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SPRING QUARTER, 2017

EXPERIMENT:

SECTION 02

BI: 010470499

Andalon, Daniella

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5/ ______

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1/ ______

INTRODUCTION 2.5/ ______

OBJECTIVE 2.5/ ______

BACKGROUND 5/ ______

DEVELOPED MODEL 15/ ______

DISCUSSION 10/ ______

CONCLUSION 5/ ______

REFERENCE 2/ ______

APPENDIX 1/ ______

TOTAL 50/ ______

By submitting this report, we, the names on this cover sheet, acknowledge all work is solely the

work of the team listed. We have properly cited all references. All of the data reported here were

acquired by us in lab experiments, unless stated and referenced. We have not consulted with

other teams, copied from previous lab reports, or from other sources. We are aware of the high

standards of academic integrity at Cal Poly Pomona and that is required of all engineers. We are

aware of the severe consequences should we violate this code of conduct.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

Transient heat conduction and natural convection are two principles of the heat transfer

mechanism evident in this experiment. Diffusion is the mass transfer principle this model focuses

on. The paper cup the hot tea resides in plays a role in reducing heat loss by conduction and mass

loss due to evaporation and diffusion. The lid on the paper cup reduces heat loss by convection.

PROJECT PURPOSE

The objective of this experiment was to develop a model for the heat and mass transfer for the

system of a hot tea. The system chosen for this experiment was hot tea at 160F cooling down to

room temperature at 73F. Observational data was obtained to compare to the modeled results for

this experiment. Modeling heat and mass transfer principles and analyzing the insulation in this

hot tea experiment can be used for industry manufacturing to further optimize the paper cups for

minimum mass and cost and maximum recyclability.

MODEL DESIGN

A cylindrical one-dimensional model was developed to determine the time required for the

system to cool down from 160F to 73F and to use the time determined to find the mass loss of

the system through diffusion. A non-dimensionalized model was also made to understand the

complexities of the system and what variables the system depends on.

RESULTS

Observational data was obtained for every minute, the temperature was recorded with a kitchen

thermometer until the hot tea system hit 73F. The system took 405 minutes for the system to

cool down to 73F. The model gave 15080.3 seconds (231 minutes) for the system to cool down

to room temperature. The mass loss due to diffusion calculated by the model was 3.16 g.

SIGNIFICANCE

The results obtained by the model confirms the dimensionless time to be the Fourier number and

the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient to be the Biot number. The experiment showed the

time required for the tea to cool down to be dependent on factors such as characteristic length,

thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity of the material. Further analyzing of this

experiment can make the model more accurate and use the model data to scale up or scale down

the system for industrial and manufacturing design of the paper cup.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................................2

LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................5

OBJECTIVE...................................................................................................................................5

BACKGROUND............................................................................................................................5

DEVELOPED MODEL..................................................................................................................8

DISCUSSION...............................................................................................................................12

CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................12

REFERENCES..................13

APPENDICES...............................................................................................................................13

APPENDIX A: SAMPLE CALCULATIONS..................................................................13

APPENDIX B: RAW DATA............................................................................................14

APPENDIX C: TECHNICAL MEMORANDUMS III, II, AND I...................................18

3

Figure 1. Geometry of the

System....................................................................................................8

Figure 2. Observational Results: Temperature of Tea vs.

Time......................................................10

Figure 3. Buckingham Pi Results: Dimensionless Time vs. Characteristic

Length.........................11

Figure 4. Buckingham Pi Results: Dimensionless Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. Characteristic

Length............................................................................................................................................11

System...........................................................8

Table 2. Updated Assumptions for the Developed Model...............................................................9

Table 3. Outputs of the System........................................................................................................9

Table 4. Time Outputs with Varying Central Temperatures...........................................................10

Table 5. Observational Raw Data...................................................................................................11

4

INTRODUCTION

An experiment was made to show the concepts and principles learned in transport phenomena

series. The system chosen for this experiment was hot tea at 160F cooling down to room

temperature at 73F with 40% relative humidity. The principles governing the system are given

Table 1. Principles of heat and mass transfer were apparent in this system: transient heat

conduction, natural convection, and diffusion. The paper cup the hot tea resides in plays a role in

reducing heat loss by conduction and mass loss due to evaporation and diffusion. The lid on the

paper cup reduces heat loss by convection.

