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An Introduction to

Seismic Design Principles


Based on Eurocode 8
Singapore and Malaysia NAs

Joseph Kubin

May 2016
Earthquakes: Points to Remember
Unpredictable and Potentially
Devastating
A design strategy has to
accommodate the
uncertainities involved.
Although the methods used
may seem sophisticated, it is
not an exact science.

Foundation failure due to


liquifaction of soil

Typical column
failure
Earthquakes: Points to Remember
Damage on poorly engineered/constructed
buildings cannot be controlled even during small
earthquakes.

Collapsed R/C buildings during


Marmara Earthquake 1999, Turkey
Earthquakes: Points to Remember
Highway overpass and railroad failure examples
during Marmara Earthquake 1999, Turkey
Seismic Load: Strong Motion Accelerograms

Acceleration vs. Time plots of


the strong ground motions.

Acceleration (m/s2)
Despite the fact that each
earthquake has a certain
magnitude, they cause tremors
of different characteristics
depending on the soil they
traversed.
Time (s)
Frequency Domain Representation:
Response Spectra
Earthquake Resistant Building Design Principles

Minor Earthquakes
(72 year earthquake) No damage performance
Elastic Behavior

Medium Size Earthquakes (Design Based Earthquake, DBE)


(475 year earthquake) Limited repairable damage performance
Nearly Elastic Behavior

Large Scale Earthquakes (Most Credible Earthquake, MCE)


(2475 year earthquake) Stability performance
Any level of damage can be expected, but collapse should be prevented.
Elasto-plastic Behavior
Structural Types
Concrete buildings are classified as:
a) frame system;
b) dual system (frame or wall equivalent);
frame equivalent dual system
Wall equivalent dual system
c) ductile wall system (coupled or uncoupled);
d) system of large lightly reinforced walls;
e) inverted pendulum system;
f) torsionally flexible system.
Ductility Classes
Ductility is a measure of energy dissipation capacity of a building.

DCH High Ductility Class


DCM Medium Ductility Class
DCL Low Ductility Class

For low seismicity regions Ductility Class Low (DCL) design and detailing can be applicable.

High Ductility design necessitates:


Capacity Design
Properly confined columns and beams
Columns to be stronger than beams (to ensure plastic hinge formation on beams)
Beam/column joints to be designed for shear
More strict rules on reinforcement ratios
Behaviour Factor (q)

Behaviour Factor (q) is used for scaling the Elastic Response based on the design
criteria. Behaviour Factor depends on:
Structural System Type
Ductility Class
Irregularities in Plan (via the overstrength factor u/1)
Irregularities in Elevation
Building Importance Factor
Behaviour Factor (q)

q: Structural Behaviour Factor


q0: Basic Behaviour Factor (Table 5.1)
kw: factor reflecting the prevailing failure
mode in structural systems with walls

q = qo kw 1,5

The value of qo should be reduced by 20%


for buildings which are not regular in
elevation
For Ductility Class Low (DCL), q = 1.5
(for all building types)
Structural Regularities
Regularity in Plan:
With respect to the lateral stiffness and mass distribution, the building structure shall
be approximately symmetrical in plan with respect to two orthogonal axes.
The plan configuration shall be compact (less than 5% re-entrant corners or edge
recesses that affect the floor in-plan stiffness)
The plan should be considered as a rigid diaphragm to distribute lateral forces
properly.
The floor slenderness = Lmax/Lmin 4. (L is floor plan dimension)
At each level and for each direction, the structural eccentricity (eo) and the torsional
radius r shall be in accordance with
eo 0,30 r
r ls
Here, eo is the distance between the centre of stiffness and the centre of mass, r is the
torsional radius and ls is the radius of gyration of the floor mass in plan.
Structural Regularities
Regularity in Elevation:
All lateral load resisting members (such as cores, structural walls, or frames) run
without interruption from the foundations to the top of the building.
Soft Storey (Stiffness Irregularity): Both the lateral stiffness and the mass of the
individual storeys shall remain constant or reduce gradually.
Weak Storey (Strength Irregularity): In framed buildings the ratio of the actual
storey resistance to the resistance required by the analysis should not vary
disproportionately between adjacent storeys.
Ground Types

