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LAB MANUAL

FAST-NU, LAHORE

Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Created by: Ms. Beenish Fatima, Ms. Maimoona Akram, Ms. Tooba Javed

Page | 2

Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Table of Contents

Sr. No. Description Page No.

1 List of Equipment 4

3 10

b) Ohms law, Power in DC Circuits and Resistor Power Rating

5 26

b) Application of KCL, KVL in a series-parallel combination circuit

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

List of Equipment

1 Breadboard

2 Capacitor (1000uF)

4 LEDs

7 Oscilloscope

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 1

INTRODUCTION TO LAB EQUIPMENT

OBJECTIVE:

Introduction to digital multi-meter, power supply and breadboard

EQUIPMENT:

Digital multi-meter (DMM)

Power Supply (0-30 V)

Breadboard

BACKGROUND:

DIGITAL MULTI-METER

Digital multi-meter or the DMM measures voltage, current and resistance. There are separate

settings for AC and DC values. The switch settings that you select will define the function of the

instrument at any time. Multi-meter also has the capability of measuring other quantities such as

frequency etc. The function and the usage of each instrument are explained briefly below. You can

consult the instrument manual for more details.

Voltmeter: The difference in electric potential (voltage) between any two nodes in a circuit is

measured by connecting the probes of the voltmeter to the two nodes in question. Note that this

places the voltmeter in parallel with that portion of the circuit between the measurement points as

shown in Figure 1. An ideal voltmeter would have an infinite resistance so that no current is

conducted through it. Thus, it would not alter the voltages at the nodes to which the voltmeter is

connected.

In reality voltmeters are never ideal, but the input impedance (or internal resistance) is so high that

the meter functions in a nearly ideal manner. An AC voltmeter generally measures and displays the

RMS value of the time-varying component of the voltage.

Figure 1 Voltmeter connections to measure electric potential at node 2 with respect to node 0

Ammeter: Ammeters measure the flow of charge through a branch of a circuit. The meter must be

inserted into the current stream, in series with the component or circuit through which the current is

flowing, as shown in Figure 2. An ideal ammeter would have zero resistance so that no voltage is

developed (dropped) across it when the current flows through it. Thus, according to KVL, this would

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

not affect the loop currents in the circuit being measured. An AC ammeter generally measures and

displays the RMS value of the time-varying component of the current.

Again, ammeters are not ideal and have some internal resistance (or input impedance), but this

resistance is very small. NEVER connect an ammeter directly across a voltage source the low

resistance of the ammeter will act as a short circuit causing a large current to flow, damaging the

meter.

Ohmmeter: An ohmmeter measures the net resistance of all components connected between its two

probes. Ohmmeter works by forcing a small, known, and steady current to flow through the

measurement probes and the element being measured. The voltage developed between the nodes

connected to the ohmmeter is sensed, and (per Ohm's Law) the equivalent resistance, V/I, is

displayed. When measuring the resistance of any circuit element, that element or elements must be

isolated from the rest of the circuit, i.e., isolated from any component that can alter the small current

delivered to the circuit by the meter or alter the voltage developed across the element of interest. For

example, if the circuit itself contains any source of power, then potential difference between the

probes will depend on the current supplied by the meter and the voltage or current supplied by the

other source. Hence such a reading would be incorrect because the ohmmeter is influenced by the

other source. In the worst case, the ohmmeter might even be damaged. Clearly the power sources

must be disconnected, but other circuit components may also be a problem. In Figure-3 the meter is

reading the resistance of R2 in parallel with R3.

Measuring the resistance of R3 alone would require disconnecting R3 from either node 2 or node 0.

This eliminates the influence of R2 on the current delivered to R3 by the meter. Note that an

ohmmeter measures only the resistance, not the complex impedance, of a circuit or element. The

resistance of an ideal inductor is zero, and the resistance of an ideal capacitor is infinite.

Figure 3 Ohmmeter is connected in parallel. An ohmmeter connected as shown here will measure the net resistance between

nodes 2 and 0 of the circuit

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

POWER SUPPLY

DC power supply is used to generate either a constant voltage or a constant current. That is, it may

be used as either a DC voltage source or a DC current source. DC means constant with respect to

time. If the C.C. indicator is lighted, the corresponding variable power supply is producing a

constant current. Similar is the case for the C.V. indicator which means that a constant voltage is

being produced. The CURRENT/ VOLTAGE knob is used to set the output current / voltage for the

variable power supply respectively. The output terminals for the power supply allow you to plug in

the test leads as follows:

The red terminal on the right is the positive polarity output terminal. It is indicated by a plus

(+) sign above it.

The black terminal on the left is the negative polarity output terminal. It is indicated by a

minus () sign above it.

The green terminal in the middle is the earth and chassis ground.

The tracking buttons on the power supply select the test mode of the instrument. The power supply

features two tracking modes: series and parallel. If both push-button switches are disengaged (out),

the two variable power supplies operate independently. If the left switch is pushed in, the instrument

operates in series mode. If both switches are pushed in, the instrument operates in parallel mode. In

series mode, the master power supply controls the voltage for both power supplies, which can then

range from 0 to 60 V. In parallel mode, the master power supply controls both the voltage and the

current for both power supplies. The current can then range from 0 to 6 A. There is another fixed

5V/ 3A output knob to provide a constant voltage of 5V. The overload indicator lights when the

current on the 5 V FIXED power supply becomes too large.

BREADBOARD

Most of the electrical circuits built in the laboratory will be wired on "solder less breadboards" or

circuit boards. The term "breadboard" originated in the early days of electronics when temporary

circuits were literally wired on wooden boards about the size commonly used for slicing bread.

A typical breadboard is shown in Figure 5. Breadboard consists of a series of holes, or sockets, into

which wires or leads of electrical components can be placed. There are strips of spring metal

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

underneath the plastic that serve as "tie-points", connecting individual sockets into groups. All

sockets in a group will have the same electrical connection. The rectangular groups shown in Figure

5 illustrate the socket groupings or tie-points on the breadboard. The tie-points along the outside of

the breadboard are referred to as busses. These busses provide a mechanism for distributing

signals along the entire breadboard, i.e. making it easy to connect to the signals from anywhere on

the breadboard.

Internal electrical connections in the breadboard are shown in Figure 6. Figure 7 shows some sample

connections on breadboard.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Write a detailed report on the wiring of a circuit on the breadboard. Give examples of correctly

connected components and of typical connection mistakes. Explain the internal connections of the

breadboard as well.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 2

a) RESISTOR COLOR CODE AND MEASUREMENT

b) OHMS LAW, POWER IN DC CIRCUITS AND RESISTOR POWER RATING

OBJECTIVE:

To become familiar with the resistor color code and use of a multi-meter to measure

resistance

To prove that current (I) and voltage (V) are linearly proportional in a DC circuit. To show

that the proportionality constant is equal to the resistance R of the circuit

Determine experimentally the maximum voltage that may be applied to a resistor of given

power rating

EQUIPMENT:

Digital multi-meter (DMM) with probes

5 Resistors each of different values (4-Band, 5-Band, Alpha-numeric)

DC power supply 10 V, 6V

Resistors: 120 , 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.9 k, 4.7 k

Light Bulbs: 6.2V 0.5A

BACKGROUND:

Measurement of resistance is a very common task. Ohmmeter can be used to detect a faulty

component in a circuit. Also it can be used more specifically to determine the correct operation of

lamps, fuses, switches and any number of other components. In this lab experiment you will use

DMM (ohmmeter) to check whether a number of resistors lie within the tolerance specified by their

color codes. You should also take this opportunity to get familiar with the ohmmeter portion of your

DMM.

