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Microbiology532

ImmunologyExamination
October11,2001

Allquestionshaveequalpointvalue.

MultipleChoice(choosethebestanswer)

1. Naturallyacquiredimmunitymaybetheresultof:
a. transferofbonemarrowfromoneindividualtoanother.
b. immunizationwithavaccine.
c. exposuretoanindividualwhohasaninfectiousdisease.
d. aphysicianadministeringagammaglobulinshottosomeonewhohashadaneedlestick
(immunoglobulins).
e. noneoftheabove.

2. Acytokinewillgenerallyonlyaffectacellhaving:
a. areceptorforthatcytokine.
b. aCDantigenonitssurface.
c. anFcreceptor.
d. acomplementreceptor.
e. noneoftheabove.

3. Immunoglobulinclassesaredistinguishedbythetypeof:
a. lightchainstheypossess.
b. carbohydrateontheirlightchains.
c. constantregionsintheirlightchains.
d. heavychainstheypossess.
e. noneoftheabove.

4. ThevariableregionsintheFabfragmentsdetermine:
a. Fcreceptorspecificity.
b. conformationofthebindingsitetotheepitope.
c. affinityofthecomplementreceptors.
d. interactionoftheFabwithcytokines.
e. noneoftheabove.

5. Martianimmunoglobulinmoleculesfollowthesamerulesofproportionsthatarefoundinhuman
immunoglobulins.IfyouweretoldthatMartianlightchainshadamolecularweightof100kDa,
whatwouldyouexpectthemolecularweightoftheirIgGmoleculestobe?
a. 600kDa
b. 10,000kDa
c. 40,000kDa
d. 750,000kDa
e. noneoftheabove.
Microbiology532 ImmunologyExamination

6. Jchainsaregenerallyassociatedwith:
a. IgG.
b. polymericimmunoglobulins(morethantwoFabs).
c. monomericimmunoglobulins(twoFabs).
d. IgD.
e. noneoftheabove.

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7. FcbindingbyantibodiesoftheIgEclassisassociatedwith:
a. cellularhomingmechanisms.
b. sensitizationofMastcellsandbasophils.
c. Fdreceptors.
d. ICAMs.
e. noneoftheabove.

8. IgDantibodyfunctionsas:
a. antigenreceptorsonimmatureBcells.
b. anADCCreceptoronNKcells.
c. ahormonereceptoronNKcells.
d. atriggerofthecomplementcascade.
e. noneoftheabove.

9. Affinityisdeterminedby:
a. howmuchyoulikesomeone.
b. theaminoacidsequenceintheFabregionsoftheantibodymolecule.
c. Fcreceptorsoneosinophils.
d. theconcentrationofcomplement.
e. noneoftheabove.

10. Avidityisimportantbecause:
a. multiple,simultaneousinteractionswithantigenresultsinverystrongbinding.
b. Fcbindingdependsonit.
c. signaltransductiondependsoncomplementactivation.
d. interactionsbetweenFcreceptorsandantigentriggerhighaffinityantibodyproduction.
e. noneoftheabove.

True/False(Pleaseuseafortrueandbforfalseonyouranswersheet)

11. AvidityisimportantbecauseitamplifiesthebindingoflowaffinityFabs.

12. Crossreactionoccurswhenoneormoreepitopesaresharedbydifferentantigens.

13. Animmunoassaygenerallyrequiresasecondantibodywhichislabeledwithanenzymeor
radioisotopeinordertoenabledetectionofthefirstantibody.

14. Immuneprecipitationoccursduetocomplementactivationandtheproductionofchemotactic
factors.

15. AgglutinationoccursonlyhighaffinityIgGantibodies.

16. Thecomplementsystemisgenerallyresponsiblefortheproductionofsubstancesthatcause
neutrophilstomigratetothesiteofandantibody/antigenreaction.
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Microbiology532 ImmunologyExamination

17. Complementmaybeactivatedintheabsenceofanantibody/antigenreaction.

18. Missing

19. Theclonalselectiontheorypredictsthatselfreactiveclonesoflymphocytesareresponsiblefor
thepresenceofimmuneresponsestosuperantigens.