Paper cups grew popular during the American Flu epidemic because they were disposable. Hot

paper cups and cold paper cups were developed differently; cold cups only have a waxy coating

to keep the paper from being wet and hot cups have an extra layer of corrugation to retain heat.

Paper cups are disposable and biodegradable, unlike foam or plastic cups. However, there is a

layer of polyethylene that keeps the inner surface of the cup waterproof. In the coffee and tea

industry, hot paper cups are widely used with a plastic lid and a cardboard sleeve to increase heat

retention, thus keeping the drink hot. These two optimizations decrease heat transfer by

convection and conduction. Modeling heat and mass transfer principles and analyzing the

insulation in this hot tea experiment can be used for industry manufacturing to further optimize

the paper cups for minimum mass and cost and maximum recyclability.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment was to investigate, study, develop a model developed from the

principles learned from momentum, heat, and mass transfer and use two of these mechanisms to

govern the chosen system. The system chosen for this experiment had heat and mass transfer

elements and the model was to be solved for mass loss and time to cool down the system from

160F to 73F. Observational data was obtained to compare to the modeled results for this

experiment. A non-dimensionalized model was made to understand the complexities of the

system and what variables the system depends on.

BACKGROUND

Transient heat conduction and natural convection are two principles of the heat transfer

mechanism. For a lumped system analysis, the interior temperature of a body remains uniform at

all times during heat transfer if the Biot number is less than or equal to 0.1. However, if the Biot

number is greater than 0.1 lumped mass analysis cannot be used. The Biot number (1) is a

dimensionless number relating convection at the surface of the body and the conduction within

the body.

h r0

Bi= (1)

k

h = heat transfer coefficient [=] W/m2K

5

ro = characteristic length (radius) [=] m

k = thermal conductivity [=] W/mK

A one-term approximation can be used if the Fourier number (2) is greater than 0.2. Fourier

number is a dimensionless number that characterizes transient heat conduction which relates the

heat conducted through a body and the heat stored.

t kt

= =

r 0 C p r 20

2

(2)

ro = characteristic length (radius) [=] m

k = thermal conductivity of the material [=] W/mK

= density of the material [=] kg/m3

Cp = heat capacity of the material [=] J/kgK

t = characteristic time [=] s

One term approximation (3) of a cylinder can be used for the solution to a one-dimensional heat

conduction problem. The error needs to be less than 2% for this solution to work; that is why the

Fourier number needs to be greater than 0.2. Equation (3) can be simplified to equation (4) if

cos(0) = 0 = J0(0) = 1, which happens at the center of the cylinder.

T r ,t T r

( )

2

cyl = = A 1 e J 0 1 , >0.2

1

(3)

T iT r0

T 0 T 2

= A 1 e

cyl = 1

(4)

T i T

T0 = temperature of the body at z = 0 [=] C or K

T = temperature of the fluid far away from the surface [=] C or K

Ti = initial temperature of the body at t = 0 [=] C or K

A1 = constant that is a function of the Biot number [=] unitless

1 = constant that is a function of the Biot number [=] unitless

= Fourier number [=] unitless

Convection heat transfer involves fluid motion and heat conduction. Natural convection involves

fluid motion through natural means. A film temperature is obtained with convection heat transfer,

Tf = (Tsurface + Tsurroundings). The film temperature is used to calculate the average fluid properties.

The Rayleigh number (5) is a dimensionless number that relates the buoyancy forces of natural

convection and the products of thermal and momentum diffusivities. The Grashof number (6),

also dimensionless, relates the buoyancy forces to the viscous forces acting on the fluid. The

Grashof number is similar to the Reynolds number in determining whether the fluid flow is

laminar or turbulent; the Grashof number is used for natural convection and the Reynolds

number is used for forced convection. A vertical cylinder can be treated as a vertical plate if D

6

35L/GrL1/4, which means that the diameter of the cylinder is large enough that the curvature

effects are negligible.

g( T sT )L3cPr

RaL =Gr LPr=

v2

(5)

3

g( T s T )Lc

Gr L =

v2

(6)

GrL = Grashof number [=] dimensionless

Pr = Prandtl number [=] dimensionless

g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)

= coefficient of volume expansion [=] 1/K

Ts = temperature of the surface [=] C or K

T = temperature of fluid far away from the surface [=] C or K

Lc = characteristic length [=] m

v = kinematic viscosity of the fluid [=] m2/s

If the vertical cylinder can be treated as a vertical plate, then the Nusselt number (7) can be

defined below if the Rayleigh number is within a range of 104 to 109. The Nusselt number is a

dimensionless quantity relating convective heat transfer to conduction. The heat transfer

coefficient h can be found with the Nusselt correlations (7) and can be used to solve for the Biot

number (1).