Most DMMs include an ohmmeter range, usually selectable by a switch, which should be set to the

ohms () position. Analog voltmeters usually have to be calibrated on each range. Though no power

will be connected to your resistors in this experiment, in actual circuits, the power must always be

turned off before you bring your probes into contact with the component under test.

tolerance, tolerance tolerance

temperature coefficient

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Temperature

Color Digits[1-3] Multiplier[4] Tolerance[5]

coefficient[6]

Black 0 1

Brown 1 10 1% 100ppm

Red 2 100 2% 50ppm

Orange 3 1k 15ppm

Yellow 4 10k 25ppm

Green 5 100k 0.5%

Blue 6 1M 0.25%

Violet 7 10M 0.1%

Grey 8

White 9

Gold 0.1 5%

Silver 0.01 10%

None 20%

Generally on larger power resistors, the resistance value, tolerance, and even the power (wattage)

rating are printed onto the actual body of the resistor instead of using the resistor color code system.

Because it is very easy to "misread" the position of a decimal point or comma especially when the

component is dirty, an easier system for writing and printing the resistance values of the individual

resistance was developed. A type of marking with three or four character label that uses both digits

and letters was introduced as alpha-numeric labeling. Two or three digits and one of the letters R,

K, or M are used to identify a resistance value. The letter is used to indicate the multiplier, and its

position is used to indicate decimal point position.

The suffix letters "K" is for thousands or kilo ohms, the letter "M" for millions or mega ohms while

the letter "R" is used where the multiplier is equal to 1; e.g. BS 1852 Codes for resistor value for

0.47 would be R47 or 0R47, for 4.7k it would be 4k7 and for 1.0M it would be 1M0.

Resistors ()

B = 0.1%

C = 0.25%

D = 0.5%

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

F = 1%

G = 2%

J = 5%

K = 10%

M = 20%

Also, when reading these written codes one has to be careful not to confuse the resistance letter k for

kilo ohms with the tolerance letter K for 10% tolerance or the resistance letter M for mega ohms

with the tolerance letter M for 20% tolerance.

In numeric labeling, the first two digits represent the first two numbers of the resistance value with

the third digit being the multiplier, either x1, x10, x100 etc. For example:

103 = 10 x 1000 ohms = 10 k

4754 = 475 x 10,000 ohms = 4.75M

VARIABLE RESISTOR

The variable resistor is a three-terminal device. Any of the two terminals (let say terminal A and

terminal B) have a fixed resistance between them, which is the total resistance. The third terminal

(let say terminal W) acts as a moving contact (wiper). We can vary the resistance between W and A,

or between W and B by moving the contact.

It is applied in an electronic circuit for adjusting circuit resistance to control voltage or current of

that circuit or part of that circuit. The variable resistor used to divide voltage is called a

potentiometer. The variable resistor used to control current is called a rheostat.

The electrical resistance is varied by sliding a wiper contact along a resistance track. Sometimes the

resistance is adjusted at pre-set value as required at the time of circuit building by adjusting screw

attached to it and sometimes resistance can be adjusted as when required by controlling knob

connected to it.

Figure 1

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

1.0 1.0 1.0 3.3 3.3 3.3

1.1 3.6

1.2 1.2 3.9 3.9

1.3 4.3

1.5 1.5 1.5 4.7 4.7 4.7

1.6 5.1

1.8 1.8 5.6 5.6

2.0 6.2

2.2 2.2 2.2 6.8 6.8 6.8

2.4 7.5

2.7 2.7 8.2 8.2

3.0 9.1

Note: These values can be in multiples of 1x, 10x, 100x, 1000x, etc.

PROCEDURE:

1. The color code on each resistor defines the nominal value about which the tolerance is

defined. The nominal value is that value of resistance that the resistor would have if its

tolerance is 0 percent. Use the color code to determine the nominal value in each case and

record them in Table-I.

2. Record the tolerance and the resulting theoretical maximum and minimum values for each

resistor.

3. Using DMM measure and record the actual value of each resistor, and check whether or not

this value falls within the tolerance. Resistors are rarely out of tolerance; if one appears to be,

it could be an error in DMM measurement. Be sure not to touch probes with your fingers

when measuring resistance, since body resistance affects the readings.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal

(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured

(DMM)

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal

(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured

(DMM)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal

(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured

(DMM)

a) 2.57k

b) 2.43k

c) 2.84k

d) 2.97k

a) 2.57k

b) 2.43k

c) 2.84k

d) 2.97k

3. The first three bands in resistor are colored brown, black and red. The resistance is measured

and found to be 1050. If the resistor is guaranteed to be within its tolerance specification,

what tolerance might be indicated by its fourth (tolerance) band?

a) 5%

b) 10%

c) 20%

d) Any of these

a) 61.2k

b) 68k

c) 63k

d) 64.6k

5. A resistor is required for an application whose value can be no less than 7.1k and no more

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

than 7.9k. Determine the standard value and tolerance of the resistor you could use.

Explain?

a) 66.93

b) 69.67

c) 68.3

d) 67.9

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Part b)

BACKGROUND:

OHMS LAW

Ohms Law is the basis of many electrical circuit calculations and is one of the most important

theories you will learn: V = IR. The purpose of this experiment is to verify Ohms Law, which in

words, simply says that the current through a resistor is proportional to the voltage across it. The

way in which we accomplish this is to measure the voltage across and current through a known

resistor for several different pair of values. We can then plot the data on a graph, and if the

relationship is truly linear it should yield a straight line.

When graphing data such as those obtained in this experiment, either the x or y-axis can be chosen to

display the voltage or current values. When the y-axis is chosen as the voltage axis, and the x-axis as

the current axis, we say that we are plotting V versus I. the slope of the line V/I should be equal

to the resistance R of the resistor. If on the other hand, current is plotted on the y-axis, and voltage

along the x-axis, then slope of the line I/V is equal to the conductance G of the resistor. In this

experiment you will plot I in mA versus V in volts, and therefore the slope will be the conductance

of the resistor. When plotting a straight line on a graph such as this, it is important that you draw the

best possible straight line that you can through the data points.

POWER IN DC CIRCUITS

Electronic devices and circuits require energy to operate. Power is a measure (in watts) of the energy

(in joules) consumed by a given device in one second. For a resistor, three equations will yield the

power dissipated: P = IV, P = V/R and P = IR. In this experiment, you will verify these formulae

and plot graphs of the power versus the current, and then power versus the voltage. The resulting

curves are parabolas, and the equations of the curves are called quadratic.

POWER RATING

The power in a resistor is converted to heat; the resistor therefore heats up. If the resistor becomes

too hot, it may fall out of tolerance; worse still, it could ignite and cause a fire. Therefore, it is

important to be aware of resistors power rating. The power rating of a resistor is the value (in watts)

that must not be exceeded if the resistor is to remain within the manufacturers specification of

ohmic value and tolerance. The power rating is a function of several variables, one of which is

physical size. For example, carbon composition resistors appear in W, W, 1 W, etc sizes.

The power rating actually determines the maximum voltage and current that the resistor can safely

withstand. For example, if we call the power rating Pr, then we can determine the maximum safe

2

voltage using the dc power formula, Pr = . Solving for , we get:

2

Similarly, using = , we can solve for the maximum safe current Imax as follows:

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

=

As the power rating increases, the resistor is typically larger in volume and therefore surface area.

LIGHT BULBS

Light bulbs have a very simple structure. At the base, they have two metal contacts, which connect

to the ends of an electrical circuit. The metal contacts are attached to two stiff wires, which are

attached to a thin metal filament. The filament sits in the middle of the bulb, held up by a glass

mount. The wires and the filament are housed in a glass bulb, which is filled with an inert gas, such

as argon.

