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# CIRCUITS ANALYSIS I

LAB MANUAL

## DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,

FAST-NU, LAHORE
Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Created by: Ms. Beenish Fatima, Ms. Maimoona Akram, Ms. Tooba Javed

## Date: January, 2016

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Sr. No. Description Page No.

1 List of Equipment 4

## Experiment No.2, a) Resistor Color Code and Measurement

3 10
b) Ohms law, Power in DC Circuits and Resistor Power Rating

## Experiment No.4, a) Parallel Resistive Circuit, Kirchhoffs Current law

5 26
b) Application of KCL, KVL in a series-parallel combination circuit

## 16 Appendix C: Guidelines on Preparing Lab Reports 69

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

List of Equipment

## Sr. No. Description

2 Capacitor (1000uF)

4 LEDs

7 Oscilloscope

## 10 Variable Resistor (5k , 10k)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 1
INTRODUCTION TO LAB EQUIPMENT

OBJECTIVE:
Introduction to digital multi-meter, power supply and breadboard

EQUIPMENT:
Digital multi-meter (DMM)
Power Supply (0-30 V)

BACKGROUND:
DIGITAL MULTI-METER
Digital multi-meter or the DMM measures voltage, current and resistance. There are separate
settings for AC and DC values. The switch settings that you select will define the function of the
instrument at any time. Multi-meter also has the capability of measuring other quantities such as
frequency etc. The function and the usage of each instrument are explained briefly below. You can
consult the instrument manual for more details.

Voltmeter: The difference in electric potential (voltage) between any two nodes in a circuit is
measured by connecting the probes of the voltmeter to the two nodes in question. Note that this
places the voltmeter in parallel with that portion of the circuit between the measurement points as
shown in Figure 1. An ideal voltmeter would have an infinite resistance so that no current is
conducted through it. Thus, it would not alter the voltages at the nodes to which the voltmeter is
connected.

In reality voltmeters are never ideal, but the input impedance (or internal resistance) is so high that
the meter functions in a nearly ideal manner. An AC voltmeter generally measures and displays the
RMS value of the time-varying component of the voltage.

Figure 1 Voltmeter connections to measure electric potential at node 2 with respect to node 0

Ammeter: Ammeters measure the flow of charge through a branch of a circuit. The meter must be
inserted into the current stream, in series with the component or circuit through which the current is
flowing, as shown in Figure 2. An ideal ammeter would have zero resistance so that no voltage is
developed (dropped) across it when the current flows through it. Thus, according to KVL, this would

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

not affect the loop currents in the circuit being measured. An AC ammeter generally measures and
displays the RMS value of the time-varying component of the current.

Again, ammeters are not ideal and have some internal resistance (or input impedance), but this
resistance is very small. NEVER connect an ammeter directly across a voltage source the low
resistance of the ammeter will act as a short circuit causing a large current to flow, damaging the
meter.

## Figure 2 Ammeter connections to measure current flowing through R3

Ohmmeter: An ohmmeter measures the net resistance of all components connected between its two
probes. Ohmmeter works by forcing a small, known, and steady current to flow through the
measurement probes and the element being measured. The voltage developed between the nodes
connected to the ohmmeter is sensed, and (per Ohm's Law) the equivalent resistance, V/I, is
displayed. When measuring the resistance of any circuit element, that element or elements must be
isolated from the rest of the circuit, i.e., isolated from any component that can alter the small current
delivered to the circuit by the meter or alter the voltage developed across the element of interest. For
example, if the circuit itself contains any source of power, then potential difference between the
probes will depend on the current supplied by the meter and the voltage or current supplied by the
other source. Hence such a reading would be incorrect because the ohmmeter is influenced by the
other source. In the worst case, the ohmmeter might even be damaged. Clearly the power sources
must be disconnected, but other circuit components may also be a problem. In Figure-3 the meter is
reading the resistance of R2 in parallel with R3.

Measuring the resistance of R3 alone would require disconnecting R3 from either node 2 or node 0.
This eliminates the influence of R2 on the current delivered to R3 by the meter. Note that an
ohmmeter measures only the resistance, not the complex impedance, of a circuit or element. The
resistance of an ideal inductor is zero, and the resistance of an ideal capacitor is infinite.

Figure 3 Ohmmeter is connected in parallel. An ohmmeter connected as shown here will measure the net resistance between
nodes 2 and 0 of the circuit

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

POWER SUPPLY
DC power supply is used to generate either a constant voltage or a constant current. That is, it may
be used as either a DC voltage source or a DC current source. DC means constant with respect to
time. If the C.C. indicator is lighted, the corresponding variable power supply is producing a
constant current. Similar is the case for the C.V. indicator which means that a constant voltage is
being produced. The CURRENT/ VOLTAGE knob is used to set the output current / voltage for the
variable power supply respectively. The output terminals for the power supply allow you to plug in
The red terminal on the right is the positive polarity output terminal. It is indicated by a plus
(+) sign above it.
The black terminal on the left is the negative polarity output terminal. It is indicated by a
minus () sign above it.
The green terminal in the middle is the earth and chassis ground.

## Figure 4 Power supply

The tracking buttons on the power supply select the test mode of the instrument. The power supply
features two tracking modes: series and parallel. If both push-button switches are disengaged (out),
the two variable power supplies operate independently. If the left switch is pushed in, the instrument
operates in series mode. If both switches are pushed in, the instrument operates in parallel mode. In
series mode, the master power supply controls the voltage for both power supplies, which can then
range from 0 to 60 V. In parallel mode, the master power supply controls both the voltage and the
current for both power supplies. The current can then range from 0 to 6 A. There is another fixed
5V/ 3A output knob to provide a constant voltage of 5V. The overload indicator lights when the
current on the 5 V FIXED power supply becomes too large.

Most of the electrical circuits built in the laboratory will be wired on "solder less breadboards" or
circuit boards. The term "breadboard" originated in the early days of electronics when temporary
circuits were literally wired on wooden boards about the size commonly used for slicing bread.

A typical breadboard is shown in Figure 5. Breadboard consists of a series of holes, or sockets, into
which wires or leads of electrical components can be placed. There are strips of spring metal

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

underneath the plastic that serve as "tie-points", connecting individual sockets into groups. All
sockets in a group will have the same electrical connection. The rectangular groups shown in Figure
5 illustrate the socket groupings or tie-points on the breadboard. The tie-points along the outside of
the breadboard are referred to as busses. These busses provide a mechanism for distributing
signals along the entire breadboard, i.e. making it easy to connect to the signals from anywhere on

Internal electrical connections in the breadboard are shown in Figure 6. Figure 7 shows some sample

## Figure 7 Sample connections

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## POST LAB QUESTION:

Write a detailed report on the wiring of a circuit on the breadboard. Give examples of correctly
connected components and of typical connection mistakes. Explain the internal connections of the

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 2
a) RESISTOR COLOR CODE AND MEASUREMENT
b) OHMS LAW, POWER IN DC CIRCUITS AND RESISTOR POWER RATING
OBJECTIVE:
To become familiar with the resistor color code and use of a multi-meter to measure
resistance
To prove that current (I) and voltage (V) are linearly proportional in a DC circuit. To show
that the proportionality constant is equal to the resistance R of the circuit
Determine experimentally the maximum voltage that may be applied to a resistor of given
power rating

EQUIPMENT:
Digital multi-meter (DMM) with probes
5 Resistors each of different values (4-Band, 5-Band, Alpha-numeric)
DC power supply 10 V, 6V
Resistors: 120 , 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.9 k, 4.7 k
Light Bulbs: 6.2V 0.5A

BACKGROUND:

Measurement of resistance is a very common task. Ohmmeter can be used to detect a faulty
component in a circuit. Also it can be used more specifically to determine the correct operation of
lamps, fuses, switches and any number of other components. In this lab experiment you will use
DMM (ohmmeter) to check whether a number of resistors lie within the tolerance specified by their
color codes. You should also take this opportunity to get familiar with the ohmmeter portion of your
DMM.

Most DMMs include an ohmmeter range, usually selectable by a switch, which should be set to the
ohms () position. Analog voltmeters usually have to be calibrated on each range. Though no power
will be connected to your resistors in this experiment, in actual circuits, the power must always be
turned off before you bring your probes into contact with the component under test.