0.25 hLc

Nu=0.59 RaL = (7)

k

RaL = Rayleigh number

h = heat transfer coefficient [=] W/m2K

Lc = characteristic length [=] m

k = thermal conductivity [=] W/mK

gradient whereas heat transfer is driven by a temperature gradient. For diffusion of a vapor

through a stationary gas, the molar flow rate of vapor is constant throughout the length of the

column. Vapor liquid equilibrium exists at the interface of the liquid and vapor phases. The vapor

is assumed to behave as an ideal gas and the gas to be insoluble in the liquid. The mass loss

through Stefans law is defined in equation (8).

P D AB 1 y A , L

m=t A J AMM =tMMA ln (8)

RT X 1 y A ,0

P = pressure [=] kPa

t = time [=] s

Dab = diffusion coefficient of A into B [=] m2/s

7

A = cross sectional area [=] m2

X = length [=] m

MM = molar mass of A [=] kg/kmol

R = universal gas constant (8.314 kPa*m3/kmolK)

T = temperature [=] K

yA,0 = vapor mole fraction at the surface [=] dimensionless

yA,L = vapor mole fraction at the length L [=] dimensionless

DEVELOPED MODEL

For the hot tea system, the geometry was assumed to be cylindrical and have one-dimensional

heat and mass transfer, which occurred in the r-direction for heat and z-direction for mass. The

length of the cup was 15 centimeters and the radius was 4.25 centimeters. The temperature of the

tea was 160F The surroundings had a 40% relative humidity and the pressure was approximated

to be one atmosphere. The geometry of the system is drawn below in Figure 1.

The principles governing the system are given below in Table 1. Transient heat conduction and

natural convection are the two principles of heat transfer evident in this system as there was a

temperature gradient within the system and the temperature changed with time. The effectiveness

of the insulation of the paper cup could be expressed as thermal resistance. A concentration

gradient drove the diffusion of water into the air. Liquid vapor equilibrium was established at the

interface of the hot tea and stagnant gas.

1 Transient Heat Conduction Transfer The tea becomes colder through the cup as time

8

passes.

2 Thermal Resistance The cup/tea/air can form a resistance network.

3 Natural Convection The system observed has stagnant air.

4 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium (L-VE) L-VE is formed with the liquid in the tea and vapor

leaving, at the interface.

5 Diffusion The water from the tea diffuses into the air.

The updated assumptions to solve the model are given in Table 2. The validity of each

assumption was significant since all assumptions were presumed to be accurate to develop an

accurate model. Assumption 1 was strong: cups are cylindrical and the radii difference between

the bottom of the cup and the top of the cup is negligible. Assumption 2 was firm: the barista

confirmed the temperature of the hot tea to be 160F initially when it enters the cup. Assumption

3 was also very strong: tea is flavored water so it would have the same thermal properties.

Assumption 4 was valid; the temperature was recorded with a thermometer at the center of the

cup and at the edge closest to the cup, the tea closest to the wall was 0.1F colder than the center

of the tea due to heat conduction loss through the sides of the cup. Assumption 5 was weak; air is

soluble in water, but negligible so this assumption can stay. Assumption 6 was fair; the windows

were closed and there was no air conditioning for forced convection to occur so the air was

stagnant. Assumption 7 was weak in observation as the temperature of table was cold, but if the

experiment was repeated then this assumption would be fair. Assumption 8 was weak: there was

more exposed surface area for heat loss to occur on the sides of the cup than the top. Assumption

9 and 10 was fair: the mass transfer through diffusion would be constant as it was not mass loss

through evaporation, which would be changing more with temperature. Assumption 11 was

weak: the water from the tea could only diffuse into the air in one direction but the molar

concentration would change with temperature. Assumption 11 is weak: very few gases act like

ideal gases.

1 The cup has a cylindrical geometry with a constant radius.

2 The hot tea has an initial temperature of 160F.

3 The hot tea has the same thermal properties as water in its liquid state.

4 The hot tea closest to the wall of the cup is 0.1F colder than the center of the tea.

5 The surface layer of hot tea is diffusing into the air and not the air into the tea.

6 Negligible forced convection occurs, natural convection dominates, and air is stagnant.

7 The temperature of the table has no effect on the heat conduction of the tea.

8 Heat conduction occurs does not through the bottom or sides of the cup.

9 Mass transfer is constant throughout the experiment.

10 There is only mass transfer by diffusion, not by convection.

11 The mixture is stationary and diffusion is one-dimensional, with the molar concentration

being constant.

