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BURNDY
LIBRARY
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1^41

GIFT OF

Bern Dibnbr

The Dibner Library
of the History
oj

Science and Teclmology

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES

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10

17° "Die Maij\ i6^f.

Imprimatur Liber eui Titulus, Orang'-Outang, live Homo SjkeftriSy &C. Authore Edvardo Tjfen M. D. R. S. S.

John Hoskins

^.

P. R.

5'.

Orang-Outangjive Homo Syhejlris:

ANATOMY

OR,
O

THE
A

YGMIE
Compared with
that

F

of a

Monkey, an Ape, and a Man.
To
which
is

added,

A

PHILOLOGICAL ESSAY
Concerning the

Tjgmies ^tht
Wherein

Cynocephali, the Satjrs ^and Sphinges

of the
it

Ancients.
all

will appear that they are

either

APES

or

MONKEYS,

and not

MEN,

as

formerly pretended.

By

ETtWAKT)
at Chirnrgeons-HaU,

TYSON

M. D.
:

Fellow of the Colledge of Phyficians, and the Royal Society Phyfician to the Hofpital of Bethlem , and Reader of

Anatomy

7si: Printed for Thomas Bennet at the Half-Moon in St. Paul's Church-yard 5 znd Daniel Brorvn at thz Black^Sjvan and Bz/i/e without Temyh-Bar and are to be had of Mr. Htmt at the Repofitory in Grefinm-CoUedge.

L

N D

M DC

XCIX.

T O T H E

RIGHT HONOURABLE

JOHN
Baron oi

Lord Sommers, EVES HAM,

Lord High Chancellor
O
One of
F

ENGLAND,
the Lords of his

MAJESTIES

moft Honourable

And

Prefident

Privy Council, of the Royal Society.

o

I R.,

TH
Mufes.

E great Variety of weighty and important
is

Jffairsjn "which your Lor dfhif

engageci-^one

would think^ did fo

entirely engrofsyour

Time,

that you could not have a

Minute left to Your unmaried and fuccesful

hefiow on the
/Application to

the

The
that perhaps
exprejjible

Epiftle Dedicatory.
y

the ^ujinefs of the State, in the nicejl ConjunBions

England everjm
mth

^

as

ripeli

as your in^

Labours

in dijlrihuting fujlice, in your

High

Station ^ have been attended
.

Vniverfal Jpplaufe:

World ^ how much the Ho^ of his Majefys Government^ and the Happinefs of his People, depend on the Capacity and Integrity of his
and have convinced
all

the

mm

Aiinifters,

You have notfufered, even necejfary Re-^

frejhments to interrupt your Conftant Cares for the
iick^

Tub"

To ferve your
^

Country y you have defrauded your
-^

felf both

which my Lord, is the of Meat and ReH only JB of Injujlice, that rpos ever charged upon you. Your immoderate Labours mak^ daily Encroachments upon your Health ^ or at leaft ^tis the fear of every
^

good

Man,

that they fhould.

And

yet your Lordjhip,

notv^ithftanding all T>ijf»afeonSj perfeveres inflexible

as

if animated by the 'Noble Spirit of an Old Roman you were refolved to Sacrifice your Life, for the Good of

your Country,

Lord, amidfifuch a multiplicity of the greateU Jffairs, to which you pay a confiant Atten^
dance
;

And yet, my

you have
to all

not only found

Time,

to apply

your

of Literature , fo as to become a great Mafler in all 5 ^ut you have lik^vpife extended your Care to the Interefls of Learning, and to the En^
Thoughts
l^nds

cour aging ofthofe,

who

fludy

the Advancement

of

it.

Among many

other Inflames,

your Lord/hip has

lately

condefcended^ to Trefide over the

Royal

Society,that

The

Epiftle Dedicatory.
the Improvement of Natural
^

that n>as injlitutedy for

Experimental H^hilojophy

andyou have taJ^n

care,

to

Exprefs your great Zeal and Readinefs, to contribute every thing in your Ton?er^ to TroteB their Interejis, and Tromote their Reputation. And under your Lord"
Jhifs enlivening Influence, therein all the Reafon in the World to expeS, that Learning mil again flourifh there,

m -well as among
This,

other Orders

of Men.

my

Lord, hasfo embolden
to your

d

me, humbly to pre-

fent

this

Performance

Lord/hip.

For fnce fo

Great a Matron of Letters is rifen in the midjlofus his Countenance TPoe think "^^ have a fort of Right to and TroteBion. I wi[h the Trefent I prefume to make
you,
'Vs>as

fay to

more worthy of your Lordfhip recommend it, is, that the SubjeB
it

:

All that
is

lean

Novel , and

that Care has been tal^en to give
TUfhich,

a jujl T)efcription

I may fay, mthout vanity, never yet appeared in

Tublic{,
^Tis a true Remark^, which n^e cannot

ma^e without
the T^ranfition

Admiration{rhat from Minerals, to Tlants-^fromTlants,
to Animals-^
is

and from Animals,

to

Men

^

Jo gradual, that there appears a very great Simili^ tude, as ivell between the meanejl Tlant, and/ome Minerals
^

as between the lowefi

Rank of Men, and

the

of Animals. The Animal of which I have given the Anatomy, coming nearefl to Mankind -Jeems
highejl kind

Nexus of the Animal and Rational as your Lord" fhip^and thofe ofyour High Rank^and Order for Know-^
the
,

ledge

The
ledge

Epiftle Dedicatory.
neare/i to that J^nd of

and JVifdom^ approaching

beings

Mch

is

next aboise us

ConneU the Vifble, and

Invifibk World,

If this Performance Jhall Tromote thh Defign of the Society^ ofTUfhich I haye the Honour to he a Member ^and iUfhichjour Lord/hip is pleafed to l^refide over by im^ proving the Natural Hiflory of Animals ^ and affording the Reader any Delightful and Vfeful InJlruUions ^ I /hall look^on my T^ime and Tains ^ well re'vparded, I am
-^

My

Lord,

Your

Lordfliip

s

moft humble

and

moft: obedient Servant

EDiTAKv

rrsojst.

THE

PREFACE
LEdsT
lated

Difcourfe fliould be rcjeded meerly for the Title's fake, as if 'twere intended only to divert the Reader, with the Recital of the Fabuthis

lous and

Romantick
,

Stories,

which have been
treat

reit

on the Subjeds I have propofed to
that as

of:

I

think

neceflary to premife

my

chief Defign in this Under-

taking

Improvement of the Natural Hifiory o( Animals j fo I have made it my Bufinefs more, to find out the Truth , than to enlarge in the Mythology j to inform the Judgment , And the Orang-Ontang ( whofe than to pleafe the Phancy.
is

the

Anatomy I here give) being a Creature fo very remarkable, and rare 5 and not only in its External Shape, but much more in the Conformation of a great many of the inward Vifcera, fo much refembling a Man j I thought I could not be too particular, in my Defcription of it j though to fome, who have not a Taft of thefe Matters, I may feem prolix and tedious.

To

render

this

Difquifition

more

ufeful,

I

have

made
an

a

Comparati've Survey of this Animal, with a

Monkey-,

Ape,

and a Man.

By viewing

the fame Parts of all thefe together,

we may
on
another

the better obferve Nature's Gradation in the Formatiof Animal Bodies, and the Traniitions made from one to
5

than

which, nothing

can more

conduce to the

The

T

KEF ACE,
if

Attainment of the true Knowledge, both of the Fabric\^ and By following Natures Clew in this won-* 'Vfes of the Parts. derful Labyrinth of the Creation, we may be more eafily admitted into her Secret Recejfes^which Thread

we

mifsjWe

mud

needs err and be bewilder'd.

have made ufe of the Anatomy which is given of Apes and Moneys by other Authors; and very frequently have quoted their own words , which has render'd my Difcourfe much longer For not having thefe Animals by me to difle^ and compare,! thought it but juft to let the Reader fee, upon what Authorities I went. And though a fhort Reference might be efteemed fufficient, without this teIn drawing

up

this

Comparifon

,

E

:

whole text \ yet if any one will give himfelf the trouble of Examining the Evidences I have produced, I think I have dealc more kindly by him, in making him a Judge himfelf; than in leaving him baredious and unfafliionable
inferting the

way of

ly to

For there are none, who have been converfant with Books, but muft acknowledge, that they have been often impofed upon, for want of this fair dealing , as I have my felf Experienced in this prefcnt Enquiry. To avoid therefore this Error, my Caution it may be has lead me into another, which I hope the Reader will pardon, if he judges it
trufi:

to

my

Report.

fuch.

Galen formerly differed Apes and Monf^eys, and recommend-

ed to

his

Scholars the frequent Anatomi%ing them, as ufeful for

the attaining the

Knowledge of the Structure of the Parts in H«mane Bodies. Had he met with our Animal^ it had ferved his turn much better : Nor had he been liable to fome Miftakes, which Vefalim, charges him with, fince in fo many Parts, the Orang-Outang imitates a Man, more than Apes and Monkeys do. Not only Gakn^iVLt. the greateft Anatomijis we have had in this have exercifed their Pens about them ; as plainlaft Age ,
ly

appears in the enfuing Difcourfe, which fufficiently
for engaging in this
for

;ufi:ifies

me

Argument

:

I wifli

I had fo good an

Apology

my

Performance.