The filament in a light bulb is made of a long; incredibly thin length of tungsten metal. Tungsten is

used in nearly all incandescent light bulbs because it is an ideal filament material. A metal must be

heated to extreme temperatures before it will emit a useful amount of visible light. Most metals will

actually melt before reaching such extreme temperatures. Light bulbs are manufactured with

tungsten filaments because tungsten has an abnormally high melting temperature.

Figure 1

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 3

PROCEDURE:

1. With the DMM, measure the resistance of 1 k, and record this measured value in Table - I.

2. With the power supply initially off, connect the circuit in Figure 1 with R = 1 k.

3. Switch on the power supply. Beginning at 0V, increase the voltage in 1 V steps up to 6V.

Measure and record resulting current in Table - I.

4. Repeat this with a 6.2V light bulb as shown in Figure 3. Record this data in Table - II.

5. Use the voltage and current data together with the measured value of R to complete the rest

of Table - I and Table - II for the power P. All power quantities should agree.

6. Calculate the maximum safe voltage that can be applied across the 14 resistor mentioned

in Table - III, without exceeding its power rating.

7. Calculate the maximum safe current to which the maximum safe voltage corresponds.

Record this in Table - III.

8. Replace the 14 resistor in your circuit in Figure 1. Increase the voltage until you reach

maximum permissible value you calculated above. Carefully touch the resistor. Why does it

feel hot?

9. Exceed the voltage by maximum permissible value and see what happens?

10. Repeat the above procedure for 12 and 1 resistors and complete Table - III.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Vs(V) 1 2 3 4 5 6

I (mA)

P = VI (mW)

P = I2R(mW)

P = V2/R

(mW)

R=1k R(measured) =

Vs(v) 1 2 3 4 5 6

I (mA)

P = VI (mW)

P = I2R(mW)

P = V2/R

(mW)

TABLE III

Ohmic Value

Power rating Current

(Measured)

(Calculated)

Calculated Measured

R = 120, 14W

R = 0.56, 12W

R = 390, 1W

Page | 20

Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

1. On the same scale and axis, plot graphs of current, I in mA, versus voltage, V in volts, for

resistor and bulb using the data of Table I and Table II. (Assign V to x-axis and I to the y-

axis.) Draw the best straight lines possible through each set of data. Determine the slope of

each line; it should be equal to the conductance, G of the resistor in consideration. You can

then verify the resistance of each resistor by taking the reciprocal of conductance. Do this for

each set of data and record this in a table.

2. Plot graphs of power versus current and power versus voltage for the 1k resistor. Include

all these graphs and tables in the measurements section of your report. Comment on the

several aspects of the behavior shown in the graphs.

3. Explain your observation about the non-ohmic behavior of light bulbs? Explain the

conditions for a device to obey Ohms Law, and why light bulbs do not obey Ohm's Law?

How is this non-ohmic behavior different from ohmic behavior?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 3

SERIES RESISTIVE CIRCUIT, KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW

OBJECTIVE:

To verify that the total resistance in a series connected circuit is the sum of individual

resistances

To verify Kirchhoffs voltage law for DC circuits

EQUIPMENT:

DC power supply

DMM

Resistors: 1k, 2.2k, 3.9k, 4.7k

Light Bulbs: 6.2V 0.5A

BACKGROUND:

When resistors are connected in series, the current that will flow is calculated from the knowledge of

the total resistance. The total resistance in this case is simply the sum of individual resistors. For

example in case of two resistors, total resistance RT is:

= 1 + 2

By knowing the total resistance, the voltage required for the desired current or the current resulting

from an applied voltage can easily be calculated.

Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed path is equal to

zero. With regard to Figure-1, this means that

+ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 0

or = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

where V1 is the voltage across R1 ,V2 is the voltage across R2 ,V3 is the voltage across R3 and V4 is

the voltage across R4.

By connecting such a circuit and measuring the voltages, it should be possible to verify this

relationship. In performing an experiment of this nature, you should remember that each

measurement is subject to some error, and when you sum such measurements, the errors may add

and produce what may appear to be an inconsistency. The important thing is that, if the instruments

are perfect, we should obtain a sum of voltage drops exactly equal to the source voltage.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

V1 V2

R1 R2

Vs 10V R3 V3

R4

V4

Figure 1

V1 V2

L1 L2

6V L3 V3

L4

I

V4

Figure 2

PROCEDURE:

1. Using the measured values of the given resistors, use the formula for RT to determine the

expected total resistance for each of the connections in Table - I. Note that an additional

resistance is added each time you move to the right in the table.

2. Insert a 4.7 k resistor in your breadboard and connect in series the other resistor, making up

the first combination in Table - I and observe the reading.

3. Continue to add the remaining three resistors in the sequence described in the table, one at a

time, recording the reading for each combination. The resistance should continue to increase

until you have the value in the last column of the table.

4. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1.

5. Using the measured value of total resistance, calculate and record current I that would

result from the source voltage applied.

6. Use the calculated current and resistance values to calculate the voltage drop across each of

the resistors. Record these in the Calculated Voltages row in Table - II.

7. Add the calculated voltage drops, and record this under the VSUM heading in the table. They

should sum to 10V.

8. Measure the voltage across each resistor, and record these in the Measured Voltages row in

Table - II.

9. Add the measured voltages from the previous step and enter their sum in the appropriate area

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

of the table.

10. Now, connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2.

11. Measure the voltage across each bulb in the circuit, and record these in the Measured

Voltages row in Table - III. Add the measured voltages from the previous step and enter

their sum in the appropriate area of the table. Also measure the total current flowing in the

circuit.

Combination (k) 4.7 + 3.9 4.7 + 3.9 + 2.2 4.7 + 3.9 + 2.2 + 1

Calculated ICALC

voltages V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM (mA)

using IR

relation

IMEAS

Measured V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM

(mA)

Voltages

IMEAS

V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM

(mA)

Measured

Voltages

1. An ammeter connected in series with three resistors reads an electric current of 2A. What is

the electric current through the resistor R3?

a) 1 A b) 2 A c) 3 A d) 4 A e) 5 A

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

2. Connect three light bulbs in series with a voltage source (ranging 1V to 6V). What will

happen if you remove one of the light bulbs from the circuit? Explain your answer in terms

of bulb brightness and current flowing through the circuit. Draw the circuit schematics as

well to support your solution.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 4

a) PARALLEL RESISTIVE CIRCUIT, KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW

b) APPKICATION OF KCL, KVL IN A SERIES-PARALLEL COMBINATION

CIRCUIT

OBJECTIVE:

To verify that the total resistance in a parallel connected circuit is given by the reciprocal rule

To verify Kirchhoffs current law for DC circuits

To learn to apply KCL, KVL together in a series parallel combination circuit

EQUIPMENT:

DC power supply

DMM

Resistors: 1k, 2.2k, 3.9k, 4.7k

BACKGROUND:

In a parallel circuit, each component has the same voltage drop across it, and the currents through

each resistor are independent of one another. As more resistors are added in a parallel circuit, each

one takes its own current from the supply independently of others. As a result, the total current

increases. The power supply sees this as a reduction in the total resistance R T of the circuit. In this

experiment we will determine the effect of adding more resistors to a parallel connection using

ohmmeter. We will then verify the total resistance formula for parallel resistors, which is

1 1 1 1

= + + +

1 2

We will then verify the simple product over sum rule for the special case of two resistors in parallel:

1 2

=

1 + 2

RT will always be less than the smaller of the resistances in the parallel circuit.