12 The air and vapor act as an ideal gas.

The results of the model with properties evaluated at film temperature are given in Table 3. The

time for the system to cool down from 160F to 73F was 15080.3 seconds (4.18 hours). The

mass loss due to diffusion over this time was 3.16 g.

9

Table 3. Outputs of the System

Quantity Value Units

RaL 2146759.667 unitless

GrL 2964728.169 unitless

Nu 22.58384417 unitless

h 7.171034754 W/m2K

Bi 1.693160984 unitless

1 1.609312102 unitless

A1 1.344073231 unitless

0.021062233 unitless

1.60469587 unitless

time 15080.31833 s

Dab 3.29862E-05 m2/s

Pvap 1.108 kPa

ya,L 0.01093511 unitless

ya,0 0.027337774 unitless

m 0.00316 kg

At different temperatures of T0, the time outputs were obtained and shown in Table 4.

T0 ( C Time (s)

)

22.77 0.02106 1.60469 15080.3

8 2233 587 1833

25 0.04409 1.29303 12151.4

3868 9456 9049

30 0.14774 0.84001 7894.10

659 099 215

35 0.25139 0.64098 6023.70

9312 2638 9785

40 0.35505 0.51122 4804.32

2034 8498 9986

45 0.45870 0.41456 3895.90

4756 3392 8277

46.94 0.49892 0.38264 3595.96

2012 6351 4121

To obtain the observational data for this system, the temperature of the tea was recorded with a

digital meat probe thermometer at every minute until the temperature reached 73F. This data is

shown in Figure 2. At 405 minutes (6.75 hours), the temperature reached 73F.

10

Temperature (F) vs. Time (min)

180

160

140

120

100

Temperature (F)

80

60

40

20

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Time (minutes)

A non-dimensionalized model for time was also made with the Buckingham Pi Method. Thirteen

variables were chosen to solve for time: t=f ( A ,T f , T i , T o ,T , ,k , Lc , v ,h , C p , ,r o) . The

independent variables chosen were , Lc, k, and Tf.

The two significant dimensionless groups made were the dimensionless time (9) and

dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (10). The characteristic length Lc was varied from 0.1 to

15 while , k, and Tf stayed constant. The results for how varying characteristic length impacted

dimensionless time and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient are shown in Figure 3 and Figure

4.

t =tL2

c (9)

1

h =hLck (10)

11

Dimensionless Time t* vs Characteristic Length

1600000

1400000

1200000

1000000

600000

400000

200000

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

120

100

80

40

20

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Length

DISCUSSION

The observational data shown in Figure 2. shows the trend of decreasing temperature with time.

The temperature of the tea decreased at a faster rate within the first 50 minutes than the last 50

minutes due to a larger initial temperature gradient of 87F driving the heat transfer. This was to

be expected as the temperature gradient was modeled with equation (4). In Table 4., the model

shows with a smaller temperature gradient there is increasing time, which signifies that if the

body is closer in temperature with the surrounding temperature, the time to reduce the body

temperature to the surrounding temperature increases. The observational data in Figure 2.

confirms the trend the model gives in Table 4. The observed system took 405 minutes to cool

down to 73F while the model gave 251 minutes (15080.3 seconds). The percent error between

12

the observed system and the model is 38 percent. The mass loss by diffusion calculated by the

model was 3.16 grams, which was reasonable as this was over 251 minutes.

The non dimensionalized variables were made with equations (9) and (10). The dimensionless

time takes the form of the Fourier number. Large values of the Fourier number indicate faster

propagation of heat through a body, which smaller values indicate slow rates of heat transfer. In

Figure 3., the larger values of dimensionless time correspond to smaller values of characteristic

length, which confirms the dimensionless time in this experiment does take the role of the

Fourier number. The dimensionless heat transfer coefficient takes form of the Biot number. Small

values of the Biot number represent small resistance to heat conduction and small temperature

gradients within the body. In Figure 4., the smaller values of the dimensionless heat transfer

coefficient correspond to smaller values of characteristic length. Smaller values of characteristic

length correspond to small resistance to heat conduction, which confirms the dimensionless heat

transfer coefficient mimics the Biot number.