## 3 digits, multiplier, 3 digits, multiplier, 2 digits, multiplier,

tolerance, tolerance tolerance
temperature coefficient

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## RESISTOR COLOR CODES

Temperature
Color Digits[1-3] Multiplier[4] Tolerance[5]
coefficient[6]
Black 0 1
Brown 1 10 1% 100ppm
Red 2 100 2% 50ppm
Orange 3 1k 15ppm
Yellow 4 10k 25ppm
Green 5 100k 0.5%
Blue 6 1M 0.25%
Violet 7 10M 0.1%
Grey 8
White 9
Gold 0.1 5%
Silver 0.01 10%
None 20%

## ALPHA-NUMERIC LABELING OF RESISTORS

Generally on larger power resistors, the resistance value, tolerance, and even the power (wattage)
rating are printed onto the actual body of the resistor instead of using the resistor color code system.
Because it is very easy to "misread" the position of a decimal point or comma especially when the
component is dirty, an easier system for writing and printing the resistance values of the individual
resistance was developed. A type of marking with three or four character label that uses both digits
and letters was introduced as alpha-numeric labeling. Two or three digits and one of the letters R,
K, or M are used to identify a resistance value. The letter is used to indicate the multiplier, and its
position is used to indicate decimal point position.

The suffix letters "K" is for thousands or kilo ohms, the letter "M" for millions or mega ohms while
the letter "R" is used where the multiplier is equal to 1; e.g. BS 1852 Codes for resistor value for
0.47 would be R47 or 0R47, for 4.7k it would be 4k7 and for 1.0M it would be 1M0.

## Tolerance Codes for

Resistors ()
B = 0.1%
C = 0.25%
D = 0.5%

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

F = 1%
G = 2%
J = 5%
K = 10%
M = 20%

Also, when reading these written codes one has to be careful not to confuse the resistance letter k for
kilo ohms with the tolerance letter K for 10% tolerance or the resistance letter M for mega ohms
with the tolerance letter M for 20% tolerance.

## NUMERIC LABELING OF RESISTORS

In numeric labeling, the first two digits represent the first two numbers of the resistance value with
the third digit being the multiplier, either x1, x10, x100 etc. For example:

## 392 = 39 x 100 ohms = 3.9 k

103 = 10 x 1000 ohms = 10 k
4754 = 475 x 10,000 ohms = 4.75M

VARIABLE RESISTOR

The variable resistor is a three-terminal device. Any of the two terminals (let say terminal A and
terminal B) have a fixed resistance between them, which is the total resistance. The third terminal
(let say terminal W) acts as a moving contact (wiper). We can vary the resistance between W and A,
or between W and B by moving the contact.

It is applied in an electronic circuit for adjusting circuit resistance to control voltage or current of
that circuit or part of that circuit. The variable resistor used to divide voltage is called a
potentiometer. The variable resistor used to control current is called a rheostat.

The electrical resistance is varied by sliding a wiper contact along a resistance track. Sometimes the
resistance is adjusted at pre-set value as required at the time of circuit building by adjusting screw
attached to it and sometimes resistance can be adjusted as when required by controlling knob
connected to it.

## Variable resistor symbol Connection leads of a Variable Resistor

Figure 1

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## 20% 10% 5% 20% 10% 5%

1.0 1.0 1.0 3.3 3.3 3.3
1.1 3.6
1.2 1.2 3.9 3.9
1.3 4.3
1.5 1.5 1.5 4.7 4.7 4.7
1.6 5.1
1.8 1.8 5.6 5.6
2.0 6.2
2.2 2.2 2.2 6.8 6.8 6.8
2.4 7.5
2.7 2.7 8.2 8.2
3.0 9.1

Note: These values can be in multiples of 1x, 10x, 100x, 1000x, etc.

PROCEDURE:

1. The color code on each resistor defines the nominal value about which the tolerance is
defined. The nominal value is that value of resistance that the resistor would have if its
tolerance is 0 percent. Use the color code to determine the nominal value in each case and
record them in Table-I.
2. Record the tolerance and the resulting theoretical maximum and minimum values for each
resistor.
3. Using DMM measure and record the actual value of each resistor, and check whether or not
this value falls within the tolerance. Resistors are rarely out of tolerance; if one appears to be,
it could be an error in DMM measurement. Be sure not to touch probes with your fingers
when measuring resistance, since body resistance affects the readings.

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R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal
(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured
(DMM)

## TABLE - II (5-Band Resistors)

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal
(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured
(DMM)

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R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Nominal
(value)

Tolerance

Maximum

Minimum

Measured
(DMM)

a) 2.57k
b) 2.43k
c) 2.84k
d) 2.97k

## 2. The minimum value that the resistor in question1 could be

a) 2.57k
b) 2.43k
c) 2.84k
d) 2.97k

3. The first three bands in resistor are colored brown, black and red. The resistance is measured
and found to be 1050. If the resistor is guaranteed to be within its tolerance specification,
what tolerance might be indicated by its fourth (tolerance) band?
a) 5%
b) 10%
c) 20%
d) Any of these

## 4. A resistor having the colored bands blue-grey-orange-silver has minimum value:

a) 61.2k
b) 68k
c) 63k
d) 64.6k

5. A resistor is required for an application whose value can be no less than 7.1k and no more

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

than 7.9k. Determine the standard value and tolerance of the resistor you could use.
Explain?

## 6. A resistor having the colored bands blue-grey-orange-gold-red has maximum value:

a) 66.93
b) 69.67
c) 68.3
d) 67.9

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Part b)

## OHMS LAW, POWER IN DC CIRCUITS AND RESISTOR POWER RATING

BACKGROUND:

OHMS LAW
Ohms Law is the basis of many electrical circuit calculations and is one of the most important
theories you will learn: V = IR. The purpose of this experiment is to verify Ohms Law, which in
words, simply says that the current through a resistor is proportional to the voltage across it. The
way in which we accomplish this is to measure the voltage across and current through a known
resistor for several different pair of values. We can then plot the data on a graph, and if the
relationship is truly linear it should yield a straight line.

When graphing data such as those obtained in this experiment, either the x or y-axis can be chosen to
display the voltage or current values. When the y-axis is chosen as the voltage axis, and the x-axis as
the current axis, we say that we are plotting V versus I. the slope of the line V/I should be equal
to the resistance R of the resistor. If on the other hand, current is plotted on the y-axis, and voltage
along the x-axis, then slope of the line I/V is equal to the conductance G of the resistor. In this
experiment you will plot I in mA versus V in volts, and therefore the slope will be the conductance
of the resistor. When plotting a straight line on a graph such as this, it is important that you draw the
best possible straight line that you can through the data points.

POWER IN DC CIRCUITS
Electronic devices and circuits require energy to operate. Power is a measure (in watts) of the energy
(in joules) consumed by a given device in one second. For a resistor, three equations will yield the
power dissipated: P = IV, P = V/R and P = IR. In this experiment, you will verify these formulae
and plot graphs of the power versus the current, and then power versus the voltage. The resulting
curves are parabolas, and the equations of the curves are called quadratic.

POWER RATING
The power in a resistor is converted to heat; the resistor therefore heats up. If the resistor becomes
too hot, it may fall out of tolerance; worse still, it could ignite and cause a fire. Therefore, it is
important to be aware of resistors power rating. The power rating of a resistor is the value (in watts)
that must not be exceeded if the resistor is to remain within the manufacturers specification of
ohmic value and tolerance. The power rating is a function of several variables, one of which is
physical size. For example, carbon composition resistors appear in W, W, 1 W, etc sizes.

The power rating actually determines the maximum voltage and current that the resistor can safely
withstand. For example, if we call the power rating Pr, then we can determine the maximum safe
2

voltage using the dc power formula, Pr = . Solving for , we get:

## where Pr is the power rating of the resistor.

2
Similarly, using = , we can solve for the maximum safe current Imax as follows:

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

=
As the power rating increases, the resistor is typically larger in volume and therefore surface area.

LIGHT BULBS
Light bulbs have a very simple structure. At the base, they have two metal contacts, which connect
to the ends of an electrical circuit. The metal contacts are attached to two stiff wires, which are
attached to a thin metal filament. The filament sits in the middle of the bulb, held up by a glass
mount. The wires and the filament are housed in a glass bulb, which is filled with an inert gas, such
as argon.