Kirchhoffs Current Law states that the sum of the currents into a junction is equal to the currents out

of that junction. With reference to Figure-1, this implies that

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

PART A

1. Measure the actual values of each of the resistors using DMM and note down these values in

Table - I.

2. Using the measured values of these resistors, use the formula (the reciprocal rule) for RT to

determine the expected total resistance for each of the connections in Table - II. Note that an

additional resistance is added each time you move to the right in the table.

3. Insert a 4.7 k resistor in your breadboard and connect in parallel the other resistor, making

up the first combination in Table - II and observe the reading.

4. Continue to add resistors, one at a time, the remaining three resistors in the sequence

described in the table, recording the reading for each combination. The resistance should

continue to decrease until you have the value in the last column of the table.

5. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 1.

6. Measure branch currents I1, I2, I3and I4 recording all data in Table - III.

7. Also measure currents IT, I234 and I34 and record in Table - III.

8. Complete the remainder of the table by calculating each of the sums I3 + I4, I2 +I 3+I 4, IT etc.

The calculated values should compare well with the corresponding measured currents.

Nominal values 1 2.2 3.9 4.7

Measured values

Combination (k) 4.7 || 3.9 4.7 || 3.9 || 2.2 4.7 || 3.9 || 2.2 || 1

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

TABLE-III (KCL)

I1 I2 I3 I4 I34 I234 IT

Measured

Currents

(mA)

I34 I234 IT

Calculated

Currents by

KCL (mA)

PART B

V5 V3 V1

I6 I4 Is I2

Figure 2

1. Implement the circuit given in Figure 2 above and measure all the voltages and currents.

2. Record the values in Table - IV given below.

3. Using these measured values, calculate the quantities given in Table - V using both KCL and

KVL.

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Measured

Voltages

Measured Is I1 I2 I3 I4 I5

Currents

(mA)

I6 V5 + V6 V1 + V2 V3 + V1 + V2 - V6 -V5 I4 + I5

Calculated

Values

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

1. Two resistors R1 = 6 and R2 = 12 are connected in parallel to each other and in series to

R3= 2. An ammeter measures an electric current of 3A flowing though resistor R3. What is

the net voltage applied to the circuit?

a) 6 V b) 12 V c) 18 V d) 24 V e)36 V

2. What is the current through the resistor R2 = 12 used in the previous problem?

b) 6 A b) 1 A c) 3 A d) 5 A e) 7 A

3. The resistors in each of the circuits shown below each have the same resistance. Which of the

following gives the circuits in order of increasing total resistance?

a) P, Q, S b) Q, P, S c) S, Q, P d) P, S, Q

4. Connect three light bulbs in parallel with a voltage source (ranging 1V to 6V). What will

happen to the overall current in the circuit and the brightness of the light bulbs if you remove

one of the light bulbs from the circuit? Explain your answer in detail. Draw the circuit

schematics as well to support your solution.

5. Briefly explain, with proper reasoning, whether you think the appliances in a home kitchen

are wired with series or parallel connections.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 5

INTRODUCTION TO PSPICE

OBJECTIVE:

Learn to perform DC analysis using PSpice

BACKGROUND:

2. SPICE was originally developed at the Electronics Research Laboratory of the University of

California, Berkeley (1975). As the name implies, SPICE was originally developed for designing

integrated circuits. However, it can be used to analyze discrete circuits as well.

3. PSpice is a PC version of SPICE (Cadence) and HSpice is a version that runs on workstations

and larger computers.

4. PSpice is case insensitive i.e. typing r or R will not be any different in PSpice.

5. All analysis can be done at different temperatures. The default temperature is 27C.

6. PSpice can do several types of circuit analysis. Here are a few:

DC analysis: Calculates the DC transfer curve.

AC analysis: Calculates the output as a function of frequency. A bode plot is generated.

Transient analysis: Calculates the voltage and current as a function of time when a large

signal is applied.

Noise analysis: Analyzes noise at the input or output of the circuit.

Fourier analysis: Calculates and plots the frequency spectrum.

A PSpice circuit can contain components like AC & DC voltage and current sources,

Resistors and Variable Resistors, Capacitors and Variable Capacitors, Inductors and Variable

Inductors, Operational amplifiers, Switches, Diodes, Bipolar transistors, Transformers etc.

Go to Start Menu, then Programs, then PSpice Student and then Schematics

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Following is the circuit we will use to begin our understanding about how PSpice works:

1. The first thing is to get some or all of the parts you need and place them on your Schematics

Workspace. This can be done by going to Draw and selecting Get New Part or by clicking

on the get new parts button or by pressing Ctrl+G.

2. Once this box is open, select a part that you want in your circuit. This can be done by typing in

the Part Name or the first alphabet of the part name, or scrolling down the list until you find it.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

3. Upon selecting your parts, click on the Place button. Then click where you want it to be placed

on the schematics workspace. Don't worry about putting it in exactly the right place, it can

always be moved later. Once you have all the parts you think you need, close that box. You can

always open it again later if you need more parts.

PSpice keeps track of the most recent parts used and lists them in the Get Recent Part bin. You

can save time by selecting items from this bin. Simply double click the item then place as

described above.

The parts in PSpice are arranged in the form of libraries. You do not have to worry about

including the concerned libraries before you actually select Parts because PSpice Schematics

Version 9.1 automatically includes all the libraries, when the Get Part button is pressed. Few

common libraries are:

analog.slb contains resistors (R), capacitors (C), inductors (L), dependent sources (E, F, G

and H) etc.

source.slb contains various independent voltage and current sources.

port.slb contains elements such as ground etc.

Hands on Exercise 1

Get all the parts you need to draw the circuit given, on your Schematics workspace?

Find out what specific libraries contain those parts?

You should have most of the parts available in your schematics workspace that you need at

this point.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

To put them in the places that make the most sense (usually a rectangle works well for simple

circuits), just select the part and drag it where you want it.

To rotate parts so that they will fit in your circuit nicely, click on the part and click Edit

"Rotate" or simply click "Ctrl+R"

To flip them, click Edit "Flip" or "Ctrl+F".

If any parts are left over, just select them and press "Delete".

Hands on Exercise 2

Place the parts that you have selected in Exercise 1 in a proper order on the Schematics workspace.

Now that your parts are arranged well, you'll have to connect them with wires.

Go up to the tool bar and Go to "Draw" and select "Wire", or Select "Draw Wire" , or

Press "Ctrl+W" With the pencil looking pointer, left click on one end of a part. When you

move your mouse around, you should see dotted lines appear.

Drag the mouse to the next part in the circuit. This will attach the other end of the wire to the

next part that you want to connect and then left click again to release the wire.

Repeat this until your circuit is completely wired.

If you want to make a node (to make a wire go more than one place), click somewhere on the

wire and then click to the part (or the other wire). Or you can go from the part to the wire.

To get rid of the pencil, Right Click on the mouse.

If you end up with extra dots near your parts, you probably have an extra wire, select this

short wire (it will turn red), then press "Delete".

If the wire doesn't look the way you want, you can make extra bends in it by clicking in

different places on the way (each click will form a corner).

Hands on Exercise 3

Connect the parts using the wire that you have placed in Exercise 2.

You probably don't want to keep the names R1 B , B R B2B etc., especially if you didn't put the

parts in the most logical order. To change the name, double click on the present name (C1, or R1

or whatever your part is), then a box will pop up (Edit Reference Designator). In the top window,

you can type in the name for the selected part.

Please note that if you double click on the part or its value, a different box will appear.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 4

Change the names for the parts in your circuit to the names that were shown in the original figure of

the circuit given.

