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TOPS Script: Can what we eat, affect our metabolism?

Opening - 5 min
Intro: Name, DI Intern, Acknowledgments
Topic: Today we will be talking about our metabolism, what affects it, and
what we can do to influence it.
Ice Breaker: Dancing Queen
o To start this session off, Id like to begin by engaging in a little physical
activity.
o We are going to stand up and do a little fitness dancing. I did this in
ESBA. They loved it.
o Dancing is a form of PA and we know that PA does many things for us:
improve our CV system, helps with healthy weight loss or weight
maintenance, it releases feel good hormones called endorphins and
metabolism revved up.
o So we can all stand up, Ill play a little Abba Dancing Queen, and you
can do the same movements I am doing. This is low impact and totally
optional. It can also be done in your chair.
DANCE
o Thank you! We know through research that PA increases metabolic rate
or how fast our body uses the food we eat as fuel. But what a lot of
books and media publications are claiming is that food can do the
same thing?
ID importance (why should they care): But why should you care about
this topic? Well as a member of TOPS, you get a lot of benefits: good friends,
fun memories, new recipes and major support, but your ultimate goal is to
lose or maintain weight. For this reason, I got word that many of you are
interested in the origin of weight loss- our metabolism. Even more so you
want to know what you can do, if there is anything that can help this process.
This is a very good question and very relevant to your weight loss journey.
Establish Credibility: Well I have been invited here today to uncover the
truth behind these claims. I did my best to use research and evidence based
studies to support the claims I make today so that you can walk away
knowing exactly what science shows is and is not valid about these claims.
Objectives: My hope is that by the end of this discussion you will be able to
30 sec
o Identify four factors that affect metabolism
o List two metabolic factors you have some control over
o Recall whether or not certain foods boost metabolism
What is to come: define metabolism, id 4 factors, explore trendy food
claims, make a goal- what can you do? Booklet provided for you to refer too,
take notes on, take home and educate friends and family.

Part 1 Defining Metabolism - 5 min


Definition: The sum of processes our body uses to build our body tissue and
store energy and to break down our bodys tissue and release energy.
Brick House Analogy
o First processes, the building part of metabolism, is like building a
house. Every brick that enters the construction site is used to make the
house bigger.
o The second process, the breakdown part of metabolism is like tearing
down the building. Each item that is removed makes the building
smaller or weaker. Sometimes things just need to be replaced, so the
new bricks that enter are used for remodeling.
o As long as you have workers, materials and space, the house
construction, remodeling or deconstruction can continue.
o If the site continues getting too many bricks and it doesnt need them
immediately because say the building is done or no remodeling is
needed, it stores them nearby in a pile on the side of the house. If the
site doesnt get a whole lot of bricks, the workers may be able to move
fast enough to clear the entire extra brick pile.
Putting into Context
o Our metabolism is the same way. We are the house and food are the
bricks.
o We arent growing any more or are pregnant so there isnt much
building that's happening.
o So what this looks like on us for the building stage is our food being
used to rebuild our tissue or remodel the house or its stored as fat
bricks piling up on the side.
o The energy our food gives us stays on us in the form or fat unless we
burn it off.
o The breakdown stage is when the food is being broken down and
released as energy. We are burning it off. It does not stay on us. This is
just like the bricks coming to the house, going into the pile, and then
leaving the pile.
o Questions?
Excess Food
o When we eat excess food, our body has to do something with it.
o Two options: either to use the calories as storage or build the body OR
immediately breakdown the calories and use it as energy.
o When we eat food and never move around our body says, well I do not
need this food for energy because I am not moving. The body then
uses it for building. Since we arent growing anymore, the building form
is fat.
o When we actively move, our body is says oh I need energy to move. I
will take this food and break it down for energy instead of storing it for
later. Here, we do not build fat.
o Questions?
Transition: Now that we are aware of what metabolism is, lets discuss what
affects it. Any thoughts?

