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Principles of Management Clep rea

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1. 360 feedback: New approach to performance management 22. certainty: a situation where the manager has full information
that elicits feedback from different perspectives about goals, options, and the outcomes associated with each
2. Abraham Maslow: proposed five categories of need that alternative.
influence human motivation 23. chain of command: lings each employee to a manager who is
3. accommodator: response to conflict in which a person linked to another manager until the chain reaches the most
acquiesces to the other party or show concern for their senior manager, forming a clear and distinct line of authority
interests without regard to one's own. 24. classical approach: decision-making process grounded in the
4. accountability: Holding each other responsible for a view that the manager operates in the best economic interest
successful team performance. of the organization.
5. achievement: a style of leadership that involves behavior that 25. coaching: process of providing geed back and offering
helps subordinates set higher, more challenging goals. suggestions for improvement more frequently
6. adjourning: final stage of group development where the work 26. coercive power: uses threats of punishment to get
is completed but members still need a sense of closure so subordinates to do things
they can comfortably move on to new assignment 27. cohesiveness: often defined as the extent to which members
7. administrative model: based on the concept of bounded are attracted and wish to remain with the group
rationality, which asserts that decision makers have limited 28. collaboration: means of handling conflict that is high on self-
time and mental capacities with which to make decisions and interest but also meets the other party's interest.
are forced to take shortcuts. 29. commitment: owing or identifying with the goals and intended
8. affirmative action: involves making special efforts to recruit resultant of a team
and hire members of protected classes 30. committee: a cross-functional group with a permanent role
9. altering individuals: addressing conflict though the use of that meets regularly to share information and make decisions.
training or replacement. 31. communication: process of transmitting information to others:
10. altering the issue: represents and attempt to resolve conflict one of the most useful tools for overcoming resistance
by focusing on the issue, not the person change.
11. altering the relationship: attempt to resolve conflict through 32. competitor: style of handling conflict where individuals acts
the use of civil discussion. in their own self interest without concern for the interest of
12. assemble-to-order: strategies that create more customized the other party
products from a limed number of options 33. completeness: amount of information that is available for
13. Barnard, Chester: a member of the administrative school who making decisions
believed organisations had to create positive inducement and 34. conceptual skills: a mental map of the organization and what
minimize negative inducement in order to encourage impacts it
cooperation. 35. conflict aftermath: sows the seeds for future conflicts, which
14. bench marking: Involves a manager or team of employees may lead to more consequential and costly actions
going to other companies and observing their processes. 36. consideration: leadership dimension that involves listening to
15. bottom-up comunication: communication that comes from workers, being supportive, and encouraging
employees and is directed upward toward senior 37. contingency plan: a plan that is put place to address
management. unexpected events.
16. boundary spanning roles: people on the periphery of the 38. controlling: assessing whether work has been done in a
organization who spend a portion of their time looking out manner that is consistent with previous functions
into the environment
39. control or regulation of emotions: ability to project a positive
17. brainstorming: a method of rapidly throwing out ideas with outlook and deal with negative emotions that arise
the goal of generating more ideas using the principle of
40. control systems: assure that organizational processes are
synergy
doing what they where intended to do without excessive
18. bureaucracy: Max Weber's creation of files that provided expenditures of resources
written documentation of actions taken and rules to govern
41. co-operation: giving an opinion leader or resistor a prominent
all routine office functions
role int eh change process
19. business ethics: the beliefs about appropriate behavior in the
42. coordinatinon: an aspect of organizing; one of the basic
work-place
devices in the hierarchy or chain of command
20. business process re-engineering: evaluation of business
43. cost leadership: a strategy of separation based on price
activities or processes to eliminate unneeded steps
44. costs: a component of efficiency measures
21. centralized: a type of organization in which decisions are
made at high levels 45. cross-functional: temporary team that are comprised of
people from different areas in the organization, each with a
unique perspective and different information about the
problem
46. customized services: small volume and specific to customer 70. expectancy: belief that effort will lead to performance; first
needs component of expectancy theory
47. decentralized: structures where the authority for making 71. expense center: one of the most common responsibility
decisions is at the lower levels centers, where responsibility is maintained for staying under
48. decision support systems (DDS): models that combine expense targets
information based on historical relationships 72. expert power: derived from knowledge and information
49. development: provides skills for the future 73. expert system (ES): tries to extract knowledge from human
50. diagonal communications: exchange of information between and codify it into decision rules or trees.