This

The

T

RE F ACE,

This great Agreement, which I obferved between the OrmgOhtang^ and a Md», put me upon confidering, whether it might

not afford the Occafion to the Ancients, of inventing the many Relations, which they have given us of feveral/orfj-of Men,

which are no where to be met with but in their Writings. For I could not but thinkj there might be fome Real Foundation for their Mythology i which made me more ftridly enquire into their Records; and examining them, I always found fomething new , that infenfibly lead me on far beyond what at firfi: I intended: and if I do not deceive my felf, I have at laft gained
a clearer Light in thefe Matters^ than any that has hitherto ap-

peared.

For what created the greateft difficulty, was ling them Men^hnt yet with an Epithet for diftindion
"Af^ps;
''A}/e/0(,
e.

their

cal-

fake^ as the
KwOTT^awTroj,

Miz^),

Tlv^fJLOJioi^'NliT^.a.yit;

j

fo_

the

'"AyBp^Troi

&c.

i.

Men

,

yet at
Beajis
j

Men, the Little Men , the Tygmcean the Blac\ Men the Men with Dogs Faces , &c. the fame time I find that they made them >e/'«, Wdd
the Wild
,

and

if

fo,no doubt but they were of the

Qmdm-manus

Apes or Monh^ys. And fuch were likewife the SatyrSy the Fauni, Pan^Mgipan, Sylzfanus^Silenns^ and the Nymkind j
i. e.

either

ph<£, as alfo the Sphinges

of the Ancients.

But fo many Romances have been made about only Strabo formerly, but the mod noted Men late, have looked upon them as meer Fidions and have utterly denied them any real Being. nomachia therefore, or Fight of the Cranes and
rendered a probable Story.
Arijiotle's alTcrtion

them, that not of Learning of of the Poets ^

Homers GeraPygmies ^IhzvQ

of the being of Pygmies, I have vindicated from the falfe GIofTes of others. The Conjedures of other Learned Men about them, I have examined And by what I have faid in the following Phiklogical Ejfay, I think I have fully proved, that there were fuch Animals as the Ancients called Pygmies, CynocephaU, Satyrs^ and Sphinges and that they were only Apes and Monkeys.
;
',

Had^

The
Had my

T

KEF ACE,

Leifure been greater, I had contrafted the whole,

and taken more care both in the Method^ and ExpreJJion, But moft of the vacant Hours from the neceflary Attendance on the Bufinefs of my Profeffion , being taken up in ColIe5:ing Materials to gratifie the Importunity of my Friends, who conftantly urged the Publication, I fent my Papers Sheet by Sheet to the Prefs, as I had time to tranfcribe them ; fo that I had not a view of them together, till they were printed. If I have difcovcred the Truth, 'tv/as what I aimed at , which always appears beft, when leafl: difguifed ; and it has been my chief Care in this Undertaking to pull off thofe Vails and Masks, wherewith the Poets and Poetical Hiftorians have hitherto ob',

fcured

it.

Orang'

Orang-Outangfive "Homo Sjhejlns\
OR,

ANATOMY
O
F

THE

A

PYGMIE.
endeavour to prove in the fol« lowing Fjfaj. And if thePygmes were only Jpes, then in all probability our Ape may be a Pjgmk a fort of Animal fo much refembling Man , that both the Antients and the Moderns have reputed it to be a Puny Race of Mankind, call'd to this day, Homo Sylvejim. The Wild Man ; Orang-Outang, or a Man of the Woods ; by the Africans ^aias Morron , by others Bark, or Barrk, and by the Por But obferving that under thefe Names, they defcribe tugefe, the Salvage. different Animals ^ for Diftinftion-fake, and to avoid Equivocation, I fhall call theSub)e6i-, of which I am about to give th& Anatomy, zPygmie^ from its Stature ; which I find to be juft the fame with the Stature of the Pygmies of the Antients. Ttdpim 'tis true, and Bontius, and Dapper do call it, Satyrm. And tho' I am of Opinion, that the Satyrs of the Antients were of the Ape, or rather Monkey-Ymdi 5 yet for the Reafons alledged in the following £^/, I cannot think om Animal a Satyr. The Bark or Barrk, which they defcribe to be much taller than our Animal, probably may be what we call a Drill. But I muft confefs, there is fo great Confufion in the Defcription of this fort of Creature, which I find is a very large Family (there being numerous %r7ej- of them ) that in Tranfcribing the Authors that have wrote about them, 'tis almoft impoiTible but to make miftakes ; from the v/ant of their well diftinguifhing them. I (hall endeavour therefore in my Account of this, fo to
I

THAT

the Pygmies

of the Antlents were
(hall

a fort

of Apes, and

not of Humane Race,

t,

B

.

difcri-

OratJg^Outang Jive
difcriminate

Homo

Syhejlrts

:

Ol;,

with.
I

Not

it, that it may be eafily known again, where-ever 'tis met that I think in a fingle Obfervation I can be fo exaft, but that

may be
I will

liable

to

make Errors

my
if

felf,

how
why

careful foever I have
a Fygmie

been.

not urge any thing more here,
it

I call it

:

Tis

neceflary to give

a

Name

5

and

what

I offer

in the enfuing Ejjky^

does not fufBciently Account for the Denomination^ I leave it to others to give it one more proper. What I (hall mod: of all aim at the following Difcourfe, will be to give as particular an Account as I can, of the formation and ftrufture of all the Parts of this wonderful Animal 5 and to make a Comparative Survey of them, with the fame Parts in a Humane Body^ as likewife in the A^e and Monkey-^iS'^^. For tho' I own it to be of the Jpe kind, yet, as we (hall obferve, mtht Organization of abundance of its Parts, it more approaches to the Strufture of the fame in Men : But where it differs from a Man^ there it refembles plainly the Common Jpe, more than any other Animal. And tho' I may feem too tedious in difcourfing fo long upon a fingle fubjedt, yet I have this to offer, that if we had an accurate and particular Hiftory of any one Species of Animal^ it might in a great meafure ferve for the whole kind. Wherein they differ, might eafily be taken notice of, and there would be no need of repeating any thing, wherein they all agreed. So formerly diflfedting lYoung Lion and a Cat at the fame time, i wondred to find fo very great Refemblance of all the Parts, both in the one and the other ^ that the Anatomy of the one might ferve for the other, allowing for the Magnitude of the Parts, with very little other alteration And not only for this, but for feveral other Ainmals^ that belong to the fame Family. I could have wifhed I had had the like Opportunity, when I was diiTedting our Fygmie^ of comparing the fame Parts with thofe of an Ape and a Monkey : For want of it, I have referred all along to the Accounts given us of the Anatomy of thefe Creatures by other Authors ^ which, tho' it renders my Difcourfe more prolix, yet I thought it would not be unacceptable to the Curious. But I fhall take care to draw up in a ftiorter view, wherein our Pygmie more refembled a Man, than an Ape and Monkey^and wherein it diifer'd. Now notwith (landing ourPygmie doesfo much refemble a Man in many of its Parts, more than any of the Ape-kind, or any other Animal in the World that I know of Yet by no means do I look upon it as the Produft of a mixt Generation , 'tis a Brute-Animal fui generk, and a par-

m

:

:

of Ape. For when I was diffefting it, fome Sea-Captains and Merchants who came to my Houfe to fee it, afiured me, that they had feen a great many of them in Borneo., Sumatra, and other Parts, tho' this was brought from Angola in Africa ^ but was firft taken a great deal higher up in the Country, and in Company with it there was a Female of the fame kind. I fhall have hereafter occafion to make my Remarks on feveral Particulars, relating to it's way of Living , it's Sagacity, Adions, and the
ticular Species
like.

T:he Anatomy of a
like.
I ihall

T YG
of
all

M

I E.

3

outward ftiape and But meetthen look within, and obferve the Mechanifm there. ing with a Text in Jrifiotle, wherein he gives a general Defcription of the Jpe-ktnd, I think it not amifs to Tranfcribe it ; and by Commenting upon it, to (hew wherein our prefent Subjedt agrees with or dlifers from it ; and what I have befides to Remark,! fhall afterwards take notice ofj
therefore
firffc

now

defcribe

its

figure;

and then proceed to the Anatomji of the Inward Parts. Arijloile's (i) Text is this, which I (hall give with jf«/. C^/ 5c<j%er's And as you may obferve by the Letters of RefeLatin TranOation
:

rence, I have rendred each Paragraph into Englifi^

adding

my Obferva-

tions thereon.

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^i

Ped^ pro manibus^ d^ pro fledit enim fios manimm
Superior brachij pars,
:

i^cffld

-Tvv

li-kov rslov

TV

o//.-

modo.

(m)

^

paAa.

(^oj
fx<^QvcL

Tat

\'

civM

7-^f

>(^Ta
,

coxa, breves
bilicus

moXv
T^(a

s'Vji,

ctfflCtrap

to

nr^oid

fi ad uln£, S"
referantur.
:

tibia

magnitudinem
7toti

(vC)

Um-

prominet
invenias.

'6Bi

,

-Hj

^id

n

ral/lct,

^J

quiddam

ibi

fed, djirum (o) Supers

TD raj Tiohig

i'x^iV OfJUOiHi
<i-i{-

VSfin,

'^l

paries inferis majores

aecuXipxvA auyx.iifA.ivovq
TTO;^;'

>£i£_c? 'C^i

QM [j2v
Ol'

•StToS^?, ;ici7a

r^

-^ :?7ep-

: quap Ji quinarium cum ternario conferas. Hoc dutem turn ex quadr.upedum natnra :

Kcx/

^
Sn

turn propterea
SizKTuAoi
iy}i^ TO

qitod pedes

d^

maiii-

zaAa/^% o[Mv.

biis Jimiles

habet ^ &• quafi ex pedum^
conjiitutione compofitos.

mammmqne
X?J^'^^
ov

TiT^TTOUv
I'^/cz

3r fJLd77\.:iv

(^} Ka/ are
,

£^ij

»5

Tir^d-TtQvuj
fJJ.-

yjipttov
,

cJ;

^ttowj^ tiK^w
(ni,u.ii'd
ri

x^v
(r)
Cfxoiov

TO oAov

omv
\'

VapfJ'.

