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The eight phases of human gait cycle


Initial Contact Loading Response Mid Stance Terminal Stance Pre Swing Initial Swing Mid Swing Terminal Swing

Gait cycle 0% 0 12 % 12 31 % 31 50 % 50 62 % 62 75 % 75 87 % 87 100 %

Hip 20 flexion 20 flexion 0 flexion -20 hyperextension -10 hyperextension 15 flexion 25 flexion 20 flexion
Knee 0 5 flexion 20 flexion 0 5 flexion 0 5 flexion 40 flexion 60 70 flexion 25 flexion 0 5 flexion
Ankle joint 0 5 10 plantar flexion 5 dorsal flexion 10 dorsal flexion 15 plantar flexion 5 plantar flexion 0 0
Muscle activity M. quadrizeps femoris M. quadrizeps femoris M. gastrocnemius M. soleus M. soleus M. extensor hallucis M. semimembranosus M. quadriceps femoris
M. tibialis anterior M. tibialis anterior M. soleus M. gastrocnemius M. gastrocnemius longus M. semitendinosus M. semitendinosus
M. gluteus medius M. gluteus medius M. flexor digitorum M. rectus femoris M. flexor hallucis longus M. biceps femoris M. semimembranosus
M. gluteus maximus M. gluteus maximus longus M. adductor longus M. sartorius M. tibialis anterior M. biceps femoris
Ischiocrurale Muskulatur M. adductor Magnus M. flexor hallucis longus M. iliacus M. tibialis anterior
M. tensor fascia latae M. tibialis posterior M. tibialis anterior
M. tibialis posterior M. peroneus longus
M. peroneus longus M. peroneus brevis
Functions heel contact to shock absorption in controlled forward controlled dorsal passive knee joint min. 55 knee flexion increasing hip flexion knee joint extension
the ground knee and ankle joint motion of the tibia extension at the ankle flexion of 40 for sufficient to 25 to neutral-flexion
load transmission and shifting of the joint with lifting the plantar flexion ground clearance dorsal extension of preparation for
stability in the hip gravity centre to the heel from the ground of the ankle joint the ankle joint to stance phase
forward motion front by ankle rocker neutral-zero-position
by heel rocker

400W43/E 2016-03 TWIN, 2D and 3D innovative systems for video-based gait analysis
For further information see:
Springer-Verlag GmbH

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