individuals in different units and levels of the company 74. explicitly or implicit coercion: occurs when managers tell
51. different assessment: legitimate disagreement with the nature employees that changes are vital and they must accept them
of the proposed changes and become involved; failure to do so will result in sanctions
and punishments
52. differentiation: a competitive strategy technique that finds
some basis for being different 75. external equity: once internal ranking of jobs is done, then
the prevailing pay rates in other companies are examined
53. directive: type of leader behavior that tells the subordinate
how to perform specifying steps with details on how to 76. facilitation and support: another means available to mangers
accomplish them in an attempt at reducing resistance to change
54. direct pressure: occurs when opposing views are presented 77. feedback: controls employed at the end of a process or the
production cycle; asking subordinates to repeat a message
55. dissatisfiers: context-related factors that turn employees off,
to check for accuracy
such as pay, working conditions, and coworker and
supervisor relations. 78. feedforward: controls employed at the beginning of a
process or the production cycle
56. division of labor: tasks are divided and employees become
specialized in performing certain task 79. felt conflict: "hot" or strong emotional response, which can
result in anger or hostility
57. division of labor: structure that can be based on products,
geography, customers, or even materials 80. finished goods: the products that are packaged and ready to
be shipped to customers
58. documentation: managers communicate decisions and need
to document the actions taken 81. flat structures: organizations that delegate decision-making
to lower levels
59. Douglas Macgregor: financial writer from the human
perspective who explained that workers responded to the 82. flexibility: can involve changes in the volume of products
attitudes of their managers, creating a self-fulfilling prophecy made or product features
60. duality of command: with a matrix scheme, workers have 83. flexible and adaptive structures: can readily adapt to
both a functional and product manager, which may result in changing conditions in the environment
conflicting requests from each of the managers 84. flexible manufacturing (FM): configuration of parts and
61. education: method that helps address concerns about change manufacturing systems that allows for both low cost and high
variety
62. effectiveness: achieving the right goals
85. focus: a competitive strategy that identifies a specific
63. efficiency: the amount of resources expended in
consumer group, or niche, in the marketplace that the
accomplishing goals, often referred to as the ration of inputs
company will serve
to outputs; measured
86. forming: initial stage of group development when questions
64. empathy: ability to responds according to the emotional
arise about the purpose of the group and if members will be
needs of others
able to attain it
65. employee relations: serves the functions of communicating
87. framing: context or situation in which an issue arose
and working with non-union employee
88. functional structure: grouping people according to the basic
66. enterprise resource planning: term that refers to the
functions of the business that they perform
integrated information systems that support all business
functions and their data storage needs 89. functional team: individuals who are permanently assigned to
a team to do their work
67. environment: final contingency factor for organizing, often
described in terms of stability and complexity 90. general environment: the broadest category of issues in the
environment to which mangers must pay attention; includes
68. equal employment opportunity (EEO): all employment
the economy and technology as well as legal political and
practices are based on merit and not race, religion, color,
socio-cultural issues
sex, or national origin
91. goal: statement of desired result
69. essential functions: critical component of a job that readily
determine whether a disability would prevent someone from 92. goal displacement: occurs when the budget becomes the
actually performing the job ultimate goal, not profitability or doing more business
93. Hawthorne Studies: landmark research study that investigated
the impact of lighting on productivity in a manufacturing plant
in suburban Chicago
94. Henry Fayol: a french mining executive who was instrumental 117. intragroup conflict: conflict among members of a team or
in the development of the functions of management group
identified fourteen principles of management that remain the 118. inventory management: maintaining supplies of raw materilas
bedrock of administrative practices and product and coordinating their movement throughout
95. horizontal communication: lateral exchange between value chain
individuals 119. investment center: when the capital budget is added to the
96. hostile work environment: situation in which the repeated profit center