To change the value of the part (e.g. by default the value of all the resistors is 1K ohms), you can

double click on the present value and a box called "Set Attribute Value" will appear. Type in the

new value and press OK.

If you double click on the part itself, you can select VALUE and change it in this box.

F,f femto 10 -15

P,p pico 10 -12

N,n Nano 10 -9

U,u Micro 10 -6

M,m Milli 10 -3

K,k Kilo 10 +3

MEG, meg Mega 10 +6

G,g Giga 10 +9

T,t tera 10 +12

Hands on Exercise 5

Change the values for the parts in your circuit to the values that were shown in the original circuit

given.

SAVING

Choose a name that will help you identify which problem this is. To save the circuit, click on the

save button on the tool bar (or any other way you normally save files).

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Perform an electrical rules check to be sure your circuit schematic will simulate properly. (Analysis

menu, Electrical Rule Check). If all goes well, you will see a small window flash on the screen

and nothing else. If no errors are reported in your schematic, proceed to the next step. If there are

errors, fix them now.

Hands on Exercise 6

Do the Electrical Rule Check and Save the circuit that you have drawn?

Now you will simulate your circuit. Do this by going to the Analysis menu and choosing

Simulate or Press on the Toolbar

When simulation is done, a new PSPICE window will appear.

Look at the Lower Left corner of the window for the results of simulation.

This is what you are going to see:

Why was the Simulation Aborted?

I. Making Sure You Have a GND:

This is very important. You cannot do any simulation on the circuit if you don't have a

ground. If you aren't sure where to put it, place it near the negative side of your voltage

source.

Select View in this window, and examine Output File. Scroll down towards the bottom

of the file until you come to a series of headings that say Node Voltage.

The voltage at each circuit node should be reported. Identify which node voltages are

associated with which circuit elements and note them down.

Scroll further down the output file. Note that the source current and total power

dissipation for the circuit is also reported.

The voltage source current is reported as -2.500E-04 A.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 7

Find out the value of the current in the circuit manually by using the analytical methods you have

learned in the Circuits Analysis-I class so far. Check if the answer agrees with PSpice analysis?

III. Netlists:

A netlist is the original way we interacted with SPICE.

The netlist contains description of the circuit that describes the parts of the circuit and the

nodes with which they are connected.

When PSpice creates a circuit description from your schematic, it numbers nodes, and for

each component, lists the nodes to which it is connected as well as the value of the

component.

For example, Node 1 is designated $N001, node 2 as $N002, etc.

These designations do not appear on your schematic screen but instead they reside in a

file as a netlist.

To view the netlist, click Analysis, then Examine Netlist.

In the netlist, the first end of a component is connected to the first indicated node. For

Example R_Ra $N_0001 $N_0002 1k means that the first end of Resistor Ra is

connected with Node1 and the other is connected with Node2.

Hands on Exercise 8

Examine the Netlist for your circuit and compare these node numbers with the circuit you have

drawn.

PSpice file

extension Description

.CIR Control file generated by Schematics. ASCII.

Netlist (circuit description) generated by

.NET

Schematics. ASCII.

Alias file generated by Schematics. Needed for

.ALS

PSpice simulation.

Control file for Probe plots. Contains settings from

.PRB

last run, scaling, etc.

Complete output file generated by PSpice; input to

.DAT

Probe. Not readable; Normally a large file

Readable ASCII output file from PSpice simulation.

.OUT

Contains dc levels, etc.

You can use the Enable Bias Voltage Display or Enable bias current display

buttons on the Schematics workspace toolbar to find out the Bias Voltage and Currents directly

instead of reading them down from the output file.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 9

Find out the bias voltages and currents for the circuit you have drawn using the above mentioned

buttons on the Schematic Window Toolbar.

PRINTING

To print your schematic circuit, you must first use your mouse to make a rectangle around your

circuit; this is the area of the page that will be printed. Then select print. (You can also select ).

DEPENDENT SOURCES

Source Source

Source Source

A controlled voltage source is one whose output voltage is controlled by the value of a voltage or

current elsewhere in the circuit. A current controlled voltage source obeys the relation 0 = ,

where I is the controlling current and k is a constant having the units of resistance: = 0 volts

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Similarly, a controlled current source produces a current whose value depends on a voltage or a

current elsewhere in the circuit. A voltage-controlled current source obeys the relation 0 = ,

where V is the controlling voltage and k has the units of conductance: = 0 amperes per volt, or

Siemens.

All four types of controlled sources, voltage-controlled voltage source, current-controlled

voltage sources, voltage-controlled current sources, and current-controlled current sources, can be

modeled in PSpice.

Hands on Exercise 11

The circuit shown in Figure below has a current controlled voltage source with the gain of 3.

Click the part and enter gain =3. Save and simulate it.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXERCISES

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

(active/passive).

ii. Identify the nodes in the above circuit.

iii. Find out the node voltages

iv. Verify Kirchhoffs current law at each node.

v. Reverse the polarity of voltage source V2 to find out the change in node voltages and

currents in each element. Does KCL still hold?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Mathematically verify the PSpice voltage and current measurements for the circuits of exercise (e)

and (g) used in lab work. Solve the circuits and make appropriate tables for comparison between the

theoretical calculations and PSpice measurements. Discuss the benefits of PSpice usage as well.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 6

FINDING EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE OF A COMPLEX CIRCUIT

OBJECTIVE:

To understand how to use DMM to measure the resistance at different points in a complex

circuit

To design a simple circuit using the equivalent resistance of a complex circuit

To understand the significance of resistors power rating during design

To calculate and measure the unknown resistance between two points

EQUIPMENT:

DC Power Supply 5-10V

DMM

Resistors: 2.2, 22, 3.3, 5.6, 4.7, 10 (two), 150

Figure 1

Rab , Rcd ,Rde ,Rcf ,Rfe ,Rbf and Rac

TABLE - I

Rab

Rcd

Rde

Rcf

Rfe

Rbf

Rac

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 2

2. Calculate and measure Rab for the circuit given above and note down the readings in Table-II

below.

TABLE - II

Rab

5V Black Box

Figure 3

a) Equivalent resistance of the black box is Rab as calculated for the circuit in Figure 1.

b) Input voltage (voltage supplied to black box) is 5V as shown in Figure 3 above. Use only

1 resistors.

4

c) Design should be safe i.e. not even a single resistor should burn out or get damaged.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 7

VERIFICATION OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT DIVIDER THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:

To verify voltage and current divider theorem

EQUIPMENT:

DC Power supply 5-10V

DMM

Resistors: 1k, 2.2k , 4.7k , 5.6k, 15k

BACKGROUND:

The current divider theorem allows us to calculate the magnitudes of the currents in a parallel circuit,

using only the total current and the resistor values. It is particularly useful when the circuit is driven

by a constant current source as opposed to a constant voltage source.

The formula for the current in a specific resistor in a parallel circuit in which the total current IT

entering the junction is known, can be written as:

Voltage dividers find many applications in electronic circuits. The requirement for voltages of

different values often arises and is normally accomplished by a voltage divider circuit. The formula

for the voltage in a specific resistor of a series circuit when the total voltage applied is

known can be written as:

In this experiment, we will verify the current divider and voltage divider theorem by adjusting the

source for a specified total voltage and measuring the individual resistor voltage and current.

Remember that the resistor tolerance will affect your results.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

PROCEDURE:

1. Use current divider rule and voltage divider rule only to calculate and measure the current

through and voltage across each resistor in the circuit given below. Fill Table-I and Table-II

accordingly.