^E;t^Si (^

;ca)

TO suStiQv

pedem , esmatfum reprafentant. Elabc72t enim digiti id, quod volam appellamus. (p) ^tadrupedis habitn
calcanei pojirema

Nam

ters partes

hviMix,

frequentiore

yiuje/^KOi'
dvQ^ooitis.

d^pliv, yjuvxcii-

gipov

'r\

(/) Oj <^ wSoi
OjU/iici I Vatny

KxQa.-nip GipilTot) TT^OTepOV, eVbsI KipHCV'

TO \'

ci^ro;

(^ics/psOij/Tx,

ej}. (q) Proque eo nates non habet : neque caudam, quoniam bipes, Sed perpupllam omnino illaifi, d^ not£ tantitm gratia, (r) FmminiR genitale muliebri jpecie eji : maribus

diQp'jiTfCf)

TtTUVTa, TO. irnsuJrs!.,

caninapotins,

quam

humafza. (s) Cebi^

ZJnificuti diximus, candatl funt. verfo generi vifcera Jimilia humanism

(a)

Arifl:,

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E,

(a) Arid. Soff/e Animals are of an intermediate Nature^ between a Matt and ^iadrupedsj as Apes, the Cebi, and Cynocephali.

Theodora Gaza thus renders this PaflTage : 'E7m/u,!pori^^<H' tlud ipvsiv. Sunt qn<e natura anciprte, partrm hominem^ partjm ^iadntpedem imitentur^ Not that an Ape is part a Man, and part a Quadruped ^ ficHtjimm^ &c. inter Hdnnnern non Hominem non datitr medium ^ The Terms being contradiftory, one muft be falfe. The Philofopher's meaning mud: therefore be, that in the formation of the Parts of the Body, the Ape^ the Cebuf, and Cynoce^halm^ are intermediate Species between a Man and

&

other ^/adrupeds, having feveral Parts of the
others

Body formed

like Brutes

5

more refembling thofe of Men. (2) this Remark ; " Ad eum namqiie modum furamus Opifex Rerum feriem " concatenavit a Planta ad Hominem ^ ut quad fine ullo cohsreant in" tervallo, fie t^oeo^vTzt cum Plantis Bruta conjungunt 5 fie cum homine " fimia Quadrupedes. Itaque in hominis quoque fpecie inveniamus " Divinos, Humanos, feros. This Climax or Gradation can't but be taken notice of, by any that are curious in obferving the Wonders of the Creation ^ and the more he obferves it, the more venerable Ideas 'twill give him of the great Creator-^ and it would be the Perfedtion of
Scaliger,

a little after, hath

Natural H/Jiorj, could
different Species,

it

be attained, to enumerate arid remark

all

the

and their Gradual Perfe^ions from one to another. Thus in the Ape and Monkey-kind, Arijhtles Cebm I look upon to be a degree above his Cynocephaluf 5 and his Pithecus or Ape above his Cebi0, and our Pygmie a higher degree above any of them, we yet know, and more refembling a Man But at the fame -time I take him to be wholly a Brute, tho' in the formation of the Body and in the Senjttive or Brutal Soul, it may be, more refembling a Man, than any othtx Animal fo that in this Chain of the Creation, as an intermediate Link between an Ape and a Man, I would place our Pygmie^ Ui'^nKoq, &c. The Philofopher here does not enumerate all the feveral Species that are contained under the Ape and Monkfy-k\nd 5 they are a very numerous and a large ClaJJis of Animals. Scaliger upon the Place mentions feveral he had obferved of both kinds ^ and all our Zoographers, and moft Journals of Travels give a Defcription of a great many forts of them. But for want of well diftinguilhing them-, and ranging them into a Methodical Series, their Hijiory as yet is very confufed and perplext. Mr. Ray (5) places thefe Animals under this ge:

,

::,

neral Title, Animalia Pede

unguicidato midtifido,
this

7i>ictThcJ)vv)^ct

8c av^puiyri-

fMp^x.

'Tis calf d Pithecm, ttuo^ to nd^iSfajj vp
^

vif/Mv,

quia facili ab ho-

taken as a Gettm which includes the whole 5 when ftriftly taken, it fignifies an Ape without a Tail, and in Latin is call'd Simia ; that which hath a Tail is call'd Cercopithecm, Thus (4) Martial. EngliJJj a Monkey.
is

mine perfuadeatur

and oftentimes

word

m

(2) Scaliger
lib.

ibid, in

Com, pag. 201.

(5) Raij S^nopfis Animal, pg. 148.

( 4.) Martial. Epigram,

14. Epigf, 202.

6

Orang-^Outang five

Homo

Syhellris

;

Or^,

CaHidus emijjas eludere SimJus Hafias^ Si mihi Cauda foret, Cercopithecus eram,
Arift.

(J))

The Cebus

is

an Ape having a

Tail.

(5) Conradm Gefner thinks, that this Cebus of Jrijiatle^ which he defcribes only as having a Tail , mufi: be the Cercopithecus or Common Monkey^ fince he mentions not the Cebus any where elfe, and the Cercopithecus no where. (6) Harduinus^ in his Notes on P/f«/, advifes not to miftake the Cepus in Fljny^ for the Cebus in Ariflotle. (6) Plinys words are thefe 5 Pon/peiJ Magnl primum Ludi ejlendenint Chama^ quern Galli Rufum VG'cabant^ Effigie Lupi^ Pardoriim maculis. lidem ex JEthiopia quas vacant HJnrug^ qnarum Pedes pofieriores, Pedibus humanis cruribusj priores manibus fuere fimiles, hoc Animal pojiea Roma non vidit. And therefore becaufe it was fo uncommon as to be feen at Rome but once, it could not be the common Monkey. (7) Strabo, out of Artemidorus^

&

defcribes the Cepus thus

:

yiyvovraii Si

ptm

-2)

sr^/^fa^,

;^

;wvo}dpct\oi, iy Ji^-

^f^lb?. That the- Cepi^ hath the Face of a Lion, the reft of the Body like a Panther, and is of the bignefs of a Dorcas or Roe-Buck. §i \iy6iJUivQc (8) Diodorus Siculus hath much the fame Defcription
,

KMiroi^y

u'VOju,cc.i^a]

/jciv

"^^

'mc,

TngJ

c Aov

tcv ^yioiv ca^auatg,

k^

ii^mvZc,

tfAi^uctg.

T3 S^

ir^iyzoirov ^yoov Of-Uiiov ?\.iavn,

to

\017mv moju^

•zihmov, "TihJw

tS ^}a9»?,

Tnt'^-crSroj

domanus thus renders.

" Cepus,

/.

e.

TmvQn^ -Tnt^Which Laurentius Ro<5bf«a5». Hortus (quern vocant) a totius
(pi^&t

" Corporis decore 8c ftaturx venuftate nomen accepit, facie Leonem imi" tatur, 8c reliquo Pantheram, prster magnitudinem, qua Dorcadi par " eft. (9) Mlian hath slven a Defcription of the fame Animal from Pythagoras^ from whom, tis thought, it firft received this Name and
x,

His Account, tho' fomcwhat long, I will give in P. Gilliuis Tranflation, becaufe I am apt to think this Animal is ftill " Terrenum quoddam Animal Pythagoras fcribit fecundum in being.

he

is

more

particular.

*'

*'
*'

Mare Rubrum procreari 8c Cepum, hoc eft Hortum appolite nominari, quod tanquam Hortus variis coloribus diftinguatur.
exiftit confirmata
setate
,

idclrco

Cum

pari magnitudine eft

cum

Herythrienfibus

*' *'

"

" " Colli
*'
*'

Canibus. Jam porro ejus Colorum varietatem, ficut ille fcribit, animus nobis eft explicare.Ejus caput 8c pofticas partes ad caudam ufque prorfus valde igneo colore funt, turn aurei quidam Pili difieminati fpedirantur, turn album roftrum, inde ad CoUum aurese vittx pertinent,
inferiores

partes

ad Peftus, 8c anteriores Pedes omnino albi
colore vifuntur, venter candiRoftri formx Cynocephalo refte

Mammae dux manum implentes csruleo
dus. Pedes pofteriores nigri funt,

(5j Hifl. de Quadruped. 1. 1. p. 857. (6) Plinij Hijl. Nat. lib. 8. cap. 19. cum Interpret, fy Notis Jo. Harduini, p. i6j. (7) Geograph. lib. 16. p. 533. (8; Diodor. Sicul. Biblioth, Hift. 1. 3. p.m. 168. (9). ^lisn. de Animal, lib. 17. cap. 8. p. 474.
*'

com-

The Anatomy of a

TYG MI E.

7

" comparari poteft. The Cepus therefore of FUny^ Strah, Dwdorus Sicnltis, and Mliaft, in all probability muft be different from the CebHs of Anjiotk. Job. Cains our Country-man fent Gefner a Defcription of a MamoKtet or Marmofet he had obferved, which Gefner thinks might be a fort of Cepns 5 but the Colours were different, as likewife the Magnitude.

