 11
Pronoj ssessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers

D e i u o i i b l i a i i v c r S S o i u e / A i i y / N . o
(X Ills - 1liei / X lllri-lf - 1llOb'Cr|

This, these, that and those are used as demonstrative The children are
adjectives when they are followed by a noun and as somewhere outside the
pronouns when they are not followed by a noun. building. There aren't
e.g. This vase is made of crystal, (demonstrative adjective) any chairs. The teacher
That is made of glass, (pronoun) is writing something on
the board. Everybody is
looking at the board.
this/these are used:
for people or things which are near us.
e.g. This is my favourite painting.
for present or future situations.
e.g. My cousin is staying with me this week.
to refer to an idea we are about to mention. Countable/ some any not any/no
e.g. Listen to this. It's really funny. Uncountable

to introduce oneself on the phone or to introduce People somec anyone/ no one/not


people. anybody anyone
e.g. Hello? This is Helen.' Mum, this is Kate. nobody not
anybody
when the speaker is in or near the place he/she is
referring to. e.g. This room hasnt got enough light. Things anything nothing/
not anything
that/those are used:
Places anywhere nowhere/not
for people or things which are not near us. anywhere
e.g. That man over there is waving at you.
for past situations, e.g. That was a great party. We Some, any and no are used with uncountable
enjoyed ourselves. nouns (rice, tea, etc.) and plural countable nouns
(toys, books, etc.).
to refer back to something mentioned before. e.g. some rice, some toys
e.g. She lost her job. That s awful.
Some and its compounds (someone/somebody,
when speaking on the phone to ask who the other something, somewhere) are normally used in
person is. e.g. Whos that speaking?' affirmative sentences.
e.g. I need some advice. He's got something in his
pocket.
Any and its com pounds are also used in
12 F ill in th e gaps w ith this, that, these or those.
interrogative sentences. Not any is used in
negative sentences.
1 ...That... car over there belongs to the mayor. e.g. Are there any vegetables in the fridge? There isn't
2 people over there are waiting for the bus. anybody in the office.
3 We're moving house ......................................... month. Any and its compounds are also used with negative
4 diamond earrings here are priceless. words such as without, never, seldom, rarely,
5 Ive got a new job.' ..................... 's wonderful news. hardly, etc.
6 Mum..................................is my teacher, Miss Jones. e.g. I can do this without any help.
7 are my holiday photographs. Would you I have never seen anything like that.
like to look at them? No and its compounds are used instead of not any
8 H e llo ,.....................................is Jane Black speaking. in negative sentences.
9 house here was built in 1500. e.g. She hasnt got any money./Shes got no money.
10 The day I got married was wonderful. I will remember He didnt give me anything. He gave me nothing
...................... day for ever.
We use a singular verb with compounds of some,
11 I had a wonderful childhood. We did things differently
any and no.
i n ........................days.
e.g. There is something wrong with the computer.
12 Hello, this is Alan. Who's .............................. please?

168
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - fk s n tifie rs
Fill in the gaps with everyone Ieverybody,
S om e and its com pounds are also used in
I4a everything or everywhere , and the correct
interrogative sentences when we expect a positive form of the verbs in brackets.
answer, for example when we make an offer or
request. 1 The meeting was a success. ...Everything went... (go)
e.g. a) This place is crowded. Shall we go som ew here well.
else? (We expect the answer yes.) 2 (learn) a foreign language at this school.
b) Would you like som ething to drink? (offer) 3 The film is a box-office hit......................................(talk)
Yes, please. Can I have som e lemonade?' about it.
4 We are going on holiday next week..............................
(request)
(be) arranged.
When any and its compounds are used in affirmative 5 On Friday afternoon........................ (leave) the office
sentences, there is a difference in meaning. Study early.
the following examples: 6 Mark is a very popular boy........................... (like) him.
a) You can come any day you want. 7 After the snow had fallen............................. (be) white.
(It doesn 't matter which.) 8 I'm glad we came to the beach..........................(have)
b) A nyo n e IA n y b o d y can take part in the quiz show. a wonderful time.
(It doesn 't matter who.) 9 We wanted to go to a restaurant, but ..........................
c) You can find anything you want in this shop. (be) full.
(It doesn't matter what.) 10 I dropped my bag and .................................. (fall) out.
d) I'll find you anyw here you go. 11 We cant make the announcement until
(It doesn't matter where.) (arrive).

Every is used with singular countable nouns.


e.g. Every employee must clock in and out. 1 5 * F ill in th e g a p s w ith some, any, no o r o n e o f
The pronouns everyone/everybody, everything and t h e ir c o m p o u n d s .
the adverb everywhere are used in affirmative,
1 A: Is there ...anything... good on television tonight?
interrogative and negative sentences and are
B: I dont know. Look in the newspaper.
followed by a singular verb.
2 A: Would you lik e ............................ to eat?
e.g. Everybody/Everyone has a right to a fair trial.
B: No. I dont w a n t............................. thank you.
(NOT:... hove q right.)
3 A: There i s ............................ here to see you.
B: Who is it?
4 A: I went to Jane's house, but there w a s ......................
at home.
aq Bill has lost his keys . Read the dialogue and B: Perhaps she has g o n e ............................nice for the
underline the correct item. weekend.
5 A: I h a v e ............................ time to do all this work.
A: There is 1) n othin g /som ething more annoying than B: Is th e re ............................ I can do to help?
losing 2) som ething /anything 6 A: Was the party good last night?
B: What have you lost? B: Not really. There were hardly ............................
A: My keys. They must be 3) anyw here/som ew here in people there.
7 A: I have to go shopping, but I don't h a v e ....................
the house, but Ive got 4) no/any idea where. I cant
money.
find them 5) now here/anyw here.
B: Ill lend y o u ............................ if you like.
B: Are you sure you havent left them 6) s o m e w h e re /
8 A: Have you seen M ich ae l............................ ?
now here by mistake?
B: No, I havent seen him.
A: Of course not. They cant be 7) som ew here/anyw here
9 A: The town was very busy today. There w a s .............
else but here. 8) N o one/Som eone must have hidden
..............to park.
them. B: They should build ............................ new parking
B: Why would 9) no one/anyone hide your keys? There facilities.
is 10) any I no reason for 11) a nyone I no one to do A: What would you do if you were lost?
12) nothing I som ething so silly. B: I would a s k ............................ for directions.
A: Well, I need 13) some/any help to find them. I have to n A: Is th e re ............................ you would like to go this
go 14) anywhere/som ewhere important this afternoon. weekend?
B: Calm down. Its 15) s o m elno use getting angry about B: Id like to g o ............................ nice and quiet.
16) anything/som ething like this. Look! There are 12 A: I s ............................ wrong with Paul?
17) no! som e keys on that chair. B: No, theres ............................ wrong with him. He's
A: They're mine! Oh. I feel so silly! just tired.

169
UNIT 11
Pronoi -rossessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers

iivoiy - lie u r li

The adverb else means other, different, or more. Every and each are used with singular countable
It is used after som eb od y, an yb o d y, nothing , every nouns. We normally use each when we talk about
where, etc. and who, what , why, when, where and two people or things. We use every when we talk
how . It is followed by a singular verb. about three or more people or things.
e.g. a) Can I get you anything else? e.g. He was holding an ice cream in each hand.
b) Kim hasn't arrived yet but everybody else is here. (N O T : ... m every hond.)
c) I've been to Lisbon twice this year.' Really? Every part of my body hurt after the fall.
Where else have you been?' (N O T: Eooh port of my body ...)
d) 7 bought a lovely rug from the market.' What
Every one and each (one) can be followed by of.
else did you buy?
e.g. It was the twins birthday yesterday. I gave a
A n yth in g (else ) and noth in g (else ) can be used present to each (o n e ) of them.
with but. I've seen all of Mel Gibsons films and I liked
e. g. I haven Ygot anything (else) to offer but my advice. every one of them.
The possessive of else is else's. We use every when we are thinking of people or
e.g. I have taken somebody else's book by mistake. things together, in a group to mean all, every
Or else means otherwise, if not. body/everything.
e.g. Hurry up or else well miss our flight. e.g. Every employee is entitled to twenty days off. (all
employees)
Elsewhere is formal and means somewhere else.
We use each when we are thinking of people or
e.g. If you are not satisfied with the service in this
things separately, one at a time,
restaurant, you can go elsewhere.
e.g. Each employee in turn will tell the manager when
he wishes to take his holiday.
We use every to show how often something
4C F ill in th e g a p s w ith else, e/ses, or else o r happens.
S elsewhere. e.g. There is a train every tw enty minutes.
I have to attend a meeting every two months.
1 He is ill. Why ...else... would he go to the doctors?
2 The postman has delivered someone ................. mail We use eve ry but not each with words and
to our house. expressions such as almost, nearly, practically
3 She must be at work. W h e re ............... could she be? and w ithout exception.
4 I love it here. I w ouldnt want to live anywhere ........... e.g. She has invited every person she knows, without
5 This hotel is full. We will have to stay............................ exception. (N O T : ... oooh-pofoon oho knowo ...)
6 Dont shout ............................ you will wake the baby.
7 What ............................... do we need to take with us?
8 This jacket isnt mine. Its somebody ...........................
^8 Fill in the gaps with each or every .

j 7 Complete the sentences using else as in


J the example. 1 We have two cars and ...each... of them is blue.
2 There were lots of sweets and she ate ................one
1 Hurry up, James, ...everybody else... (all the other of them.
people) has left. 3 of the two boxes has bottles inside.
2 If you cant help me, Ill ask ........................................... 4 The teacher gave one book to ...................... student.
(another person). 5 She gave .......................of the children an ice cream.
3 The manager isnt in his office. He must be ............... 6 He is wearing a different colour sock on ............foot.
..........................(another place). 7 Ive g o t ...................... book that authors ever written.
4 Have you invited .......................................... (one more 8 I have seen almost ....... episode of this programme.
person) to the party? 9 Almost ..............T-shirt she owns is a designer label.
5 If youve finished your work, I can give y o u ................ 10 The Olympic Games are held ................... four years.
............................... (a different thing) to do. 11 I eat an a p p le ........................day.
6 I only have the ironing to do now. Ive done .............. 12 She b o u g h t...........................of her friends a souvenir
.................................. (all the other things). from Paris.

170
UNIT 11
Pronouns Possessives - Demonstratives - ?i!i3ntifiers

A. ioi ot - M ajcIi - IvWuy. ^ /\v e v v 7 [ :irW - A liiiW L iiile ;

Laura has got a few Lucy has got (very) few


peaches. She can make peaches. She can't make
some jam. any jam.

There aren 't many cherries, but there are


a lot of strawberries.
Is there much pasta? Yes, there is a lo t

A lot of/lots of are used with both plural countable and


uncountable nouns. They are normally used in
affirmative sentences. Of is omitted when a lot/lots are
not followed by a noun.
e.g. There were a lot of/lots of people at the concert.
There is a lot of/lots of yoghurt in the fridge.
Have you got many books? Yes, I've got a lo t
Much and many are normally used in interrogative Simon has got a little paint. Rick has got (very) little
and negative sentences. Much is used with He can paint the door. paint. He cant paint the
door.
uncountable nouns and many with plural countable
nouns.
e.g. Is there much sugar in the cupboard? A few/few are used with plural countable nouns
There isn 't much sugar in this cake. (flowers, letters, etc.).
Have you got many CDs? I haven't got many CDs. A few means not many, but enough.
How much and how many are used in questions e.g. There are a few hotels in this town. You'll probably
and negations. find a room to spend the night.
How much + uncountable noun > amount Few means hardly any, almost none and can be
How many + countable noun number used with very for emphasis.
e.g. How much money have you got? Not much.
e.g. There are (very) few cupboards in the kitchen.
How many stamps do you need?' Six.
There's not enough room to store my plates and
Too many is used with plural countable nouns. It glasses.
has a negative meaning and shows that there is
more of something than is wanted or needed. A little/little are used with uncountable nouns
e.g. You eat too many sweets. Your teeth will rot. (milk, time, etc.).

Too much is used with uncountable nouns. It has A little means not much, but enough.
the same negative meaning as too many. e.g. There is a little petrol in the tank. It will get us to
e.g. I've got too much work to do. I can't go out. the next town.
We use most/som e/any/m any/m uch/(a) few/(a) Little means hardly any, almost none and can be
little/several/one, two, etc. + of when a noun used with very for emphasis.
follows, preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the
e.g. There's (very) little coffee left. We need to buy
or possessives.
some more.
e.g. Most of the people at the party were from work,
but: Most people like parties.

171
UNIT 11
Prono -rossessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers
4q Fill in many, much, how many, how much or a 94
Underline the correct item.
1 /of (of). * 1

1 A: Shall we go out tonight? 1 I have a lot of records, but very few/little/very little CDs.
B: I cant. I dont have ...much... money, Im afraid. 2 We have very little/very few/few spaghetti, so I cant
2 A: Can you help me, please? make Spaghetti Bolognese.
B: Im sorry. I havent got .........time at the moment. 3 Im tired. I didn't get many/much/few sleep last night.
3 A: ............................. potatoes are in that bag? 4 Ive made many/much/a lot of notes, but I havent
B: Seven, I think. Why? written my essay yet.
4 A: What did you do on your holiday? 5 This coffee is bitter. It needs a few/a little/little more
B: Well, I read ............... and I relaxed on the beach. sugar.
5 A: There isnt .................... milk left. 6 I have invited a few/a lot of/much people to the party.
B: I hope there will be room for them all.
Well, Ill buy some later this afternoon.
7 I dont have many/much/few time at the moment. Ill
6 A: ...........................homework have you got?
talk to you later.
B: Q u ite ............................. Id better start now.
8 I have had a few/very few/very little success in my
7 A: Did you enjoy your dinner?
search for a job.
B: Yes. I a te ..........................and Im very full.
9 There are much/a lot of/a little reasons why he should
8 A: Mark is a wonderful athlete.
go to university.
B: Yes. He has w o n ................................ competitions.
10 Id love to come to the beach. I just need a few/a little /
9 A: Are th e re ............................. flowers in the garden?
many minutes to get ready.
B: Yes, and they are beautiful too.
11 There are m uch/little/few people who are as hard
10 A: Are you very busy?
working as James.
B: No. I havent got ................................. to do today.
12 I have little/a little/a few work to do before I can leave.
11 A: She has g o t ...........................clothes.
13 I made a lot/a little/a few biscuits this morning. Would
B: I know. She wears something different every day.
you like to try one?
12 A: ................................. times have you seen this film?
14 There werent few/much/many people in town today.
B: Three times, but I always cry at the end.
It was very quiet.
13 A: ...................... food should we take on the picnic? 15 There is a little/little/a few chance of his getting the
B: Oh, enough for all four of us. job. He has no experience.
14 A: Have you travelled t o ................................. places?
B: Yes, I go to a different country every year.
22p PHI 5n many, few, much or little.

2 0 > Fill in the gaps with too much or too many. Claire pushed the door open a 1) ...little... and looked inside.
The house was small and there was not 2 ) ..........................
furniture. There were a 3) ................ chairs and a table, but
1 A: Would you like to spend the weekend with us?
there were very 4) ....................signs of comfort. There was
B: I can't. I have ...too many... things to do.
not 5) ...........................light, but Claire could see that there
2 A: Shall we go to London tomorrow?
were not 6) ........................pictures or ornaments. It was as
B: No. It ta k e s .....................................time to get there.
though the owner of the house spent very 7) ......................
3 A: I had a terrible nightmare last night.
time there. After a 8) ................ more moments, she quietly
B: Thats because you watch ...........................horror
closed the door and walked away.
films.
4 A: ............................. red meat is bad for your health.
B: I know. I rarely eat red meat.
A: There a r e ................................ people on this train. 2 3 ^ Add of w h e re necessary.
5
B: I know. Its very crowded.
6 A: I have spent ............................. money this month. 1 A lot ...of... people have mobile phones these days.
B: You should have been more sensible. 2 M a n y ..............her books are very old.
7 A: This sauce tastes awful. 3 M o s t.............. children enjoy watching cartoons.
B: I think I p u t ............................... salt in it. 4 Ive met se veral..............his colleagues.
8 A: I m a d e ................................ food for the party. 5 A fe w ..............birds were singing in the tree.
B: I know. There is a lot left over. 6 Have you ever seen a n y ..............Bruce Willis films?
9 A: There are ................................... books in this bag. 7 S o m e ..............my friends live abroad.
B: I know. Its very heavy, isnt it? 8 O n e ..............her books has won an award.
10 A: You are making ...........noise. I cant concentrate. 9 I have hardly a n y ..............free time at the moment.
B: Im sorry. I'll try to be quiet. 10 A fe w ................the guests arrived early.
iIN IT 11
D e m o n s trc ^ ^ fl atifiers

13c i l i / K i f - i i i i e i - A.ll/N.oiu=- *- iliilie i

Both the motorcycle and the bicycle have got handlebars. All of these are means of transport.
Both of these have two wheels. None of these can travel across water.
Neither of these haslhave room for luggage. All of these can carry passengers.
Neither the motorcycle nor the bicycle
is convenient in winter.

Both refers to two people, things or groups. It has None of refers to more than two people, things or
a positive meaning and is followed by a plural groups and has a negative meaning. It is used with
verb. nouns or object pronouns and is followed by either
e.g. Both men work at the bank. a singular or plural verb.
Both of them cost a lot of money. e.g. None of my friends has/have travelled abroad.
Neither refers to two people, things or groups and But: How many books did you buy?' None.
has a negative meaning. Neither of + plural noun Either refers to two people, things or groups and is
phrase can be followed by either a singular or followed by a singular countable noun.
plural verb in the affirmative. e.g. You can paint the walls blue or green.
e.g. Neither of the films haslhave won an award. Either colour is fine with me.
Neither of them is/are working at the moment. Either of + plural noun phrase can be followed by
But: Neither dress is long enough. either a singular or plural verb.
All refers to more than two people, things or e.g. Either of these two dresses suits/suit you.
groups. It has a positive meaning and is followed But: Either dress suits you.
by a plural verb. We can use not ... either (of) instead of neither (of).
e.g. All the actors were brilliant. Either can also be used at the end of a negative
All of them are well-qualified. sentence.
e.g. I saw two plays, but I didn't like either of them.
Both/All can go: a) after the verb to be, b) after the
My sister can't drive, and I can't either.
auxiliary verb, but before the main verb.
e.g. They are both/all excited. They have both/all Both ... and is followed by a plural verb.
signed the contract. e.g. Both Mark and Sam work here.
Whole is used with singular countable nouns. We Neither ... nor/E ither... or take either a singular or
use a/the/this/my etc. + whole + noun. plural verb, depending on the subject which
e.g. He was hungry, so he ate the whole pie. follows nor or or.
Also: He was hungry, so he ate all the pie. e.g. Either Mum or Dad is going to pick me up.
We dont use whole with uncountable nouns.
e.g. She spent all the money you gave her.
(NOT: ...tho wholo monoy...)
All + day/morning/week year = the whole + day/
moming/week/year
e.g. He's been making phone calls all morning/the
whole morning.

17?
UNIT 11
Pronoj ssessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers
R e w rite th e sen te n ce s using both...and,
24> U nde rlin e th e c o rre c t ite m s.
^ neither...nor or either...or.

Oliver has got two jobs, but 1) neither/neither of them pay 1 Beth hasnt got a car. Lucy hasnt got a car, either.
very well. He has had more jobs already than 2) most/most ...Neither Beth nor Lucy has g o t a car....
of people have in their whole lives, but 3) none/none of them 2 Harold wears glasses. Helen wears glasses, too.
really suited him. It is a shame, because he spent 4) several/
several of years at college and has got 5) some/any good 3 Kerry is cleaning the house, or maybe Joe is.
qualifications. 6) Either of/Both his parents are very proud of
him for getting a good education, but 7) each of/neither of 4 Clive cant speak French. Bill cant speak French,
them can understand why he cant find a suitable job. He buys either.
8) several/most newspapers every week and looks carefully
through 9) each of/every one of them to see if 10) any/no 5 Kim loves chocolate. Laura loves chocolate, too.
good jobs are being advertised. He applies for 11) every one
of/every available position, but often receives 12) some/no 6 Simon needs a haircut. Mike needs one, too.
reply. He still believes that he will find his ideal job one day.
7 Daphne doesnt eat meat. Jayne doesnt, either.

2 5 > Choose th e c o rre c t a n sw e r. 8 Scott is washing the car, or maybe Jim is.

9 Debbie goes to school. Hannah goes to school, too.


1 How many brothers do you have?
Tw o, and ...C... of them are older than m e. 10 Henry repaired the fence, or maybe Todd did.
A either B all C both
2 There were a lot of people at the party. 11 Beth cant play the piano. Doug cant, either.
I know. B u t............of them were strangers to me.
A all B neither C either 12 Pam will water the plants, or else Carl will.
3 Mum, did you wash my blue shirt?
Well, I washed two shirts, b u t..........of them was blue.
A both B neither C either
4 You cant be lonely. You have lots of friends.
97 Fill in the gaps with the correct missing
^ w ord(s).
Yes, b u t ............of them can come to visit today.
A none B all C both
A: Can you give me 1) ...some... advice, please?
5 Have you seen any James Bond films? B: Of course. Is 2) ..........................worrying you?
Ive seen tw o.............. of them were very good. A: Well, yes. Ive had 3) .......................... problems at
A Either B Both C All university recently.
6 Why didnt you buy anything? B: Maybe theres 4 ) .................... I can do to help you. Tell
B e cau se ............of those clothes were very nice. me whats wrong and Ill see if theres 5 ) .................... I
A both B either C none can do.
7 Both of those dresses are beautiful. A: Well, the main problem is that I have 6) ................... work
Yes, but I dont th in k ............of them will fit me. to do for my exams and I dont have 7 ) .........................
A either B neither C all time left to study. Ive left it very late and so far I haven't
8 You have lots of CDs, dont you? done 8) ...........................revision.
Yes, a n d ............of them are in my room. B: I see. How 9) .......................... time do you have until
A none B all C both the exams?
9 Did you read both of those books? A: Three weeks. I should be studying 10) ................ day.
Yes, but I didnt e n jo y ............of them . but I dont know where to start. I have so 11) ...............
A neither B all C either subjects to study. Also, I dont really have 12) ..................
10 Did you watch a comedy last night? to sit in peace and quiet. Our house is always noisy.
No. We watched two films, b u t ............of them were B: Well, if you want 1 3 )..........................quiet to work, why
comedies. dont you go to the library? Its always quiet there and
A either B neither C both there are 14) .... useful books there which you
could use in your revision.
11 Do you have many pen-friends?
Yes, a n d ............of them live abroad. A: Thats a great idea. Thank you very much. Youve been
A all B either C none very helpful.

174
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - fkaatifiers
Note: We can use they/them/ their to refer to a
O iliei Q iie Lis t o Lius person whose sex is unknown.
e.g. Suppose a friend of yours asked you to lend
them some money, what would you do?
another = additional, an extra one. It is used with (Also: ...to lend him or her some money ... -
singular countable nouns. less usual)
e.g. Would you like another cup of tea? Compare:
These apples are delicious. Can I have another My grandmother celebrated her 70th birthday
(one)? last week.
another + few/two, three etc. + noun We also use they/them/their after words such
e.g. Were going to stay for another few days/another
as somebody, anybody, nobody, whoever, no,
four days. each, every, a person.
other/another = different, besides this/these e.g. If anybody calls while Im out, ask them to
e.g. Have you got any other blouses in black? leave a message.
I don't like this tie. Can you show me another one? Whoever told you that? They must have been
other/others When other is used with a noun, it has lying.
no plural form.
e.g. Where are the other files? (NOT:... files?)
But: I've got some files here. Where are the others?
OQ Fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun or
Note: Others can also be used to mean (the) other J possessive adjective.
people, e.g. Some people enjoy playing golf, others
hate it. 1 Someone called for you today, but ...they... didnt
le a v e ..................... name.
each other = one another
2 If you saw a person in trouble, would you h e lp ....... ?
e.g. We don't visit each other very often.
3 Somebody has parked ..............car across the drive.
every other = every second I cant get out.
e.g. We go to the supermarket every other Friday. 4 My aunt left .......................bag here when she visited
the other day = a few days ago us this morning.
e.g. Jack called me the other day; he said he was 5 If a colleague of mine got promoted, Id be happy for
coming home the following week.
6 Everyone brings .................... own lunch to work with

7 My brother has crashed ...................... car. It is at the


OQ Fill in another, (the) other(s), each other or garage now.
J every other. 8 He told each person to order whatever ......................
wanted.
1 Can I have ...another., cup of coffee, please? 9 The police inspector asked everybody in the room to
2 This book is mine and ............................... are Daves. g iv e .........................names.
3 Frank and Barbara have had an argument. They arent
talking t o ................................... today.
4 This magazine comes o u t .................................. week. 30 Underline the correct item.
5 That watch is gold; ........................................are silver.
6 You h a v e ................................. two days to register for
1 He ate the whole/all cake by himself.
the course.
2 Is/Are everyone ready to begin the exam?
7 Some people work during the day.................................
3 You must sign every/each one of these letters.
work at night.
4 Ive never met no one/anyone I like more than Jonathan.
8 We usually help ............................................... with our
5 Ive been working hard all/every day and now Im
homework.
exhausted.
9 I have my hair cut .............................................. month. 6 Either!Neither Sam or John will give you a lift.
10 Would you lik e ...................................................biscuit? 7 No!None of those books is interesting.
11 Brothers and sisters look after ...................................... 8 Ive been to Paris twice and I went to the Eiffel Tower
12 Jack works the night shift .................................. week. both/all times.
13 I saw Mark .................................. day. He looked well. 9 Neither/Either Mary nor Sue went to the beach last
14 That cake was lovely. Can I have .................... piece? Saturday.
15 Where are ................................... children? Outside. 10 He was so thirsty that he drank the whole/all the water
16 Are there any ...................... questions before we go? in one go.

175
UNIT 11
Pronoj ssessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers

CoLnLuoii Luis'ieLeb' 31> Correct the mistakes.

Theres somebody on the phone. He must be Sam. / 1 We can watch the comedy or the thriller. Either films is
Theres somebody on the phone . It must be Sam. / fine with me.
She earns a lot more than I. / 2 I have very few time. Youd better make it quick.
She earns a lot more than me. / 3 The childrens area is run by experienced staff.
She earns a lot more than I do. / 4 There isnt nothing good on television this evening.
5 The boy had a cut on every knee.
The ball hit him on his head. /
6 We have rarely been somewhere as beautiful as this.
The ball hit him on the head. /
7 He works a lot harder than I.
Dont sit on that chair. One of its legs is broken. / 8 What have you told the others staff?
Dont sit on that chair. One of its legs is broken. / 9 The cupboard was right next to himself.
This car is my brothers-in-law. / 10 Dont drink the whole lemonade by yourself. Offer
This car is my brother-in-laws. / some to your friends.
Those are Ben and Tims bicycles. / 11 She spent all the day talking to customers.
Those are Bens and Tims bicycles. / 12 We all have been invited to Samanthas party.
13 The teacher patted her on her head.
Relax yourself and put your feet up. /
14 That dog is hurt. One of its paws is bleeding.
Relax and put your feet up. /
15 These are Jane and Claires school bags.
I have rarely met someone as polite as Greg. / 16 All my clients files are on the desk.
I have rarely met anyone as polite as Greg. / 17 Ive visited nearly each house on this list.
The girl was wearing a bracelet on every wrist. / 18 This jacket is my fathers-in-law.
The girl was wearing a bracelet on each wrist. / 19 Theres someone here to see you. She must be your
Ive seen nearly each film he has directed. / sister.
Ive seen nearly every film he has directed. / 20 Feel yourself free to ask any question you like.
They all have been to France before. /
They have all been to France before. /
We spent the all week lying on the beach. /
We spent all week lying on the beach. / 3 2 ^ Cross out the unnecessary word.
We spent the whole week lying on the beach. /
She seems to be talking on the telephone the whole 1 The teacher wants all of students to participate in the
time. / concert at the end of term.
She seems to be talking on the telephone all the 2 She concentrated herself on the exam questions.
time. / 3 Neither of the coach nor the players were happy with
There isnt nothing in the fridge. Its empty. / their performance in the game.
There isnt anything in the fridge. Its empty. / 4 They spent the all morning looking for a place to put up
There is nothing in the fridge. Its empty. / their tent.
5 Please,dont hesitate to call any one time you want.
The womens department is on the second floor. /
6 There it seems to be something wrong with the alarm
The womens department is on the second floor. /
system.
All my friends bicycles are better than mine. / 7 Every one citizen has to pay taxes.
All my friends bicycles are better than mine. / 8 Johns sister she got engaged to a young doctor last
The phone book is right in front of yourself. / week.
The phone book is right in front of you. / 9 There she is a woman at the door. It's our new
We have very few milk left. We need to buy some. / neighbour.
We have very little milk left. We need to buy some. / 10 These jumpers are quite expensive, but the others
ones are cheap.
You can buy a sports car or a jeep. Either cars are
11 Some people enjoy playing golf, while others people
fine with me. /
find it very boring.
You can buy a sports car or a jeep. Either car is fine
12 She bought a lots of decorations for the party.
with me. /
13 The meeting was attended by a very few people, and
Where have you put the others bags? / as a result no important decisions were made.
Where have you put the other bags? / 14 If anyone person reveals anything to the press, they
will be fired.
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - ?motifiers
Com plete each sentence w ith tw o to five Fill in the gaps with the correct form of
J } w ords, including the w ord in bold. the words in brackets.

1 The only person he didnt send an invitation to was 1 It is ...encouraging... to see so many young people
Margaret. reaching a high level o f .................................. in school.
everyone He sent ...an invitation to everyone... (encourage, achieve)
except Margaret. 2 Brian has a very ......................... mind, and all his work
2 He didnt pay any attention to her complaints. shows great ........................................(create, original)
no He ................................................................. 3 The high ........................ of children at th e ......................
..................................... to her complaints. came as a ............................ surprise, (attend, perform,
3 I asked Emily about the missing ring and I asked her please)
brother too. 4 T h e ......................... have invested in a n .........................
both I asked ......................................................... campaign aiming at ............................................. young
.............................about the missing ring. people from smoking, (govern, advertise, discourage)
4 Hes got little patience with young children. 5 H e r ................................... from the office this week has
much He ................................................................. caused a great deal o f ......................................(absent,
................ patience with young children. inconvenient)
5 Helen wasnt happy with my idea and Peter wasnt, either, 6 He could barely contain his .............................. at the
nor Neither Helen ............................................. ......................... of moving to London, (excite, think)
.................................. happy with my idea. 7 The .......................... stood behind a ...............................
6 When he first saw her, she was sitting alone on a bench, screen during the experiment, in case there was an
by When he first saw her, she ....................... unexpected........................... (invent, protect, explode)
................................................ on a bench. 8 James is the ............................ of a n ...............................
7 There are only a few people who can speak Hungarian, art .......................... which includes some v e ry ...............
many There ........................................................... ................. paintings, (own, extend, collect, value)
............................... can speak Hungarian.
8 She spent all day watching soap operas.
whole She spent ....................................................
.............................watching soap operas. qc Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition
9 He took another persons briefcase by mistake, ^ from the list. Some of the prepositions can
someone He took ........................................................ be used more than once.
................................................. by mistake.
10 She was able to put her clothes on although her arm at, by, for, in, on, out of, off, under, within, before,
from
was bandaged.
dress She was able to ......................................... 1 We met Alice ... ty... chance when we were shopping in
...........although her arm was bandaged. town.
11 People dont understand me when I speak Arabic, 2 I hadn't seen Mark for years, but I recognised him
m yself I cant ........................................................... ............... sight.
................................ when I speak Arabic. 3 You should never take your frie n d s ............... granted.
12 I hope you have a good time at the party, 4 In her jeans and T-shirt, Kate fe lt ...............place in the
yourself I hope .......................................................... expensive restaurant.
................................................ at the party. 5 This room i s ............... limits to students.
13 It takes me an hour to drive from my house to the airport, 6 We called the police and they arrived ................
drive It is ............................................................... minutes.
.................. from my house to the airport. 7 Policemen usually wear uniforms when they are
14 He said that I could borrow whatever I wanted as long ............... duty.
as I returned it. 8 She wants to be by h e rs e lf............... the time being.
anything He said that I .............................................. 9 She put her jewellery in a locked d ra w e r............... safe
.............................as long as I returned it. keeping.
15 It was clear that the three boys knew nothing about the 10 We walked up the stairs, as the lift w a s ............... order.
theft. 11 He used to live in the city centre but now he lives
of It was clear that .......................................... ............... the suburbs.
................ knew anything about the theft. 12 The teacher gave us our exam results ............... the
16 I enjoy spending time alone sometimes. beginning of the lesson.
on I enjoy spending ........................................ 13 I can see smoke in the sky. Something must be
................................................. sometimes. ............... fire.
17 John will help you, or else Martin will. 14 I lent Adam my c a r ............... condition that he drove
or E ith e r................................... will help you. carefully.