Figure 1

IT I1 I2 I3 I4

Calculated current values

(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5

Calculated voltage Values

(V)

Measured resistance values

()

IT I1 I2 I3 I4

Measured current values

(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5

Measured voltage values

(V)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Vout

Vin Black Box

b) Output voltage, should be 25 .

c) Use only 14 resistors. Design should be safe; i.e. not even a single resistor should burn

out or get damaged.

2. When do we use VDR and CDR?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 8

VERIFICATION OF THEVENINS THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:

To verify Thevenins theorem in a simple DC circuit

EQUIPMENT:

Digital multi-meter (DMM)

DC Power Supply (10-12 V)

Resistors: 1k, 3.3k(two), 6.8k,10k, 2.2k,4.7k

BACKGROUND:

Thevenins theorem states that any linear, bilateral network can be replaced with a single voltage

source in series with a single resistor. The voltage source is called Thevenin equivalent voltage and

resistor is called the Thevenin equivalent resistance.

To demonstrate this we will apply the theorem to the simple four resistor circuit in Figure 1.

According to the theorem, we should be able to replace the circuitry to the left of terminals A-B in

Figure 1 with that in Figure 2. To obtain the equivalent source voltage, you will measure the open

circuit voltage. The Thevenin resistance is obtained by measuring R A-B after replacing the source

voltage Vs by a short circuit. To verify that this combination is indeed equivalent, you will then

connect a load to both the circuits, and verify that the resulting voltage and current are the same in

both cases.

Figure 1 Figure 2

PROCEDURE:

1. For the circuit in Figure 1, calculate all the currents, voltages and powers associated with the

resistors R0, R1, R2 and R3. Record the values in Table - I.

2. Now, use Thevenins theorem to calculate the values of Vth, Rth, and PRth record them in

Table - III.

3. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1.

4. Measure I0, I1, I2 and I3 and record the values in Table - II.

5. Measure the open-circuit voltage VAB and record this as Vth under Measured in Table - III.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

6. Replace the voltage source with a short circuit, and measure the resistance between the

terminals A and B. Record this as Rth under Measured in Table - III.

7. Place a 3.3 k load resistance across the terminals A and B. Calculate voltage across and

current through this load resistance RL. Perform the calculations for both the actual circuit

and its Thevenin equivalent. The results should be identical. Record the results under

Calculated in Table - IV.

8. Connect a 3.3 k load to the terminals A and B of the circuit in Figure 1. Measure the

resulting load current and voltage, and record them in Table - IV.

9. Construct the circuit of Figure 2 with the calculated values of Vth and Rth. Connect a 3.3 k

load to the terminals A and B. Measure the resulting load current and voltage, and record

them in Table - IV. They should agree closely with those in the adjacent columns.

I1 I2 I3 I0

Calculated current values

(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V0

Calculated Voltage Values

(V)

(mW)

I1 I2 I3 I0

Measured current values

(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V0

Measured Voltage Values

(V)

Calculated Measured

Vth Vth

Rth

Rth

PRth

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Calculated Measured

VL VL VL VL

IL IL

IL IL

PL PL

1. For the circuit given below design the circuit such that its Rth = 3.9875k. The resistors

available are 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.3 k and 4.7 k.

2. Determine Vth for the circuit which you designed. Record these values under Calculated in

Table - V.

3. Now connect the circuit which you designed and measure Vth. Record these values under

measured in Table - V.

4. Now connect a load resistance of 3.3 k to both the circuits and calculate VL and IL for the

actual circuit designed by you and record these values in Table - VI.

5. Now measure the resulting load voltage and current and these values in table in Table - VI.

They should agree closely with the values that you calculated.

Figure 3

Calculated Measured

Vth Vth

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Calculated Measured

VL VL VL VL

IL IL IL IL

(a) VS (b) R1, R2, R3 and Vs

(c) R1 and R2 only (d) R1, R2 and R3

(a) R1, R2, R3 and Vs (b) Vs only

(c) R1, R2 and Vs (d) R1 and Vs

(a) Increase (b) Decrease

(c) Remain the same (d) Insufficient Information

4. An additional resistance placed across the terminals A and B (before any load is connected)

would

(a) Increase Rth (b) Decrease Rth

(c) Not change Rth (d) Insufficient Information

5. A resistor placed directly in parallel with the source voltage Vs does not affect Rth. Why?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 9

VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:

To verify maximum power transfer theorem for DC circuits

To determine the maximum power of a black box using Thevenin thoerem

EQUIPMENT:

DC power supply 10 V

DMM with probes

Variable resistor

BACKGROUND:

In this experiment you will observe that for a given voltage source Vs with some fixed internal

resistance Rs, what value of load resistor will absorb the most power from the circuit? Clearly, there

are an infinite number of loads from 0 (a short circuit) to (an open circuit). Since a short

circuit would have no voltage and an open circuit would have no current, both of these produce zero

load power. The answer lies somewhere between 0 and . The maximum power transfer

theorem tells us that

The load resistance should be equal to the source resistance for maximum power to be

absorbed by the load

In the experiment, you will connect a variable resistor (acting as load) in series with a source

resistor. In each case, you will measure VL and IL and calculate = , the power in the load.

You should find that this power is maximized where RL= RS. A graph is one of the best ways to

illustrate the theorem. Be sure to join your data with a smooth curve (not straight-line segments) so

that the true variation of power with load resistance can be observed.

You will also plot the efficiency of power transfer versus the load resistance. The efficiency

measures just what fraction of the total power is dissipated in the load resistance. That is,

Efficiency, = PL/PT

where PL is the load power and PT is the total power (sum of power dissipated in load resistance and

source resistance). You will see that when delivering maximum power to the load, the efficiency of

the circuit is not maximum.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

3.3k IL

Vs

10V VL RL

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. For VS = 10V, and RS = 3.3 k, calculate the load voltage VL, load current IL, and load power PL

dissipated in the load resistor of Figure 1 for each value of RL. Note these values in Table - I.

2. Complete the table by calculating the total power (PT = VS IL) and the circuits efficiency

(PL/PT 100) for each value of load resistance.

3. Connect the circuit in Figure 1 and measure the load current and voltage for each value of RL.

4. Record all measured data in Table - II. From these data, complete the table by calculating the

total power and efficiency of power transfer.

RL (k) 1 1.8 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2

VL (V)

IL (mA)

PL (mW)

PT (mW)

Efficiency (%)

RL (k) 1 1.8 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2

VL (V)

IL (mA)

PL (mW)

PT (mW)

Efficiency (%)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

2. Determine the Thevenin equivalent parameters; i.e. Rth and Vth for the black box. Verify the

value of Rth using both the Isc method and deactivating sources method.

3. Draw the Thevenin equivalent circuit using the values determined above.

4. Connect a variable resistor between the terminals a and b at the output end of the black

box.

5. Calculate the value of RL that would result in maximum power transfer delivered to it. Also

calculate the values of corresponding voltage drop across RL and power dissipated in it.

6. Set the value of variable resistor to the value calculated above.

7. Measure the value of voltage across RL and use it to calculate the value of maximum power.

Record your readings in the table below.

TABLE III

RTH =

(using deactivating

sources method)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

TABLE IV

Calculated Measured

RL VL PL RL VL PL

1. Plot a graph of the load power, PL versus load resistance, RL from your measured data. Also plot a

graph of efficiency of power transfer, versus load resistance, R L from your measured data.

Include these graphs in the measurements section of your report.

2. If the source resistance were made larger than 3.3 k in this experiment, then

(a) all the values of PL would be smaller than before

(b) all the values of PL would be greater

(c) all the values of PL would not change

(d) some values of PL would be smaller and some greater

(a) PL (b) = PL (c) PL (d) none of these

4. The power dissipated in the source resistance depends on the value of the load resistance.

(a) True (b) False

5. To achieve high levels of efficiency, what is the required relationship between the source and

load resistance?