Monkeys, ha thej are bigger, and Uronger, and. they have a Face Uker a Dogs, and are of a fiercer Nature, and they have Teeth Uker a Dogs^ and Jironger.
(c) Arift. The CynocQ^hzYi have the

fame

Jljape voith

have occafion to Difcourfe of thefe Cynocephali in the enfuing For tho' the Philofopher makes them only a fort of Ape or MonEjfay. key, yet there have been thofe, that would impofe them on the World for a Race of Men-^ and by (10) JElian they are call'd a.v'^oooivQi tvuva-Tr^oozyTTOi 5 tho' (11) G^/eTz tells us, they are much lefs like a M^/^, than an Ape is: For they can fcarce ftand upright, much lefs walk or run fo. (12) Philojiorghis mentions the AegopUheais, theAr&opHhecus, t\\e LeontopUhecus, as well as the Cynocephalus^ and then adds, xai aMai? iroT^Sv That there is the Goat^cDMv d^auj^ rK "Tn^yiKifct^ /nuo^pig '^^jMyvvjiAivyiz. Dog-Ape 5 and that the Ape-kind Ape, the Bear-Ape^ the Lion-Ape, the have a refemblance to a great many other Animals ; fo large and numerous is this Cla(fis of Animals, that perhaps there is none that is more 5 and that are fo different from one another. The fiercenefs of the Cynocephali is taken notice of by all ^ our Pygme was quite of another Thofe that temper, the moft gentle and loving Creature that could be. he knew a Ship-board he would come and embrace with the greateft tendernefs, opening their Bofoms, and clafping his Hands about them ^ and as I was informed, tho' there were Monkeys aboard, yet 'twas obferved he would never alTociate with them, and as if nothing a-kin to them, would always avoid their Company. The Teeth of the Cynocephali are like a Dog's thofe of our Fygmie exactly refembled a Mans, as I ftiall fhew
I
flhall
-J

in the Ofleology.

Apes are hairy on their Backj, as they are ^tadrupeds, and en their Bellies, as they are like Men : For in a Man and a Beafi this So that Apes are very hairy hairinefs is quite contrary, as was faid before.

(d)

Arifl:.

in both Places, their Hair being jirong or courfe, and thick, fet.

The
flTfoy.

Place th^t Arijiotle refers to,

is

this.

(13)

'^E?'i

S%r^^

/j2v

aMcoy

That in Brutes the Back, or upper Parts are more hairy the Belly or under Parts either fmooth or lefs hairy : In a Man is obferved the contrary. But in our Pygmie we obferved it different 5 for here all behind from the Head downwards, 'twas very hairy, and the Hair fo thick, that it covered the Skin almoft fro m being feen.
a.vQpooirog
^

^

vwvdvriov.

i.

e.

CioJ
ntiniftr.

Julian. //i/?,ie

Anat.

1.

1.

cap. 2.

yimm. lib. 10. cap. 2(5. inEdlt. P. Gilli). in a/iw m^ 2 5. (12) Philoftorgi; Hcji. Ecdefiajl. lib. 3. cap. H. p. 41.

(11) Galen, de Ad(13) Arift. Hiji. de

Animal,

lib. 2. c. $.

p. i6q. Eaitc Scalig.

8
But in

Orang-^Outang five
all

Homo Sykefi^ris

:

Or^

the Parts before, the Hair was much thinner, and the Skin in fome places 'twas almoft bare. Nature with Hair, as a Brute, to defend it from the therefore has cloathed it Injuries of the Weather ; and when it goes on all four, as a ^iadruped, it feems all hairy : When it goes ereft, as a Biped, it appears before lefs

every where appeared, and

hairy,

and more like a Maa. After our Pygmie was taken, and a little ufed'to wear Cloaths, it was fond enough of them ; and what it could not put on himfelf, it would bring in his Hands to fome of the Company to help him to put on. It would lie in a Bed, place his Head on the Pillow, and pull the Cloaths over him, as a Man would do ; but was fo carelefs, and fo very a Brute, as to do all Nature's Occafions there. It was very full of Lice when it came under my Hands, which it may be it got on Ship-board, for they were exaftly like thofe on Humane Bodies. (14) Seignior Redi obferves in moft Animals a particular fort of Loufe, and gives the Figures of a great many. The Hair of our Pygme or Wild Man was of a Coal-black colour and ftrait ; and much more refembling the Hair of Men than the Furr of Brutes For in the Furr of Brutes, belides the longer Hair, there is Here 'twas all of a kind 5 ufually a finer and (horter File interraixt only about the Pubis the hair was greyifh, feemed longer, and fomewhat different ; fo on the upper Lip and Chin, there were greyidi hairs like a Beard: And I was told by the Owners, that once it held the Bafon The Face, Hands, and Soles of the Feet were it's felf, to be trimmed. But bare and without Hair, and fo was moft part of the Forehead down the fides of the Face 'twas very hairy ; the hairs there being about an Inch and half long, and longer than in moft Parts of the Body beThe tendency of the Hair of all the Body was downwards; but fides. only from the Wrifts to the Elbow 'twas upwards 5 fo that at the Elbow the Hair of the Shoulder and the Arm ran contrary to one another. Now in ^ladrupeds the Hair in the fore-limbs have ufually the fame Inclination downwards, and it being here different, it fuggefted an Argument But we will lay no moie to me, as if Nature did defign it as a Biped. upon it than it will bear The Hair on the back-fide of the Hands firefs did run tranfverfe, inclining to the outfide of the Hands , and thofe of the hinder fides of the Thighs were tranfverfe likewife. Mm, tho' not fo hairy zs Brutes, and (as Jrijiotle ohkrves) more yet if expofed to the hardfliips of the Weahairy before, than behind ther, like them 5 no doubt, but he would become hairy on the Body likewife; which might poffibly be the Cafe of Nebuchadnezzar. (15) And very Remarkable is that Story of Peter Serrano a Spaniard, who was caftavvay, and efcape'd to a Defart lOand, which from him afterwards received it's Name, as 'tis related by the Inca Garcilajf» de la Vega. (16) For having with the greateft difficulty fuftained a miferable Life for three
: :

:

:

;,

(14) Franc. Redi

Exjmmenta

c'ma generap. InfeSor.

(i 5) Daniel, dfp. 4. 33.

(16.)

Royal

Commen-

taries of Fern, lib. i. cap. 3,

Years,

The Anatomy of a
Years,

TYG MI E.

Hairs of his Body grew in that manner, that he was co" vered all over with Briftles 5 the hair of his Head and Beard reach" ing to his Wafte, that he appeared like fome Wild or Savage Crea" ture. (e) Arift. Their Face hath many RefembUnces to a Mans, for they have Nojirrls and Ears alike 3 and Teeth like a Man's, both the Fore-teeth 'and
the Grinders.

" The

Pliny (17) feems to have refped to this Text of Jriflotle^ and what follows, where he tells us, " Nam fimiarum genera perfedtam Hominis

" imitationem continent, facie, Naribus, Auribus, Palpebris, quas folse " Quadrupedum in inferiore habentGena. Jam Mammas in Pedore, " Brachia & Crura in contrarlum fimiliter flexa. In manibus, ungues, " digitos, longioremque medium. Pcdibus paulum difFerunt, limt " enim, ut manus, pralongi, led veftigium Palm^ fimile faciunt. Pol" lex quoque his & Articuli, ut homini 3 ac prster Genitale, & hoc in " maribus tanmm. Vilcera etiam interiora omnia ad exemplar. We will compare both their Accounts, with our Fygmie ; and obierve wherein they agree or differ from us. As for the Face' of our Pygmie^ it was liker a Mans^ than Ape's and Monkeys Faces are For it's Forehead was larger, and more globous, and the upper and Ipwer Jaw not fo long or prominent, and more fpread 5 and it's Head more than as big again as either of theirs But why the Philofopher^ after his general Affertion of the likenefs of the Face of an Ape to that of a Mans, fliould firft of all inftance in the Nofe, which Since in a Man the Nofe is prois fo much different, may feem ftrange tuberant and rifing, jutting out much beyond the whole furface, and herein 'tis altogether unlike to that of Brutes, and the Ape-kind too. 'Tis not therefore on this account that theComparifon is made. But I
: :
:

rather think, his

meaning muft be, that an Ape's Nofe is like a Man's^ not extended to the length of the Roftrnm, or upper Jarv^ as in Dogs and other Brutes, but reaches only to the upper Lip. a fimis Naribus, or this flatnefs of the Nofe, moft do derive the word Simia 5 tho' others, as Voffim, would have it, quafi mimia a (JAiJ,&.^ctjj, imitari^ from mimicking. But Scaliger will not allow it. Dicitnr autem Simla (faith he) non ab Imitatione, nt Grammatici imperiti, fed a fimitate. The Nofe of our Pygmie was flat like an Apes, not protuberant as a Mans ; and on the outfide of each Noftril there was a little Hit turning upwards, as in Apes. 'Tis obferved of the Indian Blacks, that their Nofe is much flatter than the Europeans ; which may be thought rather Natural to that Nation, than occafioned (as fome would make us believe) by the Mother's tying the Infant to her Back, and fo when at Workbruifing and flatting it againft her Shoulders 5 becaufc 'tis fo uniin that
it
is

verfal in

them

all.

(17) I^atw.

Jiijl. lib.

II. cap. 44. p.

m. 593.

