You are on page 1of 20

7 Chemists use the concept of the mole to calculate the amounts of chemicals involved in a reaction.

(a) Define mole.

[1]

(b) 3.0 g of magnesium was added to 12.0 g of ethanoic acid.

Mg + 2CH3COOH (CH3COO)2Mg + H2

The
, of the aqueous oxalic acid.

.. [2]
Total / 11
9. Mary put some marble chips into a flask.
T
h
e
m
a
s
s

o
f
o
She added acid and watched the marble chips react. n
e
m
When the reaction had stopped there were some marble chips left in the flask. o
l
e
o
f
(a) How can Mary see if the reaction has stopped?
C
H
. ....................................................................................................................................... 3
.[1] C
O
O
H

(b) Explain why the reaction has stopped. i


s
. ....................................................................................................................................... 6
..... 0

g
. .......................................................................................................................................
.
.[1]

(c) Explain what will happen if Mary adds more acid to the flask.

. .......................................................................................................................................
.....
. ........................................................................................................................................
[2] [T mass of one mole of Mg is 24 g.

(i) Which one, magnesium or ethanoic acid, is in excess? You must show your
reasoning.

..........................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

[3]
(ii) How many moles of hydrogen were formed?

[1]

(iii) Calculate the volume of hydrogen formed, measured at r.t.p. [2]

3
(c) In an experiment, 25.0 cm 3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide, 0.4 mol / dm , was neutralised
3
by 20.0 cm of aqueous oxalic acid, H2C2O4.

2NaOH + H2C2O4 Na2C2O4 +2H2O

Calculate the concentration of the oxalic acid in mol / dm 3 .

(i) Calculate the number of moles of NaOH in 25.0 cm 3 of 0.4 mol / dm3 solution.

[1]

(ii) Use your answer to (i) and the mole ratio in the equation to find out the number of
moles of H2C2O4 in 20 cm3
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
3

(iii) Calculate the concentration, mol / dm otal: 4]


5. Mary finds that 3.2 g of copper reacts with 0.4g of oxygen.

[Relative atomic mass: O=16, Cu=64]

(a) 0.05 moles of copper are present.

How many moles of oxygen are present?

........................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) What is the empirical formula of the copper oxide?

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 3]

9 Silicon dioxide and sodium ferrate have been discovered on the planet Mars.

(a) Silicon dioxide, SiO2, has a molar mass of 60 g / mol.

Calculate the molar mass of sodium ferrate, Na2FeO4.

The relative atomic mass (Ar ) for O is 16, for Na is 23, for Si is 28 and for Fe is
56.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

molar mass = ........................................ g / mol [1]

(b) Compound X has been discovered on the planet Mars.

Compound X has the empirical formula CH.

Which two formulae could be compound X?

Choose from the list.

CH4 C2H2
C2H6 C4H8
C6H6 C10H22

answer ............................................................. and .............................................................[2]

[Total: 3]
6 Silicon dioxide and iron(III) hydroxide have been discovered on the planet Mars.

(a) Silicon dioxide, SiO2, has a molar mass of 60 g / mol.


Calculate the molar mass of iron(III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3.

The relative atomic mass (Ar) for H is 1, for O is 16, for Si is 28 and for Fe is 56.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

molar mass = .................................. g / mol [1]

(b) Compound X has been discovered on the planet Mars.

Compound X has the empirical formula CH.

Which two formulae could be compound X?

Choose from the list.

CH4 C2H2
C2H6 C4H8
C6H6 C10H22

answer ............................................................. and .............................................................[2]

9 Silicon dioxide and sodium ferrate have been discovered on the planet Mars.

(a) Silicon dioxide, SiO2, has a molar mass of 60 g / mol.

Calculate the molar mass of sodium ferrate, Na2FeO4.

The relative atomic mass (Ar ) for O is 16, for Na is 23, for Si is 28 and for Fe is
56.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

molar mass = ........................................ g / mol [1]

(b) Compound X has been discovered on the planet Mars.

Compound X has the empirical formula CH.

Which two formulae could be compound X?

Choose from the list.

CH4 C2H2
C2H6 C4H8
C6H6 C10H22

answer ............................................................. and .............................................................[2]


6 Silicon dioxide and iron(III) hydroxide have been discovered on the planet Mars.

(a) Silicon dioxide, SiO2, has a molar mass of 60 g / mol.