The filament in a light bulb is made of a long; incredibly thin length of tungsten metal. Tungsten is
used in nearly all incandescent light bulbs because it is an ideal filament material. A metal must be
heated to extreme temperatures before it will emit a useful amount of visible light. Most metals will
actually melt before reaching such extreme temperatures. Light bulbs are manufactured with
tungsten filaments because tungsten has an abnormally high melting temperature.

Figure 1

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 3

PROCEDURE:

1. With the DMM, measure the resistance of 1 k, and record this measured value in Table - I.
2. With the power supply initially off, connect the circuit in Figure 1 with R = 1 k.
3. Switch on the power supply. Beginning at 0V, increase the voltage in 1 V steps up to 6V.
Measure and record resulting current in Table - I.
4. Repeat this with a 6.2V light bulb as shown in Figure 3. Record this data in Table - II.
5. Use the voltage and current data together with the measured value of R to complete the rest
of Table - I and Table - II for the power P. All power quantities should agree.
6. Calculate the maximum safe voltage that can be applied across the 14 resistor mentioned
in Table - III, without exceeding its power rating.
7. Calculate the maximum safe current to which the maximum safe voltage corresponds.
Record this in Table - III.
8. Replace the 14 resistor in your circuit in Figure 1. Increase the voltage until you reach
maximum permissible value you calculated above. Carefully touch the resistor. Why does it
feel hot?
9. Exceed the voltage by maximum permissible value and see what happens?
10. Repeat the above procedure for 12 and 1 resistors and complete Table - III.

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## TABLE I (For Resistor)

Vs(V) 1 2 3 4 5 6

I (mA)

P = VI (mW)

P = I2R(mW)

P = V2/R
(mW)

R=1k R(measured) =

## TABLE II (For Light Bulb)

Vs(v) 1 2 3 4 5 6

I (mA)

P = VI (mW)

P = I2R(mW)

P = V2/R
(mW)

TABLE III

## Maximum safe voltage Maximum Safe

Ohmic Value
Power rating Current
(Measured)
(Calculated)
Calculated Measured

R = 120, 14W

R = 0.56, 12W

R = 390, 1W

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. On the same scale and axis, plot graphs of current, I in mA, versus voltage, V in volts, for
resistor and bulb using the data of Table I and Table II. (Assign V to x-axis and I to the y-
axis.) Draw the best straight lines possible through each set of data. Determine the slope of
each line; it should be equal to the conductance, G of the resistor in consideration. You can
then verify the resistance of each resistor by taking the reciprocal of conductance. Do this for
each set of data and record this in a table.

2. Plot graphs of power versus current and power versus voltage for the 1k resistor. Include
all these graphs and tables in the measurements section of your report. Comment on the
several aspects of the behavior shown in the graphs.

3. Explain your observation about the non-ohmic behavior of light bulbs? Explain the
conditions for a device to obey Ohms Law, and why light bulbs do not obey Ohm's Law?
How is this non-ohmic behavior different from ohmic behavior?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 3
SERIES RESISTIVE CIRCUIT, KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW

OBJECTIVE:
To verify that the total resistance in a series connected circuit is the sum of individual
resistances
To verify Kirchhoffs voltage law for DC circuits

EQUIPMENT:
DC power supply
DMM
Resistors: 1k, 2.2k, 3.9k, 4.7k
Light Bulbs: 6.2V 0.5A

BACKGROUND:

## SERIES RESISTIVE CIRCUITS

When resistors are connected in series, the current that will flow is calculated from the knowledge of
the total resistance. The total resistance in this case is simply the sum of individual resistors. For
example in case of two resistors, total resistance RT is:

= 1 + 2

By knowing the total resistance, the voltage required for the desired current or the current resulting
from an applied voltage can easily be calculated.

## KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW

Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the algebraic sum of voltages around a closed path is equal to
zero. With regard to Figure-1, this means that

+ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 0

or = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

where V1 is the voltage across R1 ,V2 is the voltage across R2 ,V3 is the voltage across R3 and V4 is
the voltage across R4.

By connecting such a circuit and measuring the voltages, it should be possible to verify this
relationship. In performing an experiment of this nature, you should remember that each
measurement is subject to some error, and when you sum such measurements, the errors may add
and produce what may appear to be an inconsistency. The important thing is that, if the instruments
are perfect, we should obtain a sum of voltage drops exactly equal to the source voltage.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

V1 V2
R1 R2

Vs 10V R3 V3
R4

V4
Figure 1

V1 V2

L1 L2

6V L3 V3
L4
I

V4

Figure 2

PROCEDURE:

1. Using the measured values of the given resistors, use the formula for RT to determine the
expected total resistance for each of the connections in Table - I. Note that an additional
resistance is added each time you move to the right in the table.
2. Insert a 4.7 k resistor in your breadboard and connect in series the other resistor, making up
the first combination in Table - I and observe the reading.
3. Continue to add the remaining three resistors in the sequence described in the table, one at a
time, recording the reading for each combination. The resistance should continue to increase
until you have the value in the last column of the table.
4. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1.
5. Using the measured value of total resistance, calculate and record current I that would
result from the source voltage applied.
6. Use the calculated current and resistance values to calculate the voltage drop across each of
the resistors. Record these in the Calculated Voltages row in Table - II.
7. Add the calculated voltage drops, and record this under the VSUM heading in the table. They
should sum to 10V.
8. Measure the voltage across each resistor, and record these in the Measured Voltages row in
Table - II.
9. Add the measured voltages from the previous step and enter their sum in the appropriate area

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

of the table.
10. Now, connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2.
11. Measure the voltage across each bulb in the circuit, and record these in the Measured
Voltages row in Table - III. Add the measured voltages from the previous step and enter
their sum in the appropriate area of the table. Also measure the total current flowing in the
circuit.

## Total Resistance of Combination RT

Combination (k) 4.7 + 3.9 4.7 + 3.9 + 2.2 4.7 + 3.9 + 2.2 + 1

## TABLE - II (KVL for resistors)

Calculated ICALC
voltages V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM (mA)
using IR
relation

IMEAS
Measured V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM
(mA)
Voltages

IMEAS
V1 V2 V3 V4 VSUM
(mA)
Measured
Voltages

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. An ammeter connected in series with three resistors reads an electric current of 2A. What is
the electric current through the resistor R3?

a) 1 A b) 2 A c) 3 A d) 4 A e) 5 A

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

2. Connect three light bulbs in series with a voltage source (ranging 1V to 6V). What will
happen if you remove one of the light bulbs from the circuit? Explain your answer in terms
of bulb brightness and current flowing through the circuit. Draw the circuit schematics as

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 4
a) PARALLEL RESISTIVE CIRCUIT, KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW
b) APPKICATION OF KCL, KVL IN A SERIES-PARALLEL COMBINATION
CIRCUIT
OBJECTIVE:
To verify that the total resistance in a parallel connected circuit is given by the reciprocal rule
To verify Kirchhoffs current law for DC circuits
To learn to apply KCL, KVL together in a series parallel combination circuit

EQUIPMENT:
DC power supply
DMM
Resistors: 1k, 2.2k, 3.9k, 4.7k

BACKGROUND:

## PARALLEL RESISTIVE CIRCUITS

In a parallel circuit, each component has the same voltage drop across it, and the currents through
each resistor are independent of one another. As more resistors are added in a parallel circuit, each
one takes its own current from the supply independently of others. As a result, the total current
increases. The power supply sees this as a reduction in the total resistance R T of the circuit. In this
experiment we will determine the effect of adding more resistors to a parallel connection using
ohmmeter. We will then verify the total resistance formula for parallel resistors, which is

1 1 1 1
= + + +
1 2

We will then verify the simple product over sum rule for the special case of two resistors in parallel:

1 2
=
1 + 2

RT will always be less than the smaller of the resistances in the parallel circuit.

## KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW

Kirchhoffs Current Law states that the sum of the currents into a junction is equal to the currents out
of that junction. With reference to Figure-1, this implies that

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

PART A
1. Measure the actual values of each of the resistors using DMM and note down these values in
Table - I.
2. Using the measured values of these resistors, use the formula (the reciprocal rule) for RT to
determine the expected total resistance for each of the connections in Table - II. Note that an
additional resistance is added each time you move to the right in the table.
3. Insert a 4.7 k resistor in your breadboard and connect in parallel the other resistor, making
up the first combination in Table - II and observe the reading.
4. Continue to add resistors, one at a time, the remaining three resistors in the sequence
described in the table, recording the reading for each combination. The resistance should
continue to decrease until you have the value in the last column of the table.
5. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 1.
6. Measure branch currents I1, I2, I3and I4 recording all data in Table - III.
7. Also measure currents IT, I234 and I34 and record in Table - III.
8. Complete the remainder of the table by calculating each of the sums I3 + I4, I2 +I 3+I 4, IT etc.
The calculated values should compare well with the corresponding measured currents.

## Resistance Values (k)

Nominal values 1 2.2 3.9 4.7

Measured values

## Total Resistance of Combination RT

Combination (k) 4.7 || 3.9 4.7 || 3.9 || 2.2 4.7 || 3.9 || 2.2 || 1

## || means in parallel with

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

TABLE-III (KCL)

I1 I2 I3 I4 I34 I234 IT
Measured
Currents
(mA)

I34 I234 IT
Calculated
Currents by
KCL (mA)

PART B
V5 V3 V1

## V6 1k V4 2.2k 10V 5.6k V2

I6 I4 Is I2

Figure 2

1. Implement the circuit given in Figure 2 above and measure all the voltages and currents.
2. Record the values in Table - IV given below.
3. Using these measured values, calculate the quantities given in Table - V using both KCL and
KVL.

## TABLE - IV (KCL & KVL)

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6
Measured
Voltages

Measured Is I1 I2 I3 I4 I5
Currents
(mA)

## TABLE - V (KCL & KVL)

I6 V5 + V6 V1 + V2 V3 + V1 + V2 - V6 -V5 I4 + I5
Calculated
Values

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Two resistors R1 = 6 and R2 = 12 are connected in parallel to each other and in series to
R3= 2. An ammeter measures an electric current of 3A flowing though resistor R3. What is
the net voltage applied to the circuit?

a) 6 V b) 12 V c) 18 V d) 24 V e)36 V

2. What is the current through the resistor R2 = 12 used in the previous problem?

b) 6 A b) 1 A c) 3 A d) 5 A e) 7 A

3. The resistors in each of the circuits shown below each have the same resistance. Which of the
following gives the circuits in order of increasing total resistance?

a) P, Q, S b) Q, P, S c) S, Q, P d) P, S, Q

4. Connect three light bulbs in parallel with a voltage source (ranging 1V to 6V). What will
happen to the overall current in the circuit and the brightness of the light bulbs if you remove
one of the light bulbs from the circuit? Explain your answer in detail. Draw the circuit
schematics as well to support your solution.

5. Briefly explain, with proper reasoning, whether you think the appliances in a home kitchen
are wired with series or parallel connections.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 5
INTRODUCTION TO PSPICE

OBJECTIVE:
Learn to perform DC analysis using PSpice

BACKGROUND:

## 1. SPICE stands for Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis

2. SPICE was originally developed at the Electronics Research Laboratory of the University of
California, Berkeley (1975). As the name implies, SPICE was originally developed for designing
integrated circuits. However, it can be used to analyze discrete circuits as well.
3. PSpice is a PC version of SPICE (Cadence) and HSpice is a version that runs on workstations
and larger computers.
4. PSpice is case insensitive i.e. typing r or R will not be any different in PSpice.
5. All analysis can be done at different temperatures. The default temperature is 27C.
6. PSpice can do several types of circuit analysis. Here are a few:
DC analysis: Calculates the DC transfer curve.
AC analysis: Calculates the output as a function of frequency. A bode plot is generated.
Transient analysis: Calculates the voltage and current as a function of time when a large
signal is applied.
Noise analysis: Analyzes noise at the input or output of the circuit.
Fourier analysis: Calculates and plots the frequency spectrum.
A PSpice circuit can contain components like AC & DC voltage and current sources,
Resistors and Variable Resistors, Capacitors and Variable Capacitors, Inductors and Variable
Inductors, Operational amplifiers, Switches, Diodes, Bipolar transistors, Transformers etc.

## GETTING STARTED WITH PSPICE:

Go to Start Menu, then Programs, then PSpice Student and then Schematics

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## DRAWING THE CIRCUIT:

Following is the circuit we will use to begin our understanding about how PSpice works:

## I. Getting the Parts:

1. The first thing is to get some or all of the parts you need and place them on your Schematics
Workspace. This can be done by going to Draw and selecting Get New Part or by clicking
on the get new parts button or by pressing Ctrl+G.
2. Once this box is open, select a part that you want in your circuit. This can be done by typing in
the Part Name or the first alphabet of the part name, or scrolling down the list until you find it.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

3. Upon selecting your parts, click on the Place button. Then click where you want it to be placed
on the schematics workspace. Don't worry about putting it in exactly the right place, it can
always be moved later. Once you have all the parts you think you need, close that box. You can
always open it again later if you need more parts.

## II. Get Recent Part Bin:

PSpice keeps track of the most recent parts used and lists them in the Get Recent Part bin. You
can save time by selecting items from this bin. Simply double click the item then place as
described above.

## III. Libraries in PSpice:

The parts in PSpice are arranged in the form of libraries. You do not have to worry about
including the concerned libraries before you actually select Parts because PSpice Schematics
Version 9.1 automatically includes all the libraries, when the Get Part button is pressed. Few
common libraries are:
analog.slb contains resistors (R), capacitors (C), inductors (L), dependent sources (E, F, G
and H) etc.
source.slb contains various independent voltage and current sources.
port.slb contains elements such as ground etc.

Hands on Exercise 1
Get all the parts you need to draw the circuit given, on your Schematics workspace?
Find out what specific libraries contain those parts?

## IV. Placing the Parts:

You should have most of the parts available in your schematics workspace that you need at
this point.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

To put them in the places that make the most sense (usually a rectangle works well for simple
circuits), just select the part and drag it where you want it.
To rotate parts so that they will fit in your circuit nicely, click on the part and click Edit
"Rotate" or simply click "Ctrl+R"
To flip them, click Edit "Flip" or "Ctrl+F".
If any parts are left over, just select them and press "Delete".

Hands on Exercise 2
Place the parts that you have selected in Exercise 1 in a proper order on the Schematics workspace.

## V. Connecting the Circuit:

Now that your parts are arranged well, you'll have to connect them with wires.
Go up to the tool bar and Go to "Draw" and select "Wire", or Select "Draw Wire" , or
Press "Ctrl+W" With the pencil looking pointer, left click on one end of a part. When you
move your mouse around, you should see dotted lines appear.
Drag the mouse to the next part in the circuit. This will attach the other end of the wire to the
next part that you want to connect and then left click again to release the wire.
Repeat this until your circuit is completely wired.
If you want to make a node (to make a wire go more than one place), click somewhere on the
wire and then click to the part (or the other wire). Or you can go from the part to the wire.
To get rid of the pencil, Right Click on the mouse.
If you end up with extra dots near your parts, you probably have an extra wire, select this
short wire (it will turn red), then press "Delete".
If the wire doesn't look the way you want, you can make extra bends in it by clicking in
different places on the way (each click will form a corner).

Hands on Exercise 3
Connect the parts using the wire that you have placed in Exercise 2.

## VI. Changing the Name of the Part:

You probably don't want to keep the names R1 B , B R B2B etc., especially if you didn't put the
parts in the most logical order. To change the name, double click on the present name (C1, or R1
or whatever your part is), then a box will pop up (Edit Reference Designator). In the top window,
you can type in the name for the selected part.

Please note that if you double click on the part or its value, a different box will appear.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 4
Change the names for the parts in your circuit to the names that were shown in the original figure of
the circuit given.

## VII. Changing the Value of the Part:

To change the value of the part (e.g. by default the value of all the resistors is 1K ohms), you can
double click on the present value and a box called "Set Attribute Value" will appear. Type in the
new value and press OK.

If you double click on the part itself, you can select VALUE and change it in this box.

## The list of units as PSpice accepts them is as follows:

F,f femto 10 -15
P,p pico 10 -12
N,n Nano 10 -9
U,u Micro 10 -6
M,m Milli 10 -3
K,k Kilo 10 +3
MEG, meg Mega 10 +6
G,g Giga 10 +9
T,t tera 10 +12

Hands on Exercise 5

Change the values for the parts in your circuit to the values that were shown in the original circuit
given.