C

As"

io

Orang-Outang five Homo Syhejhis

:-

Or^

As to the Ears, none could more refemble thofe of a -Muk, than our Here Pjgme's-^ both as to the largenefs, colour, fliape, and ftrufture.
1 obferved the Helix, Ant-Helix, Concha, Alvearhim, Tragus, Anti-tragm, and Lohtfs ; only the Cartilage was very fine and thin, and the Ears did not lye fo flat to the Head, as they do in a Mayt. But that may be from the'Cuftom of binding our Heads, when Infants. The Teeth of our Vygfnie refembled a Mans,vs\oxt than do thofe of Aps and Monkeys ^ as I fhall fnew in the OJieology. (/) Arid. And whereas other ^adrupeds have not Hair on both Eye-lids,
theje

have

;

But

'tis

very fine, efpecially that on the lower Eye-lid,
there.

and very

fmall.

But other

^(adrupeds have none

In our Vygmie the Cilia or Hair of both Eye-lids appeared very fair The Supercilia or Hair of the plain, but not fo large as in Men. Eye-brows, feem'd to be rubb'd off 5 which might be occafioned by the that place, more than in Men : Which is jutting out of the Cranium a Provident Provifion of Nature, for the better fafeguard of the Eyes, and their defence from the Injuries they might otherwife receive in the Woods. But the Philofopher's Affertion, that no ^tadruped hath Hair on the under Eye-lid befides Man but the J/^e-kind, I cannot juftifie or I do not take his meaning aright The' he has much the fame Opinion Where he tells us, KaJ <^Xvpx^l^^c, /aav avQpoDiroi a little before. (18) Totf \' a-y^wv Itt' ajULfM ^\2(, it) <lv fJUcyxXixi!;, i-^ T^''^<=''J) ^j ^^ "^^ 'fhn^.

and

m

i,

:

juuvau r^^ig "TmpvKcttnv. Which Scaliger thus renders Ac Palpebras homo utraque in Gena habet turn d^ in Alk, in Pube Pilos. deters Animantes neqiie in his lock, neque in Gena. itzferiore : Sed fub Genam d^ pauC0S d^ pauc£. Our Pygmie had Hair in the Arm-pits, and that in the Pubk feemed fomewhat different from what grew on the reft of the Body 5 being not fo ftrait, but fomewhat curled ; and greyifti, not black. But I muft here Remark, that Pliny ufes the words Palpebrs and Gena , in his Tranflating this Text of Arijiotle, different from what commonly they fignifie now. For by Palpebrs he means^ what Arijiotle and Hippocrates call ^Aspaei.?^?, i. e. the Hair on the Rim of the Eye-lids, a palfitatione ; and Fefius calls Cilia, quia oculos celent d" tueantur And by Gena, he underftands the Eye-lid ^ as appears from that PafTage of Pliny I have juft now quoted, , Palpehrk quas fols ^ladrupedum in inferior habentGena. And fo Scaliger ufes thefe words in this Tranflation of Arijiotle : And he makes Cilium to fignifie, Summmn Genae ambitum^ and
iviQi^
:

&

:

not the Hair

there.

\g)

Arift.

They have two Teats or Nipples of fmall Breajis on the Ster-

num.

(18) Hifi. Animal,

lib,

2. p.

m. liii

The Anatomy of a
The
Philofopher here obferves,

T YG

M

I E.

1

That the Ape-kind, common with H«»iaKe, have the TAamntis on the Sternum or Breaft , which is different ixomBmUs. And tho' the E/e/'/j^wi herein feems fomewhat alike, yet
he makes
TZiT 5-)i9&i,

this diftinftion,

(19)

h

Si iAdpag i'^ot [mv [am'^hc, ^'0, a?i\' ««

&*•

aMa

vrpo?
Ic ,

7W

fiiO&j.

Scaliger renders

or as

Juxta Fe^im poffus, quam in FeSore, as Theodorus Gaza^ non in Pe6fore^ fed paiilo citra.

(20) he more particularly expreffes himfelf, ;9 jS bub Armk, as G^zi^ renlAsipc; iy&i -Tvut; fxa.'^Hc, ^o Treg/ to? fjujL^a.?\!x<;. :," ad Ax iL'as^ as Scaliger , where he further tells us, That the M^/e ders it as well as Female Elephant have thefe Teats ^ but they are very fmall, in refpeft of the Bulk of it's Body, and fo placed that fide-ways, you can't fee them. The Bear (he adds) hath four Teats 5 Sheep have but two, and thofe between the hinder Legs ; Cows have four Teats there. Other Animals (he faith) have thefe Teats in the middle of the Belly ^ and ufually more numerous ; as the Dog and Swine-ktnd : But the Panther hath but four in the Belly The Camel hath two Mamm^ there, and four Teats, as a Com ^ and a Lionefs but two there. But Apes and Monkeys have their Te<?fj upon the Breaji , as Womefs have; and (21) Alberts Magnus gives this Reafon for it, Mammillas autem habet in PeUore Jtcnt Midier, eb qtthd manus dedit ei Natur^a, qttibus ad.PeBm potefi elevare partum, Jicut Mulier. Our Pygmie was a Male, yet here the two Papills or Te<?^j- appeared very plain, and were exactly Tht Mamm£ or Breaji s WQte fmall and .fituated as they are in Men. and not protuberant. The Female Ora^tg-Outang of (22) Bontius thin, is pictured with pendulous large Breajis, and they are fo defcribed by And (24) Gaffendt^, in the Life of Peireskf, fpeaking (2:5) Tnlpitfs. of the Barris, faith, Huic Mamm£ ad pedis Ipngitudinem. (A) Arift. They have Arms like a Man, but hairy 5 and they bend them and the Legs as a Man does ; the flexion of the one being contrary to the
little-

And a

after,

:

other.

and Arm of our Pygmie were very hairy outwards, not The Contratendency of the Hair here, as that of the Shoulder pointing downwards, and that of the Arm pointing upwards,

The

Shoulder

fo hairy inwards.

have already noted. This difference here remark- of this fore-limb in our Pygmie, as well as in Apes and Monkeys ; that 'tis longer in them proportionably, than in Man. I
like Lucan's Pila minantia Pilis, I
I fhall

examine this Part more particularly in the Myology and OJieology. But the Curvature or Fledtion of the Arms and Legs in our Pygmie, as alfo in i!^es and Monkeys, is juffc the fame as in Man ; the Arms bending forwards, and the Legs backwards ; whereas in other Brutes, tht fleftion
(hall

(ip) Arift. ibid. p. 151. (20) Arift. ibid. p. iy6. (22) Jac. Bonti) Hifl. Nat. (z5r Med. lib. 5. cap. 52. p, 84. (24) Ga&nd. de ^ita Peircski;. lib. 5. p. m. "170.

(21) Albert, de Animal. lib. 22. p. 224. Med. I. 3. cap. '36, (23) Nic. Tulpi) Obferv, ^^
'

-

-

C

2

^Of

12
^'Rnt',-,.,

Orang'^Outang five

Homo

Sjlveftris

:

Or,

of the fore and hinder Legs is both the fame way. Homini Genua. Cnbita contraria. (faith (25) P/z'^/) itemUrfs <^ fmraritm genert., oh id minims ^emicibm. I fhall examine this Place of Pliny in the Ofleo'
logy.

&

(/) Arlft. Bejides they have but all thefe fomervhat ruder.

Hands, Fingers^ and Nails li^ a

Mans

Hand, of our Pygmie was different from a Mans, in that the Palm was much longer 5 fo the Thumb too, was lefs than the other Fingers 5 whereas in a Man, the Thumb is ufually thicker than the reft of the Fingers : In both thefe refpe^ts, it more refembled the Jpe-kind. But the Fingers of our Pygmie being fo much bigger than thofe of Apes and Monkeys 3 and its Nails being broader, and flatter, on both thefe Accounts it was liker a Man. ungues Clauful^ Nervorum fumm£ exijiimantnr (faith (^26) Pliny) omnibus hi,quibus digiti : fed Simi£ imbricati, Hominibus lati. In the Palms of the Hands of our Pygmie were remarkable thofe Lines which are ufually taken notice of in Palmefiry ; and at the ends of the Fingers were thofe Spiral Lines, which are ufually in a Man's. (4) Arift. The Feet are particular j for they are like great Hands, and

The

&

the Toes like Fingers the Foot like the

5

the middlemojl being the longeji
the

:

And

the Sole

of

Palm of

Hand,

but more extended, or longer.

Pliny ( as I have remark'd ) renders this PafTage thus : Pedibus paulum tit manus, prslongi Palm<e fimile fa, fed vefkigium ciunt. the Palms of the Hands, and the Soles of the Feet of our
differunt, funt enim,

Now

Pygmie^ were equally long, and longer, proportionably, than in Man 3 and herein it refembled more the ^pe-kind As it did likewife in the length of the Toes, which were as long as the Fingers, as alfo in having the rniddlemoft Toe longer than the reft. For in the Hand of a Man , the middle Finger is the longeft, but in the Foot, the middle Toe is not. The Philofopher does very well liken it to a Hand, fince befides the length of the Toes, like Fingers, it had the great Toe, like the Thumb fet off at a diftance from the range of the other Toes, as we (hall fiiew here:

after.

(/) Arift.

and
as a

The file of the Foot in the hinder part was more callous, ill, odly imitating a Heel : For they ufe their Feet in both Capacities, both
Foot,

Hand and

and bend them

like

Hands.

In the Ape-^m^ there is a true Os Catck, befides this CaUofity. 'And in our Pygmie this Heel-bone was liker that in a Man, than theirs is. The Philofopher in the former Paragraph ftiewed what refemblance this Part had to a Humane Hand, in this, by reafon of the Os Calcis, how 'tis like

<25)

Plini) NciU.Hift.