The Ground Type within the footprint of building


determined by computing the value of using
either soil parameter:
Shear wave velocity (vs,30),
Standard penetration test
(NSPT(blows/30cm))
Undrained shear strength (cu) in the upper
30m soil depth
Ground Types (Singapore)
The earthquake ground motion is represented by the
horizontal elastic response spectrum, defined by
parameters below:
TB TC TD
Ground Type S
(s) (s) (s)
C 1.6 0.4 1.1 10.4
D 2.5 0.9 1.6 4.6
S1 3 .2 1.6 2.4 2.4
Ground Types (Malaysia)
The earthquake ground motion is represented by
the horizontal elastic response spectrum, defined
by parameters below (as provided in the EC8 Base
Code):

TS SD (TD ) TC TD
Ground Type m
(s) (mm) (s) (s)

Rock (R) TS < 0.15 1 SDR (1.25) 1 mR 0.3 1.25

Stiff Soil (SS) 0.15 TS < 0.5 1 SDR (1.25) 1.5 1 mR 0.3 1.25

Flexible Soil (FS) 0.5 TS 1.0 1 SDR (1 .5TS ) 3 .6 1 mF 1.2TS 1.5TS

S: Soil Type Factor


TB , TC , TD: Characteristic Periods describing the
shape of the elastic response spectrum
Importance Classes (Malaysia)
Buildings are classified in 4 importance classes, depending on the consequences of collapse for human life,
on their importance for public safety and civil protection.

Spectral accelerations are magnified with Importance Factor (1).

Importance Notional design PGA, ag (gs)


Importance Class Building Categories
Factor, I Peninsular & Sarawak Sabah
0.06 0.10
I 0.8 Minor constructions
(0.8 x 0.07) (0.8 x 0.12)
0.07 0.12
Ordinary buildings (individual dwellings or
II 1.0 shops in low rise buildings)
Reference PGA Reference PGA
(notional 475 years RP) (notional 475 years RP)
Buildings of large occupancies
0.08 0.14
III 1.2 (condominiums, shopping centres, schools
(1.2 x 0.07) (1.2 x 0.12)
and public buildings)

Lifeline built facilities (hospitals, emergency


0.10 0.18
IV 1.5 services, power plants and communication
(2475 years RP) (2475 years RP)
facilities)
Importance Classes (Singapore)
Buildings are classified Importance Notional design PGA
in 2 importance classes, Importance Class Building Categories
Factor, I agr
depending on the Ordinary buildings (individual 0.018g
consequences of II 1.0 dwellings or shops in low rise Reference PGA
collapse for human life, buildings) (notional 475 years RP)
on their importance for Buildings whose integrity during
earthquakes is of importance in
public safety and civil view of the consequences
protection. associated with a collapse e.g.
IV 1.4 hospitals fire stations civil
0.025g
defense installations ministry
Spectral accelerations offices institutional buildings
etc.
are magnified with
Importance Factor (1).
Seismicity of Malaysia
Covers events between
February 1903 and December 2000
The minimum moment magnitude
(Mw) = 5.0
Maximum focal depth is 200 km
Total number of earthquakes > 12000
(after A. Adnan et all, 2005)
Hazard Map for East Malaysia
NEHRP site class B
5% Damping
475 Years Return Period

(after N.S.H. Harith,


A. Adnan, A.V. Shoushtari,
2015)

Max PGA is 140 gal (0.14g)


Hazard Map for East Malaysia
NEHRP site class B
5% Damping
2475 Years Return Period

(after N.S.H. Harith, A.