SAVING
Choose a name that will help you identify which problem this is. To save the circuit, click on the
save button on the tool bar (or any other way you normally save files).

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## ELECTRIC RULE CHECK

Perform an electrical rules check to be sure your circuit schematic will simulate properly. (Analysis
menu, Electrical Rule Check). If all goes well, you will see a small window flash on the screen
and nothing else. If no errors are reported in your schematic, proceed to the next step. If there are
errors, fix them now.

Hands on Exercise 6
Do the Electrical Rule Check and Save the circuit that you have drawn?

## SIMULATING THE CIRCUIT

Now you will simulate your circuit. Do this by going to the Analysis menu and choosing
Simulate or Press on the Toolbar
When simulation is done, a new PSPICE window will appear.
Look at the Lower Left corner of the window for the results of simulation.
This is what you are going to see:

## What does PSpice mean by Floating Nodes?

Why was the Simulation Aborted?
I. Making Sure You Have a GND:
This is very important. You cannot do any simulation on the circuit if you don't have a
ground. If you aren't sure where to put it, place it near the negative side of your voltage
source.

Select View in this window, and examine Output File. Scroll down towards the bottom
of the file until you come to a series of headings that say Node Voltage.
The voltage at each circuit node should be reported. Identify which node voltages are
associated with which circuit elements and note them down.
Scroll further down the output file. Note that the source current and total power
dissipation for the circuit is also reported.
The voltage source current is reported as -2.500E-04 A.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 7
Find out the value of the current in the circuit manually by using the analytical methods you have
learned in the Circuits Analysis-I class so far. Check if the answer agrees with PSpice analysis?

III. Netlists:
A netlist is the original way we interacted with SPICE.
The netlist contains description of the circuit that describes the parts of the circuit and the
nodes with which they are connected.
When PSpice creates a circuit description from your schematic, it numbers nodes, and for
each component, lists the nodes to which it is connected as well as the value of the
component.
For example, Node 1 is designated \$N001, node 2 as \$N002, etc.
These designations do not appear on your schematic screen but instead they reside in a
file as a netlist.
To view the netlist, click Analysis, then Examine Netlist.
In the netlist, the first end of a component is connected to the first indicated node. For
Example R_Ra \$N_0001 \$N_0002 1k means that the first end of Resistor Ra is
connected with Node1 and the other is connected with Node2.

Hands on Exercise 8
Examine the Netlist for your circuit and compare these node numbers with the circuit you have
drawn.

## PSPICE FILE EXTENSIONS

PSpice file
extension Description

## .SCH Schematics diagram file.

.CIR Control file generated by Schematics. ASCII.
Netlist (circuit description) generated by
.NET
Schematics. ASCII.
Alias file generated by Schematics. Needed for
.ALS
PSpice simulation.
Control file for Probe plots. Contains settings from
.PRB
last run, scaling, etc.
Complete output file generated by PSpice; input to
.DAT
Probe. Not readable; Normally a large file
Readable ASCII output file from PSpice simulation.
.OUT
Contains dc levels, etc.

## SHORTCUT TO FIND BIAS VOLTAGE AND CURRENT FROM THE TOOLBAR

You can use the Enable Bias Voltage Display or Enable bias current display
buttons on the Schematics workspace toolbar to find out the Bias Voltage and Currents directly

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Hands on Exercise 9
Find out the bias voltages and currents for the circuit you have drawn using the above mentioned
buttons on the Schematic Window Toolbar.

PRINTING
To print your schematic circuit, you must first use your mouse to make a rectangle around your
circuit; this is the area of the page that will be printed. Then select print. (You can also select ).

DEPENDENT SOURCES

Source Source

## Voltage Controlled Current Current Controlled Voltage

Source Source

A controlled voltage source is one whose output voltage is controlled by the value of a voltage or
current elsewhere in the circuit. A current controlled voltage source obeys the relation 0 = ,

where I is the controlling current and k is a constant having the units of resistance: = 0 volts

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## per ampere, or ohms.

Similarly, a controlled current source produces a current whose value depends on a voltage or a
current elsewhere in the circuit. A voltage-controlled current source obeys the relation 0 = ,

where V is the controlling voltage and k has the units of conductance: = 0 amperes per volt, or
Siemens.
All four types of controlled sources, voltage-controlled voltage source, current-controlled
voltage sources, voltage-controlled current sources, and current-controlled current sources, can be
modeled in PSpice.

Hands on Exercise 11
The circuit shown in Figure below has a current controlled voltage source with the gain of 3.

## This circuit can be constructed in PSpice using part H as shown below:

Click the part and enter gain =3. Save and simulate it.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXERCISES

## Figure - exercise (c)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## i. Discuss the contribution of each voltage source in the above circuit

(active/passive).
ii. Identify the nodes in the above circuit.
iii. Find out the node voltages
iv. Verify Kirchhoffs current law at each node.
v. Reverse the polarity of voltage source V2 to find out the change in node voltages and
currents in each element. Does KCL still hold?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## POST LAB QUESTION:

Mathematically verify the PSpice voltage and current measurements for the circuits of exercise (e)
and (g) used in lab work. Solve the circuits and make appropriate tables for comparison between the
theoretical calculations and PSpice measurements. Discuss the benefits of PSpice usage as well.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 6
FINDING EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE OF A COMPLEX CIRCUIT

OBJECTIVE:
To understand how to use DMM to measure the resistance at different points in a complex
circuit
To design a simple circuit using the equivalent resistance of a complex circuit
To understand the significance of resistors power rating during design
To calculate and measure the unknown resistance between two points

EQUIPMENT:
DC Power Supply 5-10V
DMM
Resistors: 2.2, 22, 3.3, 5.6, 4.7, 10 (two), 150

Figure 1

## 1. Implement the given circuit, calculate and measure the following:

Rab , Rcd ,Rde ,Rcf ,Rfe ,Rbf and Rac

TABLE - I

## Unknown Resistance () Calculated () Measured ()

Rab
Rcd
Rde
Rcf
Rfe
Rbf
Rac

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 2

2. Calculate and measure Rab for the circuit given above and note down the readings in Table-II
below.

TABLE - II

Rab

## 3. Design a circuit, in black box, with the following requirements:

5V Black Box

Figure 3

a) Equivalent resistance of the black box is Rab as calculated for the circuit in Figure 1.
b) Input voltage (voltage supplied to black box) is 5V as shown in Figure 3 above. Use only
1 resistors.
4
c) Design should be safe i.e. not even a single resistor should burn out or get damaged.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 7
VERIFICATION OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT DIVIDER THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:
To verify voltage and current divider theorem

EQUIPMENT:
DC Power supply 5-10V
DMM
Resistors: 1k, 2.2k , 4.7k , 5.6k, 15k

BACKGROUND:

## CURRENT DIVIDER THEOREM (CDR):

The current divider theorem allows us to calculate the magnitudes of the currents in a parallel circuit,
using only the total current and the resistor values. It is particularly useful when the circuit is driven
by a constant current source as opposed to a constant voltage source.
The formula for the current in a specific resistor in a parallel circuit in which the total current IT
entering the junction is known, can be written as:

## VOLTAGE DIVIDER THEOREM (VDR):

Voltage dividers find many applications in electronic circuits. The requirement for voltages of
different values often arises and is normally accomplished by a voltage divider circuit. The formula
for the voltage in a specific resistor of a series circuit when the total voltage applied is
known can be written as:

## where is the equivalent resistance of the series resistive circuit.

In this experiment, we will verify the current divider and voltage divider theorem by adjusting the
source for a specified total voltage and measuring the individual resistor voltage and current.
Remember that the resistor tolerance will affect your results.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

PROCEDURE:

1. Use current divider rule and voltage divider rule only to calculate and measure the current
through and voltage across each resistor in the circuit given below. Fill Table-I and Table-II
accordingly.

Figure 1

## Resistance values () 2.2k 1k 5.6k 4.7k 15k

IT I1 I2 I3 I4
Calculated current values
(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
Calculated voltage Values
(V)

## 2.2k 1k 5.6k 4.7k 15k

Measured resistance values
()

IT I1 I2 I3 I4
Measured current values
(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
Measured voltage values
(V)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Vout
Vin Black Box

## a) Input voltage, , (voltage supplied to black box) is between 0 - 30V.

b) Output voltage, should be 25 .
c) Use only 14 resistors. Design should be safe; i.e. not even a single resistor should burn
out or get damaged.

