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math make sense

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T

MTH-4110-1

he Four

Operations

on

Algebraic Fractions

MTH-4110-1

THE FOUR

OPERATIONS

ON

ALGEBRAIC

FRACTIONS

Author: Suzie Asselin

Jean-Paul Groleau

Mireille Moisan-Sanscartier

Nicole Perreault

anglaise

Reprint: 2004

All rights for translation and adaptation, in whole or in part, reserved for all countries.

Any reproduction by mechanical or electronic means, including micro-reproduction, is

forbidden without the written permission of a duly authorized representative of the

Socit de formation distance des commissions scolaires du Qubec (SOFAD).

Bibliothque et Archives nationales du Qubec

Bibliothque et Archives Canada

ISBN 2-89493-288-9

Answer Key

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Program Flowchart ............................................................................ 0.5

How to Use This Guide ............................................................................. 0.6

General Introduction ................................................................................. 0.9

Intermediate and Terminal Objectives of the Module ............................ 0.11

Diagnostic Test on the Prerequisites ....................................................... 0.13

Answer Key for the Diagnostic Test on the Prerequisites ...................... 0.17

Analysis of Diagnostic Test Results ......................................................... 0.19

Information for Distance Education Students ......................................... 0.21

UNITS

2. Product and Quotient of Algebraic Fractions .......................................... 2.1

3. Multiplying and Dividing Algebraic Fractions ........................................ 3.1

4. Adding and Subtracting Algebraic Fractions .......................................... 4.1

5. Order of Operations Involving Algebraic Fractions ................................ 5.1

Answer Key for the Final Summary ........................................................ 6.5

Terminal Objective .................................................................................... 6.6

Self-Evaluation Test.................................................................................. 6.7

Answer Key for the Self-Evaluation Test ................................................ 6.13

Analysis of the Self-Evaluation Test Results .......................................... 6.17

Final Evaluation........................................................................................ 6.18

Answer Key for the Exercises ................................................................... 6.19

Glossary ..................................................................................................... 6.41

List of Symbols .......................................................................................... 6.45

Bibliography .............................................................................................. 6.46

SOFAD 0.3

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Answer Key

This mathematics program has been developed for the adult students of the

Adult Education Services of school boards and distance education. The learning

activities have been designed for individualized learning. If you encounter

difficulties, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or to telephone the resource

person assigned to you. The following flowchart shows where this module fits

into the overall program. It allows you to see how far you have progressed and

how much you still have to do to achieve your vocational goal. There are several

possible paths you can take, depending on your chosen goal.

(MTH-416), and leads to a Diploma of Vocational Studies (DVS).

(MTH-436) and MTH-5104-1 (MTH-514), and leads to a Secondary School

Diploma (SSD), which allows you to enroll in certain Gegep-level programs that

do not call for a knowledge of advanced mathematics.

(MTH-536), and leads to Cegep programs that call for a solid knowledge of

mathematics in addition to other abiliies.

If this is your first contact with this mathematics program, consult the flowchart

on the next page and then read the section How to Use This Guide. Otherwise,

go directly to the section entitled General Introduction. Enjoy your work!

0.4 SOFAD

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Answer Key

CEGEP

MTH-5112-1 Logic

MTH-536

MTH-5110-1 Introduction to Vectors

MTH-5109-1 Geometry IV

MTH-526

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

MTH-5107-1 and Equations

MTH-5104-1 Optimization II MTH-5106-1 Real Functions and Equations

MTH-514

MTH-5103-1 Probability II MTH-5105-1 Conics

MTH-5101-1 Optimization I

Trades MTH-436

The Four Operations on

MTH-4110-1 You ar e h er e

DVS Algebraic Fractions

MTH-426

MTH-4107-1 Straight Lines II

MTH-4104-2 Statistics II

MTH-4103-1 Trigonometry I

MTH-416

MTH-4102-1 Geometry III

MTH-216

MTH-2007-2 Geometry I

MTH-116

MTH-1005-2 The Four Operations on Integers 25 hours = 1 credit

50 hours = 2 credits

SOFAD 0.5

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Answer Key

Hi! My name is Monica and I have been Youll see that with this method, math is

asked to tell you about this math module. Im Andy.

a real breeze!

Whats your name?

Whether you are indicate that I should begin

registered at an placement test which tells you

exactly which module you with this module.

adult education

center or at should start with.

Formation

distance, ...