177
UNIT 11
Pronoj Possessives - Demonstratives - Quantifiers
Stuart never feels ............... ease when his boss is in Michael takes ............... his mother. Theyve both got
the room. brown hair and green eyes.
16 I promise to be more c a re fu l...............now on. Ian's wife s to o d ...............him when he lost his job two
17 Its getting late. We will have to le a v e ...............long. months ago.
18 He didnt have any cash with him, so he p a id ............... Once the cold weather s e ts ................well be glad of
cheque. the fire in the living room.
19 This product has only b e e n ............... the market for a Lesleys business is really ta k in g ................. Shes had
few months.
lots of orders.
20 John is in bed. He is fe e lin g ............... the weather.
The chef s e t............... some strawberries to put on top
of the cake.
P h ra s a l V e rb s 8 The letters UN s ta n d ............... United Nations.
(tr) save for a special purpose; set 9 I have decided to take ............... aerobics because I
set aside:
by want to get fit.
set in: (int) (of weather) start and seem 10 Im sorry. I ta k e ............... everything I said about this
likely to continue restaurant. The meal was delicious.
set off: (int) start a journey 11 The group set ............... on their journey, wondering
set out: 1) (int) begin a journey, 2) intend what adventures lay ahead.
(to do sth) 12 Of all the essays, that one s ta n d s ...............because it
set up: (tr) start a business is very well-written.
stand by: (tr) support sb esp in difficulties 13 The teacher to o k ...............the boys football and put it
stand for: (tr) be an abbreviation for in the cupboard.
stand in for: (tr) replace sb temporarily 14 No one was ta k e n ............... by her clever lies.
stand out: (int) be noticeable 15 He stood me ............... last night, so Im very angry
stand up: fail to meet (sb) with him.
stand up for: (tr) support sb or sth 16 By the end of the day, Jack had done everything he set
stand up to: (tr) resist; defend oneself against ............... to do.
(sb) without fear 17 You ought to stand ............... your boss. Im sure he
take after: (tr) look or act like a relative; will respect you for it.
resemble 18 I took him ..............his dinner invitation, and we went
take away: (tr) 1) remove, 2) seize from people to a lovely restaurant.
take back: (tr) admit saying sth wrong 19 When their camping trip was over, the girls to o k ..............
take down: (tr) separate into pieces so as to their tent and put it away carefully.
repair or remove 20 The factory is ta k in g ...............more employees at the
take in: (tr) make clothes narrower (opp: let out) moment.
take off: 1) (tr) remove clothes (opp: put on), 21 Work ta k e s ............... most of my time these days.
2) (int) (of planes) leave the ground, 22 Amanda has recently set ................ her own
3) (int) start to improve accountancy business.
take time off: be allowed not to go to work for a 23 I bought this skirt but its too wide. Could you take it
short period of time
............... a little bit, please?
take on: (tr) employ
24 My husband took m e ...............for a meal last night to
take out: (tr) remove; extract
celebrate our anniversary.
take sb out: (tr) take sb to a restaurant, etc.
25 I to o k ............... my jacket and hung it in the wardrobe.
take over: (tr) gain control of sth
26 You ought to s ta n d ............... yourself. Dont let anyone
take to: (tr) like
take up: (tr) 1) begin a hobby, sport, job, intimidate you.
2) fill (time, space) 27 The company is being taken ...............by a very large
take up on: (tr) accept sbs offer or invitation firm.
be taken aback: be strongly surprised 28 Im taking some time ............... next month. I need a
be taken in: be deceived holiday.
29 Jenny hasnt really taken ............... her new school.
Shes not at all happy.
30 Alex was ta k e n ...............when he heard the news.
36> Fill in the correct particle.
31 I offered to stand ............... Emily yesterday, because
she was ill.
1 The dentist took ...out... one of my teeth last month. 32 If youve finished lunch, Ill take your p la te .................
2 Tom s e t ...............on his voyage, full of excitement. 33 The plane sped along the runway and to o k .................

178
UNIT 11
Pronouns - Possessives - Demonstratives - ftmntifiers

Q R A f .

sion Box A c tiv ity


A restaurant critic is comparing two Italian restaurants
T he Capri and M arco's. Make sentences from the
prompts below, using Both or Neither, as in the
37 Join the sentences using the w ord(s) in example.
brackets. e.g. Both The Capri'and 'Marco's serve a variety of dishes.
Neither ...
1 Liz gave Tom a map. Then Tom could find her house,
(so that)
...Liz gave Tom a map eo th a t he could find her
house....
2 I always lock the doors and windows. I dont want to be serve a variety of
burgled, (avoid) dishes /
serve much
3 I went to the bank. I wanted to withdraw some money,
vegetarian food X
(to)
have a lot of regular
4 Let's take an umbrella. It may rain, (in case) customers /
receive very few
5 The bus was late. They had to take a taxi, (so ... that) complaints /
employ many people X
6 It was an expensive dress. She couldnt afford it. need a little
(such ... that) redecorating /
charge much for a
7 I went to a party. I stayed up very late, (and as a result)
meal X
8 Stuart has no money. He cant go to the concert, (since) have several special
offers every month /
9 They are rich people. They dont have to work.
(such ... that)

10 Pauline doesn't wear a watch. She is often late,


(consequently)

11 She felt lonely. She was surrounded by lots of people,


(although)

38^ Fill in where, why, who, which or whose. ^ ^ A c t i v i t y ^

The restaurant critic is w riting an article fo r a local


Lionel Robson, 1) ...who... is 50 , loves his job. He works at new spaper. Look at the O ral A c tiv ity again and
a centre 2) ..................... people learn how to do parachute complete the article.
jumps. The centre, 3) ................ opened ten years ago, is
I recently dined in T he Capri and also in Marcos,
very popular with people of all ages 4 ) ..................... want to both of which are popular Italian restaurants in the city
take up an exciting hobby. Lionel first became interested in centre. Both T he Capri and Marcos serve a variety of
parachute jumps while he was at university. His wife, dishes, although n e ith e r.......................................................
5) hobby is flying planes, is the person
6 ) owns the centre. The sky is the place
7 ) I like to be most of all, she says. T h a ts
8 ) I started the centre - so that I can do my To conclude, I strongly recommend both these res
hobby for a living. taurants for an enjoyable and affordable meal.

179
Words often Confused
W lw

How many
people are there in
the picture?
Is she a scientist? Five.
Yes, she is. Where are they? In
Does she work the kitchen.
hard? What are they doing?'
Yes, she does. Theyre having lunch.

Questions with Yes/No answers begin with an Wh- questions begin with a question word such as
auxiliary or modal verb (is, are, do, does, can, etc.) who, what, where, when, etc. We put the auxiliary or
which is followed by the subject. We usually modal verb before the subject.
answer these questions with Yes or No.
e.g. Are you upset? Yes, / am. question w ord + auxiliary/modal + subject
Need I say more? No, you neednt.
When the main verb of the sentence is in the Who is used without a noun to ask about people.
present simple, we form the question with do or e.g. Who called while I was out? Your mother.
does. When the main verb is in the past simple, we Whose is used to ask about possession.
form the question with did. e.g. Whose is this car/car is this? I t s Teds.
e.g. Does Peter go out often? No, he doesnt. What is used alone or before a noun to ask about
Did you talk to John? Yes, I did. things.
e.g. What caused the fire? Faulty wiring.
We use short answers to avoid repetition of the What size shoes do you wear?
question asked before. Positive short answers are What is also used to ask about people, animals or
formed with Yes + personal pronoun + auxiliary things when there is an unlimited choice of answers.
verb. Negative short answers are formed with e.g. What music do you prefer listening to? (There are
No + personal pronoun + negative auxiliary verb. many kinds of music to choose from. - unlimited
e.g. Have you finished? Yes, / have. choice)
Did you see that film? No, I did n t. Which is used alone, or before nouns, one/ones
or of, to ask about people, animals or things.
e.g. Which is your house?IWhich house is yours?
Which one do you want to buy? The red one.
4 W rite q u e s tio n s an d a n s w e rs for the
^ following statem ents, as in the example. Which of those boys is your son?
Which is normally used when there is only a limited
1 Sam was hungry when he reached the restaurant. choice of answers.
...Was 5am hungry when he reached the restaurant? e.g. W hich hotel are you going to stay at - the Park
Yes, he was,... Hotel or the Kings Hotel? ( There are only two
2 They should concentrate in class. hotels to choose from. - limited choice.)
Which is also used with com parative and
3 She cant speak any foreign languages. superlative forms.
e.g. Which is faster, a cheetah or an ostrich?
4 They have to work overtime. Which is the best thing to do?
Where
5 The boss was angry when Stuart arrived late.
e.g. Where have you put my shoes? Under your bed.
6 The children didnt enjoy the film.
When
e.g. When will you be back? Next week.
7 She wanted to go to the supermarket.
Why
e.g. Why did you throw away the milk? Because it
8 The train leaves at half past six. had gone off.

180
Questions and Answers - Words
rds o fte r ^ S u ^ ^ O
How is used alone or before an adjective/adverb. 3 A Write questions to w hich the words in bold
e.g. a) How was the party?' Excellent. ^ are the answers.
b) How old is your daughter?' Shes three.
c) How far can a kangaroo jump?' A long way. 1 They live near the beach.
How long ...Where do they live?...
e.g. How long does it take you to get to work?' 2 It takes ten minutes to drive to the supermarket.
Twenty minutes.
How long ago 3 George is selfish.
e.g. How long ago did he graduate?
Six years ago. 4 Mary is tall, with dark hair and green eyes.
How often
e.g. How often do you exercise? Every day. 5 I go swimming twice a week.
How much is used with uncountable nouns.
e.g. How much money did he spend? A lot.' 6 The joke made them laugh.
How many is used with countable nouns.
e.g. How many biscuits did you eat? A whole packet 7 They are Miss Drakes books.

Note 8 The shoes cost twenty pounds.


We use what + be ... like to ask for a description
of somebodys character. 9 The film starts at 7 pm.
e.g. What is Emily like? Shes pleasant and friendly.
We use what + do ... look like to ask for a 10 Mr Samson wants to open a shop.
description of somebodys physical appearance.
e.g. What does Emily look like? Shes tall, with blonde 11 Todd has been to Spain.
hair and blue eyes.
12 She is happy because she has won the competition.

13 Alan is a very serious person.


F ill in who, whose, what, which, where, when,
I * how long, how often, what time, why, how 14 They moved here six months ago.
much, how many o r how long ago.

1 '...How often.. . do you play football? Tw ice a week.


2 1 does the train leave? Nine o clock. 4 W rite questions to w h ic h th e w o rd s in b o ld
3 1 .................... is Martin? In the garden. ^ a re th e a n s w e rs .
4 * ............................... is it? Half past ten.
5 * ........ does he earn? 1,000 a m onth. Louise is eight years old. She lives in Brighton, England,
6 * ................ sisters have you got? Two. and she has lived there since she was two years old. Louise
7 1 .................................. is this book? 5. goes to school every day and her favourite subjects are
8 ..................... did he call? T o invite me English and History. She has two brothers. Their names are
out to dinner. Steven and James. Louise has several hobbies, such as
9 * ........................... is the new driver like? collecting wild flowers and playing the violin. She
Hes very friendly. practises the violin every evening. Her mother enjoys this,
10 ..................... shall we do this evening? because she likes listening to music.
Lets go out.
11 is the office party? On Saturday. e.g. 1 ...How o ld ie Louiee?.....................................................
12 * ....................... have you been waiting?
About half an hour.
13 is that briefcase? I think its Tom s.
14 * ...............of these rings do you prefer?
The gold one.
15 * spilt coffee on the desk? I did. Sorry.
16 * ...........................did you get your exam
results? Last Friday.
17 did you meet Jessie? Tw o years ago.
18 .........................is the easiest way to get
to the cinema? Go through the city centre.

181
s and Answers
Ans - Words often Confused
7 Stacey has bought a new bag.
S u b [|ifi / O b [ e d
i -n , > 8 1 like the blue jumper best.

9 The roof was blown off in the storm.

Subject questions are questions we ask when we


10 I ran into Jason the other day.
want to know the subject of the sentence. These
questions usually begin with the words who, whose,
11 I spoke to the managers secretary about my complaint.
what or which. The verb is in the affirmative form.
e.g. Who told you the news? 12 The Ethiopian runner won the 1500m race.
(NOT: Who did tell you the news?)
Whose house was broken into last night?
What made that noise?
Which costs more - the package holiday or the
cruise? ) j. Complete the questions.
subject verb object
Emma called Peter. Ryan won two races,
a Who ...won two racee...?' Ryan.
b How many ...racee did Ryan win...?' Tw o.'
^"W h o called Peter? Stanley goes swimming three times a week.
a W h o ........................................................? Stanley.'
Object questions are questions we ask when we
b How often ........................................? Three times
want to know the object of the sentence. These
a week.
questions usually begin with the words who, whose,
There are two shirts. The yellow one is mine.
what or which. The verb is in the interrogative form.
a Which .......................................? The yellow one.'
e.g. Who did you ask for information?
b Whose ........................................................? Mine.'
Whose is this jacket?
Steven has broken Jim s mug.
What are you going to buy?
a W h o s e ........................................................? Jim s.
Which magazine are you reading?
b W h o .........................................................? Steven.
subject verb object Linda is going to the theatre this evening.
Emma called ^ Peter. a Who ...........................................................? Linda.'
b Where .........................................? T o the theatre.'
Anne bought Ralph a present yesterday.
W h o -- did Emma call?
a Who ...........................................................? Anne.'
b Who ..........................................................? Ralph.
Note: In object questions if a verb is followed by a
There are two bags. The one on the chair is Fays.
preposition, the preposition usually comes at the end
of the question. a Whose .......................................................? Fays.'
e.g. Where does Kevin come from? b W h ic h ..................................................... ? The one
What are you most interested in? on the chair.

7 Use the prepositions in brackets to write


^ questions to m atch the statements.
5 Write questions to w hich the words in bold
are the answers.
1 She bought some flowers. Who ...did she buy them
1 Mark is decorating the living room. for?., (for)
...What ie Mark decorating?... 2 I got an invitation this morning. Who ...........................
2 She found Stevens wallet. .......................? (from)
3 Pedro comes from Spain. Where exactly......................
3 Mum made these cakes. .......................? (from)
4 I read an interesting article yesterday. W hat.................
4 Fionas dress was ruined at the party. ......................? (about)
5 Lisa is excited. W hat........................................ ? (about)
5 Melissa is wearing a blue dress. 6 Linda played tennis. W ho...................................? (with)
7 Sam wrote a letter. Who ....................................... ? (to)
6 Bob is the older of the two brothers. 8 I went to a restaurant last night. Who ...........................
.........................? (with)

182
Questions and Answers - Words
rds o fte J ^ O T l^ ^ J

U J L B - iI Q u 'S tlto vut Lmiied Qud&iaous


Negative questions are formed with not, but there We use indirect questions when we ask for information
is a difference in the word order between the full politely. The word order in indirect questions is the
form and the short form. same as in statements (subject + verb). Indirect
Full form: auxiliary + subject + not + verb questions are introduced with question words (who,
e.g. Did I not tell you not to talk to strangers? what, where, etc.) or with if/whether.
Short form: auxiliary + nt + subject + verb e.g. a) Direct question: Where is the post office?
e.g. Didn't I tell you not to talk to strangers? Indirect question: Could you tell me where the
post office is?
We use negative questions in speech b) Direct question: Has John been invited?
a) to ask for confirmation e.g. Isn't Tom going on Indirect question: Do you know if/whether John
holiday this week? and b) to express: has been invited?
surprise, e.g. Don't you know where Nick is?
Indirect questions are usually used after the following
admiration, e.g. Isn't she a great hostess!
expressions: I don't know .../I'd like to know ...//
annoyance, e.g. Can't you be on time just for once!
wonder .../We need to find out .../I'd like to find o u t ...
as well as: Do you know ...?/Can you tell me ...?/Could
you tell me ...?/Could you explain ...7/Have you any
idea...?
p Write the short form of the following
^ negative questions. If the indirect question is part of a question, we put a
question mark at the end of the sentence. If it is part of
1 Has she not replied to your letter yet? a statement, we put a full stop.
...Haen't ehe replied to your le tte r yet?,.. e.g. a) Direct question: How does this machine work?
2 Do they not live here any more? Indirect question: Could you explain how this
machine works?
3 Can she not drive a car? b) Direct question: Should I call a lawyer?
Indirect question: I wonder if/whether I should
4 Does he not understand what he has to do? call a lawyer.

5 Do you not know the answer to this question?

6 Did he not offer you anything to drink?


Turn the following into indirect questions.
7 Have we not got any milk left?

8 Could you not do anything to help him? 1 Who left this bag here?
Do you know ...who le ft thie bag here?....
2 Who is that woman?
We need to find out ......................................
Q Make negative questions using the words 3 What time does the next train leave?
given, as in the example. Can you tell me .............................................
4 How much does this dress cost?
1 A: Im really tired today. Could you tell m e ..........................................
B: Why? ...Didn't you go... (go) to bed early last night? 5 Where does Mary live?
2 A: ................................................ (know) what time the I dont know ..................................................
film starts? 6 Are the police investigating the robbery?
B: Have you any idea .......................................
3 A: 7 Did the caller leave a message?
B: Id like to find out .........................................
4 A: 8 Is he the manager?
B: Id like to know .............................................
5 A: 9 Who reported the crime?
B: Do you know ................................................
6 A: 10 How did they find the missing jewellery?
B: Have you any idea .......................................

m
s and An<
Answers - Words often Confused
<s' o K e l i ilL-L / N.0L I iliin k so /
We use: U lu a t l e k ! i z - i'L Y .

so + auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/noun to


show that we agree with a positive statement.
We can use so to avoid repeating a clause after the
e.g. Theyre painting their house this week. So are following verbs: be afraid, believe, expect, guess,
we. (We are painting our house too.)
hope, imagine, suppose, think, it seems/appears, etc.
Janet passed her exams.' So did Diana. (Diana
e.g. 7s he going to be late? Tm afraid so.
passed her exams, too.)
(= Im afraid he is going to be late.)
neither/nor + auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/
noun to show that we agree with a negative state We can form negations in two ways:
ment. a) negative verb + so (I dont expect so)
e.g. Kate doesnt like red meat. NeitherINor do I. b) positive verb + not (I guess not)
( I dont like red meat either.) The negative of the verbs appear, believe, seem
Paul cant play the guitar. Neither I Nor can Tim. and suppose is formed in either way.
(Tim cant play the guitar either.) e.g. 7s he leaving tonight? 7 dont suppose so. OR
7 suppose not.
The negative of the verbs expect, imagine and
4 4 Decide if the statement after each
think is usually formed with negative verb + so.
1 ^ exchange is true (T) or false (F).
Q.g. 7s Helen working upstairs? 7 dont think so.
1 Mark: I love playing football. The negative of the verbs be afraid, guess and
Paul: So do I. hope is formed with positive verb + not.
...T... Paul loves playing football. e.g. Are you going on holiday this year?
2 Lucy: I dont enjoy watching horror films. I m afraid not.
Jessica: Neither do I.
........ ......Jessica enjoys watching horror films.
3 Simon: I have never been to America before.
Steven: Neither have I. Fill in the blanks with phrases using the
1 3 j verbs given and so or not.
........ ......Steven has never been to America before.
4 Richard: I have got a lot of pen-friends.
Julia: So have I. 1 A: Are they going on holiday this year?
........ ..... Julia hasnt got a lot of pen-friends. B: .../ don't imagine eo... (imagine). They havent
5 Belinda: I am going to take the bus to school. saved any money.
Lucy: So am I. 2 A: Is Debbie ill?
........ ..... Lucy is going to take the bus to school. B: ....................................................(think). I saw her in
town this morning.
3 A.
B:
Fill in the gaps with appropriate responses.
<2> to take them again.
4 A:
1 A. I didnt go to the party last night. B:
B: ...Neither/Nor did /,... I wish I had, though. much left to do.
2 A: I enjoyed that film. 5 A:
B: ............................................................ It was brilliant. B:
3 A: I dont like omelettes. any other plans.
B: .............................................. I think theyre horrible. 6 A:
4 A: Im not looking forward to this exam. B:
B: ................................ Im sure it will be very difficult. sold sign up outside.
5 A: Im going to York next weekend. 7 A:
B: .......................................! Perhaps I II see you there. B:
6 A: Ive just bought a new car. driving a different one last week.
B: ......................................................... Mine is a Rover. 8 A:
7 A: I havent got any pets. B:
B: ................................. I used to have a dog, though. 9 A:
8 A: I was quite ill last week. B:
B: ................................................................I had the flu. wants me to work.

184
Questions and Answers - Words
rds o t t e i ^ M [ ^ ^

Q u c a m o i i l o o s L lto L U l l 'L O U

When we are sure of the answer and


expect agreement, the voice goes
down in the question tag.
e.g. This isn't a cat, is it?
x

When we arent sure of the answer


It isn't a gorilla, is it? They are rabbits. aren't they? and want to check information, the
voice goes up in the question tag.
Question tags are short questions at the end of e.g. This is a donkey, isn't it?
statements. They are mainly used in speech when S '
we want to confirm something or when we want to
find out if something is true or not.
Question tags are formed with the auxiliary or modal
j ^ Fill in th e c o rre c t question tags and short
verb from the main sentence and the appropriate
answ ers.
subject pronoun. When the verb of the sentence is in
the present or past simple, we form the question tag 1 A: Youve seen that film, ...havent you.
with do, does or did and the subject pronoun. B: Yes, ...I have....
e.g. a) Mike lives in California, doesn't he? 2 A: They want to go skiing this year............................ ?
b) They sold their house, didn't they? B: No.............................................. They want to go on
A positive statement is followed by a negative an adventure holiday.
question tag, and a negative statement is followed 3 A: Hell probably be hungry when he comes in.............
...................... ?
by a positive question tag.
B: Yes..............................................Ill make him some
e.g. She looks beautiful, doesn't she?
sandwiches.
You don't eat meat, do you?
4 A: She likes going to the cinema................................ ?
When the sentence contains a word with a negative B: No.................................................She prefers going
meaning like never, hardly, seldom or rarely, the to the theatre.
question tag is positive. 5 A: Youve been to university........................................ ?
e.g. She never goes anywhere alone, does she? B: Yes................................................................................
6 A: Im a bit younger than Sally.................................... ?
Some verbs/expressions form question tags differ
B: Yes................................................................................
ently. Study the following examples:
7 A: They arent moving...................................................?
I am arent I? I am younger than you, aren't I? B: Yes................................................................................
8 A: You won't forget to call me..................................... ?
Imperative will/wont you? Close the door, will/won't you?
B: No........................................................... Dont worry.
Don't will you? Don't move, will you? 9 A: You took some photographs at the ceremony........
Let's - shall we? Lets dance, shall we? ...................................?
I have (got) havent I? He has got his own business, B: Yes......................................... Theyre in this album.
hasn't he? 10 A: He knows Im planning a party for him ................. ?
B: No................................He doesnt suspect a thing.
I have >dont I? You have a lot on your mind, 11 A: They have bought a new car.................................. ?
don't you? B: Yes...........................................................Its a Volvo.
There is/are isnt/ There are many shops in the 12 A: He works for his father, .......................................... ?
arent there? area, aren't there? B: Yes...................................... His father owns a large
company.
This/That is - isnt it? That's your wife over there,
13 A: Im not late................................................................. ?
isn't it? B: No.............................................. Youre just on time.
Everyone/Someone/ Everyone enjoyed the party, 14 A: They'll be here in a m inute......................................?
Anyone/No one >they? didn't they? B: Yes............................................ Wed better tidy up.
15 A: You did the washing-up...........................................?
B: Yes................................. and I cleaned the kitchen.

185
UNIT 12
Questj is and Answers - Words often Confused

1 5 > Underline the correct answer. Cfeliunilu inisiciLeb'


1 A: Youre new here, are you!aren't you? Im really helpful, am I not? /
B: Yes. I started work here yesterday. Im really helpful, arent I? /
A: Ah. Well, youve met everyone in the office, hadn't Bob is keen on sports, isnt Bob? /
you/haven't you? Bob is keen on sports, isnt he? /
B: Yes. There are a lot of people working here, aren't
Everybody is coming to the party, isnt they? X
they/aren't there ?
2 A: You will remember to lock all the doors when you Everybody is coming to the party, arent they? /
leave, will you/won t you? Stay here, dont you? X
B: Of course. Im not stupid, am I/aren't I ? Stay here, wont you? /
A: No. But you forgot to lock the doors last week,
He rarely visits you, doesnt he? /
didn 't you/did you?
He rarely visits you, does he? /
B: Youre not going to let me forget that, aren't you/
are you? Who did win the competition? /
3 A: You havent seen Linda lately, have you/haven't you? Who won the competition? /
B: I saw her today. I told you. did I/didn't I ?
Could you tell me where is the bank? /
A: Oh, yes! She didnt mention the party, did she/didn't
Could you tell me where the bank is? /
she?
B: No. she didn't. Its tomorrow night, is it/isn't it? Jack is leaving soon.' So I am. /
Jack is leaving soon. So am I. /
Helen doesnt like rock music. Neither I dont. /
4c Fill in the question tags, then read the Helen doesnt like rock music. Neither do I. /
sentences aloud with the correct intonation.

sure not sure 1 7 * Correct the mistakes.


1 You havent got any money,
/
...have you...? 1 Paul doesnt like going to the theatre. Neither I dont.
2 Theres some water in the jug, 2 Sally is good at Maths, isnt Sally?
3 She never writes to you, doesnt she?
4 Mark is going to the supermarket. So I am.
3 She will be here on time,
/ 5 Who did make all this mess?
6 Could you tell me when does the bus leave?
4 Mum can give me a lift, 7 Come back soon, dont you?
/
8 She seldom receives visitors, doesnt she?
5 You know my brother, 9 Everybody is here now, isnt they?
/

6 They live together, 18 Cross out the unnecessary word.


/

7 We have plenty of time,


1 Who did gave you this wonderful ring?
S ......................................................?
2 That was Martha's sister, wasnt it she?
8 That boy is very clever, 3 How far is it the sports centre?
4 You dont really mean that, do you mean?
9 You have a car, 5 Didnt they not pay for the damage?
/ 6 Dont forget to give him a call, will you not?
7 How long ago have you been studying Japanese?
10 The train will arrive soon,
8 Have you any idea what time does the train leaves?
/
9 They havent got a green car, do have they?
11 He has finished his homework, 10 Is Tom going away this weekend? Im not afraid so.
/ 11 Didnt we tell you to not watch that film?
12 Thats my wallet, 12 We need to find out where does Bob lives.
/ 13 Who did travelled to Portugal last month?
14 What is Rod look like? Hes generous and kind.
rds o f t e l^ ^ S ^ ^ y
Questions and Answers - Words
Phrasal Verbs 13 That washing powder doesn'tt w \A/
onrrUk ................... grass
nracc

stains. You'll have to use something stronger.


turn away: (tr) not allow sb to enter a place 14 Sam turned .................... on the doorstep at midnight
turn down: 1) (tr) refuse an offer; reject, 2) (tr) in the pouring rain.
reduce volume etc (opp: turn up) 15 The old lady turned .............the thief she had caught
turn sb in: (tr) give sb to the police .............. the police.
turn into: (tr) change into, become 16 We turn .................. about ten thousand of these cars
turn off: (tr) switch off (opp: turn on) every month.
turn on: switch on 17 The family were turned ................... of their flat by the
turn out: 1) (tr) produce, 2) (int) prove to be in landlord when they couldnt pay the rent.
the end; result, 3) (tr) force sb to 18 The tennis player gradually wore ............................his
leave 4) (tr) empty (ones pockets, opponent, until he finally won the match.
handbag, etc) 19 That music is very loud. Could you turn the volume
turn over: turn to a new page; change TV .......................please?
channel 20 The children were turned ................. from the cinema
turn sb over to sb: (tr) deliver sb (to the police, because there were no tickets left.
authorities) 21 This arrangement has worked ...................... very well
turn to: (tr) go to sb for help, advice for everyone.
turn up: 1) (int) arrive or appear 22 Turn .......................the page and look at exercise ten.
(unexpectedly), 2) (tr) increase 23 If youre no longer watching TV, why dont you turn it
(volume, pressure) ............. ?
wear sb down: (tr) make sb gradually weaker 24 The vacuum cleaner is worn .................... We need to
buy a new one.
wear off: (of feelings) disappear gradually
wear out: 1) (tr) use until no longer service
able, 2) (tr) exhaust a a Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition
^ from the list. Some of the prepositions can
work on: (tr) have an effect on be used more than once.
work out: 1) (tr) find the solution to a problem
by reasoning or calculation, 2) (int) at, by, for, on, out of, off, under, against, from
develop successfully
1 They tried to get closer to the stage at the concert, but
work up: (tr) develop, increase
there were too many people ...in... the way.
I try to keep fit................ instance, I go jogging every
morning.
19> Fill in the correct particle. The secretary signed the le tte rs ................ behalf of the
manager.
4 Colin has b e e n ................. work for a week with flu.
1 I'm worn ...out...! Ive been working hard all day long.
5 He has had no training. He has le a rn t....... experience.
2 We tu rn e d ..................... the heater because the room
6 The proposed changes to the company a r e .................
was cold.
discussion at the moment.
3 The policeman asked him to turn ...........................his
Sarahs calendar w a s ............... date, so she bought a
pockets so he could examine the contents.
new one.
4 The effects of the anaesthetic the dentist gave me are
8 The soldier was ............... leave for a week, so he
gradually w e a rin g ................... visited his family.
5 He had to work ............his courage before asking for 9 the time I got home, it was already dark.
a pay rise. 10 I gave him my jacket ................ exchange for his
6 They turned ................the burglar to the police when walkman.
they caught him in their house. 11 I like Martin, but he can be very a n n o y in g ...........times.
7 I've got a problem and I dont know who to tu r n ........... 12 We w a ite d ............... the queue to get into the theatre.
for help. 13 He buys old furniture, then sells i t ..............a profit.
8 Anna was offered the job, but she turned it ................ 14 the whole, I am very satisfied with my life.
9 It turned ............to be the wrong road, so we had no 15 The rescue team a rriv e d ................. the nick of time.
idea where we were. 16 It i s ................. the law to drive a car without insurance.
10 The class was silently trying to work ..................... the 17 He is six years old. He should be able to re a d ..............
solution to the maths problem. now.
11 I can't hear the news. Please turn ............the volume 18 Many young people find themselves ................ work
on the TV. when they leave university.
12 Our neighbours have turned their garage ................ a 19 He tore his s h irt.................. purpose, but he said it was
study. an accident.

187
s and Answers
Ans> - Words often Confused
2 ^ Fill in the blanks with the correct form of
XJ ^ the words in brackets.

The ...artist... g o t ................. reviews from the critics.


elision Box
(art, impress)
The police placed great .................. on t h e ..................
they discovered, (important, evident)
H is ................. was proved thanks to t h e ...................... 23 * Complete each sentence with two to five
words, including the word in bold.
of an eye-witness who testified that he had not been
party to the act o f ......................... (innocent, present,
1If you leave the cake in the oven too long, it will burn,
violent)
else Dont leave the cake in the oven too long
You must be very ............................ as this substance
...or else i t will... burn.
can b e .............................. (care, harm)
2 You cant leave. You have to tidy your desk first,
Lots o f ........................f in d .................................... in this
until You cant .................................. your desk.
.........................part of the town, (tour, accommodate,
3 I dont think its a good idea to wear that dress,
peace)
were If ................................................................... .
She is .................... that h e r ...................... investments
I w ouldnt wear that dress.
were.................. , as she is now a very .........................
4 I want to buy a car, but I havent got enough money,
woman and owns .................... properties throughout
wish I .................................................................
the country, (luck, finance, success, wealth, number)
enough money to buy a car.
5 Although he is poor, he likes giving people presents,
spite He likes giving people pre sen ts................
ty \ Fill in the blanks with the correct form of .............................................................. poor.
the words in brackets. 6 The lesson was cancelled. The teacher was ill.
as The lesson was cancelled .........................

7 You shouldnt go outside without a coat; you might


catch a cold.
better Y o u .................................................. outside
without a coat; you might catch a cold.
8 She took some money. She thought she might want to
buy something.
case She took some money ...............................
........................................to buy something.
9 The match was cancelled. The weather was very bad.
of The match was cancelled .........................
................................................ bad weather.
10 Carol would prefer to make a cake herself rather than
buy one.
rather C a ro l..............................................................
a cake herself than buy one.
Ian Fleming is famous for writing the extremely
1) ...successful... (success) James Bond novels, which are
packed with 2) .................................(act) and adventure. But 24> R e w rite th e se n te n ce s in th e passive.
Fleming himself had quite an 3 ) ............................. (adventure)
life which has been recorded in several biographies. 1 David will wash the dishes.
He tried a career in banking but did not find it 4 ) ................. ...The dishes will be washed by David,...
.......................... (interest) enough. In May, 1939, he joined the 2 When did the postman deliver the parcel?
intelligence service and carried out several 5 ) ..........................
(danger) missions during the war. He planned clever 6) ........... 3 Emily is telling them a joke.
........................ (operate) and lived a life not unlike that of his
famous hero, James Bond. 4 Did they announce the results on the radio?
In 1952, he began to write a novel. Casino Royale was the first
of the James Bond novels, all of which became 7 ) ..................... 5 Tina cant stand people interrupting her.
............................... (incredible) popular. They reflected his
8) ........................................(usual) life and love of adventure. 6 He expects his father to give him a lift.
Fleming died in 1964 at the age of 56.

188
rds o f t e i ^ ^ a ^ ^ n
Questions and Answers - Words

Q R A j.
sion Box A c tiv ity
It is Charlottes first day at school and Ian is showing
her around. Use question words from the list and the
prompts below to ask and answer questions, as in the
25^ Choose the correct answer. example.
how, how long, how much, how many, where, when, why,
This is a nice room.' which/what
Yes. Its the one ....?... weve just redecorated. e.g. Charlotte: How long have you been at this school?
A who B which C when Ian: Since I was seven years old.
Did you know that Ted is getting married?
Yes. H e .............me last week.
A tell B said C told
Have you seen your brother recently?
Yes. I s a w ........... yesterday.
A it B her C him
There is someone here to see you, sir.
Good. S e n d .............in.
A they B them C their
Tm afraid I cant come to your party.
Oh no! Y o u .............to come ages ago!
A promised B refused C denied
What a beautiful day!
f 1 you / be / at this school ? since / 1/ be / seven years
Yes, it is, but its .............colder than yesterday.
A little B a few C a little old
r 2 I / put my coat ? in / cloakroom
Did you ask Harry about the missing money?
Yes. H e .............to having taken it. , 3 children / be / in my class ? twenty
A agreed B accused C admitted V 4 we / have exams ? once a year
5 homework / the teachers give us ? not too much
This cake tastes very sweet.
I think I p u t .............sugar in it. 6 we / have lunch ? at twelve o'clock
A too much B too many C a lot 7 the teacher / take register ? make sure / everyone /
be / here
Do you know that man?
Yes. Hes the m a n ............sister lives next door to me. 8 I / get to my classroom? I / take / you there
A who B whose C which
10 Shall I take my coat with me?
Yes. Take i t .............it gets cold later.
A in case B in spite C whereas
11 What did the doctor tell you?
- 1 - 1 o
H e .............me to go on a diet. ^ " " ' A c t i v i t y
A suggested B advised C explained
Charlotte also asked Ian some other questions. Look
12 The sun is very bright today. at the p ro m p ts and w rite out her q u e s tio n s and
I know. Thats .............Im wearing sunglasses. suggest suitable replies.
A where B why C when
play / during / break?
13 ..............is your house?
eat / in classrooms?
Its the one with the red door.
eat lunch?
A Where B Who C Which
your favourite subject?
14 Laura is getting engaged next week.' class / you / be in?
Then, that must be the reason .............she looks so your / favourite teacher?
happy. the / headmasters / name?
A which B why C who school / finish?