6. Show that the efficiency of the source is only 50 percent when supplying its maximum power.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 10

VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:

To verify the superposition theorem in a DC circuit

EQUIPMENT:

DC power supplies 11V (two)

DMM with probes

Resistors: 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.3 k

BACKGROUND:

The superposition theorem allows us to calculate the combined effects of a multi-source circuit by

summing the individual effects of each source acting alone. Particular attention must be paid to

current directions and voltage polarities when applying superposition. The circuit has two voltage

sources, VS1 and VS2. According to superposition theorem, voltages V1, V2 and V3 and currents I1, I2,

and I3 can be calculated by taking their values due to individual source acting alone, and then adding

them. The voltage source not being considered is to be replaced with a short circuit.

It is important to note that you must remove the power supply before you replace it with a short

circuit. Never short-circuit a functioning power supply. Also, pay attention to the polarity of voltages

due to each source so that you algebraically sum them to get the totals.

V1 V2

1k 3.3k

VS1 V3 VS2

11V 1k 11V

V4

1.2k

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. Use superposition principle for the circuit in Figure 1 to calculate components of V1, V2 , V3

and V4 due to each source acting alone, and record your results in Table - I. Note that V11 is

the component of V1 due to Vs1 acting alone; V12 is the component of V1 due to Vs2 acting

alone, etc. Similarly, calculate components of I1, I2, I3 and I4 due to each source acting alone

and record your results in Table - I.

2. Complete Table - I by calculating the actual values of V1, V2, V3 and V4, and I1, I2, I3 and I4

when both VS1 and VS2 are active (ON).

3. Connect the circuit in Figure 1. Remove power supply VS2 and replace it with a short circuit.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Then measure the voltages V11, V21, V31 and V41 and currents I11, I21, I31 and I41 record them

in Table-II, in the appropriate column.

4. Repeat above step, replacing VS1 with a short circuit and connecting VS2 in the circuit. This

will enable you to measure and record V12, V22, V32 and V42 and currents I12, I22, I32 and I42.

5. Finally connect the complete circuit with both sources active. Measure and record the actual

voltages V1, V2, V3 and V4 and currents I1, I2, I3 and I4. Compare your measured and

calculated data.

(Algebraic Sum)

V11 V12 V1

V21 V22 V2

V31 V32 V3

V41 V42 V4

I11 I12 I1

I21 I22 I2

I31 I32 I3

I41 I42 I4

V11 V12 V1

V21 V22 V2

V31 V32 V3

V41 V42 V4

I11 I12 I1

I21 I22 I2

I31 I32 I3

I41 I42 I4

1. With element values as in Figure 1, if the source VS1 were made equal to 22 V, then

a. I3 would double

b. I3 would have the same magnitude, but be opposite in direction

c. I12, I22 and I32 would each double

d. I11, I21 and I31 would each double

2. As far as the direction of current I2 is concerned, the voltages VS1 and VS2

a. Oppose each other

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

c. Do neither of the above

a. All currents will double

b. I2 will only double

c. All currents will remain constant

d. I1 and I3 will double and I2 will stay the same

a. The value of Vs2

b. The values of Vs2, R3 and R2

c. The values of Vs1, and R1

d. All of the above

5. With values as in Figure 1, calculate the value to which Vs1 must be reduced to force the

current I1 to equal zero.

6. Superposition does not work for power. For example, try using it with the power in any one

of the resistors in Figure 1; that is, find the power in the resistor due to each source acting

alone, add them, and compare with the power you get when you take the total current (or

voltage) in this resistor and use the power formula. Which of these is the correct value for the

power and why doesn't superposition work?

7. What will be the effect on the voltages and currents calculated above if the value of one of

the voltage source is doubled?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 11

CHARGING & DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

OBJECTIVE:

To observe the charging and discharging of a capacitor

EQUIPMENT:

DC Power Supply 8-10V

DMM

Stop watch

Capacitor: 1000uF

Resistors: 3.3k, 10k, 47k

BACKGROUND:

Capacitance is a measure of a capacitors ability to store charge. The amount of charge stored by a

capacitor is given by

Q = CV

The capacitor in a series RC circuit is being charged from a supply voltage Vs with the current

passing through a resistor R. The voltage across the capacitor is initially zero (i.e. it is acting like a

short circuit) but it increases as the capacitor charges. The capacitor is fully charged when Vc =Vs.

Charging and discharging of a capacitors energy is never instant but takes a certain amount of time

to occur with the time taken for the capacitor to charge or discharge to within a certain percentage of

its maximum supply value being known as time constant.

A large time constant means that a capacitor is charged slowly. After 5 time constants, the current

has fallen to less than 1% of its initial value and we can say that a capacitor is fully charged.

During discharging, the current decreases from its initial value of Io (which is determined by the

initial voltage across the capacitor, Vo and R) i.e. 0 = 0 .

The voltage across the capacitor also decreases as the capacitor discharges. After 5*, voltage cross

the capacitor is almost zero and capacitor is said to be fully discharged. Figure 1 shows the circuit

that will be used to observe the charging and discharging of a capacitor for different values of

resistors, and hence time constants, with the help of a stop watch.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure1. Set the voltage source to 8V. Make sure that you

have properly placed the capacitor; taking care of its polarity.

2. For different values of resistors, calculate the time constant, , and the time at which the

capacitor is fully charged and discharged. Note these values in the table.

3. Place the probes of DMM across the terminals of the capacitor.

4. Turn on the power supply and observe the increasing voltage during charging. Measure the

time it takes to fully charge the capacitor using a stop watch.

5. Turn off the power supply when the capacitor is fully charged. Replace the power supply

with short circuit (see Figure 2) and observe the decreasing voltage across the capacitor.

6. Fill the table by measuring the actual value of charging and discharging for different values

of resistors for a fixed value of capacitance, C = 1000uF.

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Estimated Estimated

Estimated

R () (sec) charging time discharging time

charging time (5)

(sec) (5)

3.3k

10k

47k

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 12

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

OBJECTIVE:

Observe the behavior of an operational amplifier as an inverting amplifier, and non-inverting

amplifier

EQUIPMENT:

DMM

Power supply

Resistors : 22k, 10k, variable resistor

IC: 741 op-amp

BACKGROUND:

An operational amplifier or op amp is an electronic circuit element, with inverting and non-inverting

inputs, designed to be used with other circuit elements to perform a specified signal-processing

operation. It is essentially a voltage amplifier having a large intrinsic DC voltage gain. Hundreds of

different op amps are available in integrated-circuit (IC) form.

Figure 1

INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Since V+ = V- and since V+ = 0 V (grounded), then V- = 0 V (not an actual ground, but called as a

virtual ground). The current I1 then can be calculated as,

Vi V Vi

I1 = =

R1 R1

Similarly,

V Vo Vo

I2 = =

R2 R2

Vi Vo

=

R1 R2

Or,

Vo R2

=

Vi R1

Since the gain is negative, the above amplifier is called inverting amplifier.

Figure 3

V

I1 =

R1

Vo V

I2 =

R2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

V Vo V

=

R1 R2

Vo R2

= (1 + )

Vi R1

Since the gain is positive, the above amplifier is called non-inverting amplifier.

PROCEDURE:

For the amplifier circuit of Figure 2, if R2 =22 k and R1=10 k do the following measurements and

calculations.

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

For the amplifier circuit of Figure 3, R2 =22 k and R1=10 k, do the following measurements and

calculations.

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

1. Plot the voltage transfer characteristic i.e. for both the inverting and the non-inverting

configurations.