Now, the module you have in your ... the entry activity, which By carefully correcting this test using the

hand is divided into three contains the test on the corresponding answer key, and record-

sections. The first section is... prerequisites. ing your results on the analysis sheet ...

0.6 SOFAD

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Answer Key

... you can tell if youre well enough And if Im not, if I need a little In that case, before you start the

prepared to do all the activities in the review before moving on, what activities in the module, the results

module. happens then? analysis chart refers you to a review

activity near the end of the module.

I see!

have all the prerequisites START

for starting. The starting line

shows where the

Exactly! The second section

contains the learning activities. Its learning activities

the main part of the module. begin.

? for which answers are given in the text.

The target precedes the

objective to be met.

concepts which you have already studied.

? indicates practice exercices

which allow you to try out what

you have just learned.

the right. It explains the

symbols used to identify the

various activities.

The calculator symbol reminds you that

you will need to use your calculator.

? reinforce what you have just learned. A row of

sheaves near the end of the module indicates the

final review, which helps you to interrelate all the

learning activities in the module.

FINISH

that it is time to go on to the self-evaluation

test to verify how well you have understood

the learning activities.

SOFAD 0.7

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Answer Key

in this module. For example, A Did you know that...? Must I memorize what the sage says?

when you see the drawing of a

sage, it introduces a Did you

know that... Yes, for example, short tidbits No, its not part of the learn-

on the history of mathematics ing activity. Its just there to

and fun puzzles. They are in- give you a breather.

teresting and relieve tension at

the same time.

pages, which are designed espe- They are so stimulating that And the whole module has

cially for those who love math. even if you dont have to do been arranged to make

them, youll still want to. learning easier.

For example. words in bold- ... statements in boxes are important The third section contains the final re-

face italics appear in the points to remember, like definitions, for- view, which interrelates the different

glossary at the end of the mulas and rules. Im telling you, the for- parts of the module.

module... mat makes everything much easier.

Great!

help. Later ...

test and answer key. They tell

you if youre ready for the final Im glad! Now,

evaluation. Ive got to run. This is great! I never thought that I would

like mathematics as much as this!

See you!

0.8 SOFAD

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Answer Key

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

If you are continuing your studies in mathematics or you are taking science

courses, you will have to deal with mathematical expressions containing one or

2

x 2 + 6x + 8 , 4ab , 1 p 2q 2

and

2x + 4 9 9m 2 4n 2 2 p 2q 2 5 pq 2 3q 2

In this module, you will learn how to perform various operations on algebraic

fractions. You will first learn how to simplify them. It is important to master

this skill before going on, for you will use it throughout the module. Indeed, all

In the following units, you will learn how to multiply and divide algebraic

sion of algebraic fractions, add and subtract algebraic fractions and finally,

simplify algebraic expressions that may involve the four operations on algebraic

fractions. In this last case, you need to apply the rules for the order of

SOFAD 0.9

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Answer Key

What you have already learned about the operations on numerical fractions will

help you a great deal here. You will also find it useful to review the five methods

of factoring polynomials, also known as finding the factors of a polynomial:

factoring by grouping;

factoring trinomials of the form x2 + bx + c or x2 + bxy + cy2;

factoring trinomials of the form ax2 + bx + c or ax2 + bxy + cy2;

factoring differences of squares.

These are the main concepts that will be used in this module on algebraic

fractions.

0.10 SOFAD

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Answer Key

THE MODULE

distributed as shown below. Each unit covers either an intermediate or a

terminal objective. The terminal objective appears in boldface.

1 to 5 24 100%

Reduce a rational algebraic fraction to its lowest terms. The numerator and

denominator are factorable polynomials that contain up to three terms each

and each term contains no more than two variables. The steps involved in

simplifying the fraction must be shown.

Multiply three rational algebraic fractions and divide two rational algebraic

fractions. The polynomials in the numerators and denominators are

factorable and contain up to three terms. Each term contains no more than

two variables. The product and quotient must be reduced to their lowest

terms and the steps in the solution must be shown.

SOFAD 0.11

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Answer Key

Multiplied and Divided

fractions that are multiplied and divided. The numerators and denominators

are factorable polynomials that contain up to three terms each and each term

contains no more than two variables. The steps involved in simplifying the

expression must be shown.