189
UNIT 12
Words often Confused

ago - before good - well


ago (adv) before now good (adj) well-behaved, not naughty
e.g. Sandra left school six months ago. e.g. Their children are always good
when they go out.
before (adv) before a past time
e.g. She washed her hair before she well (adv) in a skilful or good way
went to the party. e.g. He speaks Russian very well.
well (adj) healthy
e.g. I dont feel well today.
f ^ F ill in ago or before.

4 ^ ^ in good o r well.
1 They moved to this neighbourhood two y e a rs ..............
2 I have seen this film ....................
1 If youre ................... at school today, well go to the
3 In 1996 she finished the degree which she had started
park later.
four y e a rs ......................
2 They sing v e ry ................. together, dont they?
4 He took up cycling ten y e a rs ......................
3 Be a ................. girl at school today.
4 After eating four burgers, he didnt fe e l..................
beside - besides 5 Did Adam d o ................... in the test?
beside (prep) next to hard - hardly
e.g. The sofa is beside the fireplace in
my house. hard (adj) difficult, vigorous
besides (prep) also, in addition to e.g. Tom found the exam very hard, and
e.g. Besides buying us dinner last night, thats why he failed it.
he paid for the theatre tickets. hardly (adv) barely
e.g. It was so hot last night that I hardly
slept at all.
2 Fill in beside or besides.

5 Fill in hard or hardly.


1 Put the book on the ta b le .......................the vase.
2 My house i s .......................a big park.
3 a tent, youll need a sleeping bag. 1 Eric always w o rk s .........................
4 Hes taken seven other te s ts .......................this one. 2 I h a v e .........................any free time these days.
3 They c o u ld .................... hear each other because the
a fte r - afterw ards music was so loud.
4 If you tra in .................. , youll win the race on Saturday.
after (prep) following in time
e.g. He called me after I had finished
its - its
work.
its it is or it has (short form)
afterwards at a later time e.g. Its time to go to bed!
(adv) e.g. They went to the cinema and Its been two months since I last saw
afterw ards they went home. him.
its (poss adj) of a thing/animal
e.g. The cat curled up in its basket and
3 F ill in after or afterwards.
went to sleep.

1 Lets go out .....................................work this evening.


0 ^ Fill in its or its.
2 She ironed the clothes and ...........................................
she put them away.
3 They went to the meeting and ....................................... 1 eight o clock already! Were going to be late!
they drove home. 2 Their house is huge......................... got fifteen rooms.
4 they had eaten, they did the 3 The dog b u rie d ................. bone in the garden.
washing-up. 4 The plane lo w e re d ............wheels just before landing.

190
UNIT 12
Words often Confused

quite - enough 3 Famous people c a n .................the lives of young people.


4 The polluted water had a s e rio u s ............................on
quite (adv) fairly, but not very
the fish in the river.
e.g. The party we went to was quite good.
enough (adv) sufficient, satisfactory besides - except but - except for - apart from
e.g. The sofa was big enough for four
people. besides (adv) in addition, moreover, including, as well
e.g. It's too late to go out now.
Besides. it's going to rain.
7 ^ F ill in quite or enough.
except (prep) not including, apart from (in the
middle of a sentence)
1 I enjoyed the meal. It w a s ................... tasty. e.g. Everyone in the company got a
2 She wasnt ta ll.................. to become a model. pay rise except James.
3 The test w a s .................... difficult. I hope I did well. but (conj) not including, apart from (never at the
4 Is the room w a rm ................... for you? beginning of a sentence)
e.g. I cleaned every room but the
u se d to - be u s e d to kitchen.

used to refers to past habits and states except for (prep) not including, apart from (usually
e.g. I used to exercise every day, but I followed by a noun or -ing form)
don't any more. e.g. Except for the security guard,
the building was empty.
be used to refers to an action which has been done
so often that is very familiar to the person apart from (prep) not including (usually followed by a
involved noun or -ing form)
e.g. Joan is used to getting up early in the e.g. Apart from washing the car,
mornings. what else have you done today?

0 F ill in used to or be used to in th e c o r r e c t


^ fo rm . 1 0 . F ill in besides, except, but or apart.

1 T h e y ....................................... live by the sea, but now 1 We got cards from e veryon e ...........................for Alec.
they live in the city. 2 from the singing of the birds, everything
2 W e ....................................... meet for lunch every day. was quiet.
but we don't any more. 3 I didn't like the idea of working for that company;
3 They ............................................... being on their own. .........................the salary wasn't good enough.
4 Tom ..................................... working night shifts now, 4 She locked every d o o r ............................the fire exit.
although he found it hard at the beginning. 5 from Pauline, everyone at the meeting
agreed with the plan.
affect - effect 6 Let's get a taxi since it's raining................................
weve already missed the last bus.
affect (v) to influence sth/sb 7 Every guest came on tim e .........................Claire.
e.g. The closing down of the factory 8 going shopping, what else shall we do
affected many families in the town.
on Saturday?
effect (n) result; change produced by an action or 9 I'm going to bed because I'm tired..........................it's
a cause. very late.
e.g. The effects of pollution can be seen
all over the world. bring - take

bring (v) move sth towards sb/sth else


Q Fill in affect or effect. e.g. Bring me those files, please.
take (v) move sth away from sb
1 You shouldn't let her co m m e n ts................ you. e.g. Will you take the rubbish out when
2 The advertising campaign had a good .............. you leave, please?
on the sales figures.

191
UNIT 12
Words often Confused

lis te n - h e a r
11 Fill in bring or take in the correct form.
listen to (v) to hear intentionally
e.g. They listened to the news broad
1 P le ase................... this box outside to the garden. cast on the radio.
2 me a chair from the kitchen, pjease.
3 He ..................... the children to play in the park hear (v) to perceive sounds with the ears
yesterday evening. e.g. Susan heard someone calling for
4 Will you ...................... me the dishes from the dining help.
room, please?

u n til - by i4 > Fill in listen or hear in the correct form.

until (prep) before the time when something happens 1 You m u s t................................... carefully or you w ont
and not after it know what to do.
e.g. He worked for this company until 2 I think I ................................................. a noise outside.
he retired. 3 Please speak louder, I cant ................................. you.
by (prep) no later than a specified time 4 Tom .................................... to music every evening to
e.g. You must finish the report by Friday help him relax.
afternoon.
on tim e - in tim e

on time neither late nor early, at the correct time


e.g. I always make sure I get to work on
i 2 F ill in until o r by.
z P time.
in time not late
1 We waited at the s ta tio n ................. the train came. e.g. I hope Ill get to the airport in time to
2 Ill be in the o ffic e ................. 6 o clock. Call me before watch the plane land.
then.
3 You must return the library b o o k s .............Wednesday.
4 Sam will know-his exam re s u lts ................... the end of
July. is > Fill in on time or in time.
5 We cant announce anything to the public .................
we get the Prime Ministers consent.
1 Bill is always late. Hes never ....................... for work.
2 I woke up just ................................. to see the sunrise
since - for this morning.
3 Were having guests tonight so make sure youre
since (prep) from a specified time in the past until a
later past time or until the present home ................................................ to welcome them.
4 If we hurry, well get to the station ...............................
e.g. Hes been on holiday since last
to catch the train.
Friday.
for (prep) indicating a length of time E x p re s s io n s w ith Do
e.g. Theyve been working here for ten
ones best/worst, business with sb, a crossword, damage
years.
to, ones duty, an exercise, a test, an experiment, good,
ones hair, harm, ones homework, the housework, a job,
sth for a living, research, right/wrong, the shopping, a
Fill in since or for. translation, the washing-up, work, etc.

E x p re s s io n s w ith M ake
1 They have known each o th e r................ many years.
2 He hasnt heard from A lic e .................... last summer. an appointment, an arrangement, the beds, a cake,
3 Janet hasnt written to J o h n .................... January. changes, coffee, a decision, a discovery, an effort, an
4 I have been waiting for the tr a in ................... an hour. excuse, a fortune, an impression, a joke, a mess, a mistake,
5 I have been good friends with James money, a noise, an offer, peace, preparations, progress,
we were at school together. sure, trouble, war, up ones mind, etc.

192
UNIT 12
Words often Confused

2 . the work was interesting, but


16> Fill in do or make in th e c o rre c t fo rm . now I find it boring.
3 It was a difficult situation, but ........................................
everything worked out nicely.
1 James ...........................an exercise in his book when 4 There is a revision chapter ............................................
his pen ran out. of the book.
2 She ....................... lots of mistakes in her homework. 5 She didnt know anyone ............................................... ,
3 We could .................................. a fortune if we sold all but then she made lots of friends.
this jewellery. 6 of the week, the weather was awful,
4 I lik e .................. the washing-up straight after dinner. but then it improved.
5 Sam .................................. the shopping for me on his 7 The big new supermarket is ..........................................
way home yesterday. of the street.
6 S h e .................................. a joke but nobody laughed. 8 The story has a tragic beginning, but fortunately
7 They .................................. progress with the building. everything turns out w e ll................................................
8 Just a small slice of cake w ont ................. any harm. 9 nothing grew on the land, but it is
9 John is going to .............................an appointment to covered with trees now.
have his hair cut. any way - anyway
10 If youre going t o .........................a job you should do
it properly. any way in any manner
11 Mum is busy ..................... preparations for the party. e.g. They couldn't find any way to get
12 Will y o u .................................. your beds now, please? out of the building.
13 Could y o u .......................................a translation of this
article for me, please? anyway (adv) anyhow, in any case
14 I dont mind if you fail the test, so long as y o u ........... e.g. The coat was expensive, but I bought
................................... your best. it anyway.
15 Yesterday we ............................an offer on the house
we want to buy.
^8 ^ Fill in any way or anyway.
at the beginning in the beginning -
at the end - in the end
1 Is there ..................................................I can help you?
2 You can do t h is .....................................you think best.
at the at the place or time at which sth starts 3 I wasnt keen on the idea of going to the party, but I
beginning e.g. There is a contents page at the w e n t..........................................
beginning of the book. 4 It wasnt raining, but I took my umbrella with me

in the initially. This suggests further change, 5 You cant treat people ................................. you want;
beginning e.g. He thought German was hard in you must always take their feelings into consideration.
the beginning, but now he finds it
easy. all ready - already
all ready everyone prepared
at the end at the furthest or last part of sth e.g. The children are all ready to go.
e.g. At the end of the day I like to relax
already (adv) by this time
in front of the TV.
e.g. By the time I got there, the train had
already left.
in the end at last, finally, when everything is taken
into consideration
e.g. I was going to take the bus home,
but in the end I got a taxi. i 9 > F ill in all ready or already.

1 The teams a r e ............................... , so the competition


can begin.
17 * Fill in at the beginning, in the beginning, at the 2 When you are .........................................we can leave.
^ end or in the end. 3 Theyve ........................................finished all the work.
4 Ive ............................... done the shopping this week.
1 She didn't feel very confident ....................................... 5 The children had put on their costumes and they were
of her career, but she has changed a lot since then. .......................................to go on stage.

195
Revision 4 (Units l - 12)
18 That is the right a n sw e r,.............?
1 ^^ Choose the correct answer. A isnt it B wasnt it C is it

1 ...C... time have we got before the train leaves? 19 .............painted this beautiful picture?
A How B How many C How much A Who B What C Where

2 He cut his finger while h e .............some wood. 20 If you had studied more, y o u .............the exam.
A chopped B is chopping C was chopping A would pass B will pass
C would have passed
3 She was very tir e d ,.............she couldnt sleep.
A although B despite C yet 21 He cant decide w h o .............to his birthday party.
A to invite B invite C inviting
4 is that letter I wrote? Have you seen it?
A Where B Who C What 22 I tried on two pairs of trousers, b u t ........ of them fitted
me.
5 When we lived by the sea, w e .............to swim every A both B neither C either
morning.
A were used B got used C used 23 I dont like bananas. ..............
A Neither I do B Neither do I C So do I
6 I love ro s e s ,............my sister loves carnations.
A when B whereas C wherever 24 Hes tired. H e .............properly for days.
A hasnt slept B didnt sleep C doesnt sleep
7 S h e .............get a job as a teacher. She loves children.
A ought B can C might 25 They own a m o to rb o a t,.............?
A do they B they dont C dont they
8 We waved g o o d b y e .............the car was out of sight.
A while B until C by the time 26 If I had a bigger flat, I .............a party.
A have B will have C would have
9 He slept for eight h o u rs ,.............he was still tired.
A in spite B but C although 27 He .............be famous. Ive never heard of him.
A must B cant C mustnt
10 I love going to the beach. ..............
A Neither do I B So do I C So I do 28 I h a v e .............received a letter from my pen-friend.
A just B yet C still
11 Ive m a d e ............biscuits. Would you like one?
A some B any C no 29 When I opened the door, there wasnt .............there.
A someone B no one C anyone
12 W e .............go out to dinner, if you like.
A should B could C might 30 Chris is t h e .............person I have ever met.
A patient B more patient C most patient
13 I th in k .............has been reading my diary.
A no one B someone C anyone 31 I live in the city, so I .............to busy traffic.
A am used B get used C used
14 They .............. havent finished building the new
supermarket. 32 Im hungry. I havent h a d .............to eat all day.
A still B yet C just A something B nothing C anything

15 By the time the rain stopped, w e .............two pols of 33 When I buy a new house, I .............every room myself.
coffee. A paint B will paint C would paint
A have drunk B had drunk
C had been drinking 34 We must run to the cinema. The film ............. in five
minutes.
16 we have a barbecue this evening? A starts B is starting C will start
A Shall B Will C Mustnt
35 Its no u s e .............about the exam results. Youll know
17 Were going to the th e a tre .............a play. soon enough.
A see B to see C seeing A worry B to worry C worrying

194
Revision 4 (Units 1 - 12)
36 We are thinking a b o u t............a new car.
a Write questions to w hich the words in
A buy B to buy C buying ^ j bold are the answers.

37 He was dirty because h e ............in the garden.


1 Andrew has been to New York.
A had been working B had worked
...Where hae Andrew been?...
C has been working
2 He is sad because his bicycle is broken.

38 She has lots of T-shirts, but ......... of them are in the


3 Sarah is tall with blonde curly hair.
wash.
A both B all C either
4 Barry is very generous.

39 Tom is three y e a rs ............than his brother.


5 Claire is in her office.
A old B older C oldest
6 The play starts at eight o'clock.
40 We live i n .............large block of flats.
A a B one C the
7 He bought that car two months ago.

8 Jonathan wants to go on holiday.


a Rewrite the following sentences in the
^ ^ passive. 9 We got to the island by boat.

10 That is Joanne's book.


1 People say that she owns several companies.
...It ie eaid th a t ehe owne eeveraI companiee/She ie
eaid to own eevera! companiee....
m Rewrite the following sentences using
2 Dad is cleaning the floor at the moment. ' j have something done.

3 The phone company cut off our telephone yesterday.


1 The gardener cuts their grass once a week.
...They have th e ir graee c u t once a week...
4 You must do the washing-up after dinner.
2 They will ask the porter to carry their bags for them.

5 She will have typed all the letters by five o clock. 3 I must get someone to clean the windows.

6 They are interviewing two candidates at the moment. 4 His fence was built by a carpenter.

7 He has torn his shirt again. 5 The hairdresser is styling Lucys hair.

8 Mark feeds the dogs every morning. 6 The doctor has bandaged his arm for him.

9 We shouldnt reveal anything to the press. 7 The dentist was checking Tom s teeth.

10 Where have they sent those parcels to? 8 The cleaner had washed the floor for me.

11 People think that he will win the race. 9 Its worth asking someone to repair the roof.

12 I object to her taking my books without permission. 10 The builders will be building the wall for him.

13 They had sold all the tickets by the time we arrived.

14 People make jam from fruit. 5 ^ Com plete the sentences.

15 They saw him talking to the manager. 1 He is very ill. He cant go to work.
He is ...too ill to go to work...
16 Who took that beautiful photo? 2 She has got a lot of time. She can have a cup of tea.
She has g o t ......................................................................
17 When did they open their shop? 3 This meat is very tough. I cant cut it.
This meat i s ......................................................................

195
Revision 4 (Units l - 12)
4 These bags are very heavy. He cant carry them. 8 Tm the prettiest girl at the party, said Emma.
These bags are .................................................................
5 We have got a lot of money. We can go out to dinner. 9 She said to him, Open the window, please.
We have g o t ......................................................................
6 I have made a lot of food. I can feed all the guests. 10 Dont forget to set the alarm, Mary said to Liz.
I have m a d e .......................................................................
7 Sarah is beautiful. She could be a model. 11 You ruined my dress, she said to her sister.
Sarah is ..............................................................................
8 Adam is very young. He cant drive a car. 12 Karen said, You should do some revision.
Adam i s ...............................................................................
9 Its very cold outside. You cant wear shorts. 13 It was me who crashed the car, Sophie said.
Its .......................................................................................
10 Peter is very clever. He can pass his exams. 14 Children, stand up! said the headmistress.
Peter i s ................................................................................
15 Dont touch this button, the scientist said to them.

Rewrite the sentences using the words/


6^ phrases given.
Underline the correct form of the infinitive.
1 She had barely woken up when the telephone rang.
Barely ...had ehe woken up when the telephone rang....
2 I havent seen such beautiful mountains anywhere else. 1 It is considered to be/be/being unlucky to walk/walk/
Nowhere e ls e .....................................................................
walking under ladders.
2 I hate go/to go/going out in the rain.
3 If I were you, I would get a cat.
3 She went for a walk get/to get/getting some fresh air.
Were ...................................................................................
4 I dont want watch/to watch/watching this film.
4 The policeman didnt realise that the thief had already
5 He was happy be/to be/being home at last.
escaped.
6 My father made me tidy/to tidy/tidying my bedroom.
Little ....................................................................................
7 Sam agreed help/to help/helping me with my home
5 He hasnt had an ice cream since last summer.
work.
Not since ...........................................................................
8 The man confessed steal/to steal/to stealing the
6 She not only broke the glass, but she cut her hand.
documents.
Not only ..............................................................................
9 My boss expects me finish/to finish/finishing this work
7 We have seldom seen such a well-kept garden.
before six oclock.
Seldom ...............................................................................
10 He warned them about swim/to swim I swimming in that
8 They have never stayed in such a wonderful hotel before.
river, but they took no notice.
Never b e fo re .......................................................................
11 The children complained about miss/to miss/missing the
9 He has not once apologised for his appalling behaviour. party.
Not once ............................................................................. 12 Carl denied break/to break/breaking the computer.
10 I only noticed the broken window after the children had left. 13 We could hear the choir sing/to sing/singing as we passed
Only a fte r............................................................................. the church.
14 I dont know what do/to do/doing about this problem.
mm Rewrite the follow ing sentences in 15 Ski/To ski/Skiing is a very exciting sport.
J ft reported speech.
9 ^ Rewrite the sentences using participles.
1 Be quiet, or Ill send you to bed, she said to them.
...She threatened to eend them to bed if they were
n ot quiet.... 1 The woman who is serving the tea is my aunt.
2 He always makes too much noise, she said. ...The woman eerving the tea ie my aunt....
2 Because we were tired, we stayed at home.
3 Yes, Ill lend you the money, I said to her.
3 After the boss had explained the problem, he asked
4 That was a delicious meal! said Julia. the employee to solve it.

5 He said, Shall we go shopping? 4 Katie locked the doors before she went to the shop.

6 I didnt break your stereo, he said to me. 5 Because he felt ill, Stuart went to the doctors.

7 He said to her, Please, please dont go without me. 6 The boy who is wearing a hat is Nicholas.

196
Revision 4 (Units 1 - 12)
7 The files which were stored on that disk were very Fill in th e gaps w ith some, any, no or one of
important. 12 > th e ir com pounds.

8 After Caroline had made the beds, she went to work. A: Are you doing ...anything ... at the weekend?
B: No, I havent made any plans yet.
9 Because he had overslept, he had to take a taxi to the A: I think theres ........................else in this envelope.
office. B: Take it out and see what it is.
A: Are you off work next week?
10 Robin got oil on his shirt while he was fixing his bike. B: Yes, but Im not going ............................. Im going
to stay at home.
11 Rachel picked up a book and started to read. A: The meal was a great success last night.
B: I know. There w a s ...................food left over, either.
12 Oliver was sitting on a bench and he was watching the A: Wheres David?
football match. B: Hes g o n e .......................................with his brother.
A: Did you enjoy your visit to the museum?
B: Yes, but there w a s ............................to tell us about
.^ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct the exhibits.
10^ tense. A: Theres ......................................at the door for you.
B: Who is it?
A: I s .................................. wrong?
1 If only I ...had done ... (do) some of this work yesterday.
B: Not really. Im just very tired.
2 I wish I .................................. (afford) to buy some new
A: The bus was really crowded today. There was .........
clothes.
................ to sit.
3 If only he ................................................ (talk) so much.
B: I know. I wish I had my own car.
4 I wish she .......................(not/leave) so early last night.
10 A: Can I b o rro w ................... sugar from you, please?
5 I wish they .........................................(visit) more often.
B: Yes, of course. How much do you need?
6 If only we ......................................... (not/miss) the train.
7 If only you ...................... (ask) me to help you before.
8 I wish I ........................................(have) more free time. 1$ U nderline th e c o rre c t answ er.
9 If only w e ...................... (not/have) to go to work today.
10 I wish s h e ................................ (tell) me what is wrong.
1 There/It/One were lots of people at the opening
ceremony last night.
Put th e verbs in b ra c k e ts in to th e c o rre c t 2 Hes faster than I am, but Im cleverer than he/him/his.
11 tense. 3 They always take off they/them/their shoes before going
upstairs.
1 I ...am going... (go) to the beach tomorrow. Would you 4 The ball bounced up and hit her on th e /h e r/- head.
like to come? 5 Our neighbours designed their house themselves/
2 We ............................................(think) about moving to ourselveslthey.
the city recently. 6 This/That/These man over there is my teacher.
3 Hurry up! The lesson .......................................(start) in 7 Your room is a mess! Put everywhere I everyone Ievery
five minutes. thing away immediately!
4 I'm starving! I ........................................ (not/eat) a thing 8 I haven't got many/little/much money, so I wont go out
all day. tonight.
5 I'm afraid y o u .......................................(not/get) the job
unless you look smart.
6 Dont make too much noise when you come in. We .... 14 U n d e rlin e th e c o rre c t p re p o sitio n .
.............................................. (sleep).
7 I saw David as I .............................. (do) the shopping. This flat is small, but it will do from lbylfor the time being.
He looked well. He gave a speech in/on/for behalf of the class.
8 He said he ........................................(help) me with my At/In/By the end of the concert, the orchestra took a bow.
homework if he has time. I will give you the job on/in/under condition that you
9 How long ................................................(you/work) as a work hard.
waiter?' Since I was sixteen. Your assignments must be given in tomorrow atlunder/
10 We can't leave until the taxi ............................. (arrive). without fail.
11 Mum ................................ (make) a cake this morning. This calendar is out/out of/of date. I need a new one.
Would you like some? The policeman wasn't at/in/on duty, but he still helped us.
12 (you/go) to the library today? Its too late to go to the cinema. The film will have
I need to return some books. started by/for/from now.

197
Revision 4 (Units l - 12)
9 He has been out of/oflout work for six months now. 6 I invited Sam to the party. I also invited Andrew,
10 It is against/for/by the law to leave school before the both I in v ite d ..........................................................
age of 16. to the party.
11 I found this book off/by/with chance when I was 7 Take some money with you. You might want to buy
tidying the attic. something.
12 She takes her parents for/off/by granted. case Take some money with y o u .......................
13 It was raining and the sun was shining in/at/for the ......................................to buy something.
same time. 8 She stayed up late because she wanted to finish some
14 I dont know by/in/for certain, but I think the boss is on work.
holiday. so She stayed up la te ......................................
15 He deleted the file from the computer on/at/by mistake. .................................................. some work.
9 There were many people at the meeting. Some of them
were important clients.
4 e Fill in the gaps with the correct particle
w hom There were many people at the meeting,
j0 ' from the list.
............................... were important clients.
up, in, down, off, out, for, on 10 This is Andrea. Her parents live in Spain.
w hose This is Andrea ..............................................
1 When the plane eventually took ...off..., the passengers in Spain.
cheered. 11 The river had flooded because of the heavy rain,
2 I hear your company are ta k in g ............... new staff. due The river had flooded .................................
3 My watch had r u n ............... so I was late for work. .................................................. heavy rain.
4 HRH s ta n d s ............... Her Royal Highness. 12 He has little time in which to relax.
5 Can you tu r n ............... the television? I cant hear it. much H e ................................... in which to relax.
6 The children worked ................ a great deal of
excitement before the party. 13 He went to the theatre alone in the end.
7 We saw the happy c o u p le ...........on their honeymoon, on He went to the th e a tre ................................
then went home. .....................................................in the end.
8 She had to ta k e ............... her skirts and trousers after 14 There are only a few people waiting for the train,
her diet. many There .............................................................
9 Leaving all the lights on is a sure way to r u n ............... waiting for the train.
a huge electricity bill. 15 Having run to school, Steven was out of breath,
10 Ive been working hard all day and Im w o rn ................ because Steven was out of breath ..........................
11 Clive has ta k e n ............... jogging in order to keep fit. ......................................................to school.
12 He was whistling as he s e t............... on his journey. 16 We spent all afternoon printing those files.
13 Can you tu r n ............... the lamp? Its getting dark. w hole We s p e n t......................................................
14 The dark clouds gathered and the rain s e t................. printing those files.
15 The man in the dark suit turned ............... to be our 17 The film was so funny that we laughed all the way
new boss. through.
such It .......................................................that we
laughed all the way through.
j Com plete each sentence with two to
* five words, including the word in bold. 18 I find people dropping litter disgusting.
that I find ..........................................disgusting.
19 No one understood me when I tried to explain the
1 I hope you will behave well at the party.
problem.
yo u rse lf I hope ...you will behave y o u rs e lf.. at the
m yself I couldnt ......................................................
party.
when I tried to explain the problem.
2 I saw Louise walking alone in the park.
20 It seemed that the two women knew nothing about the
by I saw Louise ..................................................
incident.
in the park.
of It seemed t h a t ..............................................
3 He looked like he hadnt eaten for days.
...........knew anything about the incident.
if He looked .....................................................
eaten for days.
4 It takes half an hour to walk from my house to the Fill in the correct form of the word in bra-
office. 1 7' ckets.
walk It i s ..................................................................
from my house to the office. 1 Being a doctor is a very demanding ...occupation...
5 Thats the hospital where I was born. (occupy).
in Thats the hospital ....................................... 2 It is very .................................................. of you to mind
I was born. the baby for me. (help)

198
Revision 4 (Units 1 - 12)
3 We were woken up by a .................................................. 3 .............we invite Liz and Tony for dinner tomorrow?
in the street, (disturb) Yes. Lets ask Keith and Lesley, too.
4 Seeing his best friends at the party increased his A Would B Will C Shall
..................... of the evening, (enjoy)
5 Eating more fresh fruit would be ................................... 4 T hat man is my biology teacher.
to your health, (benefit) H e .............be a teacher. He looks much too young.
6 My father is a v e r y .................................. businessman. A neednt B cant C mustnt
(succeed)
7 I am running out o f ..........................with you! (patient) 5 I think this plant is dying and I dont know what to do.
8 The .................................................. of the block of flats Y o u .............water it more often, I think.
took less than a week, (destroy) A would B might C should
9 He is in hospital having a m in o r................... (operate)
10 It was very ......................................of you to visit me in 6 Would you like to come to the cinema tonight?
hospital, (thought) Sorry, I cant. My boss says I ............ work late tonight.
11 The manager has reached a .......................................... A have to B mustnt C might
about which candidate to employ, (decide)
12 Winning the competition was quite an .......................... 7 .............I help you, madam?
for him. (achieve) Yes. Im looking for the customer service department.
13 She has to wear ......................................clothing when A Should B Must C May
she is working, (protect)
14 Despite his firm ......................................., I still think he 8 .............I see you in my office, please?
is guilty, (deny) Certainly, Mrs Simpson.
15 It would be .......................................to be more careful A Must B Could C Would
in future, (advise)
16 Michael won second prize in the school art ................ 9 Shall I get some more salt at the supermarket?
...............(compete) No, y o u ............... Theres plenty.
A neednt B mustnt C couldnt

10 Did you post that card to Matthew?


1 Cross out the unnecessary word.
No, I ............... He came to see me so I gave it to him
then!
1 Despite M being hungry, I didnt eat anything. A mustnt B didnt need to C neednt
2 Didnt he not help you make dinner?
3 She spent the all night worrying about the exam. 11 Im leaving now. I .............take this parcel to the post
4 That was Mark you were talking to, wasnt it he? office.
5 Every one employee must report to the manager. I know. The boss told me hed asked you take it.
6 Thats the girl whose her mother is an actress. A have got to B dont need to C m ustnt
7 I phoned Mum for to ask her for some advice.
8 Dont forget to feed the cat, will you not? 12 .............I borrow your calculator, please?
9 There it seems to be a problem with the computer. Of course. Its on my desk.
10 Who did sent this parcel? A Would B Must C Can
11 Where is it my watch?
12 The children are making a lots of noise. 13 Can you still speak Russian?
13 These glasses are pretty, but the others ones are awful. No. I .............when I was young, but Ive forgotten it
14 When I will finish my homework, I will tidy my room. now !
15 There she is a woman on the phone for you. A can B couldnt C could

14 Ive lost my passport.


Y o u .............report it to the police.
19 Choose th e c o rre c t a nsw er. A oughtnt to B ought to C might

1 Did you speak to Carol before she left? 15 .............you pick me up from work today, please?
No, but I leave a message with her secretary. Yes. Ill be there at 5 o clock.
A couldnt B was able to C would A Will B Shall C May

2 What shall I do with this application form ?


Y o u ............ fill it in and return it to the office by Friday.'
A must B would C neednt

199
Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past Past Participle Infinitive Past Past Participle
be was been let let let
bear bore born(e) lie lay lain
beat beat beaten light lit lit
become became become lose lost lost
begin began begun make made made
bite bit bitten mean meant meant
blow blew blown meet met met
break broke broken pay paid paid
bring brought brought put put put
build built built
read read read
burn burnt (burned) burnt (burned)
ride rode ridden
burst burst burst
ring rang rung
buy bought bought
rise rose risen
can could (been able to) run ran run
catch caught caught say said said
choose chose chosen see saw seen
come came come seek sought sought
cost cost cost sell sold sold
cut cut cut send sent sent
deal dealt dealt set set set
dig dug dug sew sewed sewn
do did done shake shook shaken
draw drew drawn shine shone shone
dream dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed) shoot shot shot
drink drank drunk show showed shown
drive drove driven shut shut shut
sing sang sung
eat ate eaten
sit sat sat
fall fell fallen sleep slept slept
feed fed fed smell smelt (smelled) smelt (smelled)
feel felt felt speak spoke spoken
fight fought fought spell spelt (spelled) spelt (spelled)
find found found spend spent spent
fly flew flown spill spilt spilt
forbid forbade forbidden split split split
forget forgot forgotten spoil spoilt (spoiled) spoilt (spoiled)
forgive forgave forgiven spread spread spread
freeze froze frozen spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
get got got
steal stole stolen
give gave given
stick stuck stuck
go went gone
sting stung stung
grow grew grown
strike struck struck
hang hung (hanged) hung (hanged) swear swore sworn
have had had sweep swept swept
hear heard heard swim swam swum
hide hid hidden take took taken
hit hit hit teach taught taught
hold held held tear tore torn
hurt hurt hurt tell told told
keep kept kept think thought thought
know knew known throw threw thrown
lay laid laid understand understood understood
lead led led wake woke woken
learn learnt (learned) learnt (learned) wear wore worn
leave left left win won won
lend lent lent write wrote written

200
APPENDICES
Appendix 1

Present Simple 3) Verbs ending in -I, double the -I and take the -ing
suffix.
1) Most verbs take -s in the third person singular. quarel - quarelling
I run - he runs 4) Verbs ending in -ie, drop the -ie and take
2) Verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x and -o, take -es. -y + Ing.
I kiss - he kisses, I brush - he brushes, I teach - he lie - lying
teaches, I fix - he fixes, I go - he goes
3) Verbs ending in a consonant + y, drop the -y and Past Simple
take -ies.
I fry - he fries 1) Verbs ending in -e, take only -d.
4) Verbs ending in a vowel + y, take -s. improve - improved
I play - he plays 2) Verbs ending in a consonant + y, drop the -y and
take -ied.
Present Continuous try - tried
3) Verbs ending in a vowel + y, take -ed.
1) Verbs ending in -e, drop the -e and take the -ing pray - prayed
suffix. 4) Verbs ending in one stressed vowel between two
starve - starving but see - seeing consonants, double the last consonant and take -
2) Verbs ending in one stressed vowel between two ed.
consonants, double the last consonant and take the rub - rubbed but open - opened
-ing suffix. 5) Verbs ending in -I, double the -I and take -ed.
rub - rubbing but open - opening travel - travelled

Appendix 2

Present Sim ple Present C ontinuous Future Sim ple

Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

I clean I don t clean I am cleaning Im not cleaning I w ill clean I w ont clean
You clean You dont clean You are cleaning You arent cleaning You will clean You w ont clean
He cleans He doesnt clean etc. He is cleaning He isnt cleaning etc. He will clean He w ont clean etc.
She cleans She is cleaning She will clean
Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative
It cleans It is cleaning It will clean
We clean Do I clean? We are cleaning Am I cleaning? We will clean W ill I clean?
You clean Do you clean? You are cleaning Are you cleaning? You will clean Will you clean?
They clean Does he clean? etc. They are cleaning Is he cleaning? etc. They will clean Will he clean? etc.