Adnan, A.V. Shoushtari, 2015)

Max PGA is 210 gal (0.21g)


PGA Map of ASEAN
Region

Peninsular 0.07g
Sabah 0.12g
Sarawak 0.07g
Elastic Design Spectra (Singapore)
Singapore is in a low seismicity region.
Ductility Class Low (DCL) design and detailing
can be adopted.
1
here, () =

(): Design spectral acceleration
at 5% damping (reduced by q)
: Elastic spectral acceleration
at 5% damping
1: Importance factor
: Behaviour factor
%5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Singapore
For Singapore: (=0.018g, q = 1.5, 1 = 1, Ground Type: C)
agR = 0.175 m/s2 (0.018g)
(at = 0 (0)= agR S = 0.0288g)
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah)

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah)

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Medium (DCM) q = 3


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah)

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class High (DCH) q = 4.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah)

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1.5
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 2475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah)

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Stiff Soil (SS) S = 1.5
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor
DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah) TS = 0.5 sec

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Flexible Soil (FS) S = 3.6
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah) TS = 0.75 sec

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Flexible Soil (FS) S = 3.6
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra (Sabah) TS = 1.0 sec

PGA agR = 0.12g


Ground Type: Flexible Soil (FS) S = 3.6
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra
(Peninsular & Sarawak)
PGA agR = 0.07g
Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra
(Peninsular & Sarawak)
PGA agR = 0.07g
Ground Type: Rock (R) S=1
Importance Class II = 1.5
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 2475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra
(Peninsular & Sarawak)
PGA agR = 0.07g
Ground Type: Stiff Soil (SS) S=1
Importance Class II = 1.5
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 2475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Elastic Design Spectra
(Peninsular & Sarawak)
PGA agR = 0.07g
Ground Type: Flexible Soil (FS) S=1
Importance Class II = 1.5
Ductility Class Low (DCL) q = 1.5


() =

() : Design spectral acceleration at 5% damping


: Elastic spectral acceleration at 5% damping
1 : Building Importance Factor DBE (Return Period = 2475 years)
: Behaviour factor %5 Damped Elastic and Design Spectra for Sabah
Storey Weights
The weight of each storey to be considered for the
calculation of the seismic actions should comprise the
full permanent (or dead) plus the variable (or imposed)
load reduced by a factor Ei (Clause 4.2.4(2)P) as
Ei =i 2i
Here,
i : Imposed Load Participation Factor (storey based)
2i : Quasi-permanent Imposed Load Coefficient
(allows for the incomplete coupling
between the structure and its imposed load)
Then storey weight will be:
Wi = Gi + Ei Qi
Analysis Methods
Input Information:
Proper Structural Model
Elastic Design Response Spectrum (for 475 years earthquake, probability of occurence %10 in 50 years)
Parameters to define the Design Spectrum
The irregularity classifications
Seismic Weight of each storey

Linear Elastic Analysis Methods:


Equivalent Static Lateral Load Analysis Method (LLA)
Response Spectrum (Mode Superposition) Analysis Method (RSA)
Free-vibration Characteristics of Buildings
Free vibration characteristics of a structure can
be calculated using Eigenvalue Analysis.

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Mode 6


(X 1st Mode) (T 1st Mode) (Y 1st Mode) (T 2nd Mode) (Y 2nd Mode) (X 2nd Mode)

Less Required Energy to Vibrate in this mode More Required


Longer Vibration Period Shorter
More Sophisticated Analysis Methods
Linear Elastic Analysis Methods:
Time History Analysis

Performance Assessment Methods:


Linear Assessment Methods (Force Based)
Static Pushover Method (Single Mode, Non-linear)
Multimode Pushover Method (Non-linear)
Non-linear Time History Analysis
Determination of Analysis Method
Equivalent Lateral Load Analysis (LLA) is applicable:
The fundamental period of the structure in two main directions is
less than 2.0 sec
Building is regular in elevation

Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) should be used:


When the fundamental period of the structure in two main
directions is greater than 2.0 sec
Building is irregular in elevation
Equivalent Lateral Load Analysis
Seismic action is represented by static lateral forces acting at
storey levels calculated based on the first mode of the building. S

Force = Mass x Acceleration

Fb = m S(T1) (Total Seismic Base Shear)


S(T1)

= (Total Seismic Weight: W = G + E Q)


=1 TB TC T1
i i
= 1 (Elastic lateral force acting at ith floor level)