Added and Subtracted

fractions that are added and subtracted. The numerators and denominators

are factorable polynomials that contain up to three terms each and each term

contains no more than two variables. The steps involved in simplifying the

expression must be shown.

algebraic fractions by performing the appropriate operations and

by following the order of operations. The algebraic expression

contains no more than two sets of parentheses. The numerators and

denominators are factorable polynomials that contain up to three

terms each and each term contains no more than two variables. The

steps involved in simplifying the expression must be shown.

0.12 SOFAD

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Answer Key

Instructions

to the next one immediately.

your answers using the answer key which follows the diagnostic

test.

the key. In addition, the various steps in your answer should be

equivalent to those shown in the solution.

7. Transcribe your results onto the chart which follows the answer

key. It gives an analysis of the diagnostic test results.

your incorrect answers.

9. If all your answers are correct, you may begin working on this

module.

SOFAD 0.13

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Answer Key

a) 60 = b) 26 =

80 .......................................... 65 ...........................................

b) x2 + 2x 3 = .................................................................................................

c) h2 25k2 = ....................................................................................................

e) 4 9j 2 = .......................................................................................................

g) d2 d + 2 = ................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

reduced to lowest terms.

a) 9 2 =

10 45 ....................................................................................................

b) 3 14 5 =

7 15 8 ...............................................................................................

c) 3 7 =

4 8 ........................................................................................................

d) 2 2 =

9 3 ........................................................................................................

0.14 SOFAD

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Answer Key

reduced to lowest terms.

a) 3 + 7 =

8 32 ......................................................................................................

b) 2 + 3 =

5 7 ........................................................................................................

c) 5 7 =

6 15 ......................................................................................................

d) 1 1 =

13 10 ....................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

e) (a + 2b)(3a b) = .........................................................................................

2

f) 1 x2 1 =

3 2 ................................................................................................

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Answer Key

3 2

g) 25a b + (3a 2 + 2b)2b =

5ab ..............................................................................

h) 1 xy 1 x 2 y 1 xy + 2 x 2 y 2 xy =

2 3 2 3 3

.......................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

0.16 SOFAD

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Answer Key

ON THE PREREQUISITES

1. a) 60 = 3 20 = 3 b) 26 = 2 13 = 2

80 4 20 4 65 5 13 5

b) x2 + 2x 3 = (x + 3)(x 1)

c) h2 25k2 = (h + 5k)(h 5k)

d) uw + 2vw 3uv 6v2 = w(u + 2v) 3v(u + 2v) = (u + 2v)(w 3v)

e) 4 9j2 = (2 + 3j)(2 3j)

f) 2z2 13z 7 = 2z2 14z + z 7 = 2z(z 7) + 1(z 7) = (z 7)(2z + 1)

g) d2 d + 2 = (d2 + d 2) = (d + 2)(d 1) or (d + 2)(1 d)

h) 4m2 5mn + n2 = 4m2 4mn mn + n2 = 4m(m n) n(m n) =

(m n)(4m n)

i) r2 + 14rs 49s2 = (r2 14rs + 49s2) = (r 7s)2

j) 36p2 + 4q2 = 4(9p2 q2) = 4(3p + q)(3p q)

1 1

3. a) 9 2 = 1 1 = 1

10 45 5 5 25

5 5

1

1 2 1

b) 3 14 5 = 1 1 1 = 1

7 15 8 1 1 4 4

1 3 4

1

c) 3 7 = 3 8 = 3 2 = 6

4 8 4 7 17 7

1

1 1

d) 2 2 = 2 3 = 1 1 = 1

9 3 9 2 31 3

3 1

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Answer Key

4. a) 3 + 7 = 12 + 7 = 19 b) 2 + 3 = 14 + 15 = 29

8 32 32 32 32 5 7 35 35 35

c) 5 7 = 25 14 = 11 d) 1 1 = 10 13 = 3

6 15 30 30 30 13 10 130 130 130

5. a) (c2 + 3cd) + (2c2 5cd) = c2 + 2c2 + 3cd 5cd = 3c2 2cd or c(3c 2d)

2d2 + 3dg + g2 3g2 d2 + g2 + 2d2 = 3d2 + 3dg g2

2 2 2

f) 1 x2 1 = 1 x2 2 1 x 2 1 + 1 = 1 x4 1 x2 + 1

3 2 3 3 2 2 9 3 4

3 2

g) 25a b + (3a 2 + 2b)2b = 5a 2b + 6a 2b + 4b 2 = 11a 2b + 4b 2

5ab

1 xy 1 x 2 y 1 xy + 2 x 2 y 2xy

h) 2 xy = 1 x 3 y 2 1 x 2 y 2 + 1 x 3 y 2 =

2 3 2 3 3 6 4 3 3

x 3y 2 x 2 y 2 3x 2 y 3xy

3 = or 3 x 2 y 3 xy

2 4 2xy 4 8 4 8

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Answer Key

TEST RESULTS

Question Correct Incorrect Section Page to Unit(s)