20. CDantigensarenotpresentonthesurfaceofcellsthatinteractwithBcells.

MultipleChoice(choosethebestanswer)

21. TheMHCencodedantigenreceptorsfunctionby:
a. bindingantigenontheantigenpresentingcell.
b. bindingcomplement.
c. ensuringthatantigenpresentingcellsinteractcorrectlywithTcells.
d. aandc
e. noneoftheabove.

22. BcellsusuallyrequireTcellhelptomatureplasmacellsbecause:
a. Tcellspresentantigentothem.
b. mostBcellsinthecirculationneedthymichormonessecretedbytheantigenpresentingcell
tomaturetoaplasmacell.
c. Tcellsproducecytokinesthatenhancetheirresponsivenesstoantigen.
d. alloftheabove.
e. noneoftheabove.

23. Theantigenpresentingcell
a. maybeadendriticcellintheskin.
b. isusuallyaTcell.
c. producescytokineswhichinfluencetheNKcellwhileitispresentedantigen.
d. producesICAMswhicharecriticalfordiapedesis.
e. noneoftheabove.

24. Bcellsrecognizeantigenusing:
a. Fcreceptors.
b. antibodylikereceptors.
c. complementreceptors.
d. ahomingmechanism.
e. noneoftheabove.

25. Plasmacellsarethedirectresultof:
a. Bcellmaturation.
b. Tcellsmaturation.
c. NKcellmaturation.
d. Monocytematuration.
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e. noneoftheabove.

26. Cytokinesare:
a. hormonelikeproteinsthatareusedforcommunicationsbetweencells.
b. aformofcelladhesionmolecule.
c. atypeofELISAanalysis.
d. solublemessageshavingantigen.
e. noneoftheabove.

27. Adjuvantsfunctiontoenhancetheimmunogenicityofantigensby:
a. forminganantigendepot.
b. providingnonspecificTcellstimulation.
c. activatingantigenpresentingcells.
d. alloftheabove
e. noneoftheabove.

28. Apoptosisisaprocessbywhich:
a. Dendriticcellspresentantigentotargetcells.
b. Tcellscanbuyaroundofbeeratthebowlingalley.
c. apreprogrammeddeathprocessisactivated.
d. necrosisisactivatedintargetcells.
e. noneoftheabove.

29. Thelagphaseoftheprimaryresponseappearslongerthanthesecondaryresponsebecause:
a. theassaysfordetectingaprimaryresponsearenotassensitive.
b. complementproteinsarenotpresentintheserumduringtheprimaryresponse.
c. ofthelackofcytokines.
d. therearenomemorycellsinvolvedintheprimaryresponse.
e. noneoftheabove.

30. Thelagphaseoftheanamnesticresponseis:
a. verylog,duetomemorycells.
b. veryshortduetothelackofantigenpresentingcells.
c. veryshortwhendendriticcellsareabsent.
d. veryshort,duetothepresenceofaccessorycells.
e. noneoftheabove.

True/False(Pleaseuseafortrueandbforfalseonyouranswersheet)

31. Affinitymaturationistheresultofanactiveselectionprocessforcellsthatproducethebest
antibody.

32. Theinnatemechanismsofhostimmunityplayaroleinthedefenseofthebodyonlyafterspecific
defensemechanismshavefailedtodefendthebody.
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33. Protectiveantibodiesoftenblockreceptorsusedbypathogenstospecificallytohostcellandtissue
surfaces.

34. OpsonizationenhancestheabilityofMastcellstoengulfbacteriabycoatingthebacteriawith
substancesagainstwhichthatcellhasreceptors.

35. Fcandcomplementreceptorsonphagocyticcellsbindopsonizedbacteriaandpulltheminto
phagocyticvacuoles.

36. AtopicindividualsarepeoplewhotendtomakeexcessiveamountsofIgGantibodies.

37. MastcelldegranulationoccursasaresultofcrosslinkageofIgEFcreceptorsonMastcells.

38. Missing

39. Geneticfactorsassociatedwithatopyonlysupportatendencytobeatopicanddonotpredicta
specificallergy.

40. DesensitizationinjectionsarethoughttosuppresssuppressorcellactivityandreduceIgGsynthesis
inatopicpatients.

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MultipleChoice(choosethebestanswer)

41. Thetargetofthecomplementactivityisdeterminedby:
a. thepresenceofFcreceptors.
b. thepresenceofcertainbacterialcomponents,suchasLPS.
c. thepresenceofspecificantibody/antigencomplexes.
d. bandc.
e. noneoftheabove.