Calculate the molar mass of iron(III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3.

The relative atomic mass (Ar) for H is 1, for O is 16, for Si is 28 and for Fe is 56.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

molar mass = .................................. g / mol [1]

(b) Compound X has been discovered on the planet Mars.

Compound X has the empirical formula CH.

Which two formulae could be compound X?

Choose from the list.

CH4 C2H2
C2H6 C4H8
C6H6 C10H22

answer ............................................................. and .............................................................[2]

[Total: 3]
4 Ammonium sulfate is a fertiliser used by farmers.

ammonium
sulfate
(NH4)2SO4

Ammonium sulfate has the formula (NH4)2SO4.

(a) Cassie makes some ammonium sulfate crystals.

(i) She uses an acid with a base.

What is the name of the base she uses?


.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii)

Look at the apparatus they use.

thread thread
sodium sulfate
solution
barium sodium chloride
chloride solution and precipitate
solution of barium sulfate

before mixing after mixing

They record the total mass of the flask, test-tube and contents.

They then take the flask off the balance and tip the flask upside down.

Nick and Sloane are careful not to let any liquid leak out of the flask.

The solutions mix and react. A precipitate is made.

They put the flask back on the balance and record the mass again.

(a) What happens to the mass during the reaction?

Choose from:

decreases

increases

stays the same

answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Barium chloride solution reacts with sodium sulfate solution.

Look at the word equation for this reaction.

barium chloride + sodium sulfate barium sulfate + sodium chloride

(i) Write down the name of one of the products of the reaction.

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) A precipitate is made.

What is the colour of the precipitate?

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Look at the table.


It shows the formula of each compound in the word equation.

compound formula

barium chloride BaCl 2

barium sulfate BaSO4

sodium chloride NaCl


sodium sulfate Na2SO4

(i) Two compounds in the table contain three elements.

Which two?

............................................................ and ............................................................... [1]

(ii) The relative formula mass (Mr) of sodium chloride, NaCl, is 58.5.

What is the relative formula mass of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4?

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of O is 16, of Na is 23, of S is 32 and of Cl is 35.5.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

relative formula mass ................................ [1]

[Total: 5]
1 Nick and Sloane investigate precipitation reactions.
She predicts she should make 24.6 g of crystals.

She actually makes 4.92 g of

crystals. What is her percentage

yield?

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

percentage yield = .............................................. % [2]

(b) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen by mass in ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4.

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of H is 1, of N is 14, of O is 16 and of S is 32.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

percentage by mass = .............................................. % [2]

(c) The use of a fertiliser such as ammonium sulfate makes crops grow bigger and faster
increasing crop yield.

Explain why.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [2]

[Total: 7]

1 Nick and Sloane investigate precipitation reactions.

Look at the apparatus they use.

thread thread
sodium sulfate
solution
barium sodium chloride
chloride solution and precipitate
solution of barium sulfate

before mixing after mixing

They record the total mass of the flask, test-tube and contents.

They then take the flask off the balance and tip the flask upside down.

Nick and Sloane are careful not to let any liquid leak out of the flask.

The solutions mix and react. A precipitate is made.

They put the flask back on the balance and record the mass again.

(a) Look at the results of this experiment.

mass in grams

mass of flask, test-tube and contents before mixing 142.6

mass of flask, test-tube and contents after mixing 142.6


Look at the balanced symbol equation for the reaction taking place.

BaCl 2
+ Na2SO4 2NaCl + BaSO4

Use the balanced symbol equation to help explain why the mass does not change during the
reaction.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(b) Nick and Sloane do another experiment.

The solutions mix and react. A precipitate is made.

They put the flask back on the balance and record the mass again.

(a) What happens to the mass during the reaction?

Choose from:

decreases

increases

stays the same

answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]


(b) Barium chloride solution reacts with sodium sulfate solution.

Look at the word equation for this reaction.

barium chloride + sodium sulfate barium sulfate + sodium chloride

(i) Write down the name of one of the products of the reaction.

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) A precipitate is made.

What is the colour of the precipitate?

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Look at the table.

