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- Aee Section 16
- AGMU-Geotechnical Pile Design Guide
- Geotechnical Engineering Series - Deep Foundations
- Chp-20-Final - Depth of Fixity of Pile
- Careers in Geotechnical Engineering
- BRITISH GEOTECHNICAL ASSOCIATION
- [Abu-Farsakh,_Murad_Yusuf;_Alshibli,_Khalid;_Puppa(b-ok.org).pdf
- lateral load pile P-Y method.xls
- Design Specification for Concrete Construction
- Pile Foundation Design -Smith
- A First Aid Course in the Design of Lateral Support and Deep Foundations
- Geopier Soil Improvement
- Ga Method Statement
- Shaft Construction Methods Comparison
- Development of modified p-y curves for Winkler analysis to characterize the lateral load behavior of a single pile embedded in improved soft clay.pdf
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ENCE 461

Foundation Analysis and

Design

Design of Deep Foundations

Sources of Lateral Loading

z Earth pressures on z River current and mud

retaining walls movement loads in

z Wind Loads alluvial settings

(foundations subject

z Seismic Loads to scour)

z Impact Loads from z Ocean wave forces

Ships (Berthing, Pier

Collision, etc. z Slope movements

Columns transmission towers

Axial and

Lateral Loads

Batter Piles

z Basically turn lateral

loads into axial loads

z Present challenges in

driving and testing

z Form a very stiff

system than can pose

problems in seismic

situations

z Very common

solution to lateral

loading

Analytic Methods for Lateral

Loading

z Rigid Methods (Broms)

z Used for light weight short foundations

z Same limitations as rigid methods for mat foundations

z Depth to Fixity Methods (Davisson)

z Only considers a certain depth as flexible

z Structural engineers could analyse the foundation as a

structure once the depth of fixity was known

z Too simplistic

z Finite Element Analysis

z p-y curves

Lateral Failure

Short vs. Long Foundations

Dividing Line:

Timber D/B = 20

Steel or Concrete D/B = 35

Long Foundations

(Beam-Like)

Compression of Soil in Lateral

Loading

Additional stress on the far side

p-y Curves

Take into

consideration

nonlinear soil

characteristics (as

opposed to Winkler

model)

Properly require a

finite-difference

(COM624, LPILE)

computer solution

Non-dimensional

solutions available for

common problems

Development of p-y Curves

z Empirical Data

z Based on actual lateral load tests, either on the job site

itself or on controlled field tests

z Computer Programs

z Model the lateral deflection of the pile as a function of

depth

z Take into consideration non-linear soil response

z Can be difficult to use

z Non dimensional methods based on computer

results or empirical data

z Not as accurate as program, but suitable for estimates

or smaller projects

P

Typical p-y Curve

y

Evans and Duncan Charts

z Based on the COM624G program

z Reduce the variables to nondimensional form

z Advantages

z Analyses can be done quickly and simply

z Can determine load-deflection characteristics directly

z Assumptions

z Constant EI, su, or , and for depth of pile

z Foundation is long enough to be considered fixed at

the toe ("long foundation" criterion)

Evans and Duncan Equations

z Characteristic shear and moment equations

m

p n

V c = B ER I

2

50

ER I

m

p n

M c = B ER I

3

50

ER I

Evans and Duncan Equations

Stiffness ratio RI I

z

RI = 4

B

z R = 1 for circular cross-sections

I 64

z RI = 1.7 for solid square cross sections

z (based on soil's stress-strain behaviour)

z 1 for plastic clay and sand

z 0.14n for brittle clay (residual strength << peak

strength)

Evans and Duncan Equations

z Vc = characteristic shear load

z Mc = characteristic moment load

z B = diameter of foundation

z E = modulus of elasticity of foundation

z p = representative passive pressure of soil

p = 4.2 s u (clay )

'

(sand )

2

p = 2 C p B tan 45 +

2

Evans and Duncan Equations

z 50 = axial strain at which 50% of the soil

strength is mobilised

z Soft clay, 0.02

z Medium clay, 0.01

z Stiff clay, 0.005

z Medium dense sand with little or no mica, 0.002

z I = moment of inertia of foundation

z su = undrained shear strength of soil

z ' = effective friction angle (degrees)

z Both su and ' from ground surface to a depth of 8B

Evans and Duncan Equations

z Cp = passive pressure factor = '/10

z = unit weight of soil from ground surface to a

depth of 8B

z Use a weighted average of both wet and buoyant

weights

z m, n = exponents

z Vc, clay: m = 0.683, n = -0.22

z Mc, clay: m = 0.46, n = -0.15

z Vc, sand: m = 0.57, n = -0.22

z Mc, sand: m = 0.40, n = -0.15

Evans and Duncan Example

z Given z Solution

z Concrete Pile

z Restrained head z = 1 (sand); RI = 1.7

60' long, 12" square

z

(square pile)

z f'c = 6000 psi

z Shear load = 20 kips z Cp = 36/10 = 3.6

z Soil: Sand, ' = 36 deg., = 120

pcf z

Groundwater table at depth of 40' '

(sand )

z

p = 2 C p B tan 2 45 +

z Find 2

z Lateral deflection of the pile top p = 23.1 psi

z Maximum moment at pile top

z E = 4,400,000 psi

(concrete @ 6000 psi)

Evans and Duncan Example

z Compute characteristic shear force and moment

m

p n

V c = B ER I

2

50

ER I

0.57

23.1 0.22

V c = 1 12 2 4,400,000 1.7 0.002

4,400,000 1.7

V c = 3,056,000 lbs.