1.

II. cap. 45.

p.m. 594.

(26)

Plini)

Nat.HiSi.

lib.

ir. cap. 45. p. 594.

a Foot

5

i

""
.

The Jnatomy

of a T Y G

M

I

E.

^3

and then makes an Inference from the different ftruifture of this it performs the Ufes and Offices of both. All which is very agreeable to our Pygmk. But this Part^ in the Formation and it's Funftion too, being liker a Band, than a Foot ; for the diftinguiftiing this fort of Animals from others, I have thought, whether it might not be reckoned and call'd rather ^ladru-manm than ^iaa Foot
5

Organ^ that

dritpes^

i. e.

a four-handed^ than a four-footed Animal.
-^

ufes it's hinder Fee? upon any occafion, zs Hands fo likeobferved in our Pj/gmie, that it would make ufe of it's Hands, to wife I fupply the place of Feet. But when it went as a ^adruped on all four, 'twas awkwardly 5 not placing the Palm of the Hand flat to the Ground, but it walk'd upon it's Knuckles, as I obferved it to do, when weak and had not ftrength enough to fupport it's Body. So that this Species of Animals hath the Advantage of making ufe of their Feet as Hands,
it

And as

their Hands as Feet, as there is occafion. (m) Arift. The Os Humeri, and the Os Femoris tie Ulna and Tibia.

and

are fhort, in rej^e^ of

Os Humeri, and the Os Femork are much longer than the Vina and Tibia. For in a Skeleton of a Woman I have by me, the Os Humeri was Twelve Inches and a half, and the Ox Femoris Seventeen Inches long , whereas the Ulna was but Nine Inches and three quarters, and the Tibia Fourteen Inches long. In our Pygmie, the Os Humeri was Five Inches and a half, and the Os Femoris Five Inches long. The Vina was Five Inches and a half, and the Tibia was Four Inches long. Thefe Bones in the Skeleton of a Monkey, were much of the fame length with our Pygmies, fo that herein both differ from a Man, and our Pygmie more refembles the Ape-kind.
\n2L
Skeleton, tht

Humane

They have place of the Navel.
(ti) 'Arift.

tio

prominent Navel, but fomething hard^ in

this

In our Pygmie the Vmbilictfs or Navel appeared very fair, and in the 'tis in a Man 3 not prominent nor harder, but in all refped Natural and alike. (0) Arift. They have the upper Parts much larger than the lorver, as being Quadrupeds, almoji as jive to three ; and as upon this account, fo becaufe they have Feet like Hands, as if they were compounded of a Hand and Foot Of a Foot, in rejpe£{ of the Heel behind-^ and of a Hand, as to the other Parts ; for they have Fingers,' and what we call the Palm.
exaft Place, as
.'

In Quadrupeds ufually the Vpper or fore- parts are much larger than 5 and 'tis fo in.the Ape and Monh^ey-Ym^, as theP^/lofopher Remarks. But in our Pygmie I think this Obfervation will not hold. For tho' it v/as much emaciated, by reafon of it's long illnefs, fo that it feemed very thin and lank in the Belly 5 yet behind it look'd fquare enough, and proportionable as a Man. Bat the Orang-Outang of Tulpius
theL(?irer or hinder

had

,

14

Orang'^Outang five

Homo

Syhejlris

:

Or^,

(hall prefently give the Dimenfions of all had a large fquob Belly. the Parts, as foon as we have done with this Text of Arijlotk. (hall hereafter farther confider the ftrufture of the Foot in the Ofleology^ where we (hall defcribe the Os Calck, and, fhew how well it

We

We

performs
defign'd

But fince Nature Office, when this Animal ftands ere6t. not always to live on the Ground, but to get it's Prey in the Trees- likewife, it hath very wifely formed this Part like a Hand, by which means it can more eafily climb them ; and when there, (hift much better by this Contrivance 5 as I have (hewn in myDifcourfe (27) upon the Carigitejia, feu Marfupfak Amerkafium^ or the Anatomy of an Ofojfum ; which Animal had its hinder fee? formed like Hands (p) Arift. They live moft of their time as ^udrupeds more than a^
its
it

Bipeds^ or ereB,

Our Merchants

tell

me,

when

firft

they take Apes or Monh^ys^ to learn

them to go ereft, they ufually tye their Hands behind them. And I am of the Philofopher's Mind, that Naturally they go more on all Four, But whether 'tis fo in our Pyg^ie^ I do fufpeft 3 fince walkthan ereft. ing on it's Knuckles, as our Pygmie did, feeras no Natural Pofture 3 and 'tis fufficiently provided in all refpeds to walk ereflr. (q^ Arift. As ^adrupeds they have no Buttocks j as Bipeds^ no Tails
i,

er hut very

little.^

like

a

jljenv

of one.

Our Pygmie had Buttocks or Nates^ as we fhall fee in the Myology., but not fo much as in Man. The Os Jfchij or Coxcndix was very different Our as appears in the Skeleton, and as I fhall defcribe in the Ojieology. Pygmie had no Tail, but an Os Coxygis, as is in Man, which outwardlymade a little appearance, as in my Second Figure, and may be what AriCaud£ notam five vejiigium animadvertit, quant vix Oculk deprehendas. TaSlu tamen fubejfe intelligas, quam fi attra&^are tentes, prompt a miraque celeritate fefe fubtrahit,
(iotle

Remarks.

Scaliger has this

Note upon

it

:

ridicula indignatione

Ufum

pr£ fe

fert.

,

(r) Arift. The Female hath the Privy-parts, like a

Woman

;

hut the Male^

more

like

a Dog's, than a Man's.

was a Male, and this Part here wag nothing like a Dog's. For in the Penis of a Dog there is a large Bone, which is not in thQ Ape and Mi?«%)'-kind. Scaliger s Note here does not make out the Aflertion : nodos enim quojdam deprehen-. Canimim Genitale dixit SimiJ, non temere

Our

Subjeft

t,

did not obferve thefe Nodes here ^ but of this, more in the Anatomy of this Part. aid before') have Tails : As to the Vifcera as was f (j) Arift. TheCt\)\ all like a, Man s. they have them
dimtis
:

differt

autem figura

Glaftdis.

I

(^

!

(21)

Philofoph. TraiifaS.

Numb.

239..

So

The- Anatomy of a
So
Pliny, Vifcerii. et'iam intenora

TYG MI E,
But
I

15
find this a

For, as in the Strudture of the inward Parts, than either Apes or Monkeys^ yet in a great many things is very different ; but where it But on the other hand, Albert!./^ Magis fo, there it refembles an Ape. nus is much more mifcaken, who will not allow any likeneis at all.
nearer to a

great Miftake.

we

cmnia ad Exe/fjplar. (hew, our Fygmie, (hall

who comes much

Man

For fpeaking of an Ape, he tells us, (28) Et fimt in afzte hab'nis drximus^ bomini in exterioribus fimile exijiens , in miUo Jimilitudinem hahet minus fere omnibus aliis Beflik. Galen (29) is cum interioribm homink , much more in the right, who acknowledges a very great fimilitude between an Ape and a Man, both in the outward and inward Parts, where he tells us, Ka) 7n9^>i05 dTrnviaiv r^ ^lim lif.coi6lct7oq a.vQ^'J>Tra>, ly a-TiXdl'^vci, Aid Kf fjuiiin, it) os'^TKg/ai?, K) <p^^^, K) viv^ig, 077 K) t^ -^ og£v iSia,. '^^ t5 "^oTv ^cc^^&t (ntiXolv, &, Ttfg ir^odioig KoiAoii ceaTnp ^i^a Ttiv r^TZnv <p6m.v ^pMTKi, sy ^ipvov yiXctlvTZTOV aTTUVTav T^^ Tir^-mS^v i^&i, ly ftX&ig cisu.v'mi; aj'9^c^7r4), ii) n^mo'TTViv g^yyvXov, iy rQ^^Yi/\ov fMx.^v. i. e. An Ape k the moji like a Man of any ^ladruped :In the Vifcera and the Mufcles^and in the Arteries^ and Veins and Nerves, hecaufe 'tk fo in the ftruUiire of the Bones. For 'tk from their make, that it walks on two Legs, and ufes its fore-limbs as Hands. It hath the largeji Breaji of any ^adruped, and Clavicles or Collarbones like a Man, and a round Face, and a fmall or Jljort Neck: All which is very agreeable to our Pygmie, whom we fhall find more exa(!l:ly to anfwer this Character, than an Ape. And now having compared our Pygmie with this general Defcription that Arifiotle gives of the Jpe-kind 5 we (hall compare him with himfelf, by taking the different Dimenfions oi the feveral Parts, as well as of the whole Body j and fhall obferve what Proportions they had to one another. As. from the top of the Head, to the heel of the Foot in a ftrait Line, it meafured Twenty fix Inches. The Girth of the Body in the biggefl part about the Cartilago Enfiformk, was Sixteen Inches j over the Loim 'twas Ten Inches about. The Compafs of the Head over the Eyes and Ears, Thirteen Inches and a half. The aperture of the Eye-lids, three quarters of an Inch. From one corner of the Mouth, to the other, Two Inches and a quarter. From the middle of the upper Lip to the Eyebrow, 'twas two Inches three quarters. From the Eye-brov/ to the Occiput Seven Inches and a half. The Perpendicular Diameter of the Ear from the Top to the Lobe, was Two Inches and a half. The Horizontal Diameter of the Ear" was an Inch and half. The Verge or Compafs of the Ear about, was near Five Inches and a half. Where the Ear was faftened to the Head, it meafured above an Inch and half. From the Clavicula or Collar-Bone, to the Penk, Ten Inches. From the Cartilago En-/for mk to the Nivd, Three Inches and a half. From the Navel to the Penk, Three Inches. The diftance between the two TeatSjThree Inches

^

^

.