## 1. Compare between the practical and theoretical results?

2. When do we use VDR and CDR?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 8
VERIFICATION OF THEVENINS THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:
To verify Thevenins theorem in a simple DC circuit

EQUIPMENT:
Digital multi-meter (DMM)
DC Power Supply (10-12 V)
Resistors: 1k, 3.3k(two), 6.8k,10k, 2.2k,4.7k

BACKGROUND:

Thevenins theorem states that any linear, bilateral network can be replaced with a single voltage
source in series with a single resistor. The voltage source is called Thevenin equivalent voltage and
resistor is called the Thevenin equivalent resistance.
To demonstrate this we will apply the theorem to the simple four resistor circuit in Figure 1.
According to the theorem, we should be able to replace the circuitry to the left of terminals A-B in
Figure 1 with that in Figure 2. To obtain the equivalent source voltage, you will measure the open
circuit voltage. The Thevenin resistance is obtained by measuring R A-B after replacing the source
voltage Vs by a short circuit. To verify that this combination is indeed equivalent, you will then
connect a load to both the circuits, and verify that the resulting voltage and current are the same in
both cases.

Figure 1 Figure 2

PROCEDURE:

1. For the circuit in Figure 1, calculate all the currents, voltages and powers associated with the
resistors R0, R1, R2 and R3. Record the values in Table - I.
2. Now, use Thevenins theorem to calculate the values of Vth, Rth, and PRth record them in
Table - III.
3. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1.
4. Measure I0, I1, I2 and I3 and record the values in Table - II.
5. Measure the open-circuit voltage VAB and record this as Vth under Measured in Table - III.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

6. Replace the voltage source with a short circuit, and measure the resistance between the
terminals A and B. Record this as Rth under Measured in Table - III.
7. Place a 3.3 k load resistance across the terminals A and B. Calculate voltage across and
current through this load resistance RL. Perform the calculations for both the actual circuit
and its Thevenin equivalent. The results should be identical. Record the results under
Calculated in Table - IV.
8. Connect a 3.3 k load to the terminals A and B of the circuit in Figure 1. Measure the
resulting load current and voltage, and record them in Table - IV.
9. Construct the circuit of Figure 2 with the calculated values of Vth and Rth. Connect a 3.3 k
load to the terminals A and B. Measure the resulting load current and voltage, and record
them in Table - IV. They should agree closely with those in the adjacent columns.

## TABLE - I Calculated Data

I1 I2 I3 I0
Calculated current values
(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V0
Calculated Voltage Values
(V)

(mW)

## TABLE - II Measured Data

I1 I2 I3 I0
Measured current values
(mA)

V1 V2 V3 V0
Measured Voltage Values
(V)

## TABLE - III Thevenin Parameters

Calculated Measured
Vth Vth

Rth
Rth
PRth

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## TABLE - IV Loaded Circuit Parameters

Calculated Measured

VL VL VL VL

IL IL
IL IL

PL PL

## DESIGNING A THEVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

1. For the circuit given below design the circuit such that its Rth = 3.9875k. The resistors
available are 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.3 k and 4.7 k.
2. Determine Vth for the circuit which you designed. Record these values under Calculated in
Table - V.
3. Now connect the circuit which you designed and measure Vth. Record these values under
measured in Table - V.
4. Now connect a load resistance of 3.3 k to both the circuits and calculate VL and IL for the
actual circuit designed by you and record these values in Table - VI.
5. Now measure the resulting load voltage and current and these values in table in Table - VI.
They should agree closely with the values that you calculated.

Figure 3

## TABLE - V Thevenin Parameters

Calculated Measured

Vth Vth

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## TABLE - VI Loaded Circuit Parameters

Calculated Measured

VL VL VL VL

IL IL IL IL

## 1. In Figure-1, the Thevenin resistance Rth depends on

(a) VS (b) R1, R2, R3 and Vs
(c) R1 and R2 only (d) R1, R2 and R3

## 2. In Figure-1, the Thevenin voltage Vth depends on

(a) R1, R2, R3 and Vs (b) Vs only
(c) R1, R2 and Vs (d) R1 and Vs

## 3. If R3 were increased in value, the Thevenin voltage would

(a) Increase (b) Decrease
(c) Remain the same (d) Insufficient Information

4. An additional resistance placed across the terminals A and B (before any load is connected)
would
(a) Increase Rth (b) Decrease Rth
(c) Not change Rth (d) Insufficient Information

5. A resistor placed directly in parallel with the source voltage Vs does not affect Rth. Why?

## 6. Is PRth+PL=P0+P1+P2+P3+PL for calculated circuits given in Figure 1 and Figure 2?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 9
VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

OBJECTIVE:
To verify maximum power transfer theorem for DC circuits
To determine the maximum power of a black box using Thevenin thoerem

EQUIPMENT:
DC power supply 10 V
DMM with probes
Variable resistor

BACKGROUND:

In this experiment you will observe that for a given voltage source Vs with some fixed internal
resistance Rs, what value of load resistor will absorb the most power from the circuit? Clearly, there
are an infinite number of loads from 0 (a short circuit) to (an open circuit). Since a short
circuit would have no voltage and an open circuit would have no current, both of these produce zero
load power. The answer lies somewhere between 0 and . The maximum power transfer
theorem tells us that
The load resistance should be equal to the source resistance for maximum power to be

In the experiment, you will connect a variable resistor (acting as load) in series with a source
resistor. In each case, you will measure VL and IL and calculate = , the power in the load.
You should find that this power is maximized where RL= RS. A graph is one of the best ways to
illustrate the theorem. Be sure to join your data with a smooth curve (not straight-line segments) so
that the true variation of power with load resistance can be observed.
You will also plot the efficiency of power transfer versus the load resistance. The efficiency
measures just what fraction of the total power is dissipated in the load resistance. That is,
Efficiency, = PL/PT
where PL is the load power and PT is the total power (sum of power dissipated in load resistance and
source resistance). You will see that when delivering maximum power to the load, the efficiency of
the circuit is not maximum.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

3.3k IL

Vs
10V VL RL

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. For VS = 10V, and RS = 3.3 k, calculate the load voltage VL, load current IL, and load power PL
dissipated in the load resistor of Figure 1 for each value of RL. Note these values in Table - I.
2. Complete the table by calculating the total power (PT = VS IL) and the circuits efficiency
(PL/PT 100) for each value of load resistance.
3. Connect the circuit in Figure 1 and measure the load current and voltage for each value of RL.
4. Record all measured data in Table - II. From these data, complete the table by calculating the
total power and efficiency of power transfer.

## TABLE - I Calculated Data

RL (k) 1 1.8 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2
VL (V)
IL (mA)
PL (mW)
PT (mW)
Efficiency (%)

## TABLE - II Measured Data

RL (k) 1 1.8 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2
VL (V)
IL (mA)
PL (mW)
PT (mW)
Efficiency (%)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## 1. Input voltage, , (voltage supplied to black box) is 10V.

2. Determine the Thevenin equivalent parameters; i.e. Rth and Vth for the black box. Verify the
value of Rth using both the Isc method and deactivating sources method.
3. Draw the Thevenin equivalent circuit using the values determined above.
4. Connect a variable resistor between the terminals a and b at the output end of the black
box.
5. Calculate the value of RL that would result in maximum power transfer delivered to it. Also
calculate the values of corresponding voltage drop across RL and power dissipated in it.
6. Set the value of variable resistor to the value calculated above.
7. Measure the value of voltage across RL and use it to calculate the value of maximum power.

TABLE III

## VTH ISC RTH

RTH =
(using deactivating
sources method)

## THEVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

TABLE IV

Calculated Measured

RL VL PL RL VL PL

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Plot a graph of the load power, PL versus load resistance, RL from your measured data. Also plot a
graph of efficiency of power transfer, versus load resistance, R L from your measured data.
Include these graphs in the measurements section of your report.