Future C ontinuous Future Perfect

Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

I w ill be cleaning I w ont be cleaning I w ill have cleaned I w ont have cleaned
You will be cleaning You w ont be cleaning You will have cleaned You w ont have cleaned
He will be cleaning He won t be cleaning etc. He will have cleaned He w ont have cleaned etc.
She will be cleaning She will have cleaned
Interrogative Interrogative
It will be cleaning It will have cleaned
We will be cleaning Will I be cleaning? We will have cleaned Will I have cleaned?
You will be cleaning Will you be cleaning? You will have cleaned Will you have cleaned?
They will be cleaning Will he be cleaning? etc. They will have cleaned Will he have cleaned? etc.

20?
Future Perfect Continuous

Affirmative Negative

I will have been cleaning I w ont have been cleaning


You will have been cleaning You w ont have been cleaning
He will have been cleaning He w ont have been cleaning etc.
She will have been cleaning
Interrogative
It will have been cleaning
We will have been cleaning Will I have been cleaning?
You will have been cleaning Will you have been cleaning?
They will have been cleaning Will he have been cleaning? etc.

Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous

Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

1have cleaned 1 havent cleaned 1have been cleaning 1 havent been cleaning
You have cleaned You havent cleaned You have been cleaning You havent been cleaning
He has cleaned He hasnt cleaned etc. He has been cleaning He hasnt been cleaning etc.
She has cleaned She has been cleaning
Interrogative Interrogative
It has cleaned It has been cleaning
We have cleaned Have 1cleaned? We have been cleaning Have 1 been cleaning?
You have cleaned Have you cleaned? You have been cleaning Have you been cleaning?
They have cleaned Has he cleaned? etc. They have been cleaning Has he been cleaning? etc.

Past Simple Past Continuous

Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

1cleaned 1didnt clean 1was cleaning 1wasnt cleaning


You cleaned You didnt clean You were cleaning You werent cleaning
He cleaned He didnt clean etc. He was cleaning He wasnt cleaning etc.
She cleaned She was cleaning
Interrogative Interrogative
It cleaned It was cleaning
We cleaned Did 1clean? We were cleaning Was 1cleaning?
You cleaned Did you clean? You were cleaning Were you cleaning?
They cleaned Did he clean? etc. They were cleaning Was he cleaning? etc.

Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous

Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

1 had cleaned 1 hadnt cleaned 1 had been cleaning 1 hadnt been cleaning
You had cleaned You hadnt cleaned You had been cleaning You hadnt been cleaning
He had cleaned He hadnt cleaned etc. He had been cleaning He hadnt been cleaning etc.
She had cleaned She had been cleaning
Interrogative Interrogative
It had cleaned It had been cleaning
We had cleaned Had 1cleaned? We had been cleaning Had 1been cleaning?
You had cleaned Had you cleaned? You had been cleaning Had you been cleaning?
They had cleaned Had he cleaned? etc. They had been cleaning Had he been cleaning? etc.

204
Appendix 3

Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

absent from (adj) ahead of (prep) apply to sb for sth (v)


accompanied by (adj) aim at (v) approve of (v)
according to (prep) allergic to (adj) argue with sb about sth (v)
account for (v) amazed at/by (adj) arrest sb for sth (v)
accuse sb of (v) amused at/with (adj) arrive at (a small place) (v)
accustomed to (adj) angry at what sb does (adj) arrive in (a town) (v)
addicted to (adj) angry with sb about sth (adj) ashamed of (adj)
advantage of (n) angry with sb for doing sth (adj) ask for (v) (but: ask sb a question)
(but: theres an advantage annoyed with sb about sth (adj) assure (sb) of (v)
in - (have) an advantage (in) answer to (n) astonished at/by (adj)
over sb) anxious about sth (adj) attached to (adj)
advice on (n) (be) anxious for sth to happen (adj) attack on (n)
afraid of (adj) apologise to sb for sth (v) attend to (v)
agree to/on sth (v) (make an) appeal to sb for sth (n) (un) aware of (adj)
agree with sb (v) appeal to/against (v)

bad at (adj) (but: He was benefit from (v) bored with/of (adj)
very bad to me.) bet on (v) borrow sth from sb (v)
base on (v) beware of (v) brilliant at (adj)
basis for (n) (put the) blame on sb (n) bump into (v)
beg for (v) blame sb for sth (v) busy with (adj)
begin with (v) blame sth on sb (v)
believe in (v) boast about/of (v)

call at/on (phr v) collide with (v) contact between (n) (but: in
call for (= demand) (phr v) comment on (v) contact with)
campaign against/for (v) communicate with (v) content with (adj)
capable of (adj) compare with (v) (how people and contrary to (prep)
care about (v) things are alike and how they are contrast with (v)
care for sb (v) (= like) different) contribute to (v)
(take) care of (n) compare to (v) (show the likeness convert to/into (v)
care for sth (v) (= like to between sb/sth and sb/sth else) cope with (v)
do sth) comparison between (n) correspond to/with (v)
careful of (adj) complain of (v) (= suffer from) count against (v)
careless about (adj) complain to sb about sth (v) count on sb (phr v)
cause of (n) (= be annoyed at) cover in/with (v)
certain of (adj) compliment sb on (v) covered in/with (adj)
change into (v) comply with (v) crash into (v)
characteristic of (n/adj) conceal sth from sb (v) (have) a craving for sth (n)
charge for (v) concentrate on (v) crazy about (adj)
charge sb with (v) (have) confidence in sb (n) crowded with (adj)
cheque for (n) confusion over (n) cruel to (adj)
choice between/of (n) congratulate sb on sth (v) cruelty towards/to (n)
clever at (adj) (but: It connection between (n) cure for (n)
was very clever of (but: in connection with) curious about (adj)
you to buy it.) conscious of (adj) cut into (phr v) (= interrupt sb/a
close to (adj) connect to/with (v) conversation)
collaborate with (v) consist of (v)

205
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

damage to (n) depend on/upon (v) discouraged from (adj)


date back to (v) dependent on (adj) discussion about/on (n)
date from (v) describe' sb/sth to sb else (v) disgusted by/at (adj)
deal with (v) description of (n) dismiss from (v)
dear to (adj) die of/from (v) dispose of (v)
decide on/against (v) die in an accident (v) disqualified from (adj)
decrease in (n) differ from (v) dissatisfied with (adj)
dedicate to (v) (have) difference between/of (n) distinguish between (v)
definition of (n) different from (adj) divide between/among (v)
delay in (n) difficulty in/with (n) divide into/by (v)
delight in (v) disadvantage of (n) (but: theres a do sth about (v)
delighted with (adj) disadvantage in doing sth) doubtful about (adj)
demand for (n) disagree with (v) dream about (v)
demand from (v) disappointed with/about (adj) dream of (v) (= imagine)
depart from (v) disapprove of (v) dressed in (adj)
departure from (n) discharge sb from (v)

eager for (adj) escape from/to (v) experienced in (adj)


efficient at (adj) example of (n) experiment on/with (v)
(put) effort into sth (n) excellent at (adj) expert at/in (sth/doing sth) (n)
emphasis on (n) exception to (n) (= person good at)
engaged to sb/in sth (adj) exchange sth for sth else (v) expert at/in/on (sth/doing sth) (adj)
engagement to sb (n) excited about (adj) (= done with skill or involving great
enter into (= start) (v) exclaim at (v) knowledge)
enthusiastic about (adj) excuse for (n) expert with sth (n) (= good at using sth)
envious of (adj) excuse sb for (v) expert on (n) (= person knowledge
equal to (adj) expel from (v) able about a subject)

face up to (phr v) familiar with (= have knowledge of) (adj) forgive sb for (v)
fail in an attempt (v) famous for (adj) fortunate in (adj)
fail to do sth (v) fed up with (adj) friendly with/to (adj)
failure in (an exam) (n) fill sth with sth else (v) frightened of (adj)
failure to (do sth) (n) finish with (v) full of (adj)
faithful to (adj) fire at (v) furious with sb about/at sth (adj)
fall in (n) fond of (adj)
familiar to sb (= known to sb) (adj) forget about (v)

generosity to/towards (n) good at (adj) (but: He was very guilty of (adj) (but: he felt guilty
genius at (n) good to me.) about his crime)
glance at (v) grateful to sb for sth (adj)
glare at (v) guess at (v)

happen to (v) hear from (v) (= receive a letter) hope for (v)
happy about/with (adj) hear of (v) (= learn that sth or sb exists) hope to do sth (v)
harmful to (adj) heir to (n) (no) hope of (n)
hear about (v) (= be told) hint to sb about sth (v) (but: hint at sth) hopeless at (adj)

206
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

idea of (n) increase in (n) (have no) intention of (n)


identical to (adj) independent of (adj) interest in (n)
ignorant of/about (adj) indifferent to (adj) interested in (adj)
ill with (adj) inferior to (adj) interfere with/in (v)
impact on (n) information about/on (n) invasion of (n)
impressed by/with (adj) (be) informed about (adj) invest in (v)
(make an) impression on sb (n) insist on (v) invitation to (n)
improvement in/on (n) insure against (v) invite sb to (v)
incapable of (adj) intelligent at (adj) involve in (v)
include in (v) intent on (adj) irritated by (adj)

jealous of (adj) join in (v) joke about (v)

knock at/on (v) keen to do sth (adj) key to (n)


know about/of (v) kind to (adj) knowledge of (n)
keen on sth (adj)

lack in (v) leave for (v) (= head for) long for (v)
lack of (n) lend sth to sb (v) look after (phr v) (= take care of)
laugh at (v) listen to (v) look at (v)
lean on/against (v) live on (v) look for (= search for) (v)

married to (adj) mention to (v) mix with (v)


mean to (adj) mistake sb for (v)

name after (v) nervous about (adj) nominate sb (for/as sth) (v)
necessary for (adj) new to (adj) (take) (no) notice of (n)
need for (n) nice to (adj) notorious for doing sth (adj)
neglect of (n)

obedient to (adj) obvious to (adj) opinion of/on (n)


object to (v) occur to (v) opposite of/to (n)
objection to (n) offence against (n)
obliged to sb for sth (adj) operate on (v)

part with (v) pleased with (adj) (take) pride in (n)


patient with (adj) (take) pleasure in (n) pride oneself on sth/on doing (v)
pay by (cheque) (v) (have the) pleasure of (n) prohibit sb from doing sth (v)
pay for (v) (but: pay a bill) point at/to (v) prone to (adj)
pay in (cash) (v) (im)polite to (adj) protect against/from (v)
peculiar to (adj) popular with (adj) protection from (n)
persist in (v) praise sb for (v) protest about/at (v)
(but: insist on) pray for sth/sb (v) proud of (adj)
(take a) photograph of (n) prefer sth to sth else (v) provide sb with (v)
picture of (n) (have a) preference for (n) punish sb for (v)
pity for (n) prepare for (v) puzzled about/by (adj)
take pity on sb (exp) present sb with (v)
pleasant to (adj) prevent sb from (v)

quarrel about sth/with sb (v/n) qualified for (adj) quick at (adj)

207
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

react to (v) related to (adj) respond to (v)


reaction to (n) relationship between (n) (but: a good responsiblity for (n)
ready for (adj) relationship with sb) responsible for (adj)
reason for (n) relevant to (adj) result from (v) (= be the
reason with (v) rely on (v) consequence of)
rebel against (v) remind sb of/about (v) result in (v) (= cause)
receive from (v) remove from (v) result of (n)
(keep) a record of (n) replace sth with sth else (v) resulting from (adj)
recover from (v) reply to (n/v) rich in (adj)
reduction in (n) report on (n/v) (get) rid of (phr)
refer to (v) reputation for/of (n) rise in (n)
(in/with) reference to (n) research on/into (n) (make) room for (n)
regard as (v) respect for (n) rude to (adj)
regardless of (prep) respected for (adj) run into (phr v)

safe from (adj) shy of (adj) stand for (phr v)


same as (adj) sick of (adj) stare at (v)
satisfied with (adj) silly to do sth (adj) (but: it was silly of strain on (n)
save sb from (v) him) subject to (adj/v)
scared of (adj) similar to (adj) submit to (v) (but: submit for publication)
search for (v/n) skilful/skilled at (adj) subscribe to (v)
(be) in search of (n) slow in/about doing sth/to sth (adj) succeed in (v)
sensible of sth (adj) (= aware of smell of (n/v) suffer from (v)
sth) smile at (v) sufficient for sth/sb (adj)
sensitive to (adj) solution to (n) superior to (adj)
sentence sb to (v) sorry about (adj) (= feel sorry for sb) sure of/about (adj)
separate from (v) (but: Im sorry for doing sth) surprised at/by (adj)
serious about (adj) speak to/with sb about (v) surrender to (v)
share in/of sth (n) specialise in (v) surrounded by (adj)
shelter from (v) specialist in (n) suspect sb of (v)
shocked at/by (adj) spend money on sth (v) suspicious of (adj)
shoot at (v) spend time in/doing sth (v) sympathetic to/towards (adj)
short of (adj) split into/in (v) sympathise with (v)
shout at (v) spy on (v)

take sth to sb/sth (v) thank sb for (v) tired from (adj)
talent for sth (n) thankful for (adj) tired of (adj) (= fed up with)
talk to sb about sth (v) think about/of (v) translate from ... into (v)
(have) taste in (n) threat to sb/sth of sth (n) tread on (v)
taste of (v) threaten sb with sth (v) trip over (v)
terrible at (adj) throw at (v) (in order to hit) trouble with (n)
terrified of (adj) throw to (v) (in order to catch) typical of (adj)

unaware of (adj) uneasy about (adj) (make) use of (n)


understanding of (n) upset about/over sth (adj) used to (adj)

valid for (length of time) (adj) value sth at (v)


valid in (places) (adj) vote against/for (v)

wait for (v) weak in/at (adj) worthy of (adj)


warn sb against/about/of (v) wonder about (v) write to sb (v)
waste (time/money) on (v) worry about (v) wrong about (adj)

208
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

at the age of at first sight at present


at the airport at a glance at a profit
at the beginning of (when at a guess at the prospect
sth started) (but: in the at hand at random
beginning = originally) at heart at any rate
at breakfast/lunch etc at home at ones request
at the bottom of at/in a hotel at the same time
at the bus stop a t ... km per hour at school
at church at last at sea
at the corner/on the corner at the latest at the seaside
at all costs at least at short notice
at the crossroads at liberty at/in the station
at dawn at a loss at sunset
at ones desk at the match at the table
at the door at midnight at the time
at the end (= when sth is at the moment at times
finished) (but: in the end at most at the top of (but: on top of)
= finally at all events) at night (but:in the night) at university
at fault at noon at the weekend
at first at once at work
at first hand at peace/war at 4 Rose St.

by accident by day/night by nature


by all accounts by degrees by now
by appointment by the dozen by oneself
by the arm/hand by far by phone
by birth by force by post/airmail
by bus/train/plane/ by hand by profession
helicopter/taxi/ coach/ by heart by request
ship/boat/sea/air/car etc by invitation by (the/ones) side
(but: on a/the bus/plane/ by land/sea/air by sight
train/coach/ship/boat by law by surprise
in a taxi/car/helicopter/plane) by luck by the time
by chance by marriage by the way
by cheque by means of by ones watch
by correspondence by mistake

for ages for hire for ones sake


for breakfast/lunch/dinner for instance for the sake of
for certain for luck for sale
for a change for life for short
for ever for love for the time being
for fear (of) for nothing for a visit/holiday
for fun (= for amusement) for once for a walk
for good for the rest of for a while
for granted for safe keeping

209
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

in action general in place of


in addition to (+ -ing form) good time in politics
in advance (of) half in pounds
in agreement (with) hand in practice
in aid of haste in principle
in all (all in all) good/bad health in prison
in answer to honour of in private/public
in an armchair the hope of in all probability
in a good/bad temper hospital in progress
in bed a hotel in a queue
in the beginning a hurry in reality
(= originally) n ink/pencil/pen in return
in a book n sbs interest in the right/wrong
in brief n length/width etc in a row/rows
in any case n all sbs life in ruins
in cash n a line in safety
in the centre of n the long run in season
in charge (of) n love (with) in secret
in code n luxury in self-defence
in colour n the meantime in short
in comfort n a mess in sight (of)
in common n the middle of in the sky
in comparison with n a mirror in some respects
in conclusion (to) n a moment in stock
in (good/bad) condition n a good/bad mood in the streets
in confidence n the mood in succession
in control (of) n the morning in the suburbs
in the country n name only (= not in reality) in the sun/shade
in danger n need of in good/bad taste
in the dark n the news in tears
in debt n a newspaper in theory
in demand n the name of (= on behalf of) in a tick
in detail n the nick of time in time
(be) in difficulty n the north/south in no time
in the direction of n a nutshell in touch
in doubt n oils in town
in a ... dress n the open in tune (with)
in the end (= finally) n ones opinion in turn
in exchange for n orbit in two/half
in existence n order of/to in uniform
in fact n other words in use
in fashion n pain in vain
in favour of n pairs in view of
in flames n the park in a loud/low voice
in the flesh n particular in a way (= in a manner)
in ones free time n the past in the way
in fun n person in writing
in future n pieces in a word

210
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

on account of on duty on the outskirts


on a ... afternoon/evening on earth on ones own
on the agenda on edge on page...
on the air on an expedition on parade
on approval on a farm (but: in a field) on the pavement
on arrival on fire on the phone
on average on the (4th) floor (of) on a platform
on bail on the floor on principle
on balance on foot on purpose
on the beach on the one hand on the radio/TV
on behalf of on the other hand on the right
on ones birthday on holiday on the River Seine
on board on horseback on sale
on the border on impulse on schedule
on business on the increase on the screen
on call on an island (but: in the mountains) on second thoughts
on a campsite (at a on a journey on sight
campsite) on ones knees on the sofa
on the coasl on leave on this street/on the street(s)
on condition on the left on strike
on the contrary on loan on good/bad terms
on credit on the market (= available to the public) on time
on a(n) cruise/excursion/ on ones mind on top of
trip/tour on that morning on the trail of
on (a ...) day on the move on a trip
on demand on New Years Day on the way (to) (= as 1was going)
on a diet on the news on the whole
on the dole on order

out of breath out of focus out of reach


out of character out of hand out of season
out of condition out of luck out of sight
out of control out of order out of step
out of danger out of the ordinary out of stock
out of date out of place out of tune
out of debt out of practice out of turn
out of doors out of print out of use
out of fashion out of the question out of work

off air off the map off the record


off colour off the peg off the road
off duty off the point off school/work
off limits

under age under discussion under pressure


under arrest under the impression under repair
under ones breath under orders under the weather
under control

211
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions

Against against the law

Ahead ahead of schedule

Before before long

Behind behind schedule, behind the times

From from time to time, from now on, from experience, from memory, from scratch

Into into pieces

To to ones astonishment, to ones surprise, to this day, to some extent

With with regard to, with a view to (+ -ing form)

Within within minutes

Without without delay, without fail, without success, without warning

Prepositions of Time

AT IN ON

at 10.30 in the morning/evening/afternoon/night on Monday


at Christmas/Easter in the Easter/Christmas holiday(s) on Easter Sunday etc.
at noon/night/midnight in January (months) on Christmas Day
at lunch/dinner/breakfast (time) in (the) winter (seasons) on Friday night
at that time in 1992 (years) on July 30th
at the moment in the 19th century on a summer afternoon
at the weekend (on the in two hours (two hours from now) on that day
weekend: Am. English)

We never use a t in or on before yesterday, tomorrow, next, this, last, every. Shes leaving next Sunday.

212
PROGRESS TESTS
Progress Test 1 (Units 1 -2 )
1 ^ Choose the correct answer. 2 Complete each sentence with two to five
words, including the word in bold.

1 K a te .............hard recently. 15 This soup is too cold for me to eat.


Yes. She is taking her exams next month. enough This soup ............................. for me to eat.
A has been studying B has studied 16 We havent been to the theatre for months.
C studied time The ................................................................
to the theatre was months ago.
2 I must go to the library. 17 The car was so expensive that he couldnt afford it.
I .............there this afternoon. Ill give you a lift. too The c a r ..........................................................
A have been B am going C go to afford.
18 I havent written to Paul yet.
3 1.............is very good for you.
still I ........................................................ to Paul.
Yes. Its my favourite form of exercise.
19 Someone saw him leave the building.
A Swim B Swimming C To swim
was He ........................................... the building.
4 Wed better run to the stadium. 20 Food is not allowed to be eaten in the library.
I know. The g a m e .............in five minutes. eat People ...........................................................
A is starting B has started C starts food in the library.
21 He was bored by the film and fell asleep.
5 Im very hungry. found H e ..................................................................
Tm not surprised. Y o u .............all day. and fell asleep.
A havent been eating B havent eaten 22 She began playing the piano when she was eight,
C dont eat since She has .........................................................
she was eight.
6 I cant decide w h a t.............for lunch.
23 Telling lies is very bad.
Why dont you buy a sandwich?
to I t ............................................................. lies.
A have B having C to have
24 She didnt go to bed until she had finished her
7 Why did you go to the shop this morning? homework.
1.............some bread. We had run out. before She finished ................................... to bed.
A Get B Getting C To get

8 How did you hurt your hand? a Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
I cut it as I .............some vegetables. J infinitive form or the - ing form .
A chopped B am chopping C was chopping
25 She was unwilling ............................................... (help).
9 The journey here was very tiring.
26 Tom had difficulty ............................. (unscrew) the lid.
Yes. Im very g la d .............here at last.
27 I would rather ................... (eat) Chinese food tonight.
A being B to be C be
28 Mary stopped ................................. (buy) a newspaper
10 Lets go for a walk. on her way to work.
We cant go out until the ra in ............... 29 He admitted t o .................................. (lie) to the police.
A stopped B will stop C stops 30 They called the theatre box office only .........................
(find) that there were no tickets left.
11 I want to call Simon. 31 She is too old ............................ (take up) windsurfing.
Well, dont call him before eight o clock. H e ........... 32 After ................ (take) his degree, he looked for a job.
A will sleep B will be sleeping C is sleeping 33 They tried ................................... (locate) the company
president, but he was on holiday.
12 Would you like to watch the film with me?
34 Did he mention anything a b o u t.......................(leave)?
No thanks. Id rather.............my book.
35 Im sorry .................................. (have to) ask you to do
A read B reading C to read
this, but could you possibly work late tonight?
13 H e .............a famous writer one day. 36 It was kind of you ...........................(send) me flowers.
Yes, I think youre right. 37 In addition t o ..........................(miss) the bus, she also
A was B will be C is being lost her umbrella.
38 Did you remember .........................(thank) Aunt Hilary
14 What are you doing on Saturday? for her present?
Well, Paul su gg este d .............to the cinema. 39 You shouldnt ................ (believe) everything he says.
A go B going C to go 40 He wasted valuable time .............(talk) on the phone.

215
Progress Test 2 (Units 3 -4 )
Put the adjectives in brackets into the
1 com parative or superlative fo rm , adding any Underline the correct item.
necessary words.

1 A: David i s .............................................................. (old) 19 We had hard/hardly left the house when the storm
Steve, isnt he? broke.
B: Yes. David is 14 and Steve is 12. 20 I havent got much free times/tim e these days,
2 A: Do you like being at university? because Im taking French lessons.
B: Yes. Its ..................................................(interesting) 21 Maths was/were Georges least favourite subject when
being at school. he was at school.
3 A: Did you enjoy the meal? 22 His ambition is to swim across the English Channel/
B: Yes. It w a s ............................................... (delicious) English Channel.
meal Ive ever eaten. 23 The Queen/Queen is going to address the nation this
4 A: Laura is a lovely person. evening.
B: Yes. Shes ........................................................ (nice) 24 Most/The most people enjoy spending their holidays
person I know. on the beach.
5 A: Did you get a good grade in the exam? 25 Henry is looking for atone bigger flat, as his wife is
B: Yes. It was m u c h ........................................................ expecting their new baby.
(good) I had expected. 26 Ive been working very hard lately/late so Im planning
6 A: Did you buy that jacket? to take some time off.
B: No. It was f a r .............................................................. 27 These tomatoes cost 1.20 a/the kilo.
(expensive) I had thought. 28 The plane landed at the JFK/JFK Airport.
7 A: Do you like my new dress? 29 Bears/The bears love honey.
B: I love it! Its .................................................................. 30 Mrs Houston went to college/the college to pick up
(beautiful) dress Ive ever seen. her husband.
8 A: It was a great party, wasnt it? 31 The secretary has near /nearly finished typing the
B: Oh yes! It was ............................................................ report so you can have it in a few minutes.
(good) party Ive ever been to. 32 The cattle was/were grazing in the field.
9 A: Why are you so tired? 33 Three years are/is a long time to be out of work.
B: The meeting finished much ......................................
(late) than I had expected.
10 A: Mark is very clever. 4 Complete each sentence with two to five
B: Yes. Hes ................................................ (intelligent) ^ words, including the word in bold.
boy in the school.
34 Ive never had such a bad day.
the Its ..................................................................
0 Complete each sentence using the noun in Ive ever had.
2 j. brackets in the singular or plural form and 35 Meg is the fastest typist of all.
aIan where necessary. than Meg ...............................................................
anyone else.
11 The wind blew all the important .....................................
36 Tim is more imaginative than Alan.
off my desk, (paper)
less Alan ...............................................................
12 I cant talk now. I havent got much .............................. Tim.
(time) 37 Lucy spent the same amount of money on clothes as
13 Travelling around the world was .................................... Laura.
I will never forget, (experience) much Lucy spent ...................................................
14 There is not much ........................in this office, (room) on clothes as Laura.
15 These .....................................are delicious. Would you 38 Cant you do any better than that?
like one? (chocolate) best Is that ............................................................
16 I have seen this film several ........................................... you can do?
before, (time) 39 As he gets older, he becomes less tolerant.
17 We had b o o k e d .................................. in a hotel before the The older he gets, ......................................
we arrived, (room) ................................................ he becomes.
18 He has plenty o f .......................................in this kind of 40 Rita is prettier than Sheila.
work, (experience) as S h e ila ................................................... Rita.

216
Progress Test 3 (Units 5 -6 )
j ^ Choose the correct answer.
^ / Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1 Y o u .............tell the police about the burglary. 20 Someone broke into their flat last night.
A would B shall C must
21 Steve hasn't opened the mail yet.
2 This ro o m .............last week.
A was decorated B will be decorated
22 Are they inviting many people to the party?
C decorated

3 we go for a picnic tomorrow? 23 Jake painted the house last week.


A Shall B Should C Would
24 Paul hates people interrupting him.
4 The M arathon.............by a famous athlete.
A has been won B was won C won 25 People consider him to be the greatest composer of
our time.
5 Y o u .............wear jeans to the interview.
A must B mustnt C couldnt
26 The reporter asked the candidate several questions.
6 I .............swim until I was five years old.
A couldnt B could C cant 27 No one said anything about the matter.

7 I took the bus to work because my c a r .............at the


28 Do they allow you to receive phone calls at work?
moment.
A was being serviced B is being serviced
29 They are organising a protest march.
C is serviced

8 M u m .............have gone shopping. 30 They say she will take part in the negotiations.
A might B will C ought

9 I .............my hair cut yesterday. Complete each sentence with two to five
A had B have had C have
3^ words, including the word in bold.

10 I help you, sir?


31 We will probably go to Spain this summer.
A Should B Must C May
likely It .....................................................................
11 B o b ............. be on holiday. I saw him yesterday. go to Spain this summer.
A would B could C cant 32 I advise you to take notes during the lecture.
ought You ................................................................
12 J o h n .............his car stolen last night. during the lecture.
A has B has had C had 33 Im certain Martin doesnt work in York.
cant Martin ............................................................
13 Y o u .............have eaten so many sweets.
in York.
A shouldnt B should C might 34 Perhaps David has missed the train.
14 I .............water the garden. It rained this morning. could D a v id ............................................. the train.
A didnt need to B neednt C have to 35 It is possible that she has forgotten the arrangements.
may She .................................................................
15 H e ............ solve the problem, although it was difficult. .......................................the arrangements.
A was able to B could C couldnt 36 I advise you to study for the exam.
should You ................................................................
16 The new b rid g e .............next week. for the exam.
A was opened B will be opened 37 It isnt necessary for you to work late tonight.
C is opened have You ................................................................
late tonight.
17 L au ra ............. her tonsils taken out last week.
38 I broke my glasses when I fell down the steps.
A has had B has C had
got My glasses ....................................................
18 you do me a favour, please? down the steps.
A Should B Could C Need 39 Lets talk about this later.
can W e ........................................................later.
19 J a n ic e ............. her house painted at the moment. 40 Im sure Susan has already left.
A is having B has C will have must Susan .....................................................left.

217
Progress Test 4 (Units 7 -8 )
19 I dont suppose you can help me with my homework?
1 . Com plete each sentence with tw o to five Jim said to me.
-J F words, including the word in bold. whether Jim wanted to k n o w ..............................
............................... with his homework.
1 I havent got any money, he said.
20 I rarely have time to watch television.
complained He ............................................................
have Hardly e v e r .............................................
any money.
............................... to watch television.
2 Youll be able to go on holiday if you save some money,
will Only if you ..............................................
be able to go on holiday. Tu rn the following from direct into
3 You should be more careful, she told him. 2 j reported speech, using an appropriate
advised She .......................................................... introductory verb.
more careful.
21 I promise I wont forget to call, Julie said to Tim.
4 Why dont we buy Mark a present? said Paul,
should Paul .........................................................
22 No, I didnt break the dish, Martin said.
buy Mark a present.
5 As soon as I reached the station the train arrived,
23 No, you may not watch the late film , Dad said to us.
sooner No ............................................................
the station than the train arrived.
24 T ha ts the best cake Ive ever tasted! said Joanne.
6 If I were you, I would apologise.
you Were .....................................apologise. 25 You should go to the doctors, Mum said to Peter.
7 Sit dow n! the teacher told the children.
ordered The teacher ............................................ 26 Lets go for a walk, he said.
sit down.
8 It was only when I arrived at work that I realised I had 27 Please, please, take me with you! he said to her.
forgotten my briefcase.
did Only when I arrived at w o r k ................. 28 Everyone be quiet! the teacher said to the class.

that I had forgotten my briefcase. 29 Yes, Ill give you a lift into town, she said to him.
9 Dont forget to lock the door, Mum said to me.
reminded Mum .......................................the door. 30 Ill send you to your room if you misbehave, Dad said
10 You took my favourite CD, Jane said to Oliver. to Jamie.
of Jane .........................................................
her favourite CD. 31 Could I have a cup of tea, please? Pam said to me.
11 Hes a wonderful musician and a great artist as well,
only N o t ........................................................... 32 It was me who spilt the coffee, he said.
musician, but hes also a great artist.
12 Dont leave this room until I call you. 33 Dont forget to do the shopping, she said to him.
should On no account .......................................
..................... this room until I call you. 34 Put your hands up! the policeman said to the thieves.
13 Why are you baking a cake? Dave asked Lisa.
was Dave wanted to know ........................... 35 You must stay for dinner, we said to them.
.....................................................a cake.
14 If I had been asked, I would have helped.
asked Had ..........................................................
I would have helped. a Rewrite the sentences using emphatic
15 Im sorry I was late, he said. J fr constructions starting with the words given.
for He ....................................................late.
16 You must tidy your room before you go out, he said 36 Colin left the door open.
to Sally. It w a s .............................................
on He ............................................................ 37 She needs a new house.
her room before she went out. W h a t..............................................
17 We had no idea she was a famous actress. 38 Be quiet!
know Little ......................................................... Do ..................................................
she was a famous actress. 39 When did you move to London?
18 I had never eaten such delicious food before, When was .....................................
before Never ....................................................... 40 He promised to write to me.
such delicious food. H e ...................................................

218
Progress Test 5 (Units 9-10)
20 the car broke down, what would we do?
1^ Choose the correct answer. A Supposing B Providing C When

1 If you had got up earlier, y o u .............the bus. a Complete each sentence with two to five
A wouldn't miss B w ouldnt have missed ^ words, including the word in bold.
C w ont miss

2 Yesterday I went to the cinema and ............. I had 21 Why dont you listen to me?
dinner with a friend. would I w is h ...................................................to me.
A all in all B as a result C after that 22 It was Sunday, so the shops were closed.
due The shops were closed.................................
3 If s h e ...........her umbrella, she w ouldnt have got wet. .............................................. it was Sunday.
A take B had taken C would take 23 I think it would be a good idea to get a mobile phone,
were If ................................. get a mobile phone.
4 Carol...............parents own this shop, is very clever.
24 This is Mark. His mother is a teacher.
A who B whom C whose
whose This is Mark.................................. a teacher.
5 you study hard, you will pass your exams. 25 If you go too near the river you will fall in.
A Supposing B Providing C Unless else Dont go too near the river ..........................
.............................................................. fall in.
6 Mark is k in d .............funny.
26 There were a lot of people at the meeting. I had never
A as a result B as well as C all in all
met some of them before.
7 This computer game................ I bought yesterday, is whom There were a lot of people at the meeting
really boring. ............................... I had never met before.
A which B that C who 27 I missed the train, so I was late.
result I missed the train ..........................was late.
8 you wear warm clothes, you will catch a cold. 28 The weather was bad so it wasn't the perfect holiday,
A Unless B Providing C If for B u t ...................................................................
9 If I finish work early tomorrow, I .........go to the cinema. would have been the perfect holiday.
A would B might C should 29 If you dont work hard, you w ont get promoted,
unless You wont ...........................you work hard.
10 I like to go o u t,.............Steve likes to stay in. 30 He forgot to lock the door. This was very careless of him.
A due to B whereas C whenever which He forgot to lock the door............................
............................................................ of him.
11 If I won the lottery, I .............whatever I liked.
31 Sue would prefer to eat chocolate rather than eat salad,
A will buy B can buy C could buy
rather S u e ..................................................................
12 You can take the c a r .... you promise to drive carefully. ........................................................eat salad.
A as long as B as soon as C such as 32 I was having fun. I stayed longer than I should have done,
such I was having ...................................................
13 If he were more polite, h e .............more popular.
longer than I should have done.
A will be B would be C can be
33 She looked like she was going to cry.
14 This is the ja c k e t.............I got for my birthday. if She looked ........................................to cry.
A which B who C when 34 Although it was cold, we sat outside.
spite I n ..........................................we sat outside.
15 Our new boss is very friendly, b u t .............he can be 35 If Martin buys a car, he will be able to drive to work,
quite strict. provided Martin will be able to drive to w o rk ............
A moreover B on the other hand C also .............................................................. a car.
16 If Jessica calls............... her Im out. 36 I regret arguing with my best friend.
A will tell B would tell C tell wish I ................................... with my best friend.
37 He went to the bank to get some money.
17 Jack is saving m o n e y .............buy a new car. so He went to the bank .......................money.
A in order that B so that C in order to 38 You should lock all the doors before you leave,
better You ..................................................................
18 If I were you, I .............professional advice.
................... all the doors before you leave.
A would seek B will seek C can seek
39 Take a torch. You might need it.
19 Bob didnt attend the meeting, and .............the boss case Take a torch .............................................. it.
was angry with him. 40 I was upset, thats why I didnt say anything.
A all in all B because C as a result would If I hadnt been upset, .............something.