actions of a coworker or supervisor create and environment 120. job analysis: studying job to create a job description and job
whereby the employee cannot advance or work comfortably specification
97. human capital: the economic value of the skills, abilities, and 121. job centered: focus on efficiency, meeting schedules, and
competencies of a company's workforce task accomplishment
98. Human resource management (HRM): activities for attracting, 122. job evaluation: all jobs are categorize or ranked on the level
retaining, and enhancing the performance of managers and of responsibility, skill required, and amount of supervision
workers in organizations given and received
99. human skills: the ability to relate with others, communicate 123. job incumbent: someone currently performing the job
well, and make request in a manner that will motivate
124. job specification: a list of skills, knowledge, and abilities
employees rather the offend them
needed to perform the job
100. illusion of invulnerability: belief that a group can do no
125. joint venture or partnership: involve cooperative agreement
wrong and is beyond criticism
s between firms
101. illusion of unanimity: premature assumption that consensus
126. justice: assumes that all should be treated with fairness and
has been achieved.
impartiality
102. immediate environment: components that have a specific
127. kaban: system developed by Toyota to solve a problem with
and direct impact on the business; may also be referred to as
defective parts
stakeholders; include customers, competitors, suppliers, labor
organizations and the community 128. labor relations: works with employee in organized labor
unions
103. incompatible reward system: when rewards and goals are at
odds with on another 129. lack of trust: little or no faith in the person making the
changes
104. influence: tendency to persuade others by using emotional
arguments 130. latent conflict: something has happened but the employee
has not yet perceived it
105. influencing strategies: an attempt to influence the forces in
the environment 131. law: provides guidelines for the greater good of the
community
106. information management: uses computer hardware and
software programs to store and make information readily 132. leader relations: refers to whether or not subordinates are
retrievable to mangers , as they need it to make decisions willing to trust and follow the leader
107. inherent morality: belief that whatever the group does must 133. leadership: a set of behaviors that inspire and direct
be right employees in the performance of their task
108. initiation of structure: dimension of leadership pertaining to 134. leading: making the plans and structures work as designed
tasks 135. legitimate power: traditional form of authority
109. inputs: pertains to equity theory and may include effort, 136. line employee: workers who make products or deliver
education, skill, or training: the individual members and the services
knowledge and information they possess 137. logistics: the process of getting finished products to
110. instrumentality: reflects the link between performing and the customers
outcomes associated with good performance ; second 138. low tolerance for change: aversion to change, which brings
component of expectancy theory uncertainty and discomfort
111. integration mechanisms: ways to achieve coordination 139. LPC/ least proffered coworker: term used by fielder to
without going to a full-blown matrix design; examples include describe a situational, or contingency, approach to
direct contact, the use of liaisons, and task force leadership
112. interdependent: situation in which the tasks that are 140. make-to-order: most highly customized strategey whereby
performed by unis or individuals rely heavily on one another each product may have unique customized specifications and
113. inter-group conflict: conflict between different unity or thus volumes are low
groups 141. make to stock: strategy that relies on inventory
114. internal equity: a system set up based on job ranking and 142. management information systems (MIS): the hardware and
rating software that provides managers with needed timely
115. interpersonal conflicts: conflict between two individuals information
116. interval: a time-based schedule of reinforcement 143. management of technology: part of operation management
that continues to search for cost effective ways to improve
productivity through new and improved technologies
144. manifest conflict: the person experiencing conflict takes 168. plans: specify the means, or activities that are chosen to
some action and the other person often responds in kind reach the goals
145. manipulation: selective use of information and structuring of 169. political model: decision context that do not have an
events; highly risky objective set of criteria and priorities; that determination of
146. Mary Follett Parker: administrative school writer who what is valued and viewed as important is based on political
applied her training in psychology to understand workers and processes
their reaction to management 170. position power: involves formal authority and ability to