1. a) 7.1 7.4 1 to 5

b) 7.1 4.4 1 to 5

2. a) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

b) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

c) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

d) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

e) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

f) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

g) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

h) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

i) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

j) 7.2 7.7 1 to 5

3. a) 7.3 7.23 2, 3 and 5

b) 7.3 7.23 2, 3 and 5

c) 7.3 7.23 2, 3 and 5

d) 7.3 7.23 2, 3 and 5

4. a) 7.4 7.28 4 and 5

b) 7.4 7.28 4 and 5

c) 7.4 7.28 4 and 5

d) 7.4 7.28 4 and 5

5. a) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

b) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

c) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

d) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

e) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

f) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

g) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

h) 7.5 7.37 3 to 5

If all your answers are correct, you may begin working on this module.

For each incorrect answer, find the related section listed in the Review

column. Do the review activities for that section before beginning the units

listed in the right-hand column under the heading Before Going to Unit(s).

SOFAD 0.19

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Answer Key

1

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3

Answer Key

EDUCATION STUDENTS

You now have the learning material for MTH-4110-1 together with the home-

your tutor indicating the various ways in which you can communicate with him

or her (e.g. by letter, telephone) as well as the times when he or she is available.

Your tutor will correct your work and help you with your studies. Do not hesitate

also requires active involvement on your part. It demands regular study and

sustained effort. Efficient study habits will simplify your task. To ensure

that you:

draw up a study timetable that takes your working habits into account and

SOFAD 0.21

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Answer Key

The following guidelines concerning the theory, examples, exercises and assign-

ments are designed to help you succeed in this mathematics course.

Theory

problem, since this will make the lesson much easier to understand.

3. At the end of an assignment, make a note of any points that you do not

understand. Your tutor will then be able to give you pertinent explanations.

4. Try to continue studying even if you run into a particular problem. However,

Examples

The examples given throughout the course are an application of the theory you

are studying. They illustrate the steps involved in doing the exercises. Carefully

study the solutions given in the examples and redo them yourself before starting

the exercises.

0.22 SOFAD

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Answer Key

Exercises

The exercises in each unit are generally modelled on the examples provided.

Here are a few suggestions to help you complete these exercises.

important not to refer to the answer key found on the coloured pages at the

end of the module until you have completed the exercises.

2. Compare your solutions with those in the answer key only after having done

all the exercises. Careful! Examine the steps in your solution carefully even

if your answers are correct.

3. If you find a mistake in your answer or your solution, review the concepts that

you did not understand, as well as the pertinent examples. Then, redo the

exercise.

4. Make sure you have successfully completed all the exercises in a unit before

moving on to the next one.

Homework Assignments

assignment indicates the units to which the questions refer. The assignments

are designed to evaluate how well you have understood the material studied.

They also provide a means of communicating with your tutor.

When you have understood the material and have successfully done the perti-

nent exercises, do the corresponding assignment immediately. Here are a few

suggestions.

1. Do a rough draft first and then, if necessary, revise your solutions before

submitting a clean copy of your answer.

SOFAD 0.23

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Answer Key

2. Copy out your final answers or solutions in the blank spaces of the document

to be sent to your tutor. It is preferable to use a pencil.

3. Include a clear and detailed solution with the answer if the problem involves

several steps.

4. Mail only one homework assignment at a time. After correcting the assign-

ment, your tutor will return it to you.

In the section Students Questions, write any questions which you may wish to

have answered by your tutor. He or she will give you advice and guide you in your

studies, if necessary.

In this course

Homework Assignment 1 is based on units 1 to 4.

Homework Assignment 2 is based on unit 5.

Homework Assignment 3 is based on units 1 to 5.

CERTIFICATION

When you have completed all the work, and provided you have maintained an

average of at least 60%, you will be eligible to write the examination for this

course.

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Answer Key

START

UNIT 1

Special Fractions

So you've long been an ace at simplifying fractions! In the wink of an eye, you

can reduce the following fractions to lowest terms.

8

70

143

171

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Answer Key

2 14 11 19

4= 1

To arrive at these answers, you had to 8 2

13 = 1

143 11

5 = 1 18 = 1

find the greatest common factor of the 70 14 171 19

terms can be divided.