219
Progress Test 6 (Units 1 1 -1 2 )
20 Mary goes to the lib ra ry .............Monday.
Choose th e c o rre c t a nsw er. A every other B each other C the other

1 Shes really b o s s y ,.............? a Write questions to which the words in bold


A is she B was she C isnt she ^ are the answers.
2 Robert h u r t.............while he was climbing up the tree.
A him B himself C oneself 21 Susie is wearing a dress.

3 Would you lik e .............ice cream? Yes, please. 22 Daniel is washing the car.
A some B any C no
23 Peter goes to college every Wednesday.
4 She has been to n e a rly .............European capital.
A each B every one C every
24 She is sending a parcel to her sister.
5 Lets call it a d a y ,............. ?
A shall we B will we C w ont we 25 I am going shopping because I want some new clothes.

6 We didnt go to the shops because ............. wasnt 26 She has been living here for two years.
enough time.
A there B it C we 27 They went to work by bus.

7 Sharon says she would d o .............for her children.


28 Simon is going to the cinema.
A nothing B something C anything

8 Penny and I c a ll.............almost every day. 29 Claire is watching television.


A ourselves B each other C us
30 This suit cost 80.
9 Theres v e ry .............time left. We need to hurry up.
A a little B few C little

10 The ball hit Paul i n .............eye. a Complete each sentence with two to five
A one B the C his ^ Jf: words, including the word in bold.

11 would you rather be, an actor or an author?


31 The only thing she hasnt eaten is the cabbage,
A Which B What C Who
everything S h e ..............................................................
12 There a r e ............ people in this room. We can hardly the cabbage.
move. 32 He really had a good time at school today,
A too much B too many C a lot himself He really .........................................today.
33 She is going on holiday alone this year.
13 E veryone.............that the sun rises in the east. by She is going on holiday ..........................
A knows B know C have known .....................................................this year.
34 We could see that the two girls were very happy.
14 Come and sit b e s id e .............; theres plenty of room.
of We could see that ....................................
A me B myself C my
.......................................were very happy.
15 D id .............leave a message for me? Yes. Here it is. 35 She didnt give any explanation for her absence.
A anyone B someone C everyone no She ......................................her absence.
36 There are only a few seats left on the bus.
16 Jill and Emma are my friends, b u t.............of them lives many There are ................................ on the bus.
near me. 37 Mum said that I could go wherever I liked as long as I
A both B neither C none was home before dark.
anywhere Mum said that I .................................... as
17 Some people are not upset by violence, b u t..........are.
long as I was home before dark.
A another B the others C others
38 I visited Paul today. I visited Stuart, too.
18 Is Sue coming with us? I ............... Shes pretty busy both I visited ...........................................today.
these days. 39 Helen doesnt like loud music. Chris doesnt either,
A imagine so B dont think so nor Neither .......................................................
C suppose so likes loud music.
40 The shop sent me another persons order by mistake,
19 Eva is Swedish. .............is Ingrid. someone The shop sent me ....................................
A So B Neither C Nor by mistake.

220
G ram m arw ay 4 - Word List

A c D
abandon calculator dash
absorbed calendar deal with
accountancy cancel debts
accurately candidate decoration
advance candlestick degree
affect carnation delay
aim at cater for delete
alarm system ceremony deliberately
anniversary chairman demanding
announcement chalet demonstration
annual championship densely populated
answering machine charity deposit
appalling cheer developing countries
applaud cheer sb on discharge
appliance chest discourage
assignment childminder disgusting
asthma attack chimney display
at top speed choir distress signals
at the sight of chop disturbing
attempt cinnamon documents
attend cloakroom donate
attic close down doorframe
auction clue double glazing
available clumsy doubt
coal dozens of
B collective drama group
collide dreadful
bandage
come face to face with sb dressmaking
hathpr
UGLI IUI
commit dripping
be bound to
committee drive
be fast asleep
company
be in a good mood
be made redundant
competitor E
complex
be party to Earl
complicated
beans earn a reputation
condition
beforehand edge
conduct
bid efficient
conference
bid for elect
confess
bin election campaign
con man
bleed embarrassed
consent
blind emblem
contact
blunt emergency
contact lens
boarding school encouraging
contain
bonds engagement
contestant
bonfire ensure
contract
bounce equipment
convenient
box-office hit erase
country lane
branch essay
creep
bravery estimate
cruise
breeze evidence
cry
brick wall exceed
cultivate
bridesmaid exhaust fumes
culture
bring to life exhibit
currency
brooch exhibition
current
burst its banks expand
custom
expedition
cutlery
experiment

221
G ram m arw ay 4 - Word List
explode identity mayfly
extension immature mean
eye-witness impractical measles
impress medication
F in advance mild
in one go miner
facilities
in public moat
fasten ones seatbelt
income modernise
fiance
independent motion picture
fibres
individual mould
fierce
infection mumble
filling
inhabitant
fine
fireworks
innocent N
inspect
firm nasty
inspector
fishing line naughty
install
fizzy drink navy
instant coffee powder
flat tyre needle
insult
flexible hours negotiations
intelligence service
flock nickname
interior decoration
flooding nightmare
intimidate
flourish nomination
inventive
for the time being
invest
formula
investigation
o
fortune
investment oak
found
irritated objection
fraud
off duty
fuel
J offence
office block
G jury official
gas plant open
gasp L open-air
genuine label operate
gesture laboratory operation
give sb a fright lace opponent
glittering lay the foundations opposition
global warming lead-free petrol optician
govern leak originate from
graceful lecture ornament
greet licence out of breath
grind linen outfit
grounds literature outing
gust loan overtake
locker overtime
H locket oyster
hang out lose ones temper
hardships loss P
have access pale
hay fever M paperwork
heatwave maiden voyage parachute jump
hesitate make a fuss particularly
honour make it quick passenger liner
hopefully malaria patch
hydrofoil manners patent office
manual patience
I mat paw
mature peaceful
identical

222
Gramm arway 4 - Word List
pebble review sponsor
performance riot stain
permanently roast stall
personal route stamina
pipe row steep
platform ruby stew
policy runway stiff
power cut rusty stone
premiere stop dead
presentation s stop off
preserve storey
sack
press stray
safety regulations
press conference stressful
sandstone
priceless strike
scented
privileged study
scratch
process suburbs
seafront
profits subway
seashell
properly sunscreen
seed
property supernatural
self-assured
propose superstition
sell out
protest supervise
sensible
prove supplies
sentence
provide surgeon
set
prune surroundings
settle
put up survey
settle in
suspect
settlement
sweep
severe
Q sharp
qualifications shed
T
quarrel shelter tablecloth
question shift take a bow
quit shoot take a short cut
shortcrust pastry take action
R show off take out a loan
shriek take register
radiator
shrink tap
radio operator
shrub tax
range
sigh tear
rattle
skid tenant
reach its peak
skill testify
react
sleep soundly thoroughly
receipt book
slightly thread
recharge
slippery throw a party
reconsider
smash till
recover
smelling salts time off
recycle
snap tolerant
reflect
soak tournament
refreshments
soaking wet trademark
region
soft drink traffic warden
register
solid gold transport
rehearse
sore throat treatment
reliable
sour trim
remark
specially trophy
research
species tropics
reside
spectacular tutor
resident
spoil
respected
spokesperson
reveal

22?
Gramm arway 4 - Word List

U w
unique wander
unwilling weapon
utterly wear oneself out
well-kept
V well-off
will
vacuum
wire
valley
withdraw
valuable
workforce
value
workings
velvet
venue
verdict
viewer
vital
voting
voucher

224
Key lo the Exercises
UNIT 1: Tenses
2 is getting 7 has found b) 1 present perfect (2, 5, 7, 8)
3 have been 8 has been 2 present perfect continuous (6)
looking correcting 3 present continuous (3)
4 knows 9 is using 4 present continuous (9)
5 heat 10 gets 5 present continuous (4)
6 have just elected
1 smells
2 are you tasting, tastes
2 A 3 B 4 A 5 C 6 B 3 feel/am feeling
4 am seeing, see
5 does the bag of apples weigh, is weighing
Yes, I sometimes go fishing at weekends./ 6 am thinking, think
Yes, I go fishing at weekends sometimes. 7 are you looking, looks
3 Yes, I go once a week. 8 enjoy, am enjoying
4 I visit them every weekend. 9 are you feeling, feels
5 No, I rarely do. 10 is appearing, appears
6 I dont know. I have never eaten oysters. 11 is, is being
7 I go on holiday once a year. 12 is fitting, Does it fit
8 I usually read it on the way to work. 13 hurts/is hurting
9 Of course. You should always lock the
door when you go out.
2 have ... been, have been to
10 You are always breaking things!
8 3 have ... been
4 have ... been to, have been
2 g - present perfect 5 have gone to / Has ... gone
3 f - present continuous
4 a - present perfect 2 yet 6 for 10 recently
5 d - present continuous 3 just 7 never 11 still
6 j - present continuous 4 already 8 so far
7 h - present perfect 5 ever 9 since
8 c - present perfect continuous
9 b - present perfect
i - present continuous 2 is 9 have been
10
10 3 am writing working/have
4 have also typed worked
2 have been 9 have been living/
5 has been planting 10 have been
read ing, have have lived
6 has written practising
not/havent 10 is always doing
7 have just heard 11 go
finished 11 am going
8 does the play
3 are going 12 has been
start
4 am having teaching/has
5 have been taught
S2: Then, they looked around the shops.
6
washing
have broken
13 have already
bought 11 S3: Next, they walked on the beach.
7 add, mix 14 are always S4: After that, they ate lunch at a seaside
8 has been using meeting restaurant.
S5: Later, they visited the funfair.
S6: Finally, they had afternoon tea.
a) 2 has chosen 6 have been waiting
3 am packing 7 have finished B SA: What were Brian and Ruth doing at
4 am leaving 8 have borrowed 11:00 am?
5 has booked 9 am becoming SB: They were looking around the shops.

227
SA: What were Brian and Ruth doing at A 2 has played C 1 have just
11:45 am? 16 3 have met heard from
SB: They were walking on the beach. 4 was 2 wrote
SA: What were Brian and Ruth doing at 3 got
1:15 pm? B 1 has painted 4 did you first
SB: They were eating lunch at a seaside 2 painted meet
restaurant. 3 was 5 lived
SA: What were Brian and Ruth doing at 6 moved
2:30 pm? 7 havent seen
SB: They were visiting the funfair.
1 was reading 6 expected/was
SA: What were Brian and Ruth doing at
5:00 pm? 17 2 hoped/had expecting
hoped/was 7 went, Did you
SB: They were having afternoon tea.
hoping buy
3 reported 8 knew
A 2 were singing 8 began
4 had read 9 had studied
3 was driving 9 stopped
5 had just started
4 was smiling 10 tried
5 was looking 11 happened
A 2 were 7 felt
forward/ 12 sighed
18 queueing 8 reached
looked 13 got out
3 were waiting 9 went down/were
forward 14 pushed/was
4 had bought going down
6 enjoyed pushing
5 walked
7 was going/ 15 started
6 entered
went
B 1 hired 10 left
B 1 entered 10 took
2 drove 11 had already
2 closed 11 turned
3 arrived grown/was
3 was hanging 12 was leaning
4 was blowing already growing
up 13 gave
5 was 12 was walking
4 heard 14 laughed
6 got out 13 began
5 was running 15 started
7 took 14 didnt mind
6 walked 16 thought
8 decided 15 had had
7 turned 17 replied
9 had seen
8 froze 18 missed
9 was standing
1 i - past simple
19 2 g - past continuous
2 A 4 A 6 C 8 C 1C
3 j - past perfect
3 B 5 B 7 A 9 C 4 h - past perfect continuous
5 f - past continuous
2 A 5 B 8 B 11 6 d - past perfect continuous
3 C 6 A 9 A 12 7 a - past simple
4 B 7 C 10 B 8 e - past continuous
9 c - past simple
S3: She still hasnt got used to being away 10 b - past perfect
from her family and friends.
S4: She wasnt used to speaking Italian, but 2 had been 11 slipped
she is used to it now. 20 teaching 12 had already
S5: She wasnt used to using a new currency, 3 wanted bought
but she is used to it now. 4 had been walking 13 had broken
S6: She wasnt used to new customs, but she 5 had sold 14 stayed
is used to them now. 6 had won 15 sang
S7: She still hasnt got used to driving on the 7 was raining 16 opened
other side of the road. 8 opened 17 were standing
S8: She wasnt used to hot weather, but she is 9 had got 18 invented
used to it now. 10 used to work 19 was washing
2 A 5 A B 11 B A 2 will be able B 1 finish/have
3 C 6 C C 12 A to finished
27>
4 C 7 B B 13 B 3 will give 2 want
4 comes 3 get
a) 2 was shining 8 had just lifted/ 4 hear
3 was sitting was just lifting C 1 is D 1 will be
4 had been 9 had happened 2 will take 2 strikes
waiting 10 looked 3 will land 3 has forgotten
5 felt 11 had snapped 4 will call
6 stood up 12 packed 5 arrive
7 began 6 come

b) 1 past perfect continuous (4)


2 are you going to 9 is going to work
2 past simple (5, 10, 12)
28> wear 10 will give
3 past simple (6, 7)
3 am going to 11 will change
4 past continuous (1, 2, 3)
wash 12 will not/wont
5 past perfect (8, 9, 11)
4 will post arrive
5 will be 13 will make
(Suggested answers)
6 will make 14 am going to give
2 have left 8 happened 7 will probably 15 are going to
3 hurt 9 drove visit bang
4 had been waiting 10 had won 8 is going to swim
5 went 11 were walking
6 had been hurting 12 had been
7 failed playing A 2 leaves B 1 is going to
3 will be become
29>
2 didnt hear 9 thought meeting 2 will probably
3 were/are you 10 meant/was 4 will have work
planning meaning/had returned 3 will be revising
4 was thinking been meaning 4 will have been
5 (have) changed 11 had sold out studying
6 told 12 went 5 will pass
7 had bought 13 saw
8 bought 2 What shall I do with this shopping?
30> 3 Ive asked Jane to tidy her room, but she
2 did you make/have you made, was wont do it.
expecting 4 Will you open the door for me, please?
3 had been practising 5 Shall I walk the dog for you?
4 Have you ever been, went 6 Shall we go to the theatre tonight?
5 had been wearing 7 When shall I visit next?
6 have been living/have lived 8 Will you be quiet!
9 Ann wont talk to me.
2 will call 9 will have left
3 will be 10 will be studying 2 intend to go to 5 is bound to be
4 will be sleeping 11 will be flying 3 were due to 6 is about to
31>
5 will have been 12 will have left arrive 7 is sure to love
living/will have 13 will be 4 was going to
lived 14 will go look for
6 will have finished 15 is coming
7 am meeting 16 will be talking
8 close

229
1 i -
future simple 7 since Mary moved
32 2 f -
future perfect 8 had never met
3 c be going to
- 9 had left before we started
4 h -
future continuous 10 on the point of leaving
5 g- future perfect continuous 11 have not spoken to Paul
6 d - future simple 12 ago did they announce
7 b - future continuous 13 last played squash
8 e - future continuous 14 was about to close
9 j - be going to 15 never met such a kind
10 a - future simple 16 havent finished discussing
17 has been studying medicine for
2 leaves 5 will be beginning 18 before he took
33 3 stops off 6 is going to stay
4 is going to be/ 7 is flying 2 had 6 is going to look
will be 8 will have visited 38 3 asked 7 will have begun
4 was able 8 hopes
B 1 present simple (2, 3) 5 has already 9 is interviewing
2 future perfect (8) found
3 be going to (6)
4 present continuous (1, 7)
Ive been playing chess since I was eight
5 future continuous (5)
3 9 * years old.
6 be going to (4)
I ate at that restaurant three times last
week.
2 am meeting They still havent delivered my television.
34 3 have We havent read his letter yet.
4 will/am going to buy I met that man a week ago.
5 will also/am also going to redecorate We moved to Glasgow a year ago.
6 will have finished Mike and Kelly got married last week.
7 will be flying/am flying They had met each other four years
8 will have returned before.
9 will/am going to throw 8 Ill make the dinner when I get home.
10 will come 9 Take some food in case you get hungry.
11 will say 10 The house will have been built by the end
12 will send of May.
11 Peter is still at school.
2 will love 9 will have 12 When was the last time you saw Tony?
35 3 arrive 10 opens 13 I have seen this film before.
4 will be greeted 11 closes 14 She hasnt been to a party since she
5 will show 12 are returned from her holiday.
6 are 13 supervise
7 will be able to 14 will never forget 2 C 5 A 8 B 11 C
8 will find 40 3 B 6 B 9 C 12 C
4 C 7 A 10 A
2 B 7 C 12 A 17 A 22 B
36 3 C 8 C 13 C 18 B
P re p o s itio n s
4 C 9 A 14 C 19 A
5 C 10 B 15 C 20 C 2 of 5 of 8 for 11 to
6 A 11 B 16 B 21 A 3 in 6 to 9 at 12 for
41>
4 of 7 at 10 in
2 have had this coat for
37 3 still havent finished writing
4 funniest film weve ever
5 time hes ever played
6 last time John/he played

250
Phrasal Verbs S7: 100 years ago, people lived/used to live
in villages or towns.
2 into 9 Off 16 after S8: Today, many people live in big cities.
3 after 10 up 17 in for S9: 100 years ago, people did/used to do
4 down 11 down 18 off their shopping in small local shops.
5 against 12 over 19 up S10: Today, we usually do our shopping in
6 up 13 out 20 on supermarkets.
7 up 14 up 21 in
8 out of 15 down Writing A ctivity
(Suggested answer)
O ra l A ctivity
... people will probably travel by shuttle bus
S3: 100 years ago, people travelled/used to or may even use electric cars. Computers and
travel by steam trains. virtual reality will provide us with
S4: Today, we travel by car, hydrofoil or entertainment. Moreover, space colonies and
plane. underwater cities will probably be built and
S5: 100 years ago, people read/used to read many people will live in them. Finally, people
books or went/used to go to the theatre. will do all their shopping via the Internet. ...
S6: Today, we watch TV, listen to the radio
or go to the cinema.

UNIT 2: Infinitive/The -ing form/


Too-Enough/Participles
2 SA: Has he hurt his finger? 2 working 10 bring
SB: Yes. He seems to have hurt his finger. 3 asking 11 helping
3 >
3 SA: Has he been sleeping? 4 breaking/having 12 to talk
SB: Yes. He seems to have been sleeping. broken 13 wearing
4 SA: Is he building a house? 5 feed 14 to leave
SB: Yes. He seems to be building a house. 6 run 15 driving
5 SA: Have they been running? 7 to help 16 to look for
SB: Yes. They seem to have been running. 8 to answer 17 getting
6 SA: Is she painting a picture? 9 to stay 18 to read
SB: Yes. She seems to be painting a
picture. A 2 to write B 1 to go
3 to work 2 to drink
1 to go 6
to visit, to see 4 meet 3 to sleep
2 cleaning, to 7
worrying 4 to call
employ 8
tell, invite 5 to wait
3 to have been 9
stealing/having C 1 to get D 1 shopping
sleeping stolen 2 to choose 2 being
4 driving 10 to find 3 buying 3 go
5 to have travelled, 4 reading 4 visiting
to have been 5 (to) pick

1 to go 3 to travel
2 to save 4 visiting

271
2 ... her to tidy her clothes away. 2 too small 6 too hot
3 ... Mary/Marys/her doing the washing-up. 13 3 too difficult 7 too tired
4 ... you to come to my party./it if you came to 4 loud enough 8 sweet enough
my party. 5 tall enough
5 ... Mark/Marks/him/his falling into the
swimming pool on his wedding day. 2 cool enough (for me) to eat
6 ... you to finish this project today. 14 3 tall enough to reach
7 ... my secretary to attend the meeting. 4 old enough to attend
5 too cold (for you) to go
2 ... for Barry to go to the bank today. 6 too boring (for us) to watch
3 ... for them to finish their homework. 7 quiet enough (for me) to work
4 ... for someone to take my order. 8 too heavy (for me) to carry
5 ... for you to move to the town centre.
6 ... for John to learn a foreign language. 2 enough money to go on holiday
7 ... for guests to do their shopping. 15 > 3 too hot for me to drink
8 ... for everyone to hear (him). 4 too young to go to school
9 ... for you to read. 5 enough space to have a party
10 ... for children to play with matches. 6 rich enough to buy a yacht
7 too hot outside (for you) to wear a coat
(Suggested answers) 8 mature enough to make her own
2 to exercise/work out in decisions
3 to play in 9 too small for us to live in any more
4 to eat/have lunch in 10 enough patience to look after the children
5 to put their rubbish in
6 to put their luggage/baggage/bags in 2 annoying 6 exciting
7 to hang their coats in 16 > 3 interested 7 impressed
4 disgusting 8 amazing
2 to go 5 to see 8 throw 5 encouraging
3 put 6 to be
4 place 7 Breaking
2 He was sitting in the garden drinking his
tea.
2 feeding 5 put 8 playing 17>
3 Having made dinner, Janet called the
3 perform 6 do 9 get on
children
V 1III VJ1v II-
4 leaving 7 holding
4 The boy standing by the door is my
brother.
2 C 5 A 8 B 5 Simon cut his hand while chopping some
3 C 6 C 9 B wood.
4 B 7 A 10 B 6 Having had a shower, Donna went to
bed./Donna had a shower before going to
2 eating/having 4 living bed.
eaten 5 to finish/to have 7 Being late, we took a taxi.
3 scratching/ finished 8 Opening the window, Gary breathed the
having scratched 6 touching fresh air.
9 She was lying on her bed reading a book.
2 to introduce 12 to go 10 The jewels taken by the thieves were very
3 to interrupt 13 to post valuable.
4 working 14 reading 11 Picking up her pen, Amy started to write
5 to finish 15 forgetting the letter.
6 eating 16 to say 12 The man walking towards us is a relative
7 arguing 17 to climb of mine.
8 to inform 18 losing 13 Having explained the exercise, the
9 to lock 19 watching teacher asked the students to do it.
10 meeting 20 to buy 14 Having forgotten to take her purse, she had
11 skiing to borrow some money from a colleague.
2 to fasten 7 talking Prepositions
3 to be 8 to relax
4 to sit 9 to see 2 on 4 of 6 on 8 with
5 reading 10 being 23 3 with 5 on 7 to
6 check

P h ra s a l V erbs
(Suggested answers)

2 to take 10 write/type 2 up 8 out 13 for


3 come 11 to buy 24 3 about/on 9 round 14 out
4 inviting 12 study 4 out 10 for 15 out
5 going 13 hurry/run 5 out 11 away 16 up
6 to bring/take 14 playing 6 back 12 about/ 17 off
7 to hear 15 to stay 7 forward on 18 round
8 leave 16 to find/see
9 saying 2 B 5 A 8 C 11 B
25 3 B 6 A 9 C 12 A
2 too expensive for him 4 C 7 B 10 A 13 C
3 learning about other cultures is
4 was allowed to go out
2 are you tasting 11 Do you recognise
5 was heard to quarrel
26 3 has gone 12 am going
6 found Tinas behaviour annoying
4 has been 13 dont like
7 sharp enough for me
studying 14 was planting
8 were made to help
5 is being 15 was/used to be,
9 difficult for her to read
6 have been had/used to have
10 allow people/staff to make
playing 16 have been trying
11 is too shallow for you
7 broke down, spilt 17 is always
8 had been forgetting
1 You had better stay in bed today.
working 18 had been
2 Mum has stopped drinking fizzy drinks.
9 has taken practising
She is on a diet.
10 are moving
3 This bag is too expensive for me to buy.
4 Smoking is dangerous for your health.
O ra l A ctivity
5 Would you mind opening the window?
6 Id love to eat a pizza tonight. She went on to perform in many opera
7 I stopped at the bakery to buy some bread. houses in America and Europe.
8 They made me pay for the broken People enjoyed hearing her sing.
window. She could sing in French, German and
9 I heard the Taylors arguing. Italian.
10 Id better ask someone for help. She was well-known for singing difficult
11 I forgot to call you last night. Im sorry. roles.
12 He left the shop without paying for the She was famous for having a bad temper.
shirt. She was used to appearing at famous
13 You shouldnt be rude to your parents. venues.
14 He is old enough to drive a car. She managed to earn a reputation as an
excellent singer and actress.
1 for 6 to 11 to She spent some time teaching opera at
2 so 7 it 12 being Juilliard.
3 for 8 about 13 would She decided to give a final world concert
4 to 9 them 14 to tour in 1972-73.
5 that 10 to She retired after performing/having
performed forty different roles.
She is considered to be one of the greatest
opera singers of the 20th century.
W riting A ctivity
(Suggested answer)
... went on to perform in many opera managed to earn a reputation as an excellent
houses in Am erica and Europe. People singer and actress. She spent some time
enjoyed hearing her sing and she could sing in teaching opera at Juilliard. She decided to
French, German and Italian. She was well- give a final world concert tour in 1972-73. She
known for singing difficult roles, and she was retired after performing forty different roles.
also famous for having a bad temper. She was She is considered to be one of the greatest
used to appearing at famous venues and she opera singers of the 20th century.

UNIT 3: Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

2 a (| m a lT%(h c ie rift^to cottage 2 loudly 6 cheerfully


3 acg u g ^(^ig [isR >$oode^)ward ro be. 3 nervously 7 happily
4 an amazing(oi3)C h in e s ^story 4 completely 8 nearly
5 Suddenly
5 an leyygxmericaj;
6 a pair of @ )(^ ir^ ia d in 5 >glasses
2 hardly 7 prettily 12 deep
7 a lovelv^ jd ^fashione^xS^oode^ table
3 mostly 8 free 13 near
8 a<^Fnt)Q7TsBxtTner1>tablecloth 4 freely 9 nearly 14 deeply
9 a delicious(larg^< Bocola!S>cake 5 high 10 lately 15 hard
10 an ugly <ffiang^ge1vet)sofa 6 late 11 highly 16 most

2 hopefully 8 nearly
2 large round 5 square green
8 3 Suddenly 9 loud
antique woollen
4 gently 10 slowly
3 beautiful tall silver 6 fabulous English
5 softly 11 brightly
4 soft thick cotton oak
6 miserably 12 immediately
7 pretty 13 warmly
2 the elderly 7 The poor people
3 the injured people 8 the sick
He enjoyed designing brightly-coloured
4 The old people 9 The strong
clothes.
5 the disabled people
He worked very hard throughout his
6 The young people 10 The rich
career.
By 1982, he was incredibly famous and
2 A well-written 5 A hard-working had won the first of many awards.
story student His clothes were extremely popular with
3 A twelve-storey 6 A well-lit office famous musicians, such as Elton John
building 7 A two-week and George Michael.
4 A fast-moving holiday He was frequently asked to design
train 8 A ten-page report costumes for ballets, shows and concerts.
He was greatly respected by other
fashion designers.
2 silky 4 woolleni 6 gold
Sadly, Versace died in 1997, at the age of
3 golden 5 stone 7 silk
fifty.

254
Joanne has been writing letters to her 2 the tallest 8 the most
friends all day. 3 later than intelligent
12>
He has been working in his office all day. 4 more expensive 9 bigger than
He has been working all day in his office. than 10 the cheapest
We placed the box carefully on the table. 5 warmer than 11 more difficult
We carefully placed the box on the table. 6 the best than
Carefully, we placed the box on the table. 7 further 12 any better
They bought some fruit at the market
yesterday. 2 better 6 closer
Yesterday, they bought some fruit at the 3 louder/more 7 more attractive
i3 >
market. loudly 8 the most
They bought some fruit yesterday at the 4 the tallest expensive
market. 5 more modern
He walked quietly out of the room during
the film. 2 more beautiful 7 higher
He walked out of the room quietly during than 8 the smallest
i4 >
the film. 3 the prettiest 9 the cheapest
During the film he quietly walked out of 4 the most 10 eldest
the room. expensive 11 the loveliest
During the film he walked out of the room 5 nicer than 12 easier
quietly. 6 better
He quietly walked out of the room during
the film. (Suggested answers)
Quietly, he walked out of the room during i 5 > 2 Prague ... the n ic e s t...
the film. 3 Honey is sweeter than
The party was utterly amazing. 4 ... swim well, ... ski ... b e tte r...
We were completely lost. 5 ... Physics is the most d iffic u lt...
Jenny has been reading her magazine all 6 Diamonds are more valuable than ...
morning in the garden. 7 Fruit is the healthiest...
Jenny has been reading her magazine in 8 Modern typewriters are more efficient
the garden all morning. than ...
10 They knew then they had lost the match. 9 Laura is the most intelligen t...
Then they knew they had lost the match. 10 Gold jewellery is more expensive than ...
They knew they had lost the match then.
11 They have been talking in the hall for 3 harder and harder
hours. 16 4 The c o ld e r... the more
They have been talking for hours in the hall. 5 faster and faster
12 She changed her clothes quickly. 6 The h ig h e r... the louder/the more loudly
She quickly changed her clothes. 7 cheaper and cheaper
8 The yo u n g e r... the easier
Quickly, she changed her clothes.
9 More and more
13 I was feeling extremely tired.
10 The o ld e r... the taller
14 He is doing his homework quietly in his
bedroom.
He is quietly doing his homework in his (Suggested answers)
bedroom. 17 Golf is the least artistic of all.
15 We watched a film last night at the cinema. Golf is the easiest to learn.
We watched a film at the cinema last night. Carpentry isnt as/so easy to learn as golf.
Last night, we watched a film at the cinema. Painting is the least easy to learn of all.
Carpentry is the most tiring of all.
Golf isnt as/so tiring as carpentry.
2 rather 6 quite 10 quite Painting is the least tiring of all.
3 rather 7 rather 11 rather Golf is the most expensive of all.
4 rather 8 fairly 12 rather Carpentry isnt as/so expensive as golf.
5 quite 9 fairly Painting is the least expensive of all.
Painting is the cheapest of all. Prepositions
Carpentry isnt as/so cheap as painting.
2 for 10 to 18 in
Golf is the least cheap of all. 3 from 11 in 19 with
23
Painting is the most relaxing of all. 4 from 12 about 20 of
Golf is not as/so relaxing as painting. 5 in 13 of 21 with
Carpentry is the least relaxing of all. 6 of 14 between 22 in
7 in 15 from 23 for
2 like 5 as 8 like 11 like 8 on 16 on 24 to
3 as 6 like 9 like 9 with 17 on 25 about
4 as 7 as 10 as
2 was less expensive than
24 3 the more nervous
1 Im three inches shorter than you. 4 as many sweets as
2 Steve is older than me/l am. 5 is not as/so smart as
3 The little boy sang like a bird. 6 the most
4 Paul is not as handsome as Tom. 7 the better grades
5 She is quite a pretty girl. 8 the most independent young woman
6 Sally is the tallest girl in our class. 9 as many CDs as
7 Let me know if you need any further help. 10 plays tennis better than/is better at tennis
8 Tracey studies hard. than
9 My best friend is two years older than me.
10 The church is the oldest building in the 2 C 5 C 8 A 11 A
village. 25 3 A 6 A 9 B 12 C
11 She did her homework more carefully 4 B 7 A 10 C 13 C
than usual.
12 His flat is as big as mine.
13 Her new car is rather faster than her old Dear Sir/Madam,
26
one. I am writing to you to apply for the position of
14 This cake is quite sweet. science teacher which was advertised in the
15 The green dress is twice as cheap as the Evening Argus newspaper last Friday.
black one. I graduated from university five years ago and
16 I feel very ill today. 1have been teaching/have taught science at
17 She laughed happily. Baker Comprehensive School since then. I have
also been organising extra activities for children
after school for the last three years.
1 more 7 than 13 even
I enjoy teaching and I am very patient with
2 the 8 most 14 as
young children. I have attended several seminars
3 not 9 as 15 a on the subject of teaching science to primary
4 very 10 the 16 much school children.
5 so 11 to 17 by I have asked my current employer for time off
6 more 12 like 18 the to attend interviews, so I will be free to visit your
school if you wish to meet me.
2 in 5 quite 8 most I hope to hear from you soon.
3 most 6 than 9 more
Yours faithfully,
4 many 7 as 10 hardly
Gary Taylor

P h ra s a l V erbs
2 too slow to win
2 across 9 down 16 out 3 would rather read disturbed by
2 7J* *
3 round/ with 17 off than/prefers to 8 difficult for her to
over 10 out 18 up read rather than make
4 into 11 down (on) 19 into 4 kind enough to 9 was made to
5 off 12 on/along 20 round open work late
6 out 13 off 21 up 5 too angry to 10 was heard to
7 along 14 round against 6 took him weeks argue
8 up with 15 by to write
O ra l A ctivity Writing A ctivity
(Suggested answers) (Suggested answer)
Mrs Thompson speaks French more fluently ... Mrs Thompson also speaks French more
than Mr Spencer. fluently than Mr Spencer, but Miss Houston
Miss Houston speaks French the most fluently speaks French the most fluently of all. Mrs
of all. Thom pson is more experienced than Mr
Mrs Thompson is more experienced than Mr Spencer, but Miss Houston is the most
Spencer. experienced of all. Mr Spencer is more reliable
Miss Houston is the most experienced of all. than Mrs Thompson but, again, Miss Houston
Mr Spencer is more reliable than Mrs Thompson. is the most reliable of all. She is also more
Miss Houston is the most reliable of all. friendly than Mr Spencer, although Mrs
Miss Houston is more friendly than Mr Spencer. Thompson is the friendliest of all. Miss Houston
Mrs Thompson is the friendliest of all. can type faster than Mr Spencer and Mrs
Miss Houston can type faster than Mr Spencer. Thompson can type the fastest of all. ...
Mrs Thompson can type the fastest of all.