It shows the formula of each compound in the word equation.

compound formula

barium chloride BaCl 2

barium sulfate BaSO4

sodium chloride NaCl


sodium sulfate Na2SO4

(i) Two compounds in the table contain three elements.

Which two?

............................................................ and ............................................................... [1]

(ii) The relative formula mass (Mr) of sodium chloride, NaCl, is 58.5.

What is the relative formula mass of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4?


The relative atomic mass (Ar) of O is 16, of Na is 23, of S is 32 and of Cl is 35.5.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

relative formula mass ................................ [1]

[Total: 5]
1 Nick and Sloane investigate precipitation reactions.

Look at the apparatus they use.

thread thread
sodium sulfate
solution
barium sodium chloride
chloride solution and precipitate
solution of barium sulfate

before mixing after mixing


They record the total mass of the flask, test-tube and contents.

They then take the flask off the balance and tip the flask upside

down. Nick and Sloane are careful not to let any liquid leak out of the

flask. The solutions mix and react. A precipitate is made.

They put the flask back on the balance and record the mass again.

(a) Look at the results of this experiment. This time they use barium chloride solution and
ammonium sulfate solution.

Complete the word equation for this reaction.


barium ammonium
+ +
chloride sulfate

[1]

(c) Look at the table.

It shows the formula of some of the compounds used by Nick and Sloane.

compound formula

ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4

barium chloride BaCl 2

iron(III) sulfate Fe2(SO4)3

sodium sulfate Na2SO4

(i) How many atoms are there in the formula for ammonium sulfate?

................................................................... [1]

(ii) The relative formula mass (Mr) of barium chloride is 208.

What is the relative formula mass of iron(III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3?

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of O is 16, of S is 32, of Cl is 35.5 of Fe is 56 and of


Ba is 137.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

relative formula mass ................................ [1]

[Total: 4]
1 Nick and Sloane investigate precipitation reactions.

Look at the apparatus they use.

thread thread
sodium sulfate
solution
barium sodium chloride
chloride solution and precipitate
solution of barium sulfate

after mixing
before mixing
They record the total mass of the flask, test-tube and contents.

They then take the flask off the balance and tip the flask upside down. Nick and Sloane are
careful not to let any liquid leak out of the flask.

mass in grams

mass of flask, test-tube and contents before mixing 142.6

mass of flask, test-tube and contents after mixing 142.6

Look at the balanced symbol equation for the reaction taking place.

BaCl 2
+ Na2SO4 2NaCl + BaSO4

Use the balanced symbol equation to help explain why the mass does not change during
the reaction.

..................................................................................................................................................
.

............................................................................................................................................
[1]

(b) Nick and Sloane do another experiment.

This time they use barium chloride solution and ammonium sulfate solution.

Complete the word equation for this reaction.


barium ammonium
+ +
chloride sulfate

[1]

(c) Look at the table.

It shows the formula of some of the compounds used by Nick and Sloane.
compound formula

ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4

barium chloride BaCl 2

iron(IIIr sulfate Fe2(SO4)3

sodium sulfate Na2SO4

(i) How many atoms are there in the formula for ammonium sulfate?

................................................................... [1]

(ii) The relative formula mass (Mrr of barium chloride is 208.

What is the relative formula mass of iron(IIIr sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3?

The relative atomic mass (Arr of O is 16, of S is 32, of Cl is 35.5 of Fe is 56 and of


Ba is 137.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

relative formula mass ................................ [1]

[Total: 4]
5 Josh looks at this label on his packet of cornflakes.

It shows some
in 100 g of cornflakes?

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

percentage = ............................................. [1]


(ii) Show by calculation that all of the sodium in cornflakes comes from salt, NaCl.

The relative atomic mass of Na is 23 and of Cl is 35.5.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 4]

information about 100 g of cornflakes.

nutrient mass of ingredient percentage of recommended


in milligrams daily allowance (RDA)

folic acid 0.2 85

iron 7.9 55

niacin 13.2 75

vitamin B1 0.7 50

(a) What mass of cornflakes will contain the RDA for vitamin B1?

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

mass of cornflakes = ............................... g [1]

(b) Look at the table.

It gives information about the amount of sodium and of salt in 100 g of cornflakes.

mass in grams

sodium 0.7

salt 1.8

The RDA for salt is 6.0 g.

(i) What is the percentage of the RDA of salt