PART 2: Four Factors of Metabolism 8 min


Genetics
o Genetics is the first factor that influences metabolism. Some lucky
souls are simply born with a faster rate. Either they have an increased
ability to burn fat or a decreased ability to store fat. (This means their
workers are really fast are clearing the bricks from the pile. They can
go so fast that even when the site gets a surplus of bricks, those
workers just clear up out like *that.)
o As a result, these people are fast movers in general and use up all that
energy very easily. These people have faster heart rates, higher body
temperatures, more fast twitch muscles meaning they are more likely
to fidget and are very fast runners or athletes. These people need a lot
of food to sustain them and ultimately have a hard time gaining
weight.
o This is a spectrum though so while there are those with really fast,
there are many with really slow metabolisms. These people are
predisposed to either eat more, move less or simply gain weight easier.
Some have specific disorders that encourage weight gain (Prader-Willi,
down syndrome, PCOS), others have specific genes turn on and
encourage weight gain. (CDC, 2013)
Muscle mass
muscle is what moves in our body and does work. It therefore
needs more energy to move.
As a result- muscle burns more energy than fat. The more
muscle someone has, the faster their metabolism because
they have more cells on their body that work to burn energy
from food.
Ex: men typically have easier time losing weight. This is
because they have more muscle mass.
Building muscle mass with resistance training will help
with sustained weight loss more than cardio. Hills, stairs,
resistance bands, weights, body weight training.
Clinical RCT funded by the NIH grant and Gatorade grant
observed 148 post-menopausal women and their level of
genetic risk factor (#of polymorphic genes high BMI risk
genes) and ability to gain muscle, lose weight and
decrease fat mass. Found that those with high genetic risk
ie those predisposed to have higher BMI gained
significantly less muscle and loss significantly less weight
then those with low risk when undergoing routine
supervised resistance training for 1 year. Indicating that
an accumulation of these genes can pre-dispose some
from losing weight and increasing muscle. Unsure if this
plays role in satiety and hunger cues or decreased
metabolic rate.
Hormones:
Hormones released during menstruation increases metabolism
and the absence of those in menopause can thus allow easy
weight gain if habits are not changed.
Insulin secreted when we eat food, especially carbs. It
encourages our body to use this energy as fuel. If we eat it in
excess, or do not move and use this fuel it promotes us to store
it as fat (decreases blood sugar).
Wellness
o Stress
Fight or flight: Cortisol, adrenaline, GH are all hormones that
tell the body to breakdown stored energy and release this
energy so we can use it for immediate energy (not store it as
fat.)
Ex: adrenaline fight or flight- energy to suddenly move a
car, run away, fight a bear.
Where we get into trouble with this is we are constantly
stressed in life and our body is secreting these hormones.
We arent using it to run or fight though (thus burning
energy) we are using it to finish our taxes before the
deadline or pick up our kids from school after fighting
through traffic, or managing challenging family matters.
In these cases, we arent burning or using the energy that
is being released. So after it is released, our body then
stores it and continues to store food we eat afterwards
instead of using it (ie it makes us not use glucose as fuel).
We then gain weight. (Wardlaws Perspectives in nutrition).
Poor sleep also promotes these hormones and can have
similar results.
Pleasure: dopamine, serotonins, endorphins released and cause
us to feel happy, relaxed. Counter act the stress hormones.
Released with sleep, sun, carbs, sex, PA, bonding etc. help our
metabolism hormones stay in their normal rhythm (4-8 hours
cycles).
o Sleep:
Hormones
Weight control
o Questions?
o Now you are have learned what metabolism is, what factors influence
metabolism. There is so much out there about foods changing our
metabolism! It is hard to know what is real and what is a trend to get
authors and businesses to make money. What does science say about
metabolism boosting foods?

Food & Metabolism 10 min


o In general, the literature says that dieting decreases metabolic rate
and exercise increases it [MEDScape
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/718170_3]
Eating increases metabolic rate. Eating puts energy into the
body and the body response is to turn on the engines and break
this down for fuel (TEE of food 10-5% of daily kcal)
very restrictive diets decrease metabolic rate (protect body from
famine) (more research up to -800 kcal loss of 3-5lbs/week
NIDDK)
o Lets explore three specific and very popular food examples (bring in
actual foods).
Apple cider vinegar
What have you heard?
What the news claims it does.
o Contains pectin (a structural CHO) that promotes
satiety.
o High acid content ensures breakdown of protein in
meal. So drink before. (lol this is my favorite one)
o Crave whole foods
o Increases digestion
o Helps Fe absorption which starts your met.
o Improve BG levels and decrease insulin secretion
and making hormones (glucagon) that helping body
use fat stores.
o Promotes lower BP due to potassium content
What science says.
o More pectin in apple than in APV. It is in the skin of
the apples.
o Stomach fluids are more acid than ACV vinegar
(1.5-3.5 / 3.1-5.0) Most of what breaks down protein
are a group of enzymes found in stomach and SI.
o Could not find any lit. on craving whole foods.
o Food in general stimulates the digestive (fat and
fiber slows stomach emptying fuller longer)
response.
o Acids do increase Fe absorption from plants. Fe is
used in metabolism. This would be a general
benefit and can be done by using a vinaigrette on a
spinach salad.
o BG and fat metabolism science accurate but could
not find this to be the case for ACV specifically.
Most studies done in rats. Very controlled
environment. Unsure if useful in humans.
o Potassium in 1T is 20mg, 1 banana is 350 mg. You
need 4500mg/day. APV would not be a main source
of K+ unless your diet was void of most fruits and
root veggies.
What you should do. It may not pose any risk. Science has
not found it to decrease weight any more than other
whole food means. If you enjoy taste and feel good about
it continue. If you have no desire, no worries. There are
other ways to boost metabolism.
Coconut oil (MCT) [Kovacs, 2006]
What have you heard?
What the news claims it does.
What science says: Short term studies <14 weeks found a
slight increased metabolism with daily intake of 10g of
MCT (convert this to amount found in xT of coconut oil).
This lead to a modest decrease in fat. This suggests that it
may be promising as a weight loss tool temporarily. The
body becomes increasing efficient when exposed to
something over a long time. ie same work out or skin care
product used over and over may not yield similar results.
Many of these studies the participants were on restrictive
diets anyways so weight loss was eminent. Matter of MCT
working better than other fats. Weight loss was found
more sig in men vs women. Animal studies were more
promising than humans. Why? No life stressors, no tempt,
greater control.
What you should do: Practical conclusion, If you like using
coconut oil as a cooking fat about ___x per day may assist
in weight loss. However, it is important to notes it is not in
addition to other fats like butter, fried foods, pastries and
oils that will help weight loss. It is not a miracle food that
will ramp up metabolism so much so, that calories can
still be ingested at high rates.
Potato starch/ resistant starch (more research needed)
What have you heard?
What the news claims it does.
What science says.
What you should do