In any fraction of the form a , the term a is called the

b

numerator and the term b is called the denominator.

4x , 42ab 2c 3 , 2m + 8

8x 2 3a 2b m 2 + 6m + 8

Simplifying algebraic fractions will be very useful should you decide to continue

studying mathematics or science. This new skill will enable you to solve various

problems in trigonometry, geometry, differential and integral calculus and other

fields.

algebraic fractions to lowest terms.

1.2 SOFAD

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Answer Key

denominator are monomials or polynomials.

single term which can be a number, a variable or a product

of numbers and variables.

E.g. 2m, 42ab2c3, 8, m2.

a group of terms, that are joined by addition or subtraction

signs.

E.g. 5x2, 2m + 8, 36a2b3c2 + 6abc + bc2.

To reduce an algebraic fraction to lowest terms, simply apply the method used

for numerical fractions, which consists in dividing the numerator and the

denominator by the greatest common factor.

Example 1

4x , 42ab 2c 3 , 2m + 8

2 2 2

8x 3a b m + 6m + 8

a) 4x = 1 4x = 1

8x 2 2x 4x 2x

numerator and the denominator.

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Answer Key

2 3 3 3

3a b a 3ab a

3ab is the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denomi-

nator.

2m + 8 2 (m + 4)

c) = = 2

m + 6m + 8 (m + 2) (m + 4) m + 2

2

denominator.

denominator.

the product of prime factors, that is, factors that cannot them-

selves be broken down into factors.

The five methods of factoring are:

factoring by removing the common factor

e.g. m2 + 3m = m(m + 3);

factoring by grouping

e.g. p2 + 2pq + pr + 2qr = (p + 2q)(p + r);

factoring a trinomial of the form x2 + bx + c

or of the form x2 + bxy + cy2

e.g. a2 + 7ab + 12b2 = (a + 3b)(a + 4b);

factoring a trinomial of the form ax2 + bx + c

or of the form ax2 + bxy + cy2

e.g. 2z2 9z 5 = (2z + 1)(z 5);

factoring differences of squares

e.g. 4x2 9y2 = (2x 3y)(2x + 3y).

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Answer Key

1. Factor the numerator and the denominator if possible.

2. Simplify the fraction by dividing the numerator and the

denominator by the common factors.

Example 2

p2 4

a) Simplify the algebraic fraction .

2 p2 + 7 p + 6

2p2 + 7p + 6 = (2p + 3)(p + 2) (trinomial of the form x2 + bx + c)

( p 2)( p + 2)

The algebraic fraction becomes:

(2 p + 3)( p + 2)

Remove this factor:

( p 2)( p + 2) p 2

=

(2 p + 3)( p + 2) 2 p + 3

p2 4

This is the simplest expression of the fraction .

2 p2 + 7 p + 6

3x 21 + bx 7b

2x 14 2(x 7)

= = 2

3x 21 + bx 7b (x 7)(3 + b) 3 + b

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Answer Key

N.B. In this case, two methods of factoring are used: removing the

common factor in the numerator and factoring by grouping in the denomi-

nator.

Now it's your turn to practise this method in the following exercise!

Exercise 1.1

6g

1. =

9g

2 5

2. 15s tu2 =

27stu

2 2

3. a 3 a3 b =

c c b

4. 2x + 6 =

2

x + 5x + 6

2

5. v v 12 =

v4

6. 6m 12 =

8m 16

2

7. ab + bc2 + a2 + ac =

b a

8. r 2 2r 15 =

4r 2 + 13r + 3

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Answer Key

N.B. If you had difficulty solving the preceding problems, reread the explana-

tions and examples from the beginning of this unit. Practise factoring

polynomials in particular, as you will have to do this throughout this module.

Don't hesitate to do the review activities or consult a resource person if

necessary.

Notes

Simplifying algebraic fractions is not always that simple, and you should beware

of a number of traps.

1. Only identical factors found in the numerator and the denominator of the

fraction can be eliminated. Identical terms in the polynomials that make up

an algebraic fraction cannot be removed. For example, in the algebraic

2 2

fraction a +2 b , the term b2 cannot be cancelled out, as b2 is not a factor of

b 2 2

the polynomial a2 + b2. In other words, a + b a 2 .

b2

2. The factor (a + b) is identical to the factor (b + a), since the order in which

the terms are placed does not matter. Thus (a + b) = (b + a).

one of these factors. Thus,

(b a) = + b a = 1( b + a) = (a b).