42. Complementdamageisgenerallyhighlylocalizeddueto:
a. shorthalflivesoftheactivatedcomplementcomponents.
b. verylowconcentrationsoftheinactivatedcomplementcomponentsinserum.
c. theinabilitytoactivatethesysteminthepresenceofIgGantibodies.
d. thenaturalaffinityofcomplementforantigenpresentingcells.
e. noneoftheabove

43. Neutrophilsaretheprimarycellularinfiltrateinanantibodymediatedhypersensitivitybecause:
a. theypresentantigentoTcells.
b. theyarecapableofmediatingADCC.
c. neutrophilsrespondtothechemotacticassociatedwithcomplementactivation.
d. neutrophildiapedesisisdifficultinthepresenceofchemotacticfactors.
e. noneoftheabove

44. SerumfromanBpositive,Rhnegativepatientagglutinatesredbloodcellsfromapatientwhois
Rhnegative.Whatisthelikelybloodtypeisthesecondpatient?
a. Itcantbedeterminedfromtheinformationprovided.
b. TypeA
c. TypeB
d. TypeO
e. TypeAB

45. Hemolyticdiseaseofthenewborn(Rhincompatibility)istheresultof:
a. anRhpositivemotherconceivinganRhpositivechild.
b. ABOincompatibility.
c. anRhpositivemotherconceivinganRhnegativechild.
d. anRhnegativemotherconceivinganRhpositivechild.
e. noneoftheabove

46. Duringserumsickness,theconcentrationofimmunecomplexesintheserumdropsrapidlyatthe
endofserumsicknesssymptoms.Why?
a. Immunecomplexesarerapidlyclearedbythebody.
b. AntigenpresentingcellsrapidlybindallofthecomplexesintheirMHCencodedreceptors.

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c. Freeantigencausestheactivationofthecomplementsystemandtheproteaseactivityofone
ofthecomplementcomponentsdegradesimmunecomplexes.
d. TheimmunecomplexesbindtoMastcellsandaredestroyed.
e. noneoftheabove

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47. Contactdermatitisgenerallyoccursagainstsubstancesthatareconsideredtohaveamolecular
weighttoosmalltoinduceanimmuneresponse.Howdothesesubstanceinduceanimmune
response?
a. ThesesubstancesbindtootherdrugsinthebodyandthenstimulateMastcelldegranulation.
b. Theselowmolecularweightsubstancesreactwithliverenzymesandaredifficultto
eliminate.
c. Thesesubstancesbindtotissuesandcells,resultinginalargertotalantigenicsizewhichcan
thenstimulateanimmuneresponse.
d. Thesubstancestriggerthecomplementcascadeandcauseneutrophilstoaccumulateandto
serveasantigenpresentingcells.
e. noneoftheabove.

48. Autoimmunitymayoccurfollowinganinfectionwhen:
a. themicroorganismisnotrecognizedbytheinnatehostdefenses.
b. themicroorganismencounterstheinnatehostdefensemechanisms.
c. themicroorganismmimicsselfcomponentsandbreakstolerance.
d. themicroorganismsactivatesthealternatecomplementpathway.
e. noneoftheabove

49. Antigensinimmunologicallyprivilegedsites:
a. aregivenspecialhonorsduetotheiroutstandingachievements.
b. arepoorlyimmunogenic.
c. tendtobeprocessedlessefficientlybyantigenpresentingcells.
d. arehiddenfromdetectionbytheimmunesystem.
e. noneoftheabove

50. Adaptivehostdefensemechanismsarecriticaltotheprotectionofthebodybecause:
a. theyutilizeprecommittedantigenpresentingcellsthathavealreadybeeninducedbyother
immuneresponses.
b. theyarethefirstlineofdefenseofthebody.
c. theyarehighlyspecificfortheinvadingpathogensthatavoidinnatedefenses.
d. theyprovideimmediate,continuousprotectionintheabsenceofaspecificimmuneresponse.
e. noneoftheabove

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