: Correction factor.
= 0.85 if T1 < 2 TC and the building has more than two storeys,
= 1.0 otherwise.
Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) Method
This method is based on the combination of the modal responses calculated for each participated
mod. Inertia forces per mode is calculated and combined using either CQC or SRSS methods.
The number of modes must be carefully set to make sure that at least 90% of modal mass
participation is satisfied.
Triangular Load Distribution Inertia Force Distribution
Used in Equivalent Static Analysis Based on Combination of Modes
Fn Fn

+ =

Based on 1st Mode Shape 1st Mode 2nd Mode


Shape Shape
Application of Seismic Loading

30% Seismic Action


(with ecc. that Lx
maximize torsion)

30% Seismic Action


(with ecc. that
ey Plan Plan maximize torsion)
Ly
Major Seismic Action x ey ex ex
(100%)

ey = 0.05 Ly ex = 0.05 Lx
Major Seismic Action y
(100%)
Combination of Seismic Actions

Ex+ and Ey+ are Seismic load cases for x (major) and y (transverse) direction loadings with
positive 5% accidental eccentricity, respectively.
Ex- and Ey- are Seismic load cases for x (major) and y (transverse) direction loadings with
negative 5% accidental eccentricity, respectively.
Structural Model and Rigid Diaphragm Action
In order to satisfy the rigid diaphragm condition:
The in-plan stiffness of the floors shall be sufficiently large in comparison with the lateral stiffness of
the vertical structural elements
L, C, H, I, and X plan shapes should be carefully examined, notably as concerns the stiffness of the
lateral branches
Wherever necessary effect of multiple diaphram situatons should be taken into account.
Unless a more accurate analysis of the cracked elements is performed, the elastic flexural and shear
stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken as one-half
Interstorey Drift Check
The damage limitation requirement is considered to have been satisfied, if the interstorey drifts are
limited in accordance with:
= 0.005 (for buildings having non-structural elements of brittle materials)

= 0.0075 (for buildings having ductile non-structural elements)

here,
is reduction factor ( = 0.5 for Singapore NA)
is the design interstorey drift based on Design Spectrum ( = (i)- (i-1))
(difference of the average lateral displacements at the top
and bottom of the storey)
is the absolute lateral displacement induced by the design seismic actions ( = q )
is the absolute lateral displacement of seismic loading based on design spectrum reduced by q
Seismic Assessment, Repair and Strengthening
of Existing Structures
Seismic Assessment of Existing Structures
Existing buildings can be assessed using:
Forced Based-Elastic Methods
based on determination of force and moment demands and comparing with capacities
Displacement-Based Inelastic Method
based on determination of member end rotations and displacements
(or strains) and comparing with limits

Methodologies are based on:


Cracked Section are used in analyses
Elastic Seismic Forces (not reduced using q)
Importance factor is not applied.
Flexural and shear capacities are calculated at member ends (at realistic axial forces on columns)
51

Seismic Rehabilitation Of Building Structures


New (code compliant) buildings: SAFE
Old (substandard) buildings: UNSAFE ???

Safety level
Codes

Cumulative building
stock

1950 2000
Difficulties in the Standardization of Performance Evaluation Procedures
52

and Retrofit Techniques


Each existing substandard building must be treated as an individual patient
Detailed examinations are required for diagnosis
Unique prescriptions must be developed for curing
Section Damage Limits and Damage Regions

Force
LS CP
IO

Minimum Damage Moderate Damage Heavy Damage Collapse Region


Region Region Region

Displacement
Forced-Based Elastic Methods
Classification of Concrete Members
based on Performance

Confinement condition Failure Condition

Confined Unconfined Ductile Brittle

Flexure Shear / Axial


Failure Failure
Forced-Based Elastic Methods

Demand / Capacity
Ratio
Ductile Sections Brittle Sections

Seismic Moment Seismic Shear Force


r= r=
Moment Capacity Shear Capacity
Static Pushover Method
Objective:
Determination of plastic deformations and internal force demand levels related to ductile and brittle
behavior of members.

A typical load shape is selected (usually proportional to the 1st mode shape)
Lateral load is monotonically increased until earthquake demand level is reached.
Assumption: Load distribution is not effected by the plastic hinge formation.
A linear elastic static analysis carried out at each push step.
Member section force-displacement relationship is assumed to be elasto-plastic.

