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: ) (

) ( .
.

) (
:
.
: .
= ) (Steady-State
.
: - . . .

.
p n
= f ][Hz
2 60
p n ) ( r.p.m.
p = 2 .
p = 4
.
p
e = m
2

~ G1

G3 ~ ~ G2


Xs

X Xa Ra Ia
+ -
E ar + +
+
E af ~ Er Vt
-

- -

Xs

+
+
E af ~ Vt
-

: X
: E af
: E r
: Ra
: X a I a
: V t )(
: X a + X = X s
: Ra + jX s = Z s

E af I f

E af

If


) = ( E af ,V t )(
) V t = E r I a ( Ra + jX a
]) V t = E af I a [ Ra + j ( X a + X
) V t = E af I a ( Ra + jX s
V t = E af I a Z s
Ra << X S Z s = jX s
)V t = E af j I a X s (Synchronous Generator
)V t = E af + j I a X s (Synchronous Motor

E af
jI a X s


Ia Vt

X s )( Steady State
X s ) ( Transient
X s ) ( Subtransient
:
.
.
.
Vt = Vt 0 E af Vt 0
= = ( E af ,Vt ) I a
E af = E af jX s
Vt E af
=P sin
Xs
E af 2 Vt E af cos
=Q
Xs


Pmax

90

Vt E af
= = 90 Pmax
Xs

Xs Xe

+
? V t = Vt V = V0
+
~ E af = Eaf
-



) = ( E af ,V t
E af Vt

= P sin
X s
2
Q = E af E af V cos
Xs

) = ( E af ,V

E af V
P = X sin

2
E af E af V cos
Q =
X
X = X s + X e

.
R .



) (

.
.

.
MMF .

N f DC I f
:
MMF f = N f I f
p = 2
.

MMF f :
f = fm cos
MMF f
= fm = MMF f

:
1
=

2n s
= s n s ][rad/sec
60
= s t
s a
:


d f
ea = N s = 2fN s fm sin t
dt
E a = 4.44 fN s fm
: N s
s
= : f a
2

) abc ( :
E a = E a 0
Eb = Eb 120
E c = Ec 240 = Ec + 120
) acb ( .
p = 2 .
p p
= e m , e = m
2 2
p
f =( s) = p s
2 2 4
2n s 4f
= s = ][rad mech /sec
60 p

) ( MMF
) ( I f = 0
.

ia (t ) = I m sin t
)ib (t ) = I m sin(t 120
)ic (t ) = I m sin(t + 120

Vc
b V ca V ab

'b 30
a Va
' c' a

c
Vb

V bc


'a a Va
b 'c Vc

b' c
Vb

.
MMF MMF
.
MMFa (t ) = N a i (t ) = N s I m sin t
)MMFb (t ) = N b i (t ) = N s I m sin(t 120
)MMFc (t ) = N c i (t ) = N s I m sin(t + 120
MMF )( t :
)MMF3 phase ( , t ) = MMFa (t ) cos + MMFb (t ) cos( 120) + MMFc (t ) cos( + 120
]MMF3 phase ( , t ) = 1.5 Fm sin( t ) [AmpereTurn/Pole
Fm = N m I m MMF MMF . MMF
s p
( = f f . )( ) = p s
2 2 4
MMF
. MMF .


)(
. )
.(
abc

.
) (a .

)(-


) E a = 4.44 fN s fm (= Vt :

Vt = E a E af

. V t= E af

MMFr = MMF f + MMF3 phase MMFr

: E r ) ( MMFr
: E af ) ( MMF f

: E ar = j I a X

: X )(
: T
: P ) (

V t E r E af

t =Er =Eaf
V I a = 0
V t E r ) .( V t = E r
V t = cte V t = E r MMFr .

)(-
T=0 I f .
MMF I a MMF3 phase .

I f MMF f MMFr MMF3 phase = MMFr MMF f

I f E af E ar = E af V t = E af E r

I a E ar E ar = j I a X

) ( I f ) (

.

)(-
) ( I f )

( .
.

.

) ( : V t = Vt 0

E af = V t + j I a X j

:

S = Vt I a = P + jQ
E af V t
= Ia
jX

E af V t Vt E af Vt 2 E af Vt V2
S = Vt = = (90 ) t 90
jX X 90 X 90 X X cp

E af Vt E af Vt watt
= ] P1 phase = Real[S = ) cos(90 [ sin ]
X X phase

E af Vt
P3 Phase = 3 sin
X

P 3 E af Vt
=T = sin
s S X


)(-
]) E f = V t + I a [ Ra + j ( X l+ X
) = V t + I a ( Ra + jX S
= V t + I aZS
) E R = V t + I a ( Ra + jX l


)(-

( - , , 208 V ,9 kVA ,Y
:
Ra = 0 X a = 1.2 / ph X = 4.8 / ph

,T ,P , E F / ,
.


(-)
E f = V t + I a [ Ra + j ( x l + x )]
= V t + I a ( Ra + jx S )
= V t + I aZS
E R = V t + I a ( Ra + jxl )

208
Vb = Vt = = 120 V / Ph
3
9 10 3 3 10 3
Ib = Ia = = = 25 A
3 (208) 120

Vb
Zb = = 120 / 25 = 4.8 / ph
Ib


= cos 1 0.8 = 36.9
1.2
Xa = = 0.25 pu
4.8
= cos 1 0.8 = 36.9
1.2
Xa = = 0.25 pu
4.8
X s = X + X a = 6 / ph = 1.25 pu
E R = Vt + I a ( Ra + jx a )

= 120 + (25 36.9)(1.290)V / ph = 1 + 0.2555.1 pu


= 120 + (18 + j 24) = 1 + (0.15 + j 0.2)
= 138 + j 24 = 1.15 + j 0.2

= 140.079.87V / Ph = 1.1679.87 pu
E af = Vt + I a ( Ra + jX S )
= 120 + (25 36.9)(690) = 1 + 1.2553.1

= 210 + j120 = 1.75 + j1.0


= 241.8729.74 = 2.029.74

: -
(241.87)(140.07)
P = 3 sin(29.74 9.87) = 7.200W
4.8
(241.87)(120)
= 3 sin( 29.74) = 7.200
6.0

(140.07)(120)
= 3 sin 9.87 = 7.200
1.2
P 7.200
T= = = 38.2 N .m
S 60

: -
E V 2.016
pu T = pu P = F t sin = sin 29.74 = 0.8 pu
XS 1.25

E E
= F R Sin RF = (2.016)(1.67) sin 19.87 = 0.8 pu
X
E V 1.167
= R t sin a = sin 9.87 = 0.8 pu
Xl 0.25