Revision 1 (Units 1 - 3 )
2 C 10 A 18 A 26 A 34 C 2 to look 7 to lend
3 A 11 C 19 C 27 B 35 C 3 > 3 watching 8 to go
4 B 12 B 20 B 28 A 36 C 4 living 9 taking
5 B 13 A 21 C 29 A 37 B 5 to have repaired 10 spend
c 14 B 22 C 30 B 38 A 6 eat
A 15 C 23 B 31 C 39 B
8 B 16 C 24 C 32 B 40 C 2 ... clever enough to go to university.
9 C 17 B 25 B 33 A 3 ... too tired to watch the late film.
4 ... enough money to go on holiday.
5 ... enough sugar to make a cake.
2 wash
6 ... too salty for me to eat.
3 have been working
7 ... too special for me to sell.
4 will be studying/is studying
8 ... pretty enough to be a model.
5 am writing
9 ... enough time to go to the cinema.
6 are going to buy/will buy
10 ... too ill to go to work.
7 will be
11 ... warm enough for us to go for a picnic.
8 will be sailing
12 ... too full to eat any more.
9 closes
10 had been painting
2 high 7 near 12 late
11 were you doing, was watering
3 nearly 8 most 13 pretty
12 posted
4 mostly 9 hardly 14 deeply
13 have eaten
5 hard 10 prettily 15 freely
14 had hurt
6 highly 11 free
15 will have had
16 have been playing faster than
2 the best 8
17 will have been working/will have worked further
3 longer than 9
18 will have delivered cheaper
4 the most 10
19 had been practising 11 the shortest
expensive
20 had done 12
5 warmer more quiet/
6 the friendliest quieter
7 the biggest

257
2 Feeling hungry, Julie bought a 2 was less difficult than
sandwich. 10 3 is not as tall as
3 Having sold her flat, she moved into a 4 still havent finished
house. 5 the more tired
4 He fell asleep watching TV. 6 watching too much TV
5 Seeing the rain clouds, Paul started to 7 has lived/has been living here since
8 you mind helping
hurry.
9 difficult for him to express
6 She was standing at the window, looking
10 was heard shouting
at the garden.
11 as many videos as
7 Having finished the job, we went home. 12 found the silver earrings charming
13 is not warm enough
2 about 7 about 12 of 14 the first time
8 3 for 8 to 13 with 15 was made to stay
4 about 9 of 14 of 16 last time we went
5 for 10 with 15 at 17 were about to go out
6 with 11 on 18 had never driven
19 travelling to other countries
20 allow employees to wear jeans
2 out 6 up 11 on
3 down 7 up 12 on
4 up 8 for 13 on 2 for 5 to 8 the 11 to
5 down 9 off 14 into 3 to 6 more 9 not 12 to
11>
with 10 off 15 off 4 it 7 the 10 it

UNIT 4: Nouns - Articles - Word Formation


2 slice/piece/kilo of 8 packet/bowl of 2 chocolate 12 room
3 slice/loaf/piece of 9 jar of 3 a paper 13 room
4 cup/pot/jar of 10 piece/slice/kilo of 4 papers 14 hair
5 glass/jug/bottle of 11 bowl/packet of 5 paper 15 a hair
6 glass/bottle/jug of 12 packet/kilo of 6 time 16 a glass
7 bar/piece of 7 times 17 glasses
8 experience 18 glass
9 experiences 19 an iron
2 a. some 6 a. a 10 a. some
10 woods 20 iron
b. a b. some b. a
11 wood
3 a. a 7 a. a 11 a. an
b. some b. some b. some
4 a. some 8 a. an 12 a. a 2 very little, too 7 a little, a small
b. an b. some b. some much amount of
5 a. a 9 a. some 3 few, several 8 several, a few
b. some b. a 4 many, a few 9 few, several
5 a couple of, many 10 many, a great
6 A large quantity number of
of, Too much

258
2 a computer 7 mother-in-law A 2 the B 1 The
screen 8 a rocking chair 12 3 the 2 the
3 orange juice 9 a hair brush 4 3 the
4 a walking stick 10 a passer-by 5 the 4
5 a shower curtain 11 (your) house 6 The 5 the
6 a window cleaner keys 7 the 6 the
8 the 7 the
9 8 the
2 is 5 is 8 was 11 is
3 is 6 were 9 was 12 is 10 the
4 were 7 are 10 are C 1 D 1 the
2 2
2 they gave us was interesting 3 3 the
3 is her favourite subject/is the subject she 4 - 4 the
likes most 5 a 5 a
4 we had this winter was mild 6 the 6 the
5 were called immediately 7 the 7 The
6 I told them was exciting 8 an 8 a
7 traffic was bad 9 an
8 I stayed in was very luxurious E 1 The F 1
9 was taken out of the car by the driver 2 2 a
10 was very sensible 3 a/the 3 -
11 is too big for me 4 the 4 a
12 are magnificent 5 an 5 a
13 is long and blonde 6 the 6
7
1 one 6 One 11 one 8 the
2 one 7 a, one 12 a
3 a, an 8 One, a 13 a 1 a 7 _,a
4 ones 9 a, one 14 A 2 , 8 ani,
5 a/one 10 an 15 an, one 13>
3 An, a, the 9 The, th<
4 , the 10 The, th(
2 sea 7 hospital 5 a, a 11 , the
3 bed 8 the hospital 6 an, 12 a, a
4 the bed 9 the school
5 the prison 10 school 1 history
6 prison 2 The panda, China, Pandas, bamboo
14> 3 a wildlife park, an interesting experience
2 the cats 11 people 4 a new car, lead-free petrol
3 coffee, tea 12 The villages 5 a hotel, the sea, The room, the view
4 the cake, the 13 Breakfast, the 6 the last, the party, a taxi
coffee day 7 ghosts, the supernatural, a product,
5 Life 14 the only peoples
6 The life 15 the Stone Age 8 The clothes, a sale, the department stores,
7 swimming 16 Spain the city centre
8 Children 17 train
9 The children 18 the flute
1 a 4 the, an, the
10 the people
1 5 ^ 2 a, the, a 5 an, the
3 the, the, the 6 a, - , a, The
1 a I a, The, 9 -,th e
2 - , the The 10 The, The
3 the, the, 6 - 11 a, the, - 2 ex 5 anti 8 de
the 7 a 12 the, the 3 inter 6 semi 9 over
16>
4 a, the 8 a, the 4 under 7 pre 10 re
2 il 5 ir 8 in Prepositions
3 dis 6 no 9 dis
4 im 7 il 10 ir 2 about 9 to 16 of
22> 3 from 10 in 17 about
A 2 helpful B 1 organisation 4 with 11 in 18 to
3 assistance 2 excitement 5 of 12 to 19 for
4 clumsiness 3 colourful 6 for 13 to 20 to
5 frustration 4 explosion 7 for 14 to 21 of
5 expression 8 at 15 with 22 for
6 happiness

2 A 7 B 12 B 17 A
C 1 extension 4 impressive
3 B 8 B 13 B 18 B
2 builders 5 useful 23>
4 A 9 B 14 C 19 A
3 construction
5 A 10 C 15 C 20 B
6 B 11 A 16 A
1 We lost our luggage at the airport.
2 We went to Bath by car.
O ra l A ctivity
3 The police are searching for the stolen
painting. (Suggested answers)
4 Twenty kilometres is too far to travel to
She went to the hairdressers to get a new
school.
haircut.
5 A very reliable means of transport is the
train. She arrived at the stadium and sat in the
6 The criminal was sentenced to ten years in front row.
prison. She danced to wonderful music during
7 Two hovercraft almost collided at sea the performance.
yesterday. She was invited on the stage to meet the
8 I have three sisters-in-law. band.
9 Most people enjoy listening to music.
She sang a song with the lead singer.
10 The news is on TV at six oclock every
evening. She went for a meal in an expensive
restaurant.

1 the 4 an 7 the She was driven home in a black


2 the 5 the 8 the limousine.
3 the 6 car 9 The

Writing A ctivity
P h ra s a l V erbs
(Suggested answer)
2 with 12 up ... to the hairdressers to get a new haircut.
3 out 13 without I arrived at the stadium and sat in the front row.
4 up 14 up I danced to wonderful music during the
5 behind 15 apart
performance. Then, I was invited on the stage
6 away with 16 up
to meet the band, where I sang a song with the
7 up 17 behind
lead singer. Afterwards, I went for a meal in an
8 for 18 up
9 in 19 back on expensive restaurant, and finally I was driven
10 away with 20 in with home in a black limousine.
11 for
UNIT 5: Modal Verbs
2 could/couldnt 7 c o u ld n t/w a s n t ... may/might/could have been delayed in
3 was able to able to traffic.
4 can 8 cant ... may/might/could have gone to the
5 cant 9 could cinema.
6 was able to 10 can 6 ... may/might/could be asleep already.
7 ... may/might not have been promoted.
8 ... may/might/could have called while we
2 mustnt 5 mustnt
were out.
3 neednt/dont 6 must
9 ... may/might go shopping this afternoon.
have to 7 must
10 ... m ay/might/could be outside in the
4 neednt/dont 8 neednt/dont
garden.
have to have to
11 ... m ay/m ight not have received our
message.
2 d id n t need to 6 neednt have 12 ... may/might/could be visiting a friend.
hurry bought
3 neednt have 7 neednt have
2 can 7 cant
gone packed
3 mustnt/cant 8 must
4 didnt need to ask 8 didnt need to
4 must/have to 9 neednt
5 didnt need to buy pack
5 can 10 have to
6 neednt
A No, they cant be tired.
Yes, they must know each other. 2 could/were 5 were allowed
B Yes, they must go fishing often. allowed to 6 could/was
No, it cant be winter. 8>
3 was allowed to allowed to
No, they cant be bored. 4 could/were
C Yes, they must have walked up the allowed to
mountain.
Yes, they must enjoy walking. 2 was allowed to 5 Might
No, the weather cant be very hot. 3 Can 6 may
D Yes, she must have been interviewing the 9>
4 May I 7 Am I allowed
man.
Yes, she must be a reporter. 2 Shall 5 Will 8 Shall
No, they cant be in an office. 3 Will 6 shall 9 Will
4 shall 7 Will 10 Shall
2 ... cant know the secret.
3 ... cant have got a new car. 2 shouldnt/ought not to have bought
4 ... must have paid the phone bill. 3 shouldnt/ought not to eat
5 ... cant live here. 11>
4 shouldnt/ought not to have lifted
6 must have left the party early, 5 should/ought to drive/have driven/have
7 cant have called me. been driving
8 must have sent you a birthday card, 6 should/ought to be
9 must have been keeping secrets from 7 should/ought to have done
me. 8 shouldnt/ought not to have borrowed
10 .. must be looking for a new job.
11 .. cant have gone to the supermarket. 2 didnt need to 8 was able to
12 .. must be working at the library. 3 should 9 neednt
i2 >
4 May 10 May
5 could 11 shall, can
2 ... may/might be home soon.
6 cant 12 could
3 ... may/might not stay in a hotel.
7 Could

241
2 k 5 I 8 b 11 i 8 May/Might/Could/Can I take this chair?
1 3 * 3 j 6 a 9 d 12 g 9 You neednt/dont have to feed the dog.
4 e 7 h 10 c Ive already done it.
10 You should have locked the doors when
2 David cant be going to the party tonight. you went out.
1 4 * 3 The guests should arrive at 8 o clock. 11 You must take legal action.
4 Toby didnt have/need to go to school 12 We should/ought to obey the law.
today.
5 You should/ought to book a table in 2 A 4 B 6 A 8 B 10
advance. 3 B 5 A 7 B 9 A
6 They have to/must wear helmets at work.
*1 *
7 You must wait here until the manager
arrives. 2 cant/mustnt/ 7 may/might
8 Steve was able to repair the bike after 18, may not 8 must
trying for two hours. 3 Shall 9 must/have to
9 We may/might go to Italy for a holiday 4 May/Could/Can/ 10 cant/couldnt
next summer./lt is likely that we will go to Might 11 cant
Italy for a holiday next summer. 5 should/ought to 12 Shall
10 We have to wear a uniform for school. 6 mustnt/cant
11 You mustnt run in the corridors.
12 Lets invite some friends over to dinner./ 2 Tony may/might/could have gone to work
Shall we invite some friends over to 1 9 * early.
dinner?/We can/could invite some friends 3 Policemen have to wear a uniform while
over to dinner. on duty.
13 You neednt/d o n t have to buy me a 4 Simon was able to climb the mountain,
present. although it was steep.
14 Can/May/Could/Might I use your 5 You m ustnt/ca n t/are not allowed to
telephone? sound the alarm for no reason.
15 Shall I clean the windows for you? 6 Shall we watch a video this evening?/We
16 Lets go for a walk this afternoon./Shall we can/could watch a video this evening.
go for a walk this afternoon?/We can/ 7 Martin must have heard me calling him.
could go for a walk this afternoon. 8 Paul cant be an engineer.

2 They m ay/m ight/could be trying to


A 4 C 6 A 8 B 10
15> escape. B 5 A 7 C 9 B
3 They must be in the countryside. 20*
4 It cant be a cloudy day.
5 It may/might/could be their own boat. A 5 A 8 C 11 A 14
6 They may/might/could be going to a hiding 21 C 6 C 9 B 12 A 15
place. B 7 A 10 C 13 A
7 The police may/might/could be chasing
them. 2 There must have been two thieves.
22 > 3 They must have got in through
2 Will/Could you hold this bag for me, window.
16J I please? 4 They must have had a getaway car.
3 We could go for a picnic this weekend. 5 They must have been looking for
Shall we go for a picnic this weekend? something.
4 John didnt have/need to go to work They cant have wanted money.
because it was Sunday.
5 We were able to do the puzzle, although it 2 can have lunch
was difficult. 23 3 dont have to work
6 You must/have to report to the manager 4 should open
as soon as you reach Manchester. 5 may have forgotten
7 You mustnt/cant enter this area. 6 neednt have bought

242
7 could be at 11 away from 16 away with 21 away
8 should have your 12 to 17 through to 22 at
9 cant have meant 13 through 18 away with 23 through
10 neednt have helped 14 over 19 round
11 mustnt take your bag 15 on 20 over
12 must have understood
13 may have taken
14 are not allowed to run Prepositions
15 Jane be leaving school
16 likely that we will have 2 in 8 in 14 to 20 in
17 ought to start studying 30 3 for 9 at 15 on 21 on
4 after 10 in 16 with 22 about
5 at 11 of 17 on
2 neednt 6 Can 9 shouldnl
6 for 12 of 18 to
3 Could 7 May 10 ought
7 on 13 for 19 of
4 neednt 8 Shall, 11 have to
5 Shall Could 12 should
2 have already put 6 will arrive
31 3 will be/are 7 will take
2 co- 5 inter- 8 un- 4 will probably 8 went
3 bi- 6 over- 9 re- borrow 9 bought
4 de- 7 re- 10 un- 5 have arranged 10 will go/goes

2 impressive 10 collection
2 am meeting 6 was cutting
3 communication 11 attractions
32 3 has been baking, 7 made
4 expressive 12 sensitive
has made 8 lost/had lost
5 inventor 13 appreciation
4 has been feeling/ 9 starts
6 protective 14 active
has felt 10 are coming
7 explosion 15 explosive
5 Have you ever 11 will be skiing
8 possession 16 expression
been, went
9 extensive

2 A 4 B 6 A 8 C 10 B
Could you help me lift this box? Of course
33 3 B 5 A 7 B 9 A
I can.
I was allowed to go to Emmas party last
Saturday. 2 to join 5 stealing 9 to go
Need I book a table in advance? 3 going, to 6 speaking 10 to find
Can/Might/Could these flowers be from 34>
go 7 eating
your fiance? 4 to sew 8 cleaning
Although she was exhausted, she was able
to finish the race. 2 hasnt been to
You should brush your teeth twice a day. 35 3 the funniest joke
I had to have my car repaired last month. 4 is it since you took
The bus may/might/could be late today 5 still hasnt tidied
because there is a lot of traffic. 6 denied taking/having taken/that he had
taken
1 to 4 will 7 to 10 has 7 as energetic as
2 been 5 that 8 if 8 finds literature interesting
3 to 6 we 9 been 9 dances as gracefully as
10 was made to reveal

P h ra s a l V erbs

2 down to 5 round to 8 through


3 across 6 by 9 on with
4 off 7 at 10 off with
A ctivity C 1 SA: Is he at school?
SB: He cant be at school. He must be
(Suggested answers) at home.
A 2 SA: Is he a businessman? 2 SA: Is he enjoying himself?
SB: He may/might/could be a SB: He must be enjoying himself.
businessman. 3 SA: Is he jumping up and down?
3 SA: Does he want someone to help SB: He must be jumping up and
him? down.
SB: He may/might/could want someone 4 SA: Will he be told off by his parents?
to help him. SB: He may/might/could be told off by
4 SA: Is he worried about something? his parents.
SB: He must be worried about
D 1 SA: Has she been sleeping?
something.
SB: She must have been sleeping.
B 1 SA: Have they jumped out of a plane? 2 SA: Is it late at night?
SB: They must have jumped out of a SB: It may/might/could/must be late at
plane. night.
2 SA: Are they frightened? 3 SA: Has the phone call woken her up?
SB: They cant be frightened. They SB: The phone call must have woken
must be excited. her up.
3 SA: Do they enjoy doing this? 4 SA: Is it an emergency?
SB: They must enjoy doing this. SB: It may/might/could be an
4 SA: Will they land safely? emergency.
SB: They may/might/could land safely.

UNIT 6: The Passive - Have Something Done


2 The tables are wiped. 5 An/The escaped prisoner has still not been
3 The cutlery is polished. caught.
4 The places are set. 6 A family were rescued from a burning
5 The menu is checked. house last night.
6 The food is prepared.
7 The ovens are heated. 2 has been held is opened
9
8 The flowers are arranged in vases. 3 is attended 10 are given
9 The salt and pepper pots are filled. 4 is watched 11 are separated
10 The candles are lit. 5 will be presented 12 are made
6 is desired 13 are known
must be handed 6 is going to be 7 is conducted 14 are considered
in made 8 are not revealed 15 be given
hadnt been 7 will be finished/
delivered will have been 3 It cannot be changed.
is being repaired finished 4 She was woken up by her mother at
have not been 8 are watered seven o clock.
announced The waiter was asked by Sue to bring
some water.
Money is being raised for a childs 6 It cannot be changed.
operation in America. 7 It cannot be changed.
A decision was made about new exams 8 The boxes were moved out of the way by
yesterday. Michael.
A shopping centre is to be opened/will be 9 It cannot be changed.
opened by the mayor tomorrow. 10 The dog is walked by the boys every day.

244
with 4 by 6 with 8 with 2 was arrested 7 is believed
by 5 with 7 by 3 is being 8 have been
questioned carried out
4 is thought 9 has been
The windows are being cleaned. 5 have committed discovered
He was tapped on the hand with her pen. 6 has been found 10 have left
I dont like being laughed at.
A lot of money is spent on food.
Is the car being washed by Sue? \ Yesterday afternoon, a sports day was
held by the school. John was entered for
Who was this mess made by? 10>
The children are going to be told a story the 100m race by his teacher because it
by Grandfather./A story is going to be told was thought that he was/he was thought
to the children by Grandfather. to be the fastest runner in the school. The
whistle was blown by Johns teacher and
9 The new sports centre will be opened
the race started. The air was filled with
soon.
10 He was made to confess to the robbery. loud cheers as John was cheered on by
11 I was shown some holiday pictures by his friends. All the other runners were
overtaken by John and, as had been
Liz./Some holiday pictures were shown to
expected, the race was won by John. He
me by Liz.
was given a trophy as a prize by the
12 Sam remembers being told about the
headmaster./A trophy was given to him as
party by his friend.
a prize by the headmaster.
13 He was heard calling for help.
14 Who was this mug broken by? B Do you think that electric cars will ever
15 A verdict will have been reached by the be used? The electric car has already
jury by the morning. been invented, but at the moment they
16 The essays will be marked by the teacher. are too expensive to be bought by most
17 Jam is made from fruit. people. Also, their batteries have to be
18 The doctor was sent for. recharged frequently. However, if electric
19 The grass hasn't been cut by Clive yet. cars were driven instead of the cars which
20 The car may not be repaired this week. are used today, the air we breathe would
be cleaner, as exhaust fumes would not
be pumped into the atmosphere.
2 ... are believed to have left the country.
3 ... is reported that the fire started by C Last week, Dawston was visited by the
Prime Minister. He was greeted by the
accident.
4 ... is known that he is making a lot of Mayor of the town when he arrived and
money. was given a tour. He was introduced to
5 ... are expected to arrive in time for dinner. some important businessmen and was
6 ... is said that she knows a lot about taken to lunch in a local restaurant. In the
gardening. afternoon, a meeting was held by the
7 ... is thought to be attending the meeting. Mayor and the citizens of Dawston were
8 ... are believed to be able to win the addressed by the Prime Minister. They
competition. were told that he had enjoyed his visit
9 ... is thought that the company is making very much.
a big profit.
10 ... is reported to have reached a decision. 2 An expert has valued the painting.
11 ... are said to have been responsible for i i 3 He likes people giving him presents.
the damage. 4 We must pay the bill immediately.
12 ... is expected that she will break the world 5 The hotel provides hot water 24 hours a
record. day.
13 ... is known that he has several foreign 6 A boy delivers our newspaper every
bank accounts. morning.
14 ... is reported that they have financial 7 A designer in Paris will make her wedding
problems. dress.

245
8 Several important art critics attended the 6 I am having my car repaired at the
meeting. moment.
9 The event organisers are making 7 The band have just had their new single
preparations. recorded.
10 The company has published an 8 We are going to have our new furniture
interesting book. delivered tomorrow.
9 They are having their new house
are joined decorated at the moment.
2 are found 11
3 is thought 12 are also known 10 We will have the windows cleaned.
are first roasted 11 I have had a new jumper knitted.
4 ever cultivated 13
is grown 14 are ground 12 We have to have the lock fixed.
5
6 reaches 15 are then 13 He is going to have a new pair of glasses
7 has processed made.
8 produces 16 are filtered
9 is called 17 are soaked 2 Mrs Brown was having her hair styled by
10 contains 18 is drunk the hairdresser.
3 She had the shopping carried to the
house by her son.
2 Melanie is having her picture taken.
4 Dad is going to have the grass cut.
3 Paul is having his tooth filled.
5 They used to have the house cleaned by
4 Helen is mopping the floor.
a cleaner.
5 Jane is having her nails painted.
6 Did Paul have his motorbike repaired by
6 Tim is pruning the tree.
the mechanic?
7 The boss had the letter typed by his
I can have my living room designed here. assistant.
I will have my suits cleaned here. 8 Joe had the dripping tap fixed by a
I will have my hair cut here. plumber.
I can have new locks made for the house 9 Have you had some photocopies made
here. by the secretary?
I will have my clothes mended here. 10 Tom was having his lunch cooked by the
chef.
2 She has all her clothes made specially for 11 Did you have the sofa delivered to you by
her. the shop?
3 They have had their house painted. 12 I had my purse stolen last Friday.
4 He had his car broken into. 13 Did you have your house decorated by a
5 She had her bag stolen. painter?
6 She has had party invitations printed. 14 Adam is having a new roof put on his
7 She is having her hair cut. house by the builders at the moment.
8 He is going to have his car serviced. 15 She had the silver polished by the maid.
9 They should have their roof repaired. 16 The man had his luggage taken to his
10 She should have her tyre fixed. room by the porter.
17 Did you have the flowers arranged by
2 ... will you have/are you going to have it Jenny?
decorated 18 When will you have your glasses made?
3 ... am going to have double glazing fitted 19 I had my party catered for by a
4 Are you going to have carpets laid professional.
5 Did you have your curtains delivered 20 Did you have the chimney swept (by
6 ... had the carpets cleaned anyone)?
21 She had the shopping done (by him).
2 She is having her skirt cleaned at the 22 They had their house burgled last night.
moment. 23 He had the fence built by a carpenter.
3 I have my hair trimmed once a month. 24 Julie has all her clothes ironed by the/her
4 We are going to have central heating house-keeper.
installed in our house next month. 25 He had his shops windows smashed in
5 Sam had a burglar alarm fitted last week. the riot.
2 is said to be 9 to be taught Prepositions
3 was repaired by 10 should be told
4 likes being 11 is being mended 2 for 14 with 26 for
listened to by 25 3 in 15 for 27 from
5 will be told off 12 were told about 4 in 16 at 28 in
6 haven't been 13 have her 5 of 17 to 29 of
locked wedding dress 6 with 18 for 30 from
7 being organised designed 7 with 19 to 31 of
by 14 had two of his 8 to 20 as 32 for
8 are expected to teeth 9 for 21 between 33 on
be present 15 will be given 10 from 22 to 34 for
11 on 23 with 35 with
2 package 12 enjoyment 12 in 24 to
3 independence 13 absence 13 of 25 about
4 attendance 14 inconvenience
5 performance 15 importance Sally has known Jim for about six
6 pleasant 16 evidence 26 months.
7 impression 17 innocence At ten o clock last night, I was baking an
8 healthy 18 presence apple pie.
9 correspondence 19 violence Pollution in cities is becom ing/has
10 ignorant 20 achievements become a serious problem.
11 reference 4 Who were you talking to just now?
5 Julie has written five letters so far.
1 He is said to have been promoted. 6 This time next week, Claire will be flying
2 This pie was made with shortcrust pastry. to America.
3 Who was this cake made by? 7 We visited our cousins last weekend.
4 Do you have your car serviced often? 8 The train from London arrives at 1.15.
5 Green clothes suit Katie. 9 Will you open the door for me, please?
6 The man was seen to hit the police 10 Im tired. I have been working hard all
officer. day.
7 The house has been decorated recently. 11 She used to play tennis when she was
younger.
12 I will call Sam when I have finished/finish
1 being 5 to 9 to
my homework.
2 to 6 was 10 been
13 We had done the shopping by the time the
3 been 7 had
shops closed.
4 it 8 that
14 She is talking on the telephone at the
moment.
P h ra s a l V erbs 15 Susan can walk the dog when she comes
home.
2 up 12 into 21 off
16 He had been waiting for half an hour
3 in 13 through 22 round
before his friend arrived.
4 down with 23 away
17 Paul will have finished writing the report
5 out 14 along/on 24 up
by lunchtime.
6 down with 15 down 25 back
18 I walk to school every day.
7 out 16 away 26 out
19 Last night, I was watching TV when the
8 through 17 in for 27 over
phone rang.
9 without 18 ahead 28 off
20 By the end of June, I will have been
10 over 19 off 29 back on
working here for six months.
11 off 20 by 30 round

1 been 5 it 9 they 2 Painting 6 to hold 10 working


2 to 6 to 10 - 27 3 making 7 to have on
3 7 - 11 the 4 drawing 8 do
4 by 8 did 5 to sell 9 planning

247
2 ... is watched by many people. In 1924, the Forbidden City was renamed
28> 3 ... is needed to knit a jumper. the Palace Museum and was opened to
4 ... were planted by the gardener. the public.
5 ... was spent at the supermarket. It is visited by thousands of people every
6 ... are enjoyed by most children. year.
7 ... offered at the resort is excellent.
It was used as the set for the film The
8 ... were washed and hung out to dry.
Last Emperor, which was directed by
9 ... was examined before the article was
Bernardo Bertolucci.
written.
10 ... were told about the robbery. It might be used again in the future for a
11 ... are entertained in the living room. similar project.
12 ... were repaired and cleaned by the
optician.
Writing A ctivity
slowly, careless terribly, rude, (Suggested answer)
29 peaceful, politely
The construction of the Forbidden City was
certainly, seriously, funny,
completed in 1420. It is protected by high
wonderful cheerful
walls and a moat on all four sides. The country
sad, happily suddenly, hardly
carefully, quiet was governed from the Forbidden City for
nearly 500 years. In 1924, the Forbidden City
was renamed the Palace Museum and was
O ra l A ctivity
opened to the public. It is visited by thousands
(Suggested answers) of people every year.
It is protected by high walls and a moat on It was used as the set for the film The Last
all four sides. Emperor, which was directed by Bernardo
The country was governed from the Bertolucci. It might be used again in the future
Forbidden City for nearly 500 years. for a similar project.

Revision 2 (Units 1 - 6 )
10 B 18 B 26 C 34 B 12 ... were called immediately.
2 B
3 C 11 C 19 A 27 A 35 B
4 B 12 B 20 C 28 B 36 C 2 Some more flowers should be planted.
5 C 13 B 21 C 29 B 37 A 3 I object to my computer being used by
6 A 14 A 22 A 30 A 38 C her.
7 C 15 C 23 B 31 C 39 C 4 Are all the new staff trained by her?
8 A 16 A 24 A 32 C 40 B 5 The project will have been finished by next
9 B 17 A 25 A 33 C Friday.
The letters having been posted, John
went back to the office.
2 ... man was rude.
7 What was the safe opened with?
3 ... she bought was very expensive.
8 The contestants must be informed about
4 ... had been booked by his secretary.
the rules of the game.
5 ... is too small for me now.
9 All the beds had been made.
6 ... surround the house.
10 Has a poem been written for you by
7 ... is short and brown.
Danny?
8 ... is needed to be a teacher.
11 The dog was being fed by the children.
9 ... they cooked us was delicious.
12 All the doors were locked before she went
10 ... is her favourite food.
on holiday.
11 ... was great during their holiday/they had
13 Is my bicycle being repaired by Mark?
during their holiday was great.

248
14 The living room was decorated by Dad last 2 several, a few 6 few, several
week. 3 few, many 7 many, a great
15 It is believed that he should be given a 4 a couple of, many number of
medal. 5 a little, a small 8 much, very little
16 He was heard making the arrangements. amount of
17 She is known to be a successful
businesswoman./lt is known that she is a 2 about 7 on 12 of
successful businesswoman. 8 3 on 8 from 13 for
18 Who was this teapot broken by? 4 about 9 of 14 about
19 He is expected to arrive early in the 5 with 10 to 15 as
morning./lt is expected that he will arrive 6 for 11 to
early in the morning.
20 Why was that building pulled down? 9 off
2 in
21 He is said to be a very wealthy man./It is 10 back on
3 on/along
said that he is a very wealthy man. 11 off
4 up
22 When will my car be repaired? 12 away with
5 back on
6 away with 13 on
2 careful 9 relative/relation 7 up 14 in
3 assistance 10 frighten 8 behind 15 off
4 colourful 11 excitement
5 tourist 12 explosion 7 to 12 been
2 to
6 arrangements 13 expression
10 3 been 8 that 13 the
7 reception 14 impressive 9 been 14 being
4 has
8 description 15 attractive 10 to 15 to
5 the
6 bike 11 we
2 should be invited 12 should go and
3 must have been tidy
13 likes being asked Tony will have his car taken to the garage
4 will be sacked if
5 ought to mend 14 hasnt been tidied
11 tomorrow.
6 was cleaned (by 15 likely that we will Jane had her bag stolen last night.
Sally) go Paul had his jaw broken in a boxing
7 may have gone 16 is thought that he match.
8 got spilt 17 could have been We will have the new lock fitted on
9 is said to be held up Monday.
10 cant have 18 mustnt smoke He has just had his passport stolen.
forgotten 19 to be shown to They have their house decorated every
11 dont have to 20 neednt have year.
attend locked We had our rooms cleaned by our mother
this morning.
2 He cant be a policeman. Sally is going to have her wedding dress
3 They may/might move house this month. made next month.
4 She must have made this cake herself. 10 I have my salary deposited in my bank
5 He m ay/m ight/could have posted the account every month.
letters yesterday. 11 We have our grass cut by the gardener.
6 We may/might/could have won a prize. 12 I had my window broken during the
7 They cant eat meat. storm.
8 She must live with her parents. 13 He will have his photograph taken by his
9 I m ay/m ight/could be late for work friend.
tomorrow. 14 He had his case carried to the car by the
10 He may/might/could have gone to the chauffeur.
doctors. 15 They have their windows cleaned once a
11 We cant have missed the bus. month.
12 They may/might/could have been invited 16 How often do you have your eyesight
to the party. checked by the optician?