(28) Albertus De Animal,

lib.

22. p. 224.

(29) Galen, d; Anttt. Adminijli:

lib. i.

cap. 2. p.

m, 26.

and

16

Orang»-Outang five

Homo

Sjihejiris

:

Qr^

and

The length of the Arm, from the Shoulder to the end a quarter. Seventeen Inches. The Girth of the Shoulder about of the Fingers, the ruiddle, Four Inches and a quarter 5 of the Arm near the Elbow,

-

The Hand from the Wrift to the end of the Middle FinFive Inches. The Thumb was an Inch and a Five Inches and an half. ger, meafured Fore-Finger Two Inches, the Middle-Finger Two quarter long; the Inches and an half ; the Ring-Finger Two Inches and a quarter, and the Little Finger One Inch and an half long. The Girth of the Thumb and the Little Finger, was One Inch 5 the Girth of the other Fingers was an Inch and a quarter. The Palm of the Hand was Three Inches long, and an Inch and three quarters broad. From the head of the Thigh-Bone to the Heel, it meafured Twelve Inches From the Heel to the end of the Middle-Toe ( which was the longed) Five Inches three quarters. The Girth of the Thigh was Six Inches 5 of the Leg at the Calf, Four Inches and a quarter ; of the Foot The Great Toe at the fetting on of the Great Toe, near Five Inches. was an Inch and half long, the Fore-Toe One Inch, the Middle-Toe an Inch and half, the Third Toe an Inch and a quarter, the Little Toe One Inch long. The Soje of the Foot, about the fetting on of the Great Toe (where 'twas broadeft) was Two Inches over; but nearer The Girth of the Great Toe, the Heel, 'twas an Inch and half broad. where biggeft, an Inch and half 5 the other Toes were an Inch about. Thefe Meafures were taken before the Skin was ftrip't off, in the Skeleton, or the Skin ftuff 'd, they may prove otherwife. And having now given thefe Dbnenjions of the whole, and of moft of the External Parts ; you will the better conceive the exaft (hape of this wonderful Animal by the Figures I have caufed to be made df it. As the Firjl Figure reprefents our Pygmie ereft, where you have a vievp of all the Fore-Parts. Being weak, the better to fupport him, I have given him a Stick in his R.ight-Hand. But our Figure being made after he was dead, the Head feems too much fallen in between the Shoulders, as if it had a very (hort or little or no Necl{_, which takes off from the Beauty of the Figure ; but this is redfified and mended in the Figure of The Head the Skeleton^ where you will fee the Neck proportionate. here is large and globous ; the Ears (landing off, not lying clofe. The Face looks like an Old wither'd Man s, which without doubt was render'd much more fo, by an Ulcer it had in one of it's Cheeks^ occafioned by a Fall it had on Ship-board upon a Cannon, which forced out one of it's Teeth 5 and the' Jatv-bofie afterwards proving carious, it might The riling of the Cranium juft under the Eye-lids^ as haflen it's Death. I have remark'd, is different from what is in a Man, and renders the Face harder ; as does likewife it's flat Nofe^ and the Z)pper Jaw being more prominent, and leffer fpread, than in a Man ; and it's Chin or Under Jar» Tht Eyes were a little funk, the Mouth large, the Teeth .being (horter. The Face was without Hair, and the Colour a little perfedly Humane. taivny j the Skin on the reft of the Body was white.
:
'

The

The Anatomy of a
The
Shoulders are fpread

T YG
Teats

Ml E,

17

Thorax or Breaji extended althe fame 5 the Belly was reafon of it's illnefs, but here lank and pinch'd in, not prominent, by it held a more proportionable breadth to a M.an%^ than a ^adruped's. The A;!7/x were longc-r than inaMrf», and fo were the Pi?/^?^ of the Hands ; but the Thumb was much lefs, the Nails exadtly like a Man's ^ and the Nn-Jil the fame. The Penk was different, as we fhall hereafter Here was no Scrotum, but the Teftes were contained in the Refhevv. gion of the Pubk under the Skin, which made it here more protuberant. The Thighs and Legs wereTomewhat divaricated or ftradling, for v/ant of ftrength, either from it's illnefs, or being but young. We obferved Calves in it's Legs , the Feet long, as likewife the Toes, which were liker Fingers ; and the Great Toe exa(5tly like a Thumh^ more than that on the Hand.
large, the

and

together like a

Mans^

the

M.amm£ and

Second Figure reprefents the hinder Parts of this Creature, in an Ereft Pofture likewife. Where may be obferved, the Giobous Figure and largenefs of the Head, with theE^rj- (landing off; the curious (liape

The

and
is

ftraitnefs
little

of the

Back_,

and

how

it

fpreads.

At

the

Os Coxygk

there

a

Protuberance, but nothing

like a Tail.

In this Figure I have reprefented him with the Fingers of one Hand bended, as if kneeling upon his Knuckles, to fhew the Aftion, when he goes on all four : For the Palms of his Hands never touch the Ground,

but when he walks as a ^tadruped, 'tis only upon his Knuckles. The other Hand is holding a Rope, to fhew his Climbing ; for he will nimbly run up the Tackle of a Ship, or climb a Tree And having this hold, he is the better fupported, to fhew the Sole of the left Foot, and the Heel there 5 on account of which Heel it may be thought a Foot : But the Great Toe being fet off fo far from the range of the others, and they all being fo large and long, it more refembles a Hand, as has been obferved.
:

we compare our Figures with thofe given by Tulpiuf, Boniim, and That of Tulpius feems the mod Gefizer, we fhall find a great difference.
If

Natural 5 but being made fitting, it does not fo well reprefent the Proportions of the feveral Parts. The Chaps or Rofirum is longer, and 'tis lefs hairy in the fore-parts than ours. The Mamm£ are larger and pendulous, and the Belly more protuberant. Dapper, (30) in his Defcription of Africa, has borrowed this Figure from Tulpim, without nafning him, as likewife his Defiription, which is the fame. For avoiding the often quoting it, I will here Tranfcribe Tulpir^s's Account But why I think it not a Satyr, as he and Dapper make it, I v/ill give my Reafons in the follovpmg Effay. Tulpim his words are thefe (31)
: :

,(30)

Dapper

T)e[ai$t. de

/'

Afiiqu. p.

m. ^6$.

(31) Obfervat. Med.

lib. 3.

cap. 5^,

D

^mwk

1

8

Orang'-Outang fve
extra
5

Homo

Sj> he/irk :

Or,

forum Medicfim, attexam tcimen huic teU^ Satyrnm Inmemorra, ex Angola. deUtum : d^ Frederico Henrico^ Araujlonenjium Prindpr^ dono datum. Erat antem h'tc Satyrus qnadrupes : fed ab hnmana J^ede, qnam pr£ fe fert, vacatur Indk Orang-Ontang : jive homo
dicum
nofira.

ilnamvk

Exprimms longitud'me pmrum tr'rcrafjithfexennem, Corpore erat nee obefo, nee gracilis fed qnadrato : habjUffimo tamen^ ac perfficrjjzmo. Artuhus vero tarn firiBk^^ nntfculk adeo vaflk : Jit quidvk auderet^ ^^ poffet. A^nterms undrqite glaber : at pone hirfatus^ ac nigris
Sjlvejirk, nti Afiicank Sljioias morrou.

mmn-^

tit

&

crimhii^ obfitm.
mgofaffi^

Fades

nientiebatur

& edentulam amim.
©

hom'mem

:

fed nans finm^

& adHnc£y

Aures vere. nihil difcrepare^ ab huKiana forma, Z)ti neque peUus 5 ormamma pr£tumida Qerat enim fexus fmminini^'^ venter habebat ii?nbiliciim profuudiorem 5 artffs.^ cum fuperiores, turn znferiores, tarn exa&am cum homine fimilitudinem : ut vix ovum ova viderk fimilim. Nee cubito defuit requifita commijfura : nee manibm digitorum ordo : «edum poUici figura hum ana : vel cruribus fur£ : vel pedi calck fulcrum. §^i£

natum utrinqne

concinna^ ac decens membrerum forma^ in caufsa fuit, quod multoties incederet ereSim : neque UttoUeret mi7tus gravatij qukm transferret facile quale^

mnque^

graviffinii onerk^

pondm.

hibiturm prehendebat canthari anfatn^ manu altera 3 alteram vey^o vafis fundo fupponens., abflergebat deinde madorem labik reliBum , non minus
adpofits.,

ac ft delicatilfimiim vidiffes aulicum.

^am eandem

dexteritatem

Inclinans quippe caput in pulvinar^ eorpm firagulk convenienter operiens, velabat fe hand alith, ac Ji vel molUljimus illic decubuijfet homo.

obfervabat utique cubitum ituru&.