147. matrix: organizing scheme that combines functional design reward, punish, and fire
with product teams 171. positive reinforcement: when a positive condition is
148. mind-guard: individual who seek to protect the group from presented following behavior
dissenting viewpoints 172. power: ability to get others to do things
149. moral rights: the absolute rights that people have such as 173. process conflict: involves differences in how group work is
freedom of consent ,freedom of privacy, freedom of performed
conscience, freedom of speech, and right to due process 174. process loss: a sub-optimal decision process whereby the
150. morals: fundamental values that societies impart to their available information is not shed and used in the decision
members about right and wrong making process; dynamics within the group that limit or
151. motivate: emotional quality that drives people to achieve prevent synergy
152. motivation: the force that drives people to behave in ways 175. profit center: a responsibility center that subtracts expenses
that energize, direct, and sustain their work behavior and from revenue
performance 176. progressive discipline: a series of steps that get
153. moving: changes are made in work, people, structures, progressively more sever in their consequences for the
technology, and relationships employee
154. needs analysis: looks at issues in the organization that could 177. project: a onetime set of activities with a definite beginning
be improved with training and ending point
155. negligent hiring: suits filed when the employer does not 178. public relations: release of information to the public, often
carefully review prior histories coordinated through a media campaign, to influence public
opinion on a particular issue
156. norming: third stage of group development whereby
members realize that all will contribute in different ways 179. punishment: when something aversion or negative happens
following a behavior
157. norms: informal rules that guide behavior
180. quality: products and services must be consistently produced
158. objectives: specific statements of intended outcome
with minimal errors; type of information that accurately
159. organizational chart: the most concrete embodiment of the portrays what is going on in the organization
organizing function most charts use rectangles to represent
181. ratio: a schedule of reinforcement based on behavior
departments or other units, with lines showing the
connections and formal authority relationships 182. rationalized: method of explaining away disconfirming data
160. organizing: the pattern of relationships among workers 183. raw material: the components before any transformation by
the company; includes steel, wire, and fabric
161. outputs: relates to equity theory; can be extrinsic (pay,
promotions, bonuses, or recognition plaques) or intrinsic 184. readiness: Hershey-Blanchard's life cycle or situational
(satisfaction and sense of achievement ); results that should theory based on whether or not the subordinate is ready for
occur at the end of a group's activities delegation; determined by education or experience,
convenience and motivation, or willingness to assume
162. parochial self-interest: new changes that may reduce and
responsibility
individual's status and influence
185. real-time system: update the database automatically,
163. participation and involvement: naturally reduces resistance
assuring greater timeliness and accuracy
to change
186. reasonable acommodations: result of the 1990 Americans
164. participative: style of leadership that involves subordinates in
with disabilities act, pertaining to employees who can
decision-making, asking for their input and involvement
perform essential job functions
165. perceived conflict: person is aware that his or her goals are
187. redundancy: sending critical information through multiple
blocked or potentially blocked by someone's action
channels or media
166. performing: fourth stage of group development with roles
188. referent power: result when subordinates identify with
readily shifting as other members take on these roles as
managers and want to be like them
needed results in greater cooperation and more productive
ways of problem solving 189. refreezing: a "firming up" of the new processes
167. planning: specifying desired organizational results, or 190. relationship conflict: involves tension and friction between
outcomes, as well as identifying that means for achieving members of the group
those results 191. relevance: refers to the information needed to make
decisions
192. replacement chart: for each critical position, three potential 217. storming: second stage of group development in which
replacement are listed along with their readiness for moving members notice that others seem to have slightly different
up agendas goals
193. resource scarcity: when resources are limited, they may need 218. strategy: the set of activities designed to help an organization
to be taken from somewhere else or business achieve its goals ; and organizational contingency