2. If the source resistance were made larger than 3.3 k in this experiment, then
(a) all the values of PL would be smaller than before
(b) all the values of PL would be greater
(c) all the values of PL would not change
(d) some values of PL would be smaller and some greater

## 3. The power dissipated in the source resistance is always

(a) PL (b) = PL (c) PL (d) none of these

4. The power dissipated in the source resistance depends on the value of the load resistance.
(a) True (b) False

5. To achieve high levels of efficiency, what is the required relationship between the source and

6. Show that the efficiency of the source is only 50 percent when supplying its maximum power.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 10
VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
OBJECTIVE:
To verify the superposition theorem in a DC circuit

EQUIPMENT:
DC power supplies 11V (two)
DMM with probes
Resistors: 1 k, 2.2 k, 3.3 k

BACKGROUND:

The superposition theorem allows us to calculate the combined effects of a multi-source circuit by
summing the individual effects of each source acting alone. Particular attention must be paid to
current directions and voltage polarities when applying superposition. The circuit has two voltage
sources, VS1 and VS2. According to superposition theorem, voltages V1, V2 and V3 and currents I1, I2,
and I3 can be calculated by taking their values due to individual source acting alone, and then adding
them. The voltage source not being considered is to be replaced with a short circuit.
It is important to note that you must remove the power supply before you replace it with a short
circuit. Never short-circuit a functioning power supply. Also, pay attention to the polarity of voltages
due to each source so that you algebraically sum them to get the totals.
V1 V2

1k 3.3k

VS1 V3 VS2
11V 1k 11V

V4

1.2k

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. Use superposition principle for the circuit in Figure 1 to calculate components of V1, V2 , V3
and V4 due to each source acting alone, and record your results in Table - I. Note that V11 is
the component of V1 due to Vs1 acting alone; V12 is the component of V1 due to Vs2 acting
alone, etc. Similarly, calculate components of I1, I2, I3 and I4 due to each source acting alone
and record your results in Table - I.
2. Complete Table - I by calculating the actual values of V1, V2, V3 and V4, and I1, I2, I3 and I4
when both VS1 and VS2 are active (ON).
3. Connect the circuit in Figure 1. Remove power supply VS2 and replace it with a short circuit.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Then measure the voltages V11, V21, V31 and V41 and currents I11, I21, I31 and I41 record them
in Table-II, in the appropriate column.
4. Repeat above step, replacing VS1 with a short circuit and connecting VS2 in the circuit. This
will enable you to measure and record V12, V22, V32 and V42 and currents I12, I22, I32 and I42.
5. Finally connect the complete circuit with both sources active. Measure and record the actual
voltages V1, V2, V3 and V4 and currents I1, I2, I3 and I4. Compare your measured and
calculated data.

(Algebraic Sum)
V11 V12 V1
V21 V22 V2
V31 V32 V3
V41 V42 V4
I11 I12 I1
I21 I22 I2
I31 I32 I3
I41 I42 I4

V11 V12 V1
V21 V22 V2
V31 V32 V3
V41 V42 V4
I11 I12 I1
I21 I22 I2
I31 I32 I3
I41 I42 I4

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. With element values as in Figure 1, if the source VS1 were made equal to 22 V, then
a. I3 would double
b. I3 would have the same magnitude, but be opposite in direction
c. I12, I22 and I32 would each double
d. I11, I21 and I31 would each double

2. As far as the direction of current I2 is concerned, the voltages VS1 and VS2
a. Oppose each other

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## b. Aid each other

c. Do neither of the above

## 3. If both VS1 and VS2 are increased by a factor of two, then

a. All currents will double
b. I2 will only double
c. All currents will remain constant
d. I1 and I3 will double and I2 will stay the same

## 4. The current I3 depends on

a. The value of Vs2
b. The values of Vs2, R3 and R2
c. The values of Vs1, and R1
d. All of the above

5. With values as in Figure 1, calculate the value to which Vs1 must be reduced to force the
current I1 to equal zero.

6. Superposition does not work for power. For example, try using it with the power in any one
of the resistors in Figure 1; that is, find the power in the resistor due to each source acting
alone, add them, and compare with the power you get when you take the total current (or
voltage) in this resistor and use the power formula. Which of these is the correct value for the
power and why doesn't superposition work?

7. What will be the effect on the voltages and currents calculated above if the value of one of
the voltage source is doubled?

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 11
CHARGING & DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR
OBJECTIVE:
To observe the charging and discharging of a capacitor

EQUIPMENT:
DC Power Supply 8-10V
DMM
Stop watch
Capacitor: 1000uF
Resistors: 3.3k, 10k, 47k

BACKGROUND:

Capacitance is a measure of a capacitors ability to store charge. The amount of charge stored by a
capacitor is given by
Q = CV

The capacitor in a series RC circuit is being charged from a supply voltage Vs with the current
passing through a resistor R. The voltage across the capacitor is initially zero (i.e. it is acting like a
short circuit) but it increases as the capacitor charges. The capacitor is fully charged when Vc =Vs.

Charging and discharging of a capacitors energy is never instant but takes a certain amount of time
to occur with the time taken for the capacitor to charge or discharge to within a certain percentage of
its maximum supply value being known as time constant.

## Time constant = (tau) = RC (in seconds)

A large time constant means that a capacitor is charged slowly. After 5 time constants, the current
has fallen to less than 1% of its initial value and we can say that a capacitor is fully charged.

During discharging, the current decreases from its initial value of Io (which is determined by the

initial voltage across the capacitor, Vo and R) i.e. 0 = 0 .
The voltage across the capacitor also decreases as the capacitor discharges. After 5*, voltage cross
the capacitor is almost zero and capacitor is said to be fully discharged. Figure 1 shows the circuit
that will be used to observe the charging and discharging of a capacitor for different values of
resistors, and hence time constants, with the help of a stop watch.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Figure 1

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure1. Set the voltage source to 8V. Make sure that you
have properly placed the capacitor; taking care of its polarity.
2. For different values of resistors, calculate the time constant, , and the time at which the
capacitor is fully charged and discharged. Note these values in the table.
3. Place the probes of DMM across the terminals of the capacitor.
4. Turn on the power supply and observe the increasing voltage during charging. Measure the
time it takes to fully charge the capacitor using a stop watch.
5. Turn off the power supply when the capacitor is fully charged. Replace the power supply
with short circuit (see Figure 2) and observe the decreasing voltage across the capacitor.
6. Fill the table by measuring the actual value of charging and discharging for different values
of resistors for a fixed value of capacitance, C = 1000uF.

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## Calculated Values Measured Values

Estimated Estimated
Estimated
R () (sec) charging time discharging time
charging time (5)
(sec) (5)
3.3k
10k
47k

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

EXPERIMENT 12
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
OBJECTIVE:
Observe the behavior of an operational amplifier as an inverting amplifier, and non-inverting
amplifier

EQUIPMENT:
DMM
Power supply
Resistors : 22k, 10k, variable resistor
IC: 741 op-amp

BACKGROUND:

An operational amplifier or op amp is an electronic circuit element, with inverting and non-inverting
inputs, designed to be used with other circuit elements to perform a specified signal-processing
operation. It is essentially a voltage amplifier having a large intrinsic DC voltage gain. Hundreds of
different op amps are available in integrated-circuit (IC) form.

## The pin configuration of a 741 Op-amp is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

## Consider the operational amplifier circuit given in Figure 2.

Figure 2

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Since V+ = V- and since V+ = 0 V (grounded), then V- = 0 V (not an actual ground, but called as a
virtual ground). The current I1 then can be calculated as,

Vi V Vi
I1 = =
R1 R1

Similarly,
V Vo Vo
I2 = =
R2 R2

## Since I- = 0 A, then I1= I2. Hence

Vi Vo
=
R1 R2
Or,

Vo R2
=
Vi R1

Since the gain is negative, the above amplifier is called inverting amplifier.

Figure 3

V
I1 =
R1

Vo V
I2 =
R2

## Since I+ = 0 A, then I1 = I2. Hence

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

V Vo V
=
R1 R2

## Since, V+ = V- = Vi the final gain expression is obtained as:

Vo R2
= (1 + )
Vi R1

Since the gain is positive, the above amplifier is called non-inverting amplifier.

PROCEDURE:

## Part-1: Inverting Amplifier

For the amplifier circuit of Figure 2, if R2 =22 k and R1=10 k do the following measurements and
calculations.

## Vi (Volts) Vo (Volts) Gain (Vo/Vi)

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5

## Part-2: Non Inverting Amplifier

For the amplifier circuit of Figure 3, R2 =22 k and R1=10 k, do the following measurements and
calculations.