Typical plastic hinge length is assumed to be 0.5h


Static Pushover Method

A typical Moment-Curvature (Force-Displacement) relationship.

Mmax
My

0.2Mu

q (rad/m)
qy qu
Static Pushover Method

Plastic Rotation:
(Only one end of the member yields)

i 1
q p i qI i qJ i i
L 2 L

qIi+1-qIi +(i+1-i)/L +0.5*((qJi+1-qJi)


+(i+1-i)/L)

qIi (qJi+1-qJi)*0.5+1.5*(i+1-i)/L

qIi+1-qIi
Static Pushover Method
Static Pushover Method
Guidelines
First Generation: New Generation:
Satisfy code requirements for new buildings Performance levels
Linear elastic analysis Performance based rehabilitation
Response reduction factors Linear/nonlinear analysis
Design strength of materials (material factors) Cracked concrete sections
Force-based acceptability In-situ material strengths
All sources of strength (partition walls, etc.)
Force/displacement based acceptability
62

FEMA-ASCE Seismic Rehabilitation


Pre-standard (1997, 2000)
A comprehensive document for performance evaluation
Marginal emphasis on retrofit techniques
Static/dynamic and linear/nonlinear analysis procedures
Primary/secondary members
Ductile/brittle structural components
Mean/characteristic in-situ material strengths
Force/displacement based performance acceptability for
brittle/ductile structural behavior
Force-based linear procedures are highly conservative!!
Field Applications: Conventional Methods of Improvement

Mass reduction
Added shear walls
Added bracing systems
Local improvement of members (eg: FRP)
Mass Reduction
Removing stories:
Feasible if the remaining building does not need further retrofit
Difficult to apply in the case of split ownership

Reducing mass:
Replace heavy overhangs, exterior cladding and roof with lighter material
A very feasible solution applicable to all buidings
Collapsed floor

Original Building Reconstructed Building

Seismic rehabilitation of the Kobe City Hall by mass reduction


65
Approx. Cost = 800 US$/m2
Added Shear Walls
Advantages:
Cost effective
Remarkable increase in performance
Disadvantages:
Extensive construction work in the building
Require partial or total evacuation
Possible conflicts with architectural and mechanical functions - more costs to resolve
Practical Suggestions:
Downgrade substandard columns to secondary members
Construct confined boundary zones inside columns
Permit uplift and rotation of wall foundations
(possible increase in damage cost)
Added Shear Walls

Dowel
bar

Existing Existing
Added
column column
wall

Confined
Dowel
boundary
bar
Added Shearwall Implementation
Added Shearwall Implementation
Added Shearwall Implementation
Partititon Wall Retrofit
Plaster
Beam

Frame Anchorage

Web Anchorage

Plaster
Mesh Steel
Brick Wall

Section A-A
Fiber Reinforcement (FRP) Retrofit of Partition Walls

LP Anchorages Beam
Partition Wall

Column

Fiber Polymer
Strips

LP Bolts

Brick

PLaster
Example 1
A Typical damaged building retrofitted by
added shear walls
Cost ratio=23%

73
Capacity curves of the existing and rehabilitated buildings

0.35

0.30

P
Rehabilitated frame
0.25 with fixed base
Rehabilitated frame with flexible base
Base Shear / Total Weight

0.20

0.15 Turkish Code 1975

MS T
Existing Infilled Frame
0.10 AS
P Performance point
Existing Bare Frame
T Target displacement
AS Aftershock performance
0.05 MS Mainshock performance

0.00
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.020
Top Displacement / Total Height

74
A Typical damaged building retrofitted by
Example 2 added shear walls
Cost ratio=23%

Bakrkyde Konut
fc= 10 MPa
76

Alternative 1: Infill Shear Walls and Column Jacketting

Added Walls
Column Jacketts
77

Alternative 2: Exterior Added Shear Walls and Retrofitted Partitions

Added Shear Walls


Added Beams
Retrofitted Partitions
78

Performance Assessment (X-Direction)