194. revenue center: another type of responsibility center that factor that revolves around choice of leadership style
focused more externally and established, within the center, a 219. subordinate characteristics: situational factor in which the
set responsibility for germinating revenue targets ability, skill levels,
195. richness: capacity of a medium for information 220. supply chain management (SCM): implies the management
196. risk: a situation where the goals an options are known but the of the entire value chain, from suppliers through to
outcomes are not; willingness to take chance customers
197. role ambiguities: when the duties and boundaries assigned to 221. supportive: leadership style in which the managers ask
and individual are not clear questions and encourages the subordinates
198. satisfaction progression: once the lower-order needs are 222. SWOT: a process of analysis that involve looking at S
satisfied, then those above start to emerge as motivational trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, T hreats
factors 223. synergy effects: principles best described as "the whole is
199. satisficing: idea that people search for a minimally greater than the sum of the parts"
acceptable, not optimal solution, when making decisions 224. systems theory: concept developed in science and later
200. satisfiers: content-related factor that excite workers such as applied to management; organisations should be viewed as
responsibility, advancement, and personal growth open systems that require energy, people, ideas, raw
materials, capital, and information as inputs from the
201. scientific management: Frederick Taylor's systematic
environment
approach to studying work in order to find a more rational
way of conducting business 225. tall structures: characterized by layers of decision-making ,
which takes longer for decisions and communications to
202. self-awareness: leaders who are in touch with their own
move up and down the hierarchy and slows adaptability
emotions and internal sates
226. task conflict: involves differences in opinion about the task
203. self-censorship: situation in which groups may have doubts
facing the group
but fail to raise them
227. task forces: temporary teams for a specific purpose; also
204. self-oriented roles: set of behaviors that members engage in
reffed to as ad hoc groups
at the expense of the the group
228. task oriented: task roles address the content issues that the
205. singe-use plans: plans that may only be used once
groups are working on
206. size: a contingency for organizing based on growth and
229. task structure: relates to whether the task performed by the
shrinkage
group are defined and clear
207. skill-pay: employees are paid more for each additional skill
230. technical skills: the application of specific, learned
that they learn on the job
knowledge
208. skills: technical, interpersonal and problem-solving
231. technology: set of activities that transform input into outputs
capabilities that contribute to the overall effectiveness of a
team 232. time: rate at which customers want products delivered
209. SMART: objectives that are S pecific, M easurable, A 233. timeliness: the speed at which information becomes
ttainable, R elevant, and T ime-based available
210. socio-emotional: roles that help maintain good relationships 234. top-down communication: communication from senior
among members so work can be accomplished: also known management that is efficient but can cause ambiguity if not
as maintenance roles written clearly
211. span of management: the number of subordinates reporting 235. uncertain: situations that involve know goals but incomplete
to one manager option information and the likelihood or probability of
outcome is not known
212. specialization: by performing a small set of task, greater
volume in productivity can be achieved 236. unfreezing: to make needed changes ties to the old way
must be loosened
213. staff: employees who do not directly asst in making the
product but provide critical advise or information 237. universalism: looks at the means and intentions of decisions;
the ends are not most important but rather the duties and
214. standardized services: services produced in large volume
obligations followed in getting there
215. standing plans: plans that are used over and over; also
238. utilitarian: focuses on the outcomes or consequences of
known as recurring plans
decisions and is based primarily on cost and benefits
216. stereotyped: may be applied to those present alternative
239. valence: value of outcome; third component of expectancy
viewpoint
theory
240. vertical communication: communicating information up and
down the hierarchy
241. vertical team: teams that include a supervisor and several layers in the chain of command
242. virtual groups: groups that never meet but instead interact electronically; groups are geographically distributed often around the
globe
243. work environment: type of situational factor whereby the amount of structure in the task itself influences directive behaviors
244. work-in-progress: the pieces that will be assembled into the final product