## Vi (Volts) Vo (Volts) Gain (Vo/Vi)

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5

## POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Plot the voltage transfer characteristic i.e. for both the inverting and the non-inverting

configurations.

2. What will be the effect on the output voltage, if the value of resistor R2 is made zero, in the
inverting and the non-inverting configurations.

3. In the inverting configuration, vary between -VCC and +VCC in 2V steps. Measure and
plot versus . What behavior does the circuit exhibit now? Explain.

## 4. Replace R2 in non-inverting configuration with a 15 k variable resistor. Assume that =

5 and vary Rvar from 0 to 15 k with increment of 1 k. Calculate for each Rvar value

and plot the amplification as a function of Rvar. Explain your graph.

5. Simulate the inverting and non-inverting circuits using the same setup as in the experiment
for different values of , using schematics in PSpice. Compare the results with those
obtained in the experiment.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## Appendix A: Lab Evaluation Criteria

Labs with projects
1. Experiments and their report 50%
a. Experiment 60%
b. Lab report 40%
2. Quizzes (3-4) 15%
3. Final evaluation 35%
a. Project Implementation 60%
b. Project report and quiz 40%

## Labs without projects

1. Experiments and their report 50%
a. Experiment 60%
b. Lab report 40%
2. Quizzes (3-4) 20%
3. Final Evaluation 30%
i. Experiment 60%
ii. Lab report, pre and post
experiment quiz 40%

Notice:
Copying and plagiarism of lab reports is a serious academic misconduct. First instance of copying
may entail ZERO in that experiment. Second instance of copying may be reported to DC. This may
result in awarding FAIL in the lab course.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## Appendix B: Safety around Electricity

In all the Electrical Engineering (EE) labs, with an aim to prevent any unforeseen accidents during
conduct of lab experiments, following preventive measures and safe practices shall be adopted:

Remember that the voltage of the electricity and the available electrical current in EE labs
has enough power to cause death/injury by electrocution. It is around 50V/10 mA that the
cannot let go level is reached. The key to survival is to decrease our exposure to energized
circuits.
If a person touches an energized bare wire or faulty equipment while grounded, electricity
will instantly pass through the body to the ground, causing a harmful, potentially fatal, shock.
Each circuit must be protected by a fuse or circuit breaker that will blow or trip when its
safe carrying capacity is surpassed. If a fuse blows or circuit breaker trips repeatedly while in
normal use (not overloaded), check for shorts and other faults in the line or devices. Do not
resume use until the trouble is fixed.
It is hazardous to overload electrical circuits by using extension cords and multi-plug outlets.
Use extension cords only when necessary and make sure they are heavy enough for the job.
Avoid creating an octopus by inserting several plugs into a multi-plug outlet connected to a
single wall outlet. Extension cords should ONLY be used on a temporary basis in situations
where fixed wiring is not feasible.
Dimmed lights, reduced output from heaters and poor monitor pictures are all symptoms of
an overloaded circuit. Keep the total load at any one time safely below maximum capacity.
If wires are exposed, they may cause a shock to a person who comes into contact with them.
Cords should not be hung on nails, run over or wrapped around objects, knotted or twisted.
This may break the wire or insulation. Short circuits are usually caused by bare wires
touching due to breakdown of insulation. Electrical tape or any other kind of tape is not
Electrical cords should be examined visually before use for external defects such as: Fraying
(worn out) and exposed wiring, loose parts, deformed or missing parts, damage to outer
jacket or insulation, evidence of internal damage such as pinched or crushed outer jacket. If
any defects are found the electric cords should be removed from service immediately.
Pull the plug not the cord. Pulling the cord could break a wire, causing a short circuit.
Plug your heavy current consuming or any other large appliances into an outlet that is not
shared with other appliances. Do not tamper with fuses as this is a potential fire hazard. Do
not overload circuits as this may cause the wires to heat and ignite insulation or other
combustibles.
Keep lab equipment properly cleaned and maintained.
Ensure lamps are free from contact with flammable material. Always use lights bulbs with
the recommended wattage for your lamp and equipment.
Be aware of the odor of burning plastic or wire.
ALWAYS follow the manufacturer recommendations when using or installing new lab
equipment. Wiring installations should always be made by a licensed electrician or other
qualified person. All electrical lab equipment should have the label of a testing laboratory.
Be aware of missing ground prong and outlet cover, pinched wires, damaged casings on
electrical outlets.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Inform Lab engineer / Lab assistant of any failure of safety preventive measures and safe
practices as soon you notice it. Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the
laboratory.
Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the EE Labs.
Follow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do not understand a direction or
part of a procedure, ASK YOUR LAB ENGINEER / LAB ASSISTANT BEFORE
PROCEEDING WITH THE ACTIVITY.
Never work alone in the laboratory. No student may work in EE Labs without the presence
of the Lab engineer / Lab assistant.
instructions, both written and oral. Unauthorized experiments are not allowed.
Be prepared for your work in the EE Labs. Read all procedures thoroughly before entering
the laboratory. Never fool around in the laboratory. Horseplay, practical jokes, and pranks
are dangerous and prohibited.
Always work in a well-ventilated area.
Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should be kept clean and tidy at all times.
Experiments must be personally monitored at all times. Do not wander around the room,
distract other students, startle other students or interfere with the laboratory experiments of
others.
Dress properly during a laboratory activity. Long hair, dangling jewelry, and loose or baggy
clothing are a hazard in the laboratory. Long hair must be tied back, and dangling jewelry
and baggy clothing must be secured. Shoes must completely cover the foot.
Know the locations and operating procedures of all safety equipment including fire
extinguisher. Know what to do if there is a fire during a lab period; Turn off equipment, if
possible and exit EE lab immediately.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## Appendix C: Guidelines on Preparing Lab Reports

Each student will maintain a lab notebook for each lab course. He will write a report for each
experiment he performs in his notebook. A format has been developed for writing these lab reports.

## Lab Report Format

For hardware based labs, the format of the report will include:

## 1. Introduction: Introduce area explored in the experiment.

2. Objective: What are the learning goals of the experiment?
3. Measurements: In your own words write how the experiment is performed (Do not
copy/paste the procedure).
a. Issues: Which technical issues were faced during the performance of the experiment
and how they were resolved?
b. Graphs, if any
4. Conclusions: What conclusions can be drawn from the measurements?
5. Applications: Suggest a real world application where this experiment may apply.
6. Answers to post lab questions (if any).

## Sample Lab Report:

Introduction

An RC circuit is a first order circuit that utilizes a capacitor as an energy storage element whereas a
resistor as an energy wastage element. RC circuits are building blocks of electronic devices and their
thorough understanding is important in comprehending advance engineering systems such as
transistors and transmission lines.

An RC circuit can be operated with both DC and AC sources. In this lab we study transient response
of RC circuits with a square wave as a DC source. During the DC operation of an RC circuit the
voltage across the capacitor or the resistor show energy storing (capacitor charging) and dissipating
(capacitor discharging via resistor) mechanisms of the circuit. The capacitor charging or discharging
curves then lead to determine time constant of the circuit where the time constant signifies time
required by the RC circuit to store or waste energy.

Objective:

Measurements:

## The circuit used for the experiment is shown in Fig. 1.

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

## Fig.1. The circuit used in the experiment

Both input (a square wave) and output (voltage across capacitor) waveforms are monitored on an
oscilloscope. The capacitor charging is observed during "on" part of the square waveform whereas
the capacitor discharging is observed during "off" part of the square waveform (Fig. 2). We measure
the time constant from the capacitor charging or discharging curve. While keeping the capacitor
value constant, we also measure time constants with various resistor values (Table I).

## TABLE I. Time constant as a function of the resistor values

Resistance
270 330 470 1 k 2.2 k 3.3 k
(Nominal)
Resistance
(Measured)
Time constant
(Calculated)
Time constant
(Measured)
Capacitance
(Measured)

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Lab Manual of Circuit Analysis I

Issues:

Mention any issue(s) you encountered during the experiment and how they were resolved

Conclusions:

## a) The capacitor charging and discharging curves are exponential.

b) The time constant is directly proportional to the resistor value.

Both of the above conclusions are also easily verifiable by solving differential equation for the RC
circuit.

Applications:

An RC circuit can be employed for a camera flash. The capacitor discharges through the flash light
during a picture taking event.

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