249
UNIT 7: Reported Speech
A 2 tell told 6 said 20 Zoe offered to make some tea.
3 said tell 7 told 21 The man told/said to his children (that)
they must/had to go home then.
B 1 told said 5 say
22 Sarah said (that) they were the boys who
2 said told 6 tell
chased/ had chased her.
C 1 told tell 5 told 23 Lynne told her friends (that) she is going
2 say say 6 said to a party tonight.
24 Laura said (that) she used to have long hair.
2 Tina told her (that) the library is/was huge. 25 Grandad said (that) there is/was too much
3 Paul told her (that) he was learning lots of violence on TV.
interesting things. 26 Andrew told her (that) she ought to make
4 Simon told her (that) the teachers were a decision soon.
very friendly.
5 Elaine told her (that) she would always (Suggested answers)
remember her time there.
6 Roger told her (that) he was taking his 2 But you told me he was moving house on
final exams the following month. Monday.
3 But you told me you liked Italian food.
2 She said (that) she was starting a new job 4 But you told me he couldnt speak any
the following week/the week after. foreign languages.
3 He told them (that) he had got his exam 5 But you told me you went out together
results the week before/the previous week. yesterday.
4 Sally said (that) she couldnt afford to buy 6 But you told me he was working in a bank.
the dress. 7 But you told me you didnt have to work.
5 He told/said to her (that) he would buy a 8 But you told me she didnt know about it.
car if he had enough money.
6 Frank said (that) it was the house where 2 Jill said (that) she had finished the letters
he had been born/was born. you had asked her to write.
7 Jill said (that) it had been/was a wonderful 3 The teacher said (that) pandas live/lived in
party. China. The tenses can either remain
8 The teacher said (that) oranges grow/ unchanged or change because the
grew in hot countries. statement is a general truth.
9 He said (that) a lot of people visit/visited 4 Dad says (that) its time for bed. The
museums. tenses do not change because the
10 The tour guide told us (that) it is/was a introductory verb is in the present simple.
very famous statue. 5 Toby said (that) he had to tidy his
11 Bob said (that) he didnt like the jacket. bedroom then.
12 The boy said (that) he is lost. 6 The article says (that) there has been an
13 She said (that) she might be a little late increase in the number of university
that evening. students. The tenses do not change
14 Mum told/said to Claire (that) she had because the introductory verb is in the
better clean up the mess. present simple.
15 She said (that) she has already done the 7 Mr Brown says (that) his son is going to
shopping. work abroad. The tenses do not change
16 Sue said (that) she found/had found the because the introductory verb is in the
note under the sofa. present simple.
17 He told/said to us (that) he wouldnt be late 8 He said that he should have bought her a
again. present.
18 She said (that) if she finished work early, 9 My sister always says (that) she is never
she would call me. going to have a pet. The tenses do not
19 He told the reporters (that) he had been change because the introductory verb is
training hard recently. in the present simple.
10 Alison says (that) the taxi is here. The 10 I asked the hairdresser if I could make an
tenses do not change because the appointment to have my hair cut.
introductory verb is in the present simple.
11 Mr Collins says (that) you neednt work 2 Uncle Bill asked us where our parents were.
late this evening. The tenses do not 8 * 3 Dad asked if/whether I would help him
change because the introductory verb is carry the box.
in the present simple. 4 Mum asked me what time I would be home.
12 She told me (that) she would pick me up 5 He asked her if/whether she could play the
at eight o clock. guitar.
13 He said (that) coal is/was found under 6 David asked Janet who had been/was at
ground. The tenses can either remain the door.
unchanged or change because the 7 They asked us where the post office was.
statement is a general truth. 8 Meg asked me when I would do my
14 She said to/told her son (that) he ought to homework.
go to the doctors. Ought to never 9 The boss asked me if/whether I had
changes. finished the reports.
15 She said (that) it was raining hard that day. 10 John asked Sam if/whether he liked
16 They said (that) they had never travelled computer games.
by plane before. 11 He asked her if/whether she would give him
17 They said (that) they might go to the a lift to work.
cinema that night. 12 She asked him where his jacket was.
18 Mum always says (that) you/l should wear
warmer clothes. Should never changes. 2 Simon asked him what the best part of his
9 j job was.
... I gave an amazing performance in the film. 3 Simon asked him what he found difficult
When I starred in Over the Moon in 1958, about acting.
Film Stars said that I brought any character to 4 Simon asked him how many films he had
life. Movie News said that I was always a starred in.
pleasure to watch. 5 Simon asked him what his favourite film
When I starred in The Secret House in was.
1961, Film Weekly said that I was the best 6 Simon asked him if/whether he had met
actress ever seen on screen. Movie Times said many other famous people.
that I had a gift which was very rare. 7 Simon asked him where he would most like
When I starred in Only for You in 1963, to make a film.
Film World said that I had made the film a 8 Simon asked him if/whether he had visited
success. Screen Play said that I truly was a star many interesting places.
of the screen. 9 Simon asked him what his plans for the
future were.
2 I asked the shop assistant how much the 10 Simon asked him if/whether he was happy
blouse cost. with his life.
3 I asked the doctor how many tablets I
should take each day. 2 He suggested going out for dinner.
4 I asked the librarian if I could borrow the 10> 3 Colin asked Dave to hold the book for
book for another week. him.
5 I asked the electrician if it would cost very 4 He asked her to close the door.
much to repair the television. 5 Father suggested going to the beach.
6 I asked the waiter if I might look at the 6 She suggested watching the game on TV.
menu. 7 He begged them not to hurt him.
7 I asked the teacher what I had to do for 8 The policeman ordered the thieves to put
homework. their hands up.
8 I asked the secretary when the report would 9 The man asked the waiter to bring him
be typed. some water.
9 I asked the florist if he/she would be able to 10 Jason begged his father to let him go to
deliver the flowers that day. the party.
11 The librarian told the boys not to make so me to lock the door before I left.
much noise. for forgetting to call me.
12 The chef told me to put the cake in the oven. that Stuart never listened to her.
going bowling that evening.
us to play near the road.
He told the students not to talk during the
the man of stealing his wallet.
exam.
about/of being the best basketball player
He told the students to raise their hand if
in the school.
they needed anything.
(to) taking/having taken/that she had
He told the students to write all their
taken the letter.
answers in pen.
10 that Sarah (should) stay/on Sarah staying
He told the students to answer all the
for lunch.
questions.
11 me to let him borrow my bicycle,
He told the students not to forget to write
12 me not to touch the oven because it was hot.
their name at the top of the page.
He told the students to check their
2 denied 8 threatened
answers again before they handed the
paper in. 16 3 advised 9 reminded
4 promised 10 accused
He asked the students to leave quietly
5 agreed 11 warned
when they (had) finished.
6 complained 12 insisted
7 suggested
2 ... told her dad (that) she wouldnt be
home that night. 2 Dennis accused Ann of lying/having lied
3 ... asked Mum if/whether I could have a 17 to him.
biscuit. 3 Tara promised Diana that she wouldnt
4 ... asked Jim to help her with the bags. tell/not to tell anyone her secret.
5 ... told him to hurry up. 4 Mum reminded me to post the letters.
6 ... told them to be quiet. 5 Sarah apologised to Frances for
7 ... suggested going to the theatre. ruining/having ruined her shirt.
8 ... told me we would discuss it later. 6 George denied using/having used/that he
had used Tim s computer.
2 Anna said (that) she is going shopping. 7 Mike warned the children not to get too
3 His friend told him to go away. close to the fire.
4 She asked me if/whether I was ready to 8 Simon suggested having a party.
leave. 9 Mum threatened to punish the twins if
5 He told/said to her (that) he would pick they behaved badly.
her up at five o clock. 10 She adm itted to breaking/having
broken/that she had broken the vase.
6 Ruth says (that) its time for lunch.
11 David asked me if he could use my
7 Marilyn asked when I/we arrived/had
phone.
arrived.
12 Sandra agreed to help me with the
8 She said (that) the meeting started ten
washing up.
minutes ago.
13 Mr Jones ordered the class to stop
9 My father told me not to be late. talking.
10 Pam told us (that) Tom had already left. 14 He begged us not to tell anyone about it.
11 Joe asked who was there. 15 She advised her brother to go to the
12 She asked me what colour skirt I bought/ dentists.
had bought. 16 The school bus driver ordered the
13 They told/said to him (that) they are children to sit down.
leaving early in the morning. 17 The policeman ordered the robbers to
14 Dad told the boys not to go near the fire. throw down their weapons.
15 Liz suggested having a barbecue that 18 Dad forbade Louise to stay out late that
weekend. night.
19 She insisted on the children/their washing
2 b 4 b 6 b 8 a their hands before eating dinner.
3 a 5 a 7 b She insisted that the children (should)
wash their hands before eating dinner.
20 Amanda exclaimed (that) it was the most 4 Why are you crying? Steve asked
beautiful necklace she had ever seen. Jenny./Why are you crying, Steve?
asked Jenny.
2 They gave an exclamation of 5 Im sorry Im late, he said. I was stuck in
surprise/delight as the fireworks traffic.
exploded in the sky. 6 Rachel said, Im afraid I cant help you.
3 He asked us to try to visit John. 7 I dont want eggs, she said to her
4 She gave an exclamation of delight as she mother. Id rather have a steak.
tasted the dessert. 8 We have to leave in five minutes, Sally
She exclaimed/said that it was a delicious said. Can you call us a taxi?
dessert/that the dessert was delicious. 9 Did you go to the library today? Sean
5 He gave an exclamation of surprise when asked me.
he saw the present. 10 Daniel said, Stop talking. I cant
6 She gave an exclamation of amazement concentrate.
when she saw the magicians act.
7 She wished him good luck. 2 Would you like to come to the cinema
8 She asked him if he could do the puzzle with me? she asked.
and he said he couldnt. Ill help you clean the house if you like,
he said.
(Suggested answers) 4 Were late, we said. We missed the bus./
Were late because we missed the bus,
2 He suggested going to the cinema,
we said.
explaining that they hadnt seen a film for
5 You should see a professional, she said.
months.
6 Yes, I (have) read your diary, she said.
3 Tim said that Dave was ill and added that
7 Yes, Ill help you interview the
he couldnt go to the party. Mike asked
candidates, she said.
what was wrong with him. Tim said that he
8 You broke my glasses, he said to me.
had got flu and explained that he had to
9 Were sorry we missed your dinner party,
stay in bed.
we said to them.
4 He said to/told her that she was early and
10 The children are always disturbing me,
went on to explain that he wasnt ready yet.
Edward said.
5 She told him to hurry up, explaining that
they were going to miss the bus. 2 Why dont we/Shall we go fishing this
6 She asked him if/whether he had his key,
22> afternoon?/ Lets go fishing this afternoon,
adding that she had forgotten hers. said Malcolm.
7 Colin said that he was going out and went 3 I didnt damage the car, said Simon.
on to say that he might be back late. 4 Kate asked Harry to open the door for her.
8 Sally told John that she had bought a car 5 I have met Kevin Costner, said Julia.
and went on to explain that it was being 6 She complained (that) he never listened
delivered the next day. John asked her when she was talking to him.
what kind of car it was. Sally told him that 7 The instructor explained (that) this was
it was a sports car and added that it had how we opened the parachute.
been/was very expensive. 8 She prom ised her friend (that) she
9 He apologised for being late and w ouldnt lose her necklace.
explained that he had overslept.
9 Please, please, let me go to the disco,
10 Martin asked James if he could help him Stuart said to his parents.
and went on to explain that he needed 10 His father forbade him to go to the concert.
some advice. James asked him what the 11 Mum agreed to let me stay out late on
problem was. Martin said that he didnt
Saturday.
know what to buy his mother for her 12 I want to speak to my lawyer, the man said.
birthday and added that he wanted to get 13 He told us that there were no tickets left.
something special. 14 The guide warned the climbers that the
path was very slippery.
2 Shall we go out tonight? Bill asked. 15 Will you write to me while youre away,
3 David said, Shut the door, please. please? he said to her.
2 Dave told them/said (that) they had been Prepositions
23 interviewing people for two weeks.
2 with 7 to 12 from 17 to
3 Lucy suggested contacting the Job Centre.
27 3 of 8 in 13 about 18 to
4 Ann said that she thought (that) Julie
4 to 9 from 14 of
Smith was looking for a job.
5 at 10 on 15 of
5 Tom agreed and added that they had
6 to 11 in 16 with
forgotten that she had been looking for a
job.
6 Dave said (that) Julie might be perfect for P h ra s a l V erbs
the job and went on to ask Ann if she had
2 in 10 back 19 off
her phone number.
28> 3 o ff/a w a y 11 back 20 out
7 Ann said (that) she did and offered to give
from 12 up with 21 down
her a call.
4 out 13 back 22 up with
8 Sam asked Ann not to forget to ask her if
5 up 14 on 23 on
she could work flexible hours.
6 up/out 15 down 24 up
7 off 16 out 25 out of
1 Anna says that lunch is ready. 8 on 17 back
2 They told me that it was a photograph of 9 up 18 out
24>
their family.
3 Brian told me that he had a new car.
4 Linda said she had seen the film the A 2 instructions B 1 successful
month before/the previous month. 29 3 attention 2 popularity
5 Tim asked me where I had been on 4 careful 3 fashionable
holiday. 5 wonderful 4 enjoyable
6 Alan told me that John must be in the office. 5 development
C 1 admiration D 1 disappointment
2 commitment 2 distraction
1 to 4 to 7 that 10 on
3 concentration 3 performance
2 being 5 to 8 do
25> 4 decisions 4 enjoyment
3 so 6 if 9 that
5 injuries 5 unbearable

2 promised to send 13 accused Jane of


2 B 6 B 10 B 14 A
3 threatened to d rin k in g /h a v in g
2 6 > 30> 3 C 7 C 11 C 15 B
send him drunk
4 A 8 A 12 C 16 C
4 invited us 14 suggested (that)
5 C 9 B 13 A 17 B
5 exclaimed that it we should
was 15 agreed to give me
6 apologised to her 16 ordered the man 2 A 4 B 6 B 8 A 10 A
31 3 C 5 A 7 C 9 C
for interrupting to drop
7 insisted on my 17 why I was
finishing making 2 didnt need to 10 didnt need to
8 refused to give 18 offered to give me 32 give 11 is likely that she
Steve 19 advised her son 3 should be will
9 suggested going to save 4 you like me to cut 12 neednt have
for a picnic 20 boasted about/of 5 about going for a cleaned
10 denied leaving/ having drive 13 may sell
having left/that 21 whether I could 6 neednt have 14 must have
she had left lend bought proposed
11 reminded us to 22 claimed to have 7 are not allowed 15 had better
pack seen/that she to interrupt reconsider
12 admitted (to) had seen 8 m ay/m ight/could 16 exclaimed that
taking/having 23 wondered where have left the view
taken/that she her purse 9 mustnt play
had taken 24 why she was football

254
O ra l A ctivity Writing A ctivity
(Suggested answers) (Suggested answer)
The reporter asked Mr Houston where he had ... that he thought everyone should have
found all the interesting objects and pictures. access to the tow ns history. I asked him
Mr Houston answered (that) he had been where he had found all the interesting objects
collecting them for years. and pictures and he said (that) he had been
The reporter asked Mr Houston if/whether he collecting them for years.
had always been interested in history. I asked Mr Houston if he had always been
Mr Houston said (that) he had, and added that interested in history. He said (that) he had, and
it was/had been his favourite subject at school. added that it had been/was his favourite
subject at school. I then asked him if he had
The reporter asked Mr Houston if/whether he
any other hobbies apart from history, and he
had any other hobbies apart from history.
said (that) he also enjoyed listening to
Mr Houston answered (that) he also enjoyed
classical music.
listening to classical music.
Finally, I asked Mr Houston what his hopes
The reporter asked Mr Houston what his for the museum were. He replied that he
hopes for the museum were. hoped (that) it would be popular with visitors
Mr Houston answered (that) he hoped that it and residents and (that) people would learn
would be popular with visitors and residents from i t ...
and (that) people would learn from it.

UNIT 8: Emphasis - Inversion


2 What you need to do is to act quickly. It was Paul who/that sold his old car last
3 What you have to do is to call an ambulance. week.
4 What you must concentrate on is helping It was his old car that Paul sold last week.
the victims./What you must do is to It was last week that Paul sold his old car.
concentrate on helping the victims. It was Sarah who/that lost her keys this
5 What you need to check is that the injury morning.
is not serious./What you need to do is to It was her keys that Sarah lost this morning.
check that the injury is not serious. It was this morning that Sarah lost her keys.
6 What you should not allow anyone to do It was David who/that made dinner last night.
is to move the injured people./What you It was dinner that David made last night.
should not do is to allow anyone to move It was last night that David made dinner.
the injured people. It was Simon who/that published his latest
7 What you should remember is to keep the novel last month.
victims warm./What you should do is to It was his latest novel that Simon
remember to keep the victims warm. published last month.
8 What you have to do is to keep the injured It was last month that Simon published his
people calm. latest novel.
It was I who/that met a film star last week.
2 Its not Sam who/that is a policeman, its It was a film star who/that I met last week.
Daniel. It was last week that I met a film star.
3 Its not carrots I like, its potatoes. It was Alan who/that repaired the fence
4 Its not sweets hes eating, its fruit. this afternoon.
5 It wasnt a film we watched, it was a play. It was the fence that Alan repaired this
6 Its not French I speak, its German. afternoon.
7 Its not a house they want, its a flat. It was this afternoon that Alan repaired the
8 It wasnt a window I broke, it was a mirror. fence.
It was Catherine who/that found a kitten
on Monday.

255
It was a kitten that Catherine found on 2 did I 5 did I 8 are we
Monday. 8 3 did we 6 will I 9 can I
It was on Monday that Catherine found a 4 have I 7 did I 10 am I
kitten.
2 Away flew the birds.
It was Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh 3 At the end of the road is my house.
who/that played the lead parts. 4 Onto the stage came the actors.
It was Margaret Mitchell who/that wrote 5 Up into the sky rose the aeroplane.
the original novel. 6 At the foot of the mountain stands the
It was in 1939 that the film was released. Grand Hotel.
It was in Atlanta that the film was first shown. 7 Down the street walked the policeman.
It was soon after its release that the film 8 Up the ladder climbed the window cleaner.
became a huge success.
It was nine Oscars that the film won in 1940. 2 ... had she fallen asleep than the
telephone rang.
It was Alison who/that made the 3 ... did we get lost, but (also) our car broke
bridesmaids dresses. down.
Where was it that you met Jason?/Where 4 ... have I heard such a terrible story.
ever/Wherever did you meet Jason? 5 ... did we realise that the jewels had been
Who was it that gave you this expensive stolen.
necklace?/Who ever/Whoever gave you 6 ... has business been so good.
this expensive necklace? 7 ... has the boss given him a bonus.
Is it that cake that you are going to buy for 8 ... should you enter this room.
the party? 9 ... meeting Peter several times did I get to
It was Steve who/that decorated the living know him.
room. 10 ... did the police know that the man was a
What was it that made you react like criminal.
this?/What ever/Whatever made you react 11 ... last summer have I been to the beach.
like this? 12 ... I known about the party, I would have
Why was it that you phoned the police?/ gone.
Why ever did you phone the police? 13 ... else have we had such a wonderful time.
Why is it that you dont remember my 14 ... I you, I would look for a new job.
birthday?/ Why ever dont you remember 15 ... had he entered the office when the
my birthday? manager called him.
10 It was this morning that we received the
letter. 2 must you give 4 will the show be
11 3 will you be able to 5 will you get
2 ... come in!
3 ... did they close the shop? (Suggested answers)
4 ... she needs is a pay rise.
12> had I got home 6 the alarm went off
5 ... promise to call him.
working late 7 have I had
6 ... it that you got married?
should you 8 should anyone
7 ... have you done?
did I lose else
8 ... tell you to be quiet.
9 ... Annie who/that opened the windows.
Only later did he realise what a difference
it would make to our lives.
(Suggested answers) 1 3 >
Never before had there been a drug like this.
2 .. a big house with a garden. Only by taking penicillin could patients
3 .. a three-week holiday. with infections be successfully cured.
4 .. listening to music. Not only did penicillin advance medical
5 .. doing the ironing. technology, but it also saved thousands
6 .. why she is not speaking to me. of lives.
7 .. what time they will arrive. Rarely do people die from infections these
8 .. relaxing on the beach. days.
... Vincent Van Gogh did was paint 2 peaceful 6 luxurious
beautiful pictures./Vincent Van Gogh 3 attractive 7 famous
14> 19>
painted was beautiful pictures. 4 beautiful 8 privacy
... that Mozart cared about was his music. 5 spacious 9 security
... was the Wright Brothers who made
the first aeroplane flight./was the first
Phrasal Verbs
aeroplane flight that the Wright Brothers
made. 2 out 12 on/upon 21 over/
... gave Charles Dickens great pleasure 3 up 13 over through
was writing. 2> 4 after 14 for 22 off as
... that Emily Pankhurst wanted was equal 5 out for 15 up for 23 off/away
rights for women. 6 up 16 out 24 up
... was in America that tobacco was first 7 out 17 forward 25 up to
discovered./was tobacco that was first 8 down on to 26 on
discovered in America. 9 through 18 up 27 into
... was Margaret Thatcher who/that 10 away 19 for 28 up to
became the first female Prime Minister of 11 up 20 on 29 up
Britain.

2 sooner had I got 11 should you open Prepositions


15 3 too late did we 12 I realised how
notice late it 2 of 6 at 10 of 14 of
did I realise 13 else have I eaten 21 3 for 7 of 11 about 15 in
(that) 14 no 4 with 8 from 12 about 16 for
5 I you, I would circumstances 5 to 9 with 13 on 17 into
6 did I notice must you open
7 did they know 15 before had I 2 A 4 A 6 A 8 C 10 B
(that) seen 22 3 B 5 A 7 C 9 C
8 can I meet him 16 did I remember
9 could we get 17 did we have
2 a 7 a 12 the 16 the
10 only is she a sweets when
23> 3 an 8 the 13 an 17
brilliant
4 the 9 - 14 - / 18 a
5 - 10 a the
1 love chocolate biscuits. So do I.
6 the 11 15
16 > What have you been doing? she asked.
Hardly had Melissa gone to bed when the
telephone rang. 2 The young girl was rescued by a firefighter.
Not only is he lazy but also stubborn. 3 The flowers are being watered by a
24>
He is a mechanic, as is his father. gardener.
Seldom does she go to the theatre. The dogs are walked by Caroline every
Only after he had closed the windows morning.
did he leave the house. The flood had been caused by heavy rain.
The evidence was being examined by
1 you 5 she 9 ever police officers.
2 it 6 If 10 when The reporters were given an interview by a
17>
3 you 7 it spokesperson./An interview was given to
4 enjoy 8 did the reporters by a spokesperson.
8 You will be taken to your seat by an official.
2 sight 9 cautious 9 The results are going to be announced on
18> 3 survival 10 beneficial Friday.
4 fortunately 11 numerous 10 Some changes have been made by the
5 musician 12 natural new manager.
6 living 13 choice 11 The arrangements for the party are being
7 height 14 Honesty made by the students.
8 complaints 15 amazement 12 The windows are cleaned every week.

257
UNIT 9: Conditionals - Wishes -
Had Better/Would Rather - Unreal Past
3 When I phone ... 6 If she invites ... If a brave teenager hadnt saved the child,
4 If I visit... 7 When it starts .. he/she would have drowned.
5 When it comes ... 8 If he lends me . If it hadnt rained heavily, Creek Valley
wouldnt have flooded.
2 f If you put food in the fridge, it stays
fresh for longer. 2 says 7 didnt start
3 a If you dont water plants, they die. 3 wouldnt have 8 would be
4 b If you put water in the freezer, it got 9 had known
becomes ice. 4 will happen 10 would have
5 c If you leave metal out in the rain, it gets 5 dont keep fit started
rusty. 6 would try
6 e If you drop something, it falls to the
ground. 2 wouldnt have 9 get
7 h If you throw a pebble into the sea, it got 10 had put
sinks. 3 would put on 11 loses
8 g If you mix blue and yellow, you get 4 would be able to 12 wouldnt go
green. 5 would have told 13 would have
6 may/will ruin called
2 d If you want to dine out, go to Andres 7 was/were 14 will love
Restaurant. It has French food. 8 had known 15 will be
3 b If you want to visit a museum, go to the
Oceanographic Museum. It is popular 2 But for 7 Supposing
with tourists. 8 3 Unless 8 and
4 h If you want to see a play, go to the Fort 4 even if 9 In case of
Antoine Theatre. It has open-air 5 otherwise 10 as long as
performances. 6 What if 11 or
5 e If you want to watch athletics events,
go to the Louis II Stadium. It has hadnt bought,
1 will you buy 10
international competitions. would never have
2 speak, will invite
6 a If you want to see beautiful flowers, go won
3 have done
to the Princess Grace Rose Garden. It
4 would offer 11 go, will be
is open every day.
5 will miss 12 find, will buy
7 f If you want to observe wild animals, go
6 work, will fail 13 eat/have eaten
to the Zoological Gardens. They have
7 see, will ask 14 go, come back
recently been modernised. will never speak
8 would help, had 15
8 c If you want to go shopping, go to the
9 finds out
Casino Square. It has designer shops.

2 B 5 B 8 C 11 B 14 A
(Ss own answers) 10 3 B 6 A 9 A 12 C
4 C 7 A 10 C 13 A

If the students hadnt worked hard, they


wouldnt have raised thousands for charity. (Ss own answers)
If the footballer hadnt rowed with the 11
manager, he w ouldnt have quit the team.
If the actress hadnt been in a car accident, If you had woken me up, I wouldnt be late
the filming wouldnt have been delayed. 12 for my appointment now.

258
If she were/was well-qualified, she would 2 could would 8 would
have got the job. 1 6 , 3 had had
If we liked fast food, we would have gone 4 was/were did
to the restaurant.
If she had brought her umbrella, she ... the Titanics distress signals would
wouldnt be getting wet now. 17 have been received.
If I knew them very well, I would have ... the loss of life would not have been so
gone to the party. great.
He would be at the lecture if he had been ... many people wouldnt have died.
told about it. ... some of the passengers would not
If they had taken a map with them, they have been rescued.
wouldnt be lost now. ... new rules would not have been made
If the driver were/was careful, he wouldnt to ensure that sea voyages would be safer
have crashed his car into a wall. in future.
10 If I had bought tickets, we could go to the ... it wouldnt have sunk so quickly.
theatre tonight.
11 If he had reserved a table, he wouldnt (Ss own answers)
have to wait for an hour. 18>
12 If Sue hadnt forgotten to go to the bank,
2 reading, watching 9 didnt make
she would be able to go shopping now.
19> 3 had played 10 work
13 If they hadnt missed their flight, they
4 book 11 not mention
would arrive today.
5 didnt tidy 12 had stayed
6 to stay 13 to spend
2 d If only drivers w ouldnt park illegally,
7 playing, doing 14 have eaten
says the traffic warden.
13> 8 have gone 15 not go
3 g I wish passengers would put their
luggage in the lockers, says the flight 2 had been heard 10 had told
attendant. 3 owned 11 had realised
4 b If only the customers would be more 20 > 4 had gone 12 met
polite, says the shopkeeper. 5 had known 13 learnt
5 c I wish campers w ouldnt light fires in 6 employed 14 hadnt
the forest, says the campsite owner. 7 had won misbehaved
6 a If only patients would take their 8 didnt interrupt 15 had known
medication properly, says the doctor. 9 saw
7 f I wish bathers would follow the safety
regulations, says the lifeguard. 2 hadnt confided 7 met
21 3 organise/have 8 had understood
2 hadnt shouted 10 had gone organised 9 have studied
3 would tidy 11 could afford 4 got 10 had not moved
i4 > 4 had practised 12 would stop 5 would you accept 11 had forgotten
5 would call 13 was/were 6 had asked 12 would have met
6 were/was going/could go
7 would stop 14 would help 2 or else you will 12 wishes she was/
8 had bought 15 had arranged 3 I were you were tall enough
22>
9 would try 4 wish my flat was/ 13 wish you would
were wipe
... I had booked a room. If I had booked a 5 had better not go 14 or else I will tell
15, room, I would have somewhere to stay now. 6 would rather eat 15 would rather go
... I hadnt eaten so much chocolate. If I 7 wishes she out
hadnt eaten so much chocolate, I hadnt spent 16 wish I had gone to
w ouldnt feel so ill now. 8 wish I had made 17 would have sent
... I hadnt touched the iron. If I hadnt 9 hadnt missed 18 for your help
touched the iron, my hand w ouldnt hurt 10 provided the 19 or else you will
so much now. weather gets 20 unless you
... I had got up earlier. If I had got up 11 had better write a practise
earlier, I w ouldnt be late now. letter

259
2 inability 10 misunderstood 2 C 5 B 8 C 11 B 14 B
3 disagree 11 influential 3 C 6 C 9 A 12 A
29>
4 financial 12 unlikely 4 A 7 C 10 A 13 A
5 illegal 13 suspicious
6 disastrous 14 wealthy 2 A 5 C 8 A 11 B
7 irresponsible 15 educational 3 B 6 A 9 C 12 C
3> 4 C 7 B 10 A
8 ambitious 16 impressive
9 impractical
2 Brian said (that) he met some friends in
31> town.
A 2 invitations B 1 attractive
3 He asked her where she had gone the
3 exception 2 acceptance
night before/the previous night.
4 arrangements 3 manager
4 She said (that) she would go out that
4 confirmation
night if she didnt have to work.
5 employment
5 He told her (that) she should ask her
C 1 valuable 4 collection teacher for help./He advised her to ask
2 expensive 5 unbelievable her teacher for help.
3 investment 6 He ordered them to clean up the mess.
7 He told me (that) birds make/made nests
in trees.
1 Youd better not be late for your interview. 8 He told us (that) Belgium is/was a small
2 We had better go soon. country.
3 Its high time you tidied your bedroom. 9 He said (that) he would help me paint the
4 Wed better do the washing-up. garage./He offered to help me paint the
5 Id rather the guests came at eight o clock. garage.
6 Unless you study, you w ont pass the 10 She told him (that) he can visit whenever
exams. he likes.
7 I wish we could afford a new car.
8 If you need any help, just call me. 2 We must have those cupboards mended
(by the carpenter).
32>
1 to 5 had 9 than 3 Have the shopping done by Sam.
2 will 6 will 10 if 4 Tony had his tooth taken out yesterday.
3 if 7 not 11 to 5 Claire is having her broken leg examined
4 had 8 or 12 will (by the doctor).
6 James had the parcel sent first-class.
7 We didnt go out. We had a pizza delivered.
P h ra s a l V erbs
8 Frank had the gift wrapped for him (by the
2 up 11 out 20 down shop assistant).
3 down 12 up with 21 back
4 through 13 back 22 up O ra l A ctivity
5 on 14 back 23 through (Suggested answers)
6 off 15 off 24 on
2 I wish I owned a sports car. If I owned a
7 down to 16 on 25 out
sports car, I could go wherever I liked.
8 on 17 for 26 down
3 I wish I could meet Eric Clapton. If I met
9 up 18 through 27 on
Eric Clapton, I would ask him to give me
10 by/aside 19 up 28 away
guitar lessons.
4 I wish I could sing well. If I could sing well,
P re p o s itio n s I would join a band.
5 I wish I had lived in medieval times. If I had
2 on 7 out of 12 for 17 in lived in medieval times, I might have met
3 To 8 On 13 in 18 at many interesting people.
4 on 9 in 14 out of 6 I wish I hadnt argued with my friend. If I
5 with 10 at 15 by hadnt argued with my friend, I wouldnt
6 under 11 in 16 for be so unhappy.
Revision 3 (Units 1 - 9 )
2 A 9B 16 A 23 A 30 C 2 would listen 9 w o u ld n t/d id n t
3 C 10 A 17 B 24 A 31 B 3 hadnt gone have
4 B 11 A 18 B 25 C 32 A 4 had applied / 10 had apologised
5 B 12 C 19 C 26 B 33 A would apply 11 hadnt made
6 C 13 B 20 C 27 B 34 C 5 hadnt arrived 12 wouldnt borrow/
7 B 14 A 21 B 28 C 35 C 6 had hadnt borrowed
8 C 15 C 22 C 29 A 7 were 13 had remembered
8 were 14 had invited
15 knew
too late did I see 13 whether I knew
if you dont leave where 2 ... has she been to such a good party.
wish I could afford 14 before had they 3 ... have I met such polite people.
I you, I would heard 4 ... have they visited the museum in the town.
reminded Bill to 15 would rather stay 5 ... did I realise that the window was broken.
lock at home 6 ... did I take the picture, but I (also)
did she know 16 denied leaving / developed it.
(that) she denied having
7 ... have they taken such an important exam.
provided you left 8 ... had I closed the door than Bill opened it
wake up 17 wishes she again.
admitted (to) hadnt shouted 9 ... has he heard such an amusing joke.
having broken / 18 did I go to 10 ... have they taken a day off work.
admitted (to) 19 I realised what 11 ... has he asked us to help him.
breaking time it 12 ... had they sat down than the film started.
10 or else I will tell 20 exclaimed (that) 13 ... did he notice that the music had stopped.
11 unless you study it was 14 ... has she attended an audition.
12 should you touch 15 ... did I break the glass, but I (also) cut my
finger on it.
2 She invited him to her party.
2 shall 7 have to 11 could
3 Paul boasted about/of being the fastest
3 mustnt 8 was able 12 Might
runner in the school.
4 ought to to 13 Shall
Paul boasted that he was the fastest
5 Could 9 neednt 14 must
runner in the school.
6 Can 10 must 15 may
She promised to phone him every week
while she was away.
2 The money was donated by a wealthy
He warned us not to go near the waterfall.
businessman.
She asked her brother to lend her some
3 An important discovery was made by
money.
scientists last weekend.
The boss ordered his employees to wait
4 Who was Susans portrait painted by?
outside.
5 The deposit for the new flat was paid by
She asked the man if she could borrow
Simon.
his pen.
6 The washing-up was done before they
Mum asked me if I would like to help her
watched TV.
make dinner.
7 The arrangements for the school trip were
10 He denied borrowing Tom s football.
made by Jenny.
11 Mum reminded me to water the plants.
8 What was the village destroyed by?
12 He apologised to her for being late.
9 All the fruit was eaten by Melissa.
13 Linda suggested going for a walk.
10 Jims birthday cake was decorated by Mother.
14 Adam complained of having toothache.
11 I was introduced to the managing director
15 She begged him to help her.
of the company by Gordon.
12 The vase in the dining room was broken
by the cat.