o Discussion & questions


Explore with group why these tactics might work for some and
not others. (placebo, healthier lifestyle over all, providing
nutrients their diet did not have already due to food choices,
coconut oil increasing satiety, starch increases satiety, ACV
increasing fluids and curbing hunger etc.) Many times people
use these methods in addition to healthier eating habits.
Nutrient needs increase but incursionary calories decrease due
decreased metabolism. This important
Sources
o http://www.healthyfoodguide.com.au/articles/2011/june/myths-busted-
can-certain-foods-speed-your-metabolism
o (Wardlaws Perspectives in nutrition).
o http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/718170_3]
o Kovacs EMR, Mela DJ. 2006. Metabolically active functional food
ingredients for weight control, Obesity Reviews; 7:59-78. - See more at:
[http://0-
web.b.ebscohost.com.ksclib.keene.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?
vid=6&sid=95ff560f-be18-4005-be97-b473cfbfe61a
%40sessionmgr120]
o St-Onge M. 2005. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential
functional foods for weight control, American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition; 81:7-15 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2008.00718.x - See more at:
http://www.healthyfoodguide.com.au/articles/2011/june/myths-busted-
can-certain-foods-speed-your-metabolism#sthash.0oW1BVss.dpuf
o For PH of various vinegars https://www.superfoodly.com/health-
benefits-of-apple-cider-vinegar-uses/
o Hot ingredient of the month Apple cider vinegar http://0-
search.ebscohost.com.ksclib.keene.edu/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=ccm&AN=103991953&site=ehost-live&scope=site
o Tuffs, Ask an Expert on ACV http://0-
search.ebscohost.com.ksclib.keene.edu/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=a9h&AN=119171618&site=ehost-live&scope=site
o http://www.precisionnutrition.com/leptin-ghrelin-weight-loss
o http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/070115p26.shtml
o https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929498/ Int J
Endocrinol. 2010; 2010: 270832. Published online 2010 Aug
2. doi: 10.1155/2010/270832 and Metabolism: An Overview Sunil
Sharma* and Mani Kavuru
o http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/502825
o http://www.psyneuen-journal.com/article/S0306-4530(00)00035-
4/fulltext
o https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/164/10/947/162270/Association-
between-Reduced-Sleep-and-Weight-Gain
o St-Onge MP; Bosarge A; Goree LL; Darnell B; St-Onge, Marie-
Pierre; Bosarge, Aubrey; Goree, Laura Lee T; Darnell, Betty Medium
chain triglyceride oil consumption as part of a weightloss diet does
not lead to an adverse metabolic profile when compared to olive oil (J
AM COLL NUTR), Oct2008; 27(5): 547-552. (6p) http://0-
search.ebscohost.com.ksclib.keene.edu/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=ccm&AN=105561002&site=ehost-live&scope=site
o Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on Weight Loss and Body
Composition: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Karen
Mumme, PGDipSc, Welma
Stonehouse, PhD, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.10.022
o

Makes sure you know about.


o Green tea, caffeine, alcohol and weight loss/ gain
Shown to temp boost met rate by an extra 10-20kcal/ Meals [ St.
Onge AJCN], [Kovac 2006 obesity review]
o Dairy and soy and weight gain.
o Does eat protein burn more fat?
Studies show temp increase RMR by ~20kcal/ meal when diet
has 100g protein/day. However, within weeks the body adapts to
this use of proteins and begins synthesizing more enzymes to
break down protein (for amino acid pools or fat depending on
activity) and then the body goes back to using glucose as
preferred fuel. >>> BODY WANTS HOMEOSTASIS. Ie many of
these tactics may work for short time hence diets being 30 days
but after that body will adjust to find its set point. We need to
find something that is sustainable after diet. What factor can we
influence the most to improve metabolism (Muscle gain, modest
reduction in caloric intake, increased PA. ie RMR increased
longer with PA than with certain foods)
o Waist training or cellulite wraps
o B-vitamin complex; know food sources for b-vitamins
o Easy to do resistant training exercises for seniors
o Credible authors or sites for sound nutrition advice.
Have appropriate responses ready for questions regarding
o Paleo
o Meal replacement supplements CH most successful most sustainable
o Supplements- pill garcinia? Glucomanin- fiber, CLA- raspberry ketones
adiponectin , green tea extract?

Other
Side A: define metabolism, 4 boxes with images that affect metabolism
Side B: simple recipes that include fad foods so that if desired to use them,
can do so in a fun and tasty way! ACV- Tangy Mustard dressing, Coconut oil- 5
ingredient Granola, Potato starch?