2. What will be the effect on the output voltage, if the value of resistor R2 is made zero, in the

inverting and the non-inverting configurations.

3. In the inverting configuration, vary between -VCC and +VCC in 2V steps. Measure and

plot versus . What behavior does the circuit exhibit now? Explain.

5 and vary Rvar from 0 to 15 k with increment of 1 k. Calculate for each Rvar value

and plot the amplification as a function of Rvar. Explain your graph.

5. Simulate the inverting and non-inverting circuits using the same setup as in the experiment

for different values of , using schematics in PSpice. Compare the results with those

obtained in the experiment.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Labs with projects

1. Experiments and their report 50%

a. Experiment 60%

b. Lab report 40%

2. Quizzes (3-4) 15%

3. Final evaluation 35%

a. Project Implementation 60%

b. Project report and quiz 40%

1. Experiments and their report 50%

a. Experiment 60%

b. Lab report 40%

2. Quizzes (3-4) 20%

3. Final Evaluation 30%

i. Experiment 60%

ii. Lab report, pre and post

experiment quiz 40%

Notice:

Copying and plagiarism of lab reports is a serious academic misconduct. First instance of copying

may entail ZERO in that experiment. Second instance of copying may be reported to DC. This may

result in awarding FAIL in the lab course.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

In all the Electrical Engineering (EE) labs, with an aim to prevent any unforeseen accidents during

conduct of lab experiments, following preventive measures and safe practices shall be adopted:

Remember that the voltage of the electricity and the available electrical current in EE labs

has enough power to cause death/injury by electrocution. It is around 50V/10 mA that the

cannot let go level is reached. The key to survival is to decrease our exposure to energized

circuits.

If a person touches an energized bare wire or faulty equipment while grounded, electricity

will instantly pass through the body to the ground, causing a harmful, potentially fatal, shock.

Each circuit must be protected by a fuse or circuit breaker that will blow or trip when its

safe carrying capacity is surpassed. If a fuse blows or circuit breaker trips repeatedly while in

normal use (not overloaded), check for shorts and other faults in the line or devices. Do not

resume use until the trouble is fixed.

It is hazardous to overload electrical circuits by using extension cords and multi-plug outlets.

Use extension cords only when necessary and make sure they are heavy enough for the job.

Avoid creating an octopus by inserting several plugs into a multi-plug outlet connected to a

single wall outlet. Extension cords should ONLY be used on a temporary basis in situations

where fixed wiring is not feasible.

Dimmed lights, reduced output from heaters and poor monitor pictures are all symptoms of

an overloaded circuit. Keep the total load at any one time safely below maximum capacity.

If wires are exposed, they may cause a shock to a person who comes into contact with them.

Cords should not be hung on nails, run over or wrapped around objects, knotted or twisted.

This may break the wire or insulation. Short circuits are usually caused by bare wires

touching due to breakdown of insulation. Electrical tape or any other kind of tape is not

adequate for insulation!

Electrical cords should be examined visually before use for external defects such as: Fraying

(worn out) and exposed wiring, loose parts, deformed or missing parts, damage to outer

jacket or insulation, evidence of internal damage such as pinched or crushed outer jacket. If

any defects are found the electric cords should be removed from service immediately.

Pull the plug not the cord. Pulling the cord could break a wire, causing a short circuit.

Plug your heavy current consuming or any other large appliances into an outlet that is not

shared with other appliances. Do not tamper with fuses as this is a potential fire hazard. Do

not overload circuits as this may cause the wires to heat and ignite insulation or other

combustibles.

Keep lab equipment properly cleaned and maintained.

Ensure lamps are free from contact with flammable material. Always use lights bulbs with

the recommended wattage for your lamp and equipment.

Be aware of the odor of burning plastic or wire.

ALWAYS follow the manufacturer recommendations when using or installing new lab

equipment. Wiring installations should always be made by a licensed electrician or other

qualified person. All electrical lab equipment should have the label of a testing laboratory.

Be aware of missing ground prong and outlet cover, pinched wires, damaged casings on

electrical outlets.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Inform Lab engineer / Lab assistant of any failure of safety preventive measures and safe

practices as soon you notice it. Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the

laboratory.

Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the EE Labs.

Follow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do not understand a direction or

part of a procedure, ASK YOUR LAB ENGINEER / LAB ASSISTANT BEFORE

PROCEEDING WITH THE ACTIVITY.

Never work alone in the laboratory. No student may work in EE Labs without the presence

of the Lab engineer / Lab assistant.

Perform only those experiments authorized by your teacher. Carefully follow all

instructions, both written and oral. Unauthorized experiments are not allowed.

Be prepared for your work in the EE Labs. Read all procedures thoroughly before entering

the laboratory. Never fool around in the laboratory. Horseplay, practical jokes, and pranks

are dangerous and prohibited.

Always work in a well-ventilated area.

Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should be kept clean and tidy at all times.

Experiments must be personally monitored at all times. Do not wander around the room,

distract other students, startle other students or interfere with the laboratory experiments of

others.

Dress properly during a laboratory activity. Long hair, dangling jewelry, and loose or baggy

clothing are a hazard in the laboratory. Long hair must be tied back, and dangling jewelry

and baggy clothing must be secured. Shoes must completely cover the foot.

Know the locations and operating procedures of all safety equipment including fire

extinguisher. Know what to do if there is a fire during a lab period; Turn off equipment, if

possible and exit EE lab immediately.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Each student will maintain a lab notebook for each lab course. He will write a report for each

experiment he performs in his notebook. A format has been developed for writing these lab reports.

For hardware based labs, the format of the report will include:

2. Objective: What are the learning goals of the experiment?

3. Measurements: In your own words write how the experiment is performed (Do not

copy/paste the procedure).

a. Issues: Which technical issues were faced during the performance of the experiment

and how they were resolved?

b. Graphs, if any

4. Conclusions: What conclusions can be drawn from the measurements?

5. Applications: Suggest a real world application where this experiment may apply.

6. Answers to post lab questions (if any).

Introduction

An RC circuit is a first order circuit that utilizes a capacitor as an energy storage element whereas a

resistor as an energy wastage element. RC circuits are building blocks of electronic devices and their

thorough understanding is important in comprehending advance engineering systems such as

transistors and transmission lines.

An RC circuit can be operated with both DC and AC sources. In this lab we study transient response

of RC circuits with a square wave as a DC source. During the DC operation of an RC circuit the

voltage across the capacitor or the resistor show energy storing (capacitor charging) and dissipating

(capacitor discharging via resistor) mechanisms of the circuit. The capacitor charging or discharging

curves then lead to determine time constant of the circuit where the time constant signifies time

required by the RC circuit to store or waste energy.

Objective:

Measurements:

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Both input (a square wave) and output (voltage across capacitor) waveforms are monitored on an

oscilloscope. The capacitor charging is observed during "on" part of the square waveform whereas

the capacitor discharging is observed during "off" part of the square waveform (Fig. 2). We measure

the time constant from the capacitor charging or discharging curve. While keeping the capacitor

value constant, we also measure time constants with various resistor values (Table I).

Resistance

270 330 470 1 k 2.2 k 3.3 k

(Nominal)

Resistance

(Measured)

Time constant

(Calculated)

Time constant

(Measured)

Capacitance

(Measured)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Issues:

Mention any issue(s) you encountered during the experiment and how they were resolved

Conclusions:

b) The time constant is directly proportional to the resistor value.

Both of the above conclusions are also easily verifiable by solving differential equation for the RC

circuit.

Applications:

An RC circuit can be employed for a camera flash. The capacitor discharges through the flash light

during a picture taking event.

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