We can ensure that the law of signs is properly applied by performing the

inverse operation: (a b) = a + b = b a.

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Answer Key

+ + = + + + = +

= + and = +

+ = + =

+ = + =

Example 3

y2 1

Simplify the fraction .

y y2

( y + 1)( y 1) ( y + 1)( y 1) ( y + 1)( y 1)

= =

y(1 y) y(1 + y) y( y 1)

( y + 1)( y 1)

y( y 1)

y+1 ( y + 1) 1 y

The answer is y or y or y .

ones cannot, it is still necessary to factor the numerator and the denominator.

Example 4

2 2

The algebraic fraction r 2 + 8rs + 12s 2 cannot be simplified because, after

r + 7rs + 12s

(r + 6s)(r + 2s)

factoring, we obtain the fraction , which does not contain any

(r + 4s)(r + 3s)

common factor in the numerator and the denominator. This fraction is

1.8 SOFAD

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Answer Key

Exercise 1.2

2 2 2

1. h 3 h 3k 2 =

h h k

2. ab bc =

b

4 j

3. 2

=

j 16

4x 2 8xy 12 y 2

4. =

3y x

5. 21m 3n =

n 2 49m 2

6. 2d 6 =

2

2d 7d + 6

N.B. Before doing the practice exercises, make sure that you have understood the

exercises in this series. It is essential that you master the objective of this unit,

for you will have to apply it in all of the following units.

SOFAD 1.9

1

2

3

Answer Key

situation: you are being held by an over-zealous executioner who wants to

test his wits against yours. To make the situation even more interesting,

he is willing to let you choose your punishment. The rules are:

if you tell a lie, you will be beheaded.

can say one sentence that would make it

impossible for him to execute you. Hurry up

and find that sentence!

Solution:

is the truth, and the punishment is again wrong.

If it is a lie, you will be beheaded. But if you are beheaded, what you have just said

is a lie, and the punishment is wrong.

If it is the truth, you must be hanged. But if you are hanged, what you have just said

The sentence is, I will be beheaded.

1.10 SOFAD

1

2

3

Answer Key

6x 2 8xy

1. =

9xy 12 y 2

2 3

2. 15a 3b =

3a b

3. 2m + 2n2 =

(m + n)

2 2

4. c 4d =

2d + c

(2 j + 6) 2

5. 2 =

4 j 36

3p 9

6. 2

=

3p + 6p 9

SOFAD 1.11

1

2

3

Answer Key

7. 2v 3 =

2v 2 + v 6

8. z+2 =

2

z + 4z + 4

g5

9. =

5 g

2xy + 3xz

10. x =

11. 8k h =

h 2 64k 2

2q 2 + 17qr + 21r 2

12. =

3q 2 + 26qr + 35r 2

13. 5u u 2 =

3u 3 9u 2 30u

2 2

14. s2 + 7st 12t =

s 5st + 6t 2

1.12 SOFAD

1

2

3

Answer Key

2

15. 4t 36t

2

+ 80 =

(4t t )(5 t)

2y 2 4 yz + 2z 2

16. =

10x 2 y 10 yz 2

SOFAD 1.13

1

2

3

Answer Key

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

2. Explain the two steps in the algorithm for reducing an algebraic fraction to

lowest terms.

1. .....................................................................................................................

2. .....................................................................................................................

below. In each case, explain why the simplification is wrong.

2x 3y 2x 3y

a) = =1

2y 3x 2y 3x

1.14 SOFAD

1

2

3

Answer Key

b) n + 1 = n + 1 = 1

n+2 n+2 2

c) a 3 = a + 3 = a

b3 b+3 b

d) 5t 7u = 5t 7u = 1

7u 5t 7u 5t

SOFAD 1.15

1

2

3

Answer Key

1. =

(2x 2 + 11xy + 14 y 2)(3x 2 + 13xy + 4 y 2)

1.16 SOFAD

1

2

3

Answer Key

24a 3c 2d 2(2d 2 d 3)

2.

(18a 2d 2 12a 2d 3)(1 d 2)

4 (m + n) 2

3.

8(2 + m + n)(2 m n)

SOFAD 1.17

1

2

3

Answer Key

2

(r s) t 2

4. 2 =

r 2 (s t)

5. h 2 + hk =

h 2 k2 h k

1.18 SOFAD

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