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Automatic Drilling Machine

Introduction:-

Drilling machine can be defined as an instrument which is used to drill holes.


It plays an important role in mechanical workshops. A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes,
from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. Today the
Industrial growth is purely depends up on latest machines, therefore the subject of drilling machines is
extended too widely, because today large number of drilling machines is designed for various
applications. The most advanced version-drilling machine is Automatic Drilling Machine. So let us take a
look on how we can design and built an automatic PCB drilling machine.

Operation:-

This system provides the safety, automatic IR sensor sense the wood plates , after
sensing the wood plates the automatic drilling machine comes to the target position through the automatic
lift system. The drilling machine drills the particular position and will move to the upward direction, the
wood plate will rotate for next position. The drilling machine drills the next position similar to earlier.
The automatic sensing of wood plate system is provided with the IR sensors placed at a target place. This
Automatic Drilling Machine is designed around a microcontroller as a control unit. The microcontroller
senses the wood plates through IR sensors and controls the drilling machine. And it continuously
monitors the drilling machine.

The programming language used for developing the software to the microcontroller is
Embedded/Assembly. The KEIL cross compiler is used to edit, compile and debug this program. Here in
our application we are using AT89C51 microcontroller which is Flash Programmable IC.AT represents the
Atmel Corporation represents CMOS technology is used for designing the IC.
Block Diagram:-
Schematic:-

RV1 R1
130R

1k

D2
S2DA

S2DA
IR RECEIVER IR TRANSMITTER
U1 D1
19 39
XTAL1 P0.0/AD0
38
P0.1/AD1
37
P0.2/AD2
18 36
XTAL2 P0.3/AD3
35
P0.4/AD4
34
P0.5/AD5
33
P0.6/AD6
9 32
RST P0.7/AD7
21
P2.0/A8
22
P2.1/A9
23
P2.2/A10
29 24
PSEN P2.3/A11
30 25
ALE P2.4/A12
31 26
EA P2.5/A13
27
P2.6/A14
28
P2.7/A15
1 10
P1.0 P3.0/RXD
2 11
P1.1 P3.1/TXD
3 12
P1.2 P3.2/INT0
4 13
5
P1.3
P1.4
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
14 VCC 16 8 U3
6 15
P1.5 P3.5/T1 +88.8
7 16 2 3
P1.6 P3.6/WR IN1 VSS VS OUT1
8 17 7 6
P1.7 P3.7/RD IN2 OUT2
1
EN1
AT89C51

9
EN2
10 11
IN3 OUT3
15 14
IN4 GND GND OUT4

L293D
GND +88.8
Power Supply:

LM7812 LM7805

BR1

Red led
O/P power

1000 uf 470 uf 100 uf 100 ohm


I/P power

Power supply

The power supply consists of ac voltage transformer, diode rectifier, ripple filter, and voltage
regulators. The transformer is an AC device, which increases or decreases the input supply voltage
without change in frequency. There are 2 types of transformers. One of Step-up and the other is Step-
down. Here we are using a Step-down transformer, which decreases the 230 supply volts to 12 volts. The D1

rectifier is a device which converts an AC voltage to the pulsating DC voltage. Here IN4007 diodes are
used as rectifiers. A bridge type full wave rectifier is constructed using these diodes, as its efficiency is
81.2% and ripple factor is 0.482.
Component used:-

1) DC Motor: DC motors are configured in many types and sizes, including brush less, servo,
and gear motor types. Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature),
stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that
Beamers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent
magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing,
as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle
and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings
(generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The
above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field)
magnets.

2) L293D IC: L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as
current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal.
This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor
Driver IC which allows DC motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can
control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means that you can control two
DC motor with a single L293D IC

3) AT89C51 Microcontroller: The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-


bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory
(PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory
technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin
out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which
provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control
applications.

4) IR Sensor: An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument that is used to sense


certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting
infrared radiation. It is also capable of measuring heat of an object and detecting
motion. Infrared waves are not visible to the human eye.

Advantages of Automatic Drilling Machine:

Automated systems increase safety and efficiency: The equipment is increasing drilling
efficiency as well as resulting in safer operations by removing much of the human interaction in
many of the drilling operations.

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