0.8

X-DIRECTION
0.7
Existing Building
Original Structure
ALT1 _CSW&PP
0.6 Alt. 1 Interior Added Walls
ALT2Alt.
_ SW2 Exterior Added Walls
Code-based Spectrum
0.5 Site-specific Spectrum
Code Spectrum Z3
SZ_7(Ort+1 SS)
Site Specific Spectrum SZ_7(Mean+1 SD)
Sa/g

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

Sd (mt.)
79

Performance Assessment (Y-Direction)


0.8

Y-DIRECTION
0.7
Existing Building

ALT1 _CSW&PP
0.6 Original Structure
ALT2Alt.
_ SW1 Interior Added Walls
0 Alt. 2 Exterior Added Walls
0.5
Code-based Spectrum
Code Spectrum Z3
Site-specific Spectrum
Site SZ_7(Ort+1
Specific Spectrum
SS) SZ_7(Mean+1 SD)
Sa/g

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20
Sd (mt.)
Example 3
An 8 storey building encountered medium
level damage during 1998 Ceyhan
Earthquake,
A typical example of RC beam/slab system,
Lateral Strength of the building is not
sufficient.
Example 3

Typical Plan
Example 3

Typical Plan (With Added Shear Walls)


Example 3
0.20

After Retrofitting

0.15

Base Shear / Total Building Weight Code Performance Level

Existing Bare Frame System

0.10

0.05

0.00
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015
Top Displacement / Total Building Height

Capacity Curves of the Building Before and After Retrofit


Added Bracing Systems
Advantages: Disadvantages:
Less added weight Less integrity with the existing frame
Less foundation work Less stiffness and strength
Easy installation Anchored joints usually require jacketing
Less cost More effective in flexible buildings
Less intervention
Added Bracing Systems
Added Bracing Systems

Seismic rehabilitation of a
precast concrete facility with
steel braces.

Cost ratio= 15%


Local Improvement: Fiber Reinforcement
Confinement shear

Added
Wall

CFRP stirrups
Alternative Methods: Base Isolation
Seismic excitations yield post-elastic deformations in the structures. These deformations are the cause of
damage.

Conventional Approach: Increase Strength and Ductility

Alternative Solution: Seismic Base Isolation


Base Isolation
Seismic isolation is simply installing units flexible along lateral direction to filter the high frequency
excitations of the ground motions.

Fixed Base Building Isolated Building


Base Isolation
Primary aim is to introduce flexibility by increasing the fundamental period of the structure.
Floor accelerations are decreased, upper structure and non-structural elements are protected.

Increased Period
Base Shear / W

Fixed Base Building Isolated Building

Period
Base Isolation
Buildings Convenient for Base Isolation
Buildings that should experience damage during strong earthquakes
(Performance Level: Operational)
Hospitals, Head-quarters, Police and Fire Stations
Nuclear Power Plants
Museums, Libraries, Schools

Rehabilitation and Retrofitting of Existing Buildings


Weak and Brittle Buildings
Historical Heritages
Architectural Landmarks
Lead Rubber Bearings
Made up of Steel and Rubber plates pressed
together
Rubber plates are for lateral flexibility
Steel plates used for increasing axial capacity
Lead core is for increasing the damping
Friction Pendulum Systems
Isolation is performed on a spherical surface
Base Isolation
ProtaStructure Models of Erzurum Medical Campus (Block B)
Base Isolation
ProtaStructure Models of Basibuyuk (Istanbul) Medical Campus
Worlds Largest Retrofitted Campus with Base Isolators
(1250 units used)
Isolator Installation of Basibuyuk Health Complex
Base Isolation (Prototype Testing)
Friction Pendulum Type Isolator of Erzurum Medical Campus
Base Isolation (Prototype Testing)
LRB Isolator of Antalya Hospital
Example Case: A Primary School Building in Istanbul
Typical Floor Plan
Architectural Sections
ProtaStructure Model
Typical Structural Floor Plan
Retrofit Scheme: Base Isolation

Recommended
Isolation Layer
Deformations

Isolated Building

Original Building
Marmara Earthquake (1999)
Marmara Earthquake (1999)
An example to selective
damage:
Buildings with small
natural periods
experienced greater
acceleration.
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