V 20,000

= = 0.0065

Vc 3,056,000

Evans and Duncan Example

z Charts for Evans and Duncan Method

z Shear Load vs. Lateral Deflection Curves

z Clay, Free Head Condition

z Clay, Restrained Head Condition

z Sand, Free Head Condition

z Sand, Restrained Head Condition

z Moment Load vs. Lateral Deflection Curves for Free

Head Condition

z Clay, Free Head Condition

z Sand, Free Head Condition

Evans and Duncan Example

z Charts for Evans and Duncan Method

z Shear Load vs. Maximum Moment Condition

z Clay, Free Head Condition

z Clay, Restrained Head Condition

z Sand, Free Head Condition

z Sand, Restrained Head Condition

Evans and Duncan Example

z Using Shear Load vs. Lateral Deflection chart,

compute pile head deflection

V/Vc = 0.0065

yt/B = 0.015

yt = (0.015)(12) = 0.18"

Evans and

Duncan Example

V/Vc = 0.0065

M/Mc = 0.0041

z Compute characteristic

pile head moment

m

p n

M c = B ER I

3

50

ER I

0.4

23.1 0.15

M c = 1 12 3 4,400,000 1.7 0.002

4,400,000 1.7

M c = 205,200,00 0 in - lb

Group Effects with Lateral Piles

z Group effects are important with laterally loaded

piles as they are with axial ones

z The effect is usually called the PSPI (pile-soil-

pile-interaction), or shadow effect

z The soil stress created by lateral loads around one pile

will extend to the pile's neighbours, depending upon

the distance between the piles and the level of stress

z The lateral capacity of each pile is generally degraded

by this effect

z Methods of solution use p-y curve methods and

consider spacings and pile deflections

Lateral Load Verification

z Full-scale lateral load tests

z As with axial tests, slow and expensive, but the best

way to determine lateral load capacity

z Always a reaction test

z Can be used to back calculate p-y curves

z Model lateral load tests

z Conditions are controlled, but extrapolation is difficult

z Lateral Statnamic Tests

z Only used as an impact load test

Improving Lateral Load

Capacity

Design of Deep

Foundations

Service loads and allowable

deformations

Subsurface investigations

Type of Foundation

Lateral and Axial Load Capacity

Driveability

Structural Design

Seismic Design

Verification and Redesign

Integrity Testing

Service loads and allowable

deformations

z Most important step

z Loads can include

z Axial loads (live or dead, tensile or compressive)

z Lateral loads (live or dead)

z Moment loads

z Should be combined both as unfactored loads

(ASD) or factored loads (LRFD)

z Allowable settlements should be determined by

structural engineer

Subsurface investigations

z For deep foundations, the subsurface

investigations are generally more intensive and

expensive

z Exploratory borings must extend well below the

toe elevation, which may have to be altered after

initial calculations

z Investigations assist in determining the type of

foundation that should be used

z Use data from deep foundations that have already

been installed in the vicinity (capacity and

drivability)

Type of Foundation

z Type of Foundation is influenced by:

z Design Loads

z Subsurface Conditions

z Constructibility

z Reliability

z Cost

z Availability of materials, equipment and expertise

z Local experience and precedent

Lateral and Axial Load Capacity

z Lateral Loads

z Frequently dictate the diameter (section modulus) of

the foundation, so should be considered first, if present

z p-y curves are the best way of determining lateral

capacity

z Large diameter piles may also be necessary for scour

resistance

z Batter piles are also a typical way of dealing with

lateral loads, but can pose rigidity problems in seismic

situations

z Seismic retrofits are a common application of laterally

loaded piles

Lateral and Axial Load Capacity

z Axial loads

z Analytic methods should be performed first, although

their limitations should be understood

z Analysis should include considerations of allowable

load, allowable settlement, and group effects

(including block failure)

z Ideally, a static load test on test piles should be done;

however, if economic or other factors make this

impractical, other methods such as Osterberg Tests,

CAPWAP, or Statnamic should be considered

z Blow count specifications using a wave equation

analysis are acceptable on smaller projects

Driveability

z Piles that cannot be driven cannot be used to

support loads; thus, drivability is an important

consideration with driven piles

z Wave equation methods are ideal to use for

drivability studies

z Deep foundations must be designed and analysed

to meet criteria for

z Reasonable cost

z Sufficient capacity

z Possible drivability

Structural Design

z Once the geotechnical analysis is done, the

structural engineer can proceed with the

structural design

z Structural design involves both the structural

capacity of the deep foundations themselves and

the pile caps and connecting members that are

above these members

z Plans and specifications presented for bid should

be complete and unambiguous

Seismic Design

z In seismically active areas, earthquake

occurrence must be taken into consideration

z Liquefaction of soils is a major cause of failure

during seismic events

z Deep foundations can be installed beyond liquefying

soils in some cases

z Soil improvement is necessary in others

z Most direct seismic loads on foundations are

lateral ones so lateral load analysis is important

for seismic resistance

z Batter piles tend to be too rigid for seismic loads

Special Considerations

z Scour

z Scour is an important consideration for bridges over

rivers or other bodies of water with consistent currents

z Loss of supporting soil at the head of the deep

foundation must be considered when designing for

scour

z Downdrag

z Compression of soil by overburden around piles

creates downdrag on piles

z This is dealt with either by design or by treatment of

the surface of the pile

Verification and Redesign

z Redesign during construction is to be avoided but

is sometimes necessary due to differences in the

subsurface conditions between what was

estimated and what actually takes place

z Dynamic testing (Case Method, CAPWAP) is a

useful tool to evaluate the need for redesign but

must be used with good judgement

z Drilled shafts and the cuttings from boring

should be inspected before and during the

placement of concrete

Integrity Testing

z Integrity testing includes methods such as

z Sonic logging

z Nuclear logging

z Vibration analysis

z Stress-wave propagation (PIT)

z Tomography

z Especially important with drilled shafts where

quality control is critical

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