CONCLUSION

The time required for the system to cool down was dependent on the characteristic length and

thermal conductivity of the cup. If the characteristic length increased in value, the time required

for the system to cool down increased. Both the observational data and the model confirmed the

larger the temperature gradient, the faster the system cooled down. The model gave heat transfer

outputs as well as mass transfer outputs. Observational mass transfer weight comparisons could

have been made if there were more resources available for the experiment; if the resources

become available in the future, data can be taken for the mass of the system to compare to the

model output of 3.16 grams lost over 251 minutes. A recommendation for the continuing the

experiment would be to have a thermocouple automatically taking the temperature of the tea

every minute and have the hot tea resting on a scale to observe the mass loss of the tea in real

time. Analyzing the heat and mass transfer of the experiment more accurately could bring further

optimization of the design of the paper cup.

REFERENCE

1. Cengel, Y.A., Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals and Applications, 2015. pp 919,

926.

2. Incropera, F. P., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2007. pp 1022.

APPENDICES

Tf = (160+73)/2 = 116.5F = 46.94C

13

k = 0.027581 W/mK, Pr = 0.7241, v = 1.7650 x 10-5 m2/s, = 3.1241 x 10-3 K

g( T sT )L3cPr 3 3

9.813.124110 ( 71.1122.87 ).085 .7241

RaL =Gr LPr= 2

= =2.15 x 106

5 2

v ( 1.7650 x 10 )

Ra L 2.15 x 106

Gr L = = =2.96 x 106

Pr .027581

2.15 x 106

35 L

D=.085 0.25 =35.15 /

Gr L

x 10 6

2.15

Nu=0.59 Ra0.25

L =0.59

h=7.17W /m2 k

h r 0 7.17.0425

Bi= = =1.69

k 0.18

T 0T 22.88922.873

2 2

= A1 e = 1

=1.34407e1.60931

T iT 71.11122.873

t kt 0.18t

=1.6047= = =

r 0 C p r 0 93010070.04252

2 2

t=15080.3 s

Dab , 1 2.610

5

D ab ,2= 3/ 2

= 3 /2

=3.30105 m2 / s

T1 273

T2 273+46.94

Pvap=Psat=.402.77=1.108

Pvap 1.108

y vap = = =0.011

P 101.325

14

P water 2.77

y water = = =0.027

P 101.325

m=tMMA ln =15080.318.01 ln =.00

RTX 1 y A ,0 8.314( 46.94 +273 ).01 10.027

Table 5. Observational Raw Data

Time Temperature Time Temperature Time Temperature

(minutes) (F) (minutes) (F) (minutes) (F)

