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CHAPTER IX:

HYDROLOGIC ROUTING
OUTLINE OF THE REPORT
CHAPTER IX: HYDROLOGIC ROUTING
4) DETERMINATION OF STORAGE
Before a relation between storage and flow can be established, it is necessary to determine the volume of
water in the stream at various times. The obvious method for finding storage is to compute volumes in the channel
from cross sections by using Prismoidal Formula.

i. PRISMOIDAL FORMULA

V = ( h3 )(( A 1+ A )+ 4 ( Even Areas )+2 ( Odd Areas ))


n

Sample Problem No. 1

A Reservoir has the following areas enclosed by contours at various elevations. Determine the total storage
volume of Reservoir.

Elevation (m) 200 220 240 260 280 300

Area Of 150 175 210 270 320 400


Contours (
2
km

Solution:

By Prismoidal method

V = ( h3 )(( A 1+ A )+ 4 ( Even Areas )+2 ( Odd Areas ))


n

20
V1 = ((150+320) + 4(175+270) + 2(210))
3

V 1 = 17,800 km 2 -m

By considering the last two areas the volume (


V 2 ) will be

h
V2 = (A5+A6)
2
20
V2 = (320+400)
2

V 2 = 7200 km 2 -m

Total Volume (V T ) will be:

VT = V1 + V2

V T = (17800+7200) km 2 -m

V T = 25000 km 2 -m

V T = 25000M m 2 -m = 2.5Mha-m

Sample Problem No. 2

By considering the Full Reservoir Level of 270 m, determine the total storage volume of Reservoir.

Elevation (m) 200 220 240 260 270

Areas ( km 2 150 175 210 270 296.25

Solution:

By Prismoidal method

V = ( h3 )(( A 1+ A )+ 4 ( Even Areas )+2 ( Odd Areas ))


n

20
V1 = ((150+210) + 4(175) + 2(0))
3

V 1 = 7066.67 km 2 -m

By considering the last two areas the volume (


V 2 ) will be
h
V2 = (
A3 + A4 )
2

20
V2 = (210+270)
2

V 2 = 4800 km 2 -m

For the elevation of the interval of 10m

h
V3 = *(
A3 + A4 )
2

10
V3 = *(270 + 296.25)
2

V 3 = 2831.25 km 2 -m

Total Volume (V T ) will be:

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

V T = 7066.67 + 4800 + 2831.25

V T = 14697.92 km 2 -m

V T = 1.5Mha-m

5) TREATMENT OF LOCAL INFLOW


One of the most annoying problems in flood routing is the treatment of the local inflow which enters the
reach between the inflow and outflow stations.

i. INFILTRATION/INFLOW

Are terms used to describe the ways that underground and stormwater enter into dedicated
wastewater or sanitary sewer systems. Dedicated wastewater or sanitary sewers are created from pipes
located in the street or on easements that are designed strictly to transport wastewater from sanitary
fixtures inside your house or place of business.

Causes dilution in sanitary sewers. Dilution of sewage decreases the efficiency of treatment, and
may cause sewage volumes to exceed design capacity. Although inflow is technically different from
infiltration, it may be difficult to determine which is causing dilution problems in inaccessible sewers.

Inflow and Infiltration water is called clear water to distinguish it from normal sanitary sewage
water in the system.

ii. INFLOW

Inflow is stormwater that enters into sanitary sewer systems at points of direct connection to the
system. Various sources contribute inflow, including:

Footing/Foundation drains
Roof drains
Downspouts
Drains from window wells
Outdoor basement stairwells
Drains from driveways
Groundwater/basement sump pumps

iii. INFILTRATION

Infiltration is groundwater that enters sanitary sewer systems through cracks or leaks in the
sanitary sewer pipes. Cracks or leaks in sanitary sewer pipes or manholes may be caused by age related
deterioration, loose joints, poor design, installation or maintenance errors, damage or root infiltration.
Groundwater can enter these cracks or leaks wherever sanitary sewer systems lie beneath water tables
or the soil above the sewer system becomes saturated.

Average sewer pipes are designed to last about 20-50 years, depending on what type of material used.

iv. HOW CAN THE INFLOW AND INFILTRATION PROBLEM BE


SOLVED?

The reduction and control of inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems should be
considered with regard to a disciplined, long term monitoring and maintenance program.

a. Determining how significant the problem is

An evaluation of the sewer system will determine the quantity of inflow and infiltration, determine their
sources and provide guidance to determine a cost effective corrective action plan. The information should be
should be obtained from different places including maintenance records, sewer maps, complaint records,
assorted departmental files, past studies, engineering reports, and interviews with personnel who are responsible
for maintenance and management of the sanitary sewer system. A large amount of information can be found
using these sources.

b. Data must be recorded and displayed

It will show possible relations between overflows, bypasses and other related factors.

c. Must be established sewer for monitoring points various locations within the system.

Flow monitoring instruments must be placed in sanitary sewer systems at locations appropriate to obtain
data. To measure wastewater flows through the sanitary water system it is important to select the appropriate
flow meters:

Flow Probe - Measures water velocity and depth but do not record data.

Water Level Recorders - Water level is recorded then the data is exported into a spreadsheet and the
data can be processed through equation.

Flow Meters - Can output, display, and record flow information directly.
Wastewater Samplers - these instrument is typically a larger investment, but have greater monitoring
abilities

v. STORAGE EQUATION

S = ( I O
)t

Where:

I
= Average Inflow


O = Average Outflow

s = Changes in Storage

t = Time

s
x Sx
t (sec.)
5
I
O 10 105
21,600 56 70 -3 -
21,600 66 66 0 -
1
21,600 250 102 32 -
21,600 550 185 79 32
21,600 595 265 71 111
21,600 420 335 18 182
2
21,600 295 370 -16 200
21,600 210 368 -34 184
21,600 147 310 -35 150
21,600 100 245 -31 115
3
21,600 74 200 -27 84
21,600 60 165 -23 56
4 21,600 51 132 -17 34
21,600 46 100 -12 16
21,600 40 80 -9 5
21,600 32 66 -7 -4
-11
700

600

500

400

Inflow Outflow
300

200

100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16