261
2 to 7 of 12 under 2 like 7 when 12 will
3 on 8 about 13 of 3 to 8 it 13 than
4 from 9 in 14 on
> 4 if 9 to 14 to
5 about 10 of 15 To 5 it 10 that 15 do
6 of 11 into 6 he 11 you

2 decision 11 expensive
2 up 7 away 12 out
11 3 height 12 beneficial
3 away 8 out 13 up
4 kindness 13 extension
4 on 9 up to 14 off/aw
5 generosity 14 signature
5 on 10 back 15 up
6 revision 15 competition
6 back 11 out
7 explosive 16 communication
8 complaints 17 sensible
9 impatience 18 active
10 relief

UNIT 10: Clauses - Linking Words


(Suggested answers) 2 such 6 such a 10 such
2 until 7 until 3 such a 7 so 11 such an
4 so 8 so
3 as soon as 8 when
5 so 9 such an
4 hardly ... when 9 by
5 while 10 By the time 2 so late that
6 before 3 sleeping so soundly that
4 such exciting news that
2 stepped, was 7 will sign
5 such a clever girl that
getting/got 8 phoned, left
6 so little time studying that
3 have read/read 9 had I opened,
7 so much work
4 w ont announce, jumped
8 such heavy luggage
have marked 10 has
5 arrived 11 have finished 2 The singer cancelled her appearance on
6 will go, have 12 gets account of the fact that she was feeling
finished/finish unwell.
3 She was hungry as she hadnt eaten all
2 whenever, want 8 just as, was day./As she hadnt eaten all day, she was
3 after, had eaten pulling in/pulled hungry.
4 Once, read/had in 4 The teacher punished him because of the
read 9 before, leave/ fact that he was rude./Because of the fact
while, was have left that he was rude, the teacher punished him.
washing 10 by the time, 5 The Prime Minister did not attend the press
until, had saved came/had come conference, for he was out of the country.
as soon as, have/ 11 when, will be 6 His parents are pleased with him now that
have had announced he has passed his exams./Now that he
has passed his exams, his parents are
2 after she had done pleased with him.
3 hardly entered the house when 7 The reason for her turning the job down
4 while he was climbing was the fact that it was very dangerous./
5 until the taxi The fact that the job was very dangerous
6 no sooner opened the gate was the reason for her turning it down.
7 by the time 8 His car wouldnt move due to the fact that
8 before she bought/before buying it ran/ had run out of petrol.
9 while she was talking to 9 Since he was late, he took a taxi./He took
a taxi since he was late.
on account of 6 since we didnt How lovely their house is! They have such
8 because he understand a lovely house! Their house is so lovely!
didnt tidy 7 due to the What a lovely house they have!
due to the fact 8 because of the/ How happy she looks! She looks so
that on account of happy!
the reason for the
her getting
2 B 4 B 6 B 8 B 10 B
in order to 5 for
14 3 C 5 A 7 C 9 A
so as not to 6 so that
to 2 ... being late, we stopped to have
15 something to eat.
I always lock the doors and windows to 3 ... of (their) being good friends, they argue
10 avoid being burgled. a lot.
The doctor examined the patient so as to 4 ... they have a lot of money, they are very
find out what was wrong with him. mean.
I've taken out a loan to buy a car. 5 ... he (had) won the competition, he
Well take some food with us in case we wasnt satisfied.
get hungry. 6 ... (his) waking up early, he was late for his
She is studying medicine so that she can appointment.
become a doctor.
He put his keys in his briefcase in order We went to the party. We were very tired,
not to lose them. 16 though./ We went to the party though we
They will take some magazines with them were very tired./ Though we were very
in case they get bored. tired, we went to the party./ We were very
She set her alarm clock so that she tired. We went to the party, though.
w ouldnt oversleep. In spite of working very hard, she doesnt
10 We put the letters on the table so as not to earn much money./ln spite of the the fact
forget to post them. that she works very hard, she doesnt
earn much money.
2 so that he can 7 so that the 4 He went to work despite the fact that he
11 expand teacher would was ill/despite being ill.
3 in case someone 8 (in order/so as) 5 This appliance is very expensive, yet it is
calls to ask impractical.
4 for cooking him 6 The teacher explained the question in
5 so that we could 9 in case there was detail. Still, I didnt understand it.
take a 7 Even though I drank a bottle of water, I
6 so as not to get/ 10 to prevent it from was still thirsty.
in order not to getting 8 We continued to watch the film in spite of
get the fact that it was boring/in spite of it
being boring./ In spite of the fact that the
2 What a 6 such 10 such a film was boring, we continued to watch
12 3 so 7 How 11 How it./In spite of the film being boring, we
4 What 8 so 12 such an continued to watch it.
5 What a 9 What an 9 David cant play football. On the other
hand, he is good at basketball.
2 How interesting this story is! This story is 10 It was very late. Nevertheless, the guests
13 so interesting! What an interesting story! didnt leave.
Isnt this story interesting! 11 Lisa went shopping, but she didnt buy
3 He looks so young! Doesnt he look anything.
young! 12 The boy fell off his bicycle. However, he
How handsome he is! What a handsome wasnt hurt.
man he is! Hes such a handsome man! 13 Although he was tired, he couldnt sleep./
Isnt he handsome! He couldnt sleep although he was tired.

267
14 Brian is good at Maths whereas his sister 10 a Even though Celine Dion is my
is good at Science. favourite singer, I havent been to any
15 Janet is clever. Still, she finds some of her concerts,
subjects difficult. b Celine Dion is my favourite singer.
16 Despite (his) being rich, he is not However, I havent been to any of her
happy./Despite the fact that he is rich, he concerts.
is not happy.
2 did not speak 7 has been playing/
2 a It was a lovely day. However, they 18 3 is going to rain had been
i7 > stayed inside. 4 is burning playing/ has
b In spite of it being a lovely day/ln spite 5 was/were played/had
of the fact that it was a lovely day, they 6 had been played
stayed inside. running 8 had known
3 a Martin is a good cook. Still, he rarely
cooks for his friends, 2 who B 7 when A
b Though Martin is a good cook, he 3 where A 8 who B
rarely cooks for his friends./Martin is a
i* >
4 which B 9 where A
good cook. He rarely cooks for his 5 whose A 10 where A
friends, though. 6 when B
4 a The house is in bad condition, even
though they paid a lot of money for it.
2 which 5 which 8 where
b The house is in bad condition. 20 3 who 6 which
Nevertheless, they paid a lot of money
4 who 7 where
for it.
5 a Despite the lecture being very
im portant, few students attended./ 2 who/that 9 (which/that)
Despite the fact that the lecture was 3 (why/that) 10 why
21>
very important, few students attended, 4 (which/that) 11 where
b The lecture was very important, yet 5 (which/that) 12 who/that
few students attended. 6 (where) 13 whose
6 a Although there wasnt much food in the 7 who/that 14 (when/that)
fridge, we managed t6 make a meal, 8 (when/that) 15 whose
b There wasnt much food in the fridge.
However, we managed to make a meal. 2 where 7 which 12 why
7 a She hadnt slept well. Still, she looked 3 which 8 which 13 which
22>
fresh and lively, 4 who 9 why 14 who
b In spite of not having slept well, she 5 whose 10 where 15 where
looked fresh and lively./ln spite of the 6 where 11 which
fact that she hadnt slept well, she
looked fresh and lively. 2 A: ... which/that Sam has gone to is at his
8 a His parents are very rich. Nevertheless, 23 friends house.
he never asks them for money, B: ... Sam has gone to is at his friends
b His parents are very rich, yet he never house.
asks them for money. 3 A: ... who/whom/that I was talking to is
9 a Though I had seen the film before, I my boss.
enjoyed watching it again./I had seen B: ... I was talking to is my boss.
the film before. I enjoyed watching it 4 A: ... who/whom/that she works for is very
again, though, famous.
b Despite having seen the film before, I B: ... she works for is very famous.
enjoyed watching it again./Despite the 5 A: ... which/that I lent to Pam is made of
fact that I had seen the film before, I leather.
enjoyed watching it again. B: ... I lent to Pam is made of leather.

264
My father has a large collection of coins, 15 London, where the Houses of Parliament
24 many of which are foreign. are, is the capital of England. (Nl, cannot
I baked lots of biscuits yesterday, very few be omitted)
of which are left now. 16 My favourite time of the year is summer,
She knows lots of people at work, a few of when the weather is hot. (Nl, cannot be
whom are from New Zealand. omitted)
I have four aunts, none of whom are 17 The woman who/that won the lottery gave
married. an interview to the newspaper. (I, cannot
There are thousands of trees in the forest, be omitted)
some of which are very old.
2 that I repaired 8 who commit
... (who/whom) I went to is a friend of mine 3 who owns the crimes
25 (who/ whom) I met at university. company 9 when the shops
... which/that won the competition was which is why I 10 which was very
written by a schoolboy who was thirteen never kind
years old. whom you were 11 who lives next
... someone with his homework, whose talking to/to whom door
name is Alec and who is a classmate of you were talking 12 which I bought
mine. who broke the last week
... whose house is going to be pulled window 13 whom she
down, is looking for a new flat. where he lived interviewed
... which is a bestseller, is written by when
Nathan Davis, who has written ten novels.
as long as 8 Although
My office, which is very big, is on the first 28^ In conclusion 9 when
26 floor. (Nl, cannot be omitted) in order to 10 such as
Martin, who works in the library, writes because 11 apart from
poetry in his spare time. (Nl, cannot be However 12 while
omitted) so
That's the woman whose house was
burgled last week. (I, cannot be omitted) Claire is very tall. What is more, she is
The day when/that I left school was hot 29 very thin.
and sunny. (I, can be omitted) Despite (my) being tired/the fact that I was
Sarah Jones, w ho/whom I knew at tired, I watched the late film.
university, is a doctor now. (Nl, cannot be John did his homework while his brother
omitted) tidied the kitchen.
This is the girl whose letter was printed in Tom likes football whereas Stuart likes
the newspaper. (I, cannot be omitted) basketball.
This CD, which I bought yesterday, is The phone rang as soon as he fell asleep.
awful. (Nl, cannot be omitted) She brushed her teeth, then she went to
Tina, who lives next door, is a wonderful bed.
cook. (Nl, cannot be omitted) We went to the shops. After that, we had
10 People who/that play musical instruments lunch.
are called musicians. (I, cannot be omitted) I enjoy reading books as well as watching
n The cafe where we had lunch served TV.
delicious food. (I, cannot be omitted) 10 Neither Jason nor Paul likes tomatoes./
12 This is the reason why/that I havent Jason doesnt like tomatoes and neither
finished. (I, can be omitted) does Paul.
13 My friend Peter, who has just moved to
Wales, sent me a long letter. (Nl, cannot She invested some of her money in bonds
be omitted) 3 > in order to increase her income.
14 My boss, whose office is next to mine, is He is a good sportsman as well as a
on holiday at the moment. (Nl, cannot be talented writer.
omitted) Neither Sandra nor Louise can cook.

265
5 I will drive you to school provided (that) 10 so tight that
you are ready on time. 11 due to the fact that
6 Thats the house which my uncle built. 12 as if she was/were going
7 She left the taps running. As a result, the 13 such an expensive hotel that
bathroom flooded. 14 in case you lose
8 They did the washing-up after they had 15 to avoid forgetting
eaten lunch. 16 most of whom
9 It was so hot that we decided to go for a 17 and consequently he was
swim. 18 as if someone has put
10 This is the restaurant where we had lunch. 19 which was very polite
20 whose novel became
21 who live abroad
2 Simon is often invited to parties since he
31 is a popular person.
3 I had a great holiday even though it rained 1 He ran down the road so as not to/in
all the time. 37> . order not to miss the bus.
4 Paul is a builder whereas Robin is a 2 Despite his talents, he is very shy.
plumber. 3 This is the girl whose parents own the
5 We had salad for lunch because we both hotel.
want to lose weight. 4 She often acts as if she was/were better
6 My teacher is very kind. On the other than everyone else.
hand, she can be strict at times. 5 She makes such delicious food, she
ought to be a chef.
a 2 wherever b 1 To begin with 6 When I see her, Ill invite her to the party.
32 3 Furthermore 2 because 7 His house, which is very old, is opposite
4 so 3 However the post office.
5 Finally 4 as a result 8 This is the book which I borrowed from
6 On the whole 5 so as not to the library.
6 Whenever 9 Jane finished writing the letter at 8
7 To sum up o clock. She had started writing it an hour
before.
2 As a result 5 In the end 10 Is she the woman who lives next door to
33 3 In addition 6 as soon as you?
4 so 7 In short 11 Youd better take a jumper in case it
is/its cold.
2 apart from 8 in order that 12 The town where I grew up/which I grew
34 > 3 In short 9 due to the fact up in has changed a lot.
4 that that
5 At last 10 while 1 will 4 he 7 his 10 an
6 so long as/ 11 provided that/so 2 that 5 there 8 will 11 will
38
provided that long as 9 for 12 so
3 an 6 of
For instance 12 What is more

2 dis 5 un 8 mis
2 A 4 A 6 B 8 A 39 3 im 6 im 9 un
35 3 B 5 C 7 C 9 B 4 il 7 de 10 ir

2 in which he gave 2 beneficial 7 repayments


3 such a mess that 3 knowledge 8 essential
4> 4 manager 9 employees
4 who park in this area
5 who is driving that car 5 commitment 10 success
6 because he had forgotten 6 financial
7 which was published
8 spite of (her) being hurt
9 prevent him from giving up

266
Phrasal Verbs 2 of 5 was 8 out
45 3 whose 6 to 9 with
2 down/over 12 out 4 won 7 until/till 10 one
3 over 13 into/up against
4 to 14 off
5 up 15 away 2 ache/are aching 7 dont see
6 across 16 out of 46 3 tastes 8 are you tasting
7 about 17 down 4 am weighing 9 am seeing
8 through 18 through 5 dont remember 10 am thinking
9 away with 19 into 6 think
10 down 20 off
11 up against/into 21 through 1 being 6 - 11 been
47 2 - 7 - 12 at
3 that 8 - 13 will
P re p o s itio n s 4 it 9 the 14 to
5 of 10 the 15 -
1 out of 8 from 15 out of
2 on 9 In 16 for
3 without 10 for 17 in O ra l A ctivity
4 at 11 off 18 on
15th June is the day (when/that) we wish
5 under 12 in 19 on
to perform the play.
6 on 13 by 20 at
Macbeth is the play (which/that) we want
7 by 14 in
to put on.
David Lee is the boy who/that will play
2 had done 7 enjoyed/was Macbeth.
3 will send enjoying Sophie Jenkins is the girl whose mother
4 would help 8 didnt play has offered to make the costumes.
5 have eaten 9 would you buy Mark Taylor is the boy whose father has
6 hadnt forgotten 10 had known agreed to advertise the play.
250 is the amount (which/that) we hope
2 you type any faster to raise for charity.
3 is likely (that) we will The RSPCA is the charity (which/that) we
4 agreed to help me with wish to donate the money to.
5 had my bag stolen
6 the most wonderful song
Writing A ctivity
7 was allowed to go
8 been playing the guitar since ... the day (when/that) we wish to perform
9 found her behaviour annoying the play. Macbeth is the play (which/that) we
10 should be told about want to put on and David Lee is the boy
11 neednt have done who/that will play Macbeth. Sophie Jenkins is
12 why Michael was the girl whose mother has offered to make the
13 was too difficult for me costumes and Mark Taylor is the boy whose
14 is being repaired by father has agreed to advertise the play. 250 is
15 did we know (that) the amount (which/ that) we hope to raise for
16 is not strong enough charity and the RSPCA is the charity
17 were sent (which/that) we wish to donate the money to.
18 ought to phone

267
UNIT 11: Pronouns - Possessives-
Demonstratives - Quantifiers
1 him 4 her 7 me, He, 11 We had a barbecue in Bob and Maries
2 He, he, I 5 I, her he garden.
3 she, her 6 Me 12 The inspector looked at the passengers
tickets.
1 It 6 It, it 11 it
2 There, it 7 it 12 There, it 2 it 6 it 10 you 14 me
3 it 8 one, it 13 It 3 your 7 your 11 she
9 >
4 There, It 9 There 4 their 8 it 12 her
5 one 10 There 5 they 9 them 13 my

2 the childrens 6 the end of the 2 grew them 5 fixed it myself


teacher road 1<U myself 6 taught himself
3 Sallys and Janes 7 the students 3 painted it himself 7 dresses himself
coats books 4 decorate it 8 organised it
4 the Prime Minister 8 the owner of the yourself herself
of England building
2 each other/ 7 yourself
5 my sisters CDs
one another 8 each other/one
11>
3 each other/ another
1 his 5 Their, mine/ours
one another 9 himself
2 Her, her 6 your, mine
4 herself 10 each other/one
3 His, his 7 her, her
5 ourselves another
4 your, her/his 8 my, mine
6 itself
2 your 5 his 8 the
2 Those 6 this 10 that
3 the 6 her 9 the
3 this 7 These 11 those
4 my 7 his 10 her 12>
4 These 8 this 12 that
2 of his own 6 your own 5 That 9 This
3 of my own 7 of his own
2 something 10 no
4 my own 8 of our own
1 3 * 3 somewhere 11 anyone
5 their own 9 of your own
4 no 12 something
5 anywhere 13 some
2 its 4 Its 6 its 6 somewhere 14 somewhere
3 Its 5 Its 7 anywhere 15 no
8 Someone 16 something
2 It is a ten-minute walk to school. 9 anyone 17 some
3 We are going on holiday in two weeks time.
4 She received the parcel in this mornings 2 Everyone/Everybody is learning
post. 3 Everyone/Everybody is talking
14>
5 Paul never pays attention to his parents 4 Everything has been
advice. 5 Everyone/Everybody leaves/left
6 That girl on the stage is a friend of mine. 6 Everyone/Everybody likes
7 Sarahs and Davids bicycles are being 7 everything was
repaired. 8 Everyone/Everybody is having
8 Simon lost a weeks pay when he was ill. 9 everywhere was
9 The girl shook the mans hand. 10 everything fell
10 Can I see todays menu, please? 11 everyone/everybody has arrived/arrives
something, 8 anywhere 2 most 8 several
anything 9 nowhere, some 24 3 none of 9 every one of
someone 10 someone 4 several 10 any
no one, 11 anywhere, 5 some 11 every
somewhere somewhere 6 Both 12 no
no, anything 12 something, 7 neither of
any nothing
any, some 2 A 4 A 6 C 8 B 10 B
25 3 B 5 B 7 A 9 C 11 A
elses 6 or else
else 7 else 2 Both Harold and Helen wear glasses.
else 8 elses 26 3 Either Kerry or Joe is cleaning the house.
elsewhere 4 Neither Clive nor Bill can speak French.
5 Both Kim and Laura love chocolate.
someone/ 5 something else 6 Both Simon and Mike need a haircut.
somebody else 6 everything else 7 Neither Daphne nor Jane eats meat.
somewhere else 8 Either Scott or Jim is washing the car.
anyone/anybody 9 Both Debbie and Hannah go to school.
else 10 Either Henry or Todd repaired the fence.
11 Neither Beth nor Doug can play the piano.
12 Either Pam or Carl will water the plants.
every 6 each 10 every
Each 7 every 11 every
each 8 every 12 each 2 something/ 8 any
each 9 every 27 anything 9 much
3 a few/some 10 every
much 9 many 4 something 11 many
How many 10 much 5 anything/ 12 anywhere
a lot 11 a lot of something 13 somewhere
much 12 How many 6 a lot of 14 a lot of
How much, a lot 13 How much 7 much
a lot 14 many
a lot of 2 the others 10 another
28 > 3 each other 11 each other
4 every other 12 every other
too much 7 too much
5 the others 13 the other
too many 8 too much
6 another 14 another
Too much 9 too many
7 others 15 the other
too many 10 too much
8 each other 16 other
too much
9 every other

very little 7 much 12 a little 1 their 5 them 8 they


much 8 very little 13 a few 29> 2 them 6 their, 9 their
a lot of 9 a lot of 14 many 3 their them
a little 10 a few 15 little 4 her 7 his
a lot of 11 few
2 Is 5 all 8 both
much 5 much 8 few 3 0 j> 3 each one 6 Either 9 Neither
few 6 many 4 anyone 7 None 10 all the
few 7 little
1 We can watch the comedy or the thriller.
of 5 _ 8 of 31 Either film is fine with me.
6 of 9 - 2 I have very little time. Youd better make
of 7 of 10 of it quick.

269
3 The childrens area is run by experienced Prepositions
staff.
4 There isnt anything/is nothing good on 2 on 7 on 12 at 17 before
television this evening. 3 for 8 for 13 on 18 by
35>
5 The boy had a cut on each knee. 4 out of 9 for 14 on 19 on
6 We have rarely been anywhere as 5 off 10 out of 15 at 20 under
beautiful as this. 6 within 11 in 16 from
7 He works a lot harder than me / 1do.
8 What have you told the other staff? Phrasal Verbs
9 The cupboard was right next to him.
10 Dont drink all the lemonade by yourself. 2 out/off 13 away 24 out
Offer some to your friends. 3 after 14 in 25 off
36>
11 She spent all day/the whole day talking 4 by 15 up 26 up for
to customers. 5 in 16 out 27 over
12 We have all been invited to Samanthas 6 off 17 up to 28 off
party. 7 aside/by 18 up on 29 to
13 The teacher patted her on the head. 8 for 19 down 30 aback
14 That dog is hurt. One of its paws is bleeding. 9 up 20 on 31 in for
10 back 21 up 32 away
15 These are Janes and Claires school bags.
11 off/out 22 up 33 off
16 All my clients/clients files are on the desk.
12 out 23 in
17 Ive visited nearly every house on this list.
18 This jacket is my father-in-laws.
19 Theres someone here to see you. It must 2 I always lock the doors and windows to
be your sister. avoid being burgled.
37>
20 Feel free to ask any question you like. 3 I went to the bank to withdraw some money.
4 Lets take an umbrella in case it rains.
5 The bus was so late that they had to take
1 of 6 it 11 people
a taxi.
2 herself 7 one 12 a
6 It was such an expensive dress that she
3 of 8 she 13 a
couldnt afford it.
4 the 9 she 14 person
7 I went to a party and, as a result, I stayed
5 one 10 ones
up very late.
8 Stuart cant go to the concert since he has
2 paid no attention 10 dress herself no money.
3 both Emily and 11 make myself 9 They are such rich people that they dont
her brother understood have to work.
4 hasnt got much 12 you enjoy 10 Pauline doesnt wear a watch and
5 nor Peter was yourself consequently she is often late.
6 was sitting by 13 an hours drive 11 She felt lonely although she was
herself 14 could borrow surrounded by lots of people.
7 are not many anything I wanted
people who 15 none of the three 2 where 5 whose 8 why
8 the whole day boys 38> 3 which 6 who
9 someone elses 16 time on my own 4 who 7 where
briefcase 17 John or Martin

O ra l A ctivity
1 achievement
2 creative, originality (Suggested answers)
3 attendance, performance, pleasant Neither The Capri nor Marcos serves
4 government, advertising, discouraging much vegetarian food.
5 absence, inconvenience Both The Capri and Marcos have a lot
6 excitement, thought of regular customers.
7 inventor, protective, explosion Both The Capri and Marcos receive
8 owner, extensive, collection, valuable very few complaints.
Neither The Capri nor Marcos employs Writing A ctivity
many people.
Both The Capri and Marcos need a (Suggested Answer)
little redecorating. ... of them serve/serves much vegetarian food.
Neither The Capri nor Marcos charges Both of these restaurants have a lot of regular
much for a meal. customers and both receive very few complaints.
Both T he C apri and M arcos have Neither The Capri nor Marcos employs
several special offers every month. many people and both need a little redecorating.
However, neither The Capri nor Marcos
charges much for a meal and both restaurants
have several special offers every month ...

UNIT 12: Questions and Answers -


Words often Confused
2 Should they concentrate in class? Yes, 10 Who wants to open a shop?
they should. 11 Where has Todd been?
3 Can she speak any foreign languages? 12 Why is she happy?
No, she cant. 13 What is Alan like?
4 Do they have to work overtime? Yes, they do. 14 When/How long ago did they move here?
5 Was the boss angry when Stuart arrived
late? Yes, he was. 2 Where does she live?
6 Did the children enjoy the film? No, they 3 How long has she lived there?
didnt. 4 What/Which are her favourite subjects?
7 Did she want to go to the supermarket? 5 How many brothers does she have?
Yes, she did. 6 What are their names?
8 Does the train leave at half past six? Yes, 7 What are Louises hobbies?
it does. 8 How often does she practise the violin?
9 Why does her mother enjoy this?
2 When/What time 11 When
3 Where 12 How long
2 Whose wallet did she find?
4 What time 13 Whose
3 Who made these cakes?
5 How much 14 Which
4 Whose dress was ruined at the party?
6 How many 15 Who
5 What is Melissa wearing?
7 How much 16 When
6 Which is the older of the two brothers?
8 Why 17 When/How long
7 What has Stacey bought?
9 What ago
8 Which jumper do you like best?
10 What 18 Which/What
9 What was blown off in the storm?
10 Who did you run into the other day?
2 How long does it take to drive to the 11 Whose secretary did you speak to about
supermarket? your complaint?
3 What is George like? 12 Who won the 1500m race?
4 What does Mary look like?
5 How often do you go swimming? 2 a goes swimming three times a week
6 What made them laugh? b does Stanley go swimming
7 Whose are these books?/Whose books are 3 a of these shirts is yours/is your shirt
these? b is the yellow shirt
8 How much did/do the shoes cost? 4 a mug has Steven broken
9 When/What time does the film start? b has broken Jim s mug

271
a is going to the theatre this evening 2 dont they, they 10 doesnt he, he
b is Linda going this evening dont doesnt
a bought Ralph a present yesterday 3 w ont he, he will 11 havent they, they
b did Anne buy a present for yesterday 4 doesnt she, she have
a bag is on the chair doesnt 12 doesnt he, he
b is Fays bag/bag is Fays 5 havent you, I does
have 13 am I, youre not/
was it from 5 is she excited 6 arent I, you are you arent
does he come about 7 are they, they are 14 w ont they, they
from 6 did she play with 8 will you, I w ont will
was it about 7 did he write (it) to 9 didnt you, I did 15 didnt you, I did
8 did you go with
1 havent you, arent there
Dont they live here any more? 2 w ont you, am I, didnt you, are you
15>
8 Cant she drive a car? 3 have you, didnt I, did she, isnt it
Doesnt he understand what he has to
do?
2 isnt there \ 8 isnt he \
D ont you know the answer to this
i 6> 3 w ont she * 9 havent you *
question?
4 cant she * 10 w ont it \
6 Didnt he offer you anything to drink?
5 dont you \ 11 hasnt he \
7 Havent we got any milk left?
6 dont they * 12 isnt it *
8 Couldnt you do anything to help him?
7 dont we *
2 Dont you know
3 Havent you already seen Paul doesnt like going to the theatre.
4 W ont/Cant/C ouldnt you help Neither do I.
5 Havent you typed 2 Sally is good at Maths, isnt she?
6 Arent you cold/lsnt it cold 3 She never writes to you, does she?
4 Mark is going to the supermarket. So
2 who that woman is. am I.
10 3 what time the next train leaves? 5 Who made all this mess?
4 how much this dress costs? 6 Could you tell me when the bus leaves?
5 where Mary lives. 7 Come back soon, wont you?/will you?
6 if/whether the police are investigating the 8 She seldom receives visitors, does she?
robbery? 9 Everybody is here now, arent they?
7 if/whether the caller left a message.
8 if/whether he is the manager.
9 who reported the crime? 1 did 6 not 11 not
10 how they found the missing jewellery? 2 she 7 ago 12 does
18>
3 it 8 does 13 did
4 mean 9 do 14 look
2 F 3 T 4 F 5 T 5 not 10 not
11

2 So did I 6 So have I P h ra s a l V erbs


3 Neither/Nor do I 7 Neither/Nor have I
i2 >
4 Neither/Nor am I 8 So was I 2 on 10 out 17 out
5 So am I 1 9 ^ 3 out 11 up 18 down
4 off 12 into 19 down
2 I dont think so 7 I believe so 5 up 13 on 20 away
i 3> 3 Im afraid so 8 Im afraid not 6 in 14 up 21 out
4 I expect so 9 I d o n t suppose 7 to 15 over/in 22 over
5 I think so so/1 suppose not 8 down ... to 23 off
6 It appears so 9 out 16 out 24 out

272
Prepositions 5 SA: How much hom ework do the
teachers give us?
2 For 8 on 14 On SB: Not too much.
3 on 9 15 in 6 SA: When do we have lunch?
20> 4 off 10
By
in 16 against SB: At twelve o clock.
5 from 11 at 17 by 7 SA: Why does the teacher take the
6 under 12 in 18 out of register?
7 out of 13 at 19 on SB: To make sure everyone is here.
8 SA: How do I get to my classroom?
1 impressive SB: I will take you there.
21 2 importance, evidence
3 innocence, presence, violence Writing A ctivity
4 careful, harmful (Suggested answers)
5 tourists, accommodation, peaceful
Charlotte: Where do we play during the break?
6 lucky, financial, successful, wealthy,
Ian: In the playground.
numerous
Charlotte: Can we eat in the classrooms?
Ian: No, we cant.
2 action 6 operations
Charlotte: Where do we eat lunch?
22> 3 adventurous 7 incredibly
Ian: In the school canteen.
4 interesting 8 unusual
Charlotte: What/Which is your favourite subject?
5 dangerous
Ian: Maths.
Charlotte: Which class are you in?
leave until you 7 had better not go Ian: 4B.
23 tidy/have tidied 8 in case she Charlotte: Who is your favourite teacher?
I were you wanted Ian: Mrs Ford.
wish I had 9 because of the Charlotte: What is the headmasters name?
in spite of (his) 10 would rather Ian: Mr Clark.
being make Charlotte: What time does school finish?
as the teacher Ian: At half past three.
was

When was the parcel delivered (by the Words often Confused
24> postman)?
They are being told a joke by Emily.
Were the results announced on the radio? 1 1 a9 2 before 3 before 4 ago
Tina cant stand being interrupted.
He expects to be given a lift by his father.
1 beside 3 Besides
2 C 5 A 8 A 11 B 14 B
2 beside 4 besides
3 C 6 C 9 B 12 B
25>
4 B 7 C 10 A 13 C
1 after 3 afterwards
2 afterwards 4 After
O ra l A ctivity
(Suggested answers)
1 good 3 good 5 well
2 SA: Where do I put my coat?
2 well 4 well
SB: In the cloakroom.
SA: How many children are there in my
class? 1 hard 3 hardly
SB: Twenty. 2 hardly 4 hard
SA: How often do we have exams?
SB: Once a year.
0 ^ 1 Its 2 Its 3 its 4 its

275
1 quite 3 quite . _ 1 on time 3 in time
2 enough 4 enough * 2 in time 4 in time

1 used to 3 are used to 1 was doing 8 do


2 used to 4 is used to 2 made/ makes/ 9 make
16>
has made 10 do
3 make 11 making
1 affect 3 affect 4 doing/to do 12 make
2 effect 4 effect 5 did 13 do
6 made 14 do
1 except 6 Besides 7 are making/have 15 made
2 Apart 7 except (for)/but/ made
3 besides apart from
4 but/except (for)/ 8 Besides/Apart 1 at the beginning 6 At the beginning
apart from from 2 In the beginning 7 at the end
5 Apart 9 Besides
1T # 3 in the end 8 in the end
4 at the end 9 In the beginning
5 in the beginning
1 take 3 took
2 Bring 4 bring
1 any way 3 anyway 5 any way
1 until 3 by 5 until 18> 2 any way 4 anyway
2 until 4 by
1 all ready 3 already 5 all ready
19> 2 all ready 4 already
1 for 3 since 5 since
2 since 4 for

1 listen 3 hear
2 heard 4 listens

Revision 4 (Units 1 - 12)


2 C 10 B 18 A 26 C 34 A 7 His shirt has been torn again.
3 C 11 A 19 A 27 B 35 C 8 The dogs are fed by Mark every morning.
4 A 12 B 20 C 28 A 36 C 9 Nothing should be revealed to the press.
5 C 13 B 21 A 29 C 37 A 10 Where have those parcels been sent to?
6 B 14 A 22 B 30 C 38 B 11 It is thought that he will win the race.
7 C 15 B 23 B 31 A 39 B 12 I object to my books being taken (by her)
8 B 16 A 24 A 32 C 40 A without permission.
9 B 17 B 25 C 33 B 13 All the tickets had been sold by the time
we arrived.
2 The floor is being cleaned by Dad at the 14 Jam is made from fruit.
moment. 15 He was seen talking to the manager.
3 Our telephone was cut off (by the phone 16 Who was that beautiful photo taken by?
company) yesterday. 17 When was their shop opened?
4 The washing-up must be done after dinner.
5 All the letters will have been typed by five 2 Why is he sad?
o clock. 3 What does Sarah look like?
6 Two candidates are being interviewed at 4 What is Barry like?
the moment. 5 Where is Claire?
What time does the play start?/When 6 He denied breaking my stereo.
does the play start? 7 He begged her not to go without him.
How long ago did he buy that car?/When 8 Emma boasted about/of being the
did he buy that car? prettiest girl at the party.
8 Who wants to go on holiday? 9 She asked him to open the window.
9 How did you get to the island? 10 Mary reminded Liz to set the alarm.
10 Whose book is that?/Whose is that book? 11 She accused her sister of ruining her
dress.
They will have their bags carried by the 12 Karen advised me to do some revision.
porter. 13 Sophie admitted to crashing/to having
I must have the windows cleaned. crashed the car.
He had his fence built by a carpenter. 14 The headmistress ordered the children to
Lucy is having her hair styled by the stand up.
hairdresser. 15 The scientist warned them not to touch
He has had his arm bandaged by the the button.
doctor.
Tom was having his teeth checked by the 1 to walk 9 to finish
dentist. 8 2 going 10 swimming
8 I had had the floor washed by the cleaner. 3 to get 11 missing
9 Its worth having the roof repaired. 4 to watch 12 breaking
10 He will be having the wall built (by the 5 to be 13 singing
builders). 6 tidy 14 to do
7 to help 15 Skiing
8 to stealing
2 .. enough time to have a cup of tea.
3 .. too tough for me to cut.
4 .. too heavy for him to carry. 2 Being tired, we stayed at home.
5 .. enough money to go out to dinner. 3 Having explained the problem, the boss
6 .. enough food to feed all the guests. asked the employee to solve it.
7 .. beautiful enough to be a model. Having locked the doors, Katie went to
8 .. too young to drive a car. the shop.
9 .. too cold outside for you to wear shorts. Feeling ill, Stuart went to the doctors.
10 .. clever enough to pass his exams. The boy wearing a hat is Nicholas.
The files stored on that disk were very
2 .. have I seen such beautiful mountains. important.
3 .. I you, I would get a cat. Having made the beds, Caroline went to
4 .. did the policeman realise that the thief work.
had already escaped. Having overslept, he had to take a taxi to
5 last summer has he had an ice cream, the office.
6 10 Robin got oil on his shirt fixing his bike.
did she break the glass but she (also)
cut her hand. 11 Picking up a book, Rachel started to read.
7 have we seen such a well-kept garden, 12 Oliver was sitting on a bench watching the
8 have they stayed in such a wonderful football match.
hotel.
... has he apologised for his appalling 2 could afford 6 hadnt missed
behaviour. 10 3 wouldnt talk/ 7 had asked
10 ... the children had left did I notice the didnt talk 8 had
broken window. 4 hadnt left 9 didnt have
5 would visit 10 would tell/told
She complained that he always makes/
made too much noise.
I agreed to lend her the money.
Julia exclaimed that it was/had been a
delicious meal.
He suggested going shopping.

275
2 have been 9 have you worked/ 2 walking by 12 doesnt have
thinking have you been 16 herself mu