0 154.50 136 97.50 272 84.46

1 154.20 137 97.30 273 84.39

2 152.90 138 97.10 274 84.32

3 152.40 139 96.90 275 84.25

4 152.00 140 96.80 276 84.18

5 151.10 141 96.60 277 84.11

6 150.60 142 96.40 278 84.04

7 149.90 143 96.40 279 83.97

8 149.30 144 96.00 280 83.90

9 148.40 145 96.00 281 83.83

10 147.00 146 95.90 282 83.76

11 146.30 147 95.70 283 83.69

12 145.40 148 95.50 284 83.62

13 144.80 149 95.50 285 83.55

14 143.90 150 95.30 286 83.48

15 143.20 151 95.10 287 83.41

16 142.30 152 95.10 288 83.34

17 141.60 153 95.00 289 83.27

18 140.90 154 94.80 290 83.20

19 140.10 155 94.80 291 83.13

20 139.60 156 94.60 292 83.06

21 138.70 157 94.40 293 82.99

22 138.00 158 94.20 294 82.92

23 137.30 159 94.10 295 82.85

24 136.50 160 94.10 296 82.78

25 135.80 161 93.90 297 82.71

26 135.30 162 93.70 298 82.64

27 134.60 163 93.50 299 82.57

28 134.00 164 93.50 300 82.50

29 133.50 165 93.30 301 82.41

15

30 132.80 166 93.20 302 82.32

31 132.40 167 93.20 303 82.23

32 131.70 168 93.00 304 82.14

33 131.00 169 93.00 305 82.05

34 130.60 170 92.80 306 81.96

35 129.90 171 92.60 307 81.87

36 129.30 172 92.60 308 81.78

37 129.00 173 92.40 309 81.69

38 128.30 174 92.40 310 81.60

39 127.50 175 92.30 311 81.51

40 127.00 176 92.10 312 81.42

41 126.50 177 91.90 313 81.33

42 125.90 178 91.90 314 81.24

43 125.40 179 91.70 315 81.15

44 124.80 180 91.70 316 81.06

45 124.50 181 91.50 317 80.97

46 123.90 182 91.40 318 80.88

47 123.60 183 91.40 319 80.79

48 123.00 184 91.20 320 80.70

49 122.50 185 91.00 321 80.61

50 122.00 186 91.00 322 80.52

51 121.80 187 90.80 323 80.43

52 121.10 188 90.80 324 80.34

53 120.70 189 90.60 325 80.25

54 120.30 190 90.60 326 80.16

55 120.00 191 90.50 327 80.07

56 119.60 192 90.50 328 79.98

57 119.10 193 90.30 329 79.89

58 118.50 194 90.30 330 79.80

59 118.00 195 90.10 331 79.71

60 117.60 196 89.90 332 79.62

61 117.30 197 89.70 333 79.53

62 116.70 198 89.70 334 79.44

63 116.40 199 89.60 335 79.35

64 116.00 200 89.53 336 79.26

65 115.70 201 89.46 337 79.17

66 115.30 202 89.39 338 79.08

67 114.90 203 89.32 339 78.99

68 114.60 204 89.25 340 78.90

69 114.20 205 89.18 341 78.81

70 113.90 206 89.11 342 78.72

71 113.50 207 89.04 343 78.63

72 113.10 208 88.96 344 78.54

16

73 112.80 209 88.89 345 78.45

74 112.60 210 88.82 346 78.36

75 112.10 211 88.75 347 78.27

76 111.70 212 88.68 348 78.18

77 111.30 213 88.61 349 78.09

78 111.00 214 88.54 350 78.00

79 110.60 215 88.47 351 77.91

80 110.30 216 88.40 352 77.82

81 110.10 217 88.33 353 77.73

82 109.70 218 88.26 354 77.64

83 109.40 219 88.19 355 77.55

84 109.20 220 88.12 356 77.45

85 108.80 221 88.05 357 77.36

86 108.50 222 87.98 358 77.27

87 108.30 223 87.91 359 77.18

88 107.90 224 87.84 360 77.09

89 107.60 225 87.76 361 77.00

90 107.40 226 87.69 362 76.91

91 107.20 227 87.62 363 76.82

92 107.00 228 87.55 364 76.73

93 106.70 229 87.48 365 76.64

94 106.50 230 87.41 366 76.55

95 106.10 231 87.34 367 76.45

96 105.80 232 87.27 368 76.36

97 105.60 233 87.20 369 76.27

98 105.20 234 87.13 370 76.18

99 105.00 235 87.06 371 76.09

100 104.70 236 86.99 372 76.00

101 104.50 237 86.92 373 75.91

102 104.30 238 86.85 374 75.82

103 104.00 239 86.78 375 75.73

104 103.80 240 86.71 376 75.64

105 103.80 241 86.64 377 75.55

106 103.60 242 86.56 378 75.45

107 103.20 243 86.49 379 75.36

108 103.10 244 86.42 380 75.27

109 102.70 245 86.35 381 75.18

110 102.50 246 86.28 382 75.09

111 102.30 247 86.21 383 75.00

112 102.20 248 86.14 384 74.91

113 101.80 249 86.07 385 74.82

114 101.60 250 86.00 386 74.73

115 101.30 251 85.93 387 74.64

17

116 101.10 252 85.86 388 74.55

117 100.90 253 85.79 389 74.45

118 100.40 254 85.72 390 74.36

119 100.20 255 85.65 391 74.27

120 100.00 256 85.58 392 74.18

121 99.80 257 85.51 393 74.09

122 99.60 258 85.44 394 74.00

123 99.60 259 85.37 395 73.91

124 99.50 260 85.30 396 73.82

125 99.30 261 85.23 397 73.73

126 99.10 262 85.16 398 73.64

127 98.90 263 85.09 399 73.55

128 98.70 264 85.02 400 73.45

129 98.60 265 84.95 401 73.36

130 98.40 266 84.88 402 73.27

131 98.40 267 84.81 403 73.18

132 98.20 268 84.74 404 73.09

133 98.00 269 84.67 405 73.00

134 97.80 270 84.60

135 97.70 271 84.53

The technical memorandums III, II, and I are attached.

18

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