^

^lin imo

narravit aliquand)i ajfini nojiro^ Samueli Blomartio,

Rex

Sam-'

pmfertim mares^ in Infida Born£o^ tantam habere animl confidentiam^ tam validam mtifculorum compagem : ut non femet hnpetum fecerint^ in viros ar>natos :. nedum inimbeUem^fwminarum^pttellarumve^ fexnm. ^larum interdum tam ardenti flagrant deftderio : ut raptas non femel confiuprarint. Summi quippe in venerefh funt proclives (^ quod ipfis^ cum llbidinojis veterum Satyrk commune^ imo interdum adeo. protervi, ac falaces
hacenjis, Satyros hofce^

&

ut mulieres Indic£^ propter ea vitent,

cane

pejm^ angue^

falt/0.^~

ac lujira

,

in quibus delitefcunt impudica hac animalia.

hath tranfcribed this Account of Tulpim^ (as I faid) " The but,without taking any notice of him, makes this Preface to if. " Quoias Morrou of which I have j^oken in the Kingdom of Quoia ) ( " are bred likewife in the Kingdom of Angola. Fhk Animal^ as it hath a great deal of a Man, fo a great many have thought it to be the Iffue of a Man and an Ape : But the Blacks themfelves rejeii thk Opinion. Now in the Place that Dapper refers to, he feems to give it as the Opinion of the Blacky ^ that they are the Iffue of Mqn ; but that by their always
Trapper.,
^''

who

living

The Anatomy of a
living in the

TYG Ml E.
:

i^
his
tine

Woods, they
fo have

Words, and
Salvage.

I fliall tranfcribe are become half-Beafis. done with him (32) On troavc dans ks bok

Efpecs de Satyre que

ks Negroes

appellent
le

^loras-Morrou^
et

d^

les

Portugak^
ils

lis ont la tete grojje^

Corps gros

pefant^

ks

bras

mrvenx^

nont point de queve, et Marchent tantot tout droits et tantot a quatre pieds. Les Animaux fe nourrijjent de fitdts et de Miel Saiivage^ fe batteut a lis font ijfu des Hommes^ a ce difent tout .moment ks uns contre ks atttres.

&

les

d<>:is les
le

Negroes J mak ForHs.

ils

font

devenm ainp
ils

On

dit qu

for cent les
arme-z,.

demi-betes en fe tenant toujoitrs femmes d^ les flks^ qdils ont

&

courage d' attaquer des

Hommes

examine Jacobuf Bontiuss Figure., and compare it with ours : And tho' he tells us, that he had feen fome of both Sexes that went ereft, efpecially that Female one., whofe Effigijes ht here gives us '/et I can't but think, he indulged more his Fancy herein, than copied .he true Life 5 or at leafl: it was much different from ours. For ours had no luch long Hair on the Head, and all round the Face ; the Face of our Pjgw/ie was not fo flat and round, nor the Nofe and Under- Lip fo rifing The large Breajis in his, anfwers the Defcription which is given of it by others 5 ours being a Male, had but fmall ones. But the Armcsm our Pygwie (as 'tis in the yj/^e-kind) were much longer than they are repreienced in his Figure., and t\\Q Feet are altogether diiferent 5 for he makes them exaftly like Httmaf/e Feet, and nothing like Hands,
:

We will now

which is fo tvemarkable a thing in all thefe Animals, of it felf, is enough to diicpuntenance the Truth of
render
it

that this Tvliftake
his Picture,

and

not take notice, how ill the Hair is drawn, nor make any further Remarks upon the ftrudure of the Limbs, fince I But becaufe he hath ex-^ confefs I do mifirnft the whole Reprefentaiion. prefs'd, that this Creature had fo much Modefly, I have added to his Figure whac becomes that Character.
fufpeded.
I iliall

That Figure in Conradm Gefner, (33) wliich he tells us he had out of German Book, wrote about the Holy Land, in fome Particulars I think a more exad and jufl: For here he makes the Feet like Hands, the Legs more divaricated, the Face longer, and the Roflntm more extended. But the Arms are too fhort, and 1 do not know for what reafon there is a Tail clap t on, which fits untowardly enough, which muft be furely an Addition of the Painter ^ or if there is any fuch Creature ia Nature, it muft be of another Family, different from ours.
:

However,
be the
eafier

I

compared

have caufed all thefe Figures to be copyed, that they may But fince they are fo difagreeing, as are likewife
:

i_^

(52) Dapper

ibid. p.

m. z^j^

(33)

Hifi- de

Qvairiqd.

p.

m. 8 jp,

O

-2

20'

Orang'-Outang five

Homo

Syheftrls

:

Qv,

the Defcrjptions they give of them, it fufficiently juftifies my Complaint of the uncertainty we have of the true Animal, that they are difcourfing about y iince the fame Name probably may be given to ditferent Species Orang-Otitang^ or Hotno Sylvejlm, or the WUd of the Jpe-kind. Man^ being a General Name^ I have given it alfo to our Subject : Tho' I confefs I am not fully fatisfied v/hether it he exadly the fame with that of Tulp/m or Bonth0if or even whether thzt oi Bcntim ht- tht fame

Now

with that of Tf^/p/i%r. Yox Bontzus his Account is fo very imperfeci:,. from thence one cannot make a fafe Conclufion ^ and I rather fufpeft the contrary : For Bontius defcribes it with foft, tender Paflions 5 Bontim's words are Ttiipius and Dapper make it Warlike and Fighting. thefe (3 4) Aji quod indjorent meretur admiratlonem, vidi ego altquot ntrithat

nfque fexus ere&e incedentes, imprimis earn (^cnjm Efflgiem hie exhibeo ) Satyr am femellam^ tanta. verecundia ab ignotis jihi hominibm occitlentem , turn qnoque faciem manibus (^liceat ita dicere') tegentem ubertimqne' lachrjf-

mantem^ geniitm cientem, d^

c£teros

humanos a&us exprimentem^
Loqui vera

ut nihil

ei_.bumcim deejfe diceres^ prater loquelam.

eos eafqne pojfe,

Ja-

'ZMm amnt^fednanveUe^ nt ad labores cogerentur : ridicule niehercules. ]>iomen ei. indunt Ourang Outang, quod Hominem Sylv<ie fignificat, eofque Cercop'ithemifei afftrffiant i Libidine Mulierum Indarum^ qu£ fe Simk

&

emdefejianda libidine mifcent

:

Nee

pueri credunt, nifi qui

nondum are

lavantur.-

then adds, that in Borneo there are thefe Wild Men, and with Porro in InfulL Tails, but much (hotter than that pictured in Gefner. Borneo. (^(Mh Bonti;^') in Regno Succodana di£io, a. jtoflrk Mereatoribuif. propter Oryx.am (^ Adantantes fiequentato. Homines montani Caudati in inter ioribus Regni ifweniuntur, quos multi e nojirk in Aula Regis Succodanie.

And

viderent.

Cauda autem

iUis

eB prominentia quadam
depilis^

tHor, aut pauto amplius, digitos excrefcens,

offis Coecygos^ ad qua.' eodem modo, quo truncata cauda

( quos nos Spligiones

vocamm^ fed

'Tis for thisReafon therefore, that I might more particularly diftinguifh our Animal, that I have call'd it a Pygrnie ; a Name that was formerly given to a fort of Ape, as I (hall prove. But the Poets and Hijiorians too

of former Ages have invented fo many improbable Stories about them, that they have rendred the whole ////2(?ry-concerning them (hall therefore endeavour, to ridiculous, and not to be believed. Fables in the following Ejfay. diftinguilh the Truth from the

We

The Baris or Ba.rris likewife feems to be an Ourang Outang, or a Wild^ Mani) but whether exaftly the fame with ours, I will not determine, For all the Accounts concerning it that l but leave to farther Enquiry.

("34^

Jac. Bontij, ^ift, i^ap.

^ Md.

Jib. 5.

cap. 32;

The Jnatomy of a
have
at prcfent

TYG Ml
ic's

E,

~

21

Docility and Aftions, and the Servile Offices 'tis capable of performing in a Family, than any thing particular as to the Defcription of the Body ; only in general that 'tis an Ape like a Man. Thus Peter Gajjendus (35) in the Life of Peiresky tdls us, that in Java Major were obferved by the Sieur de Saint-Amant,

met

v/ith,

relate rather

Ammalia qua
doubted

fimias media j which beinp' produced a Letter from Nat alls ov Noel, a Phyfician who lived in Afiica , which gave him this Account. Ejfe in Guinea Simias^ barb^ procera, canaqite, C^ pexa propemodum venerabikk^ incedere iff&s lente, ac videri Jibi pr£ caterk fapere : qui maximi fant, C^ Barris
forent Natm-Lt ho?umes inter
of, Peireshy

&

dicuntur^poUere

maximi judicio
;

indutos iUico bipedes incedere

femel duntaxat quidpiam docendos 5 vejls jcite ludere fijiida^ Cithara^ aliifque id genm
5

(^nam qnod everrant doffmm^ convert ant veru, pinfant in mortario\, aliaqtis ratione famnlatum pr^Jia-nt^ hand repntari admodnm ) fzminas dtnique its ik pati menfirua, C^ tnares tmdierum ejje appetentijjimos. He likewife produced other Letters from Ac^/fW or d Arcos^ which related what happened to one of Ferrari a when he was at Angola^ the Country from' v/hence our Animal, as likewife that of Tulpim came. I will gtve it inGajJend!0S words : Incidit nempe quadam die inNigritam Canibm venan-' tern Homines ut yifitm, Sylvejirek. Capto, c^foqiie ikontm uno, inhumanilUe ver)). falierk ^ iatem NigrittS increptdt, qui in funm genus ita feviret. ^lippe file inquit, nam hie nan efi homo, fed bellua homini perfimilk.
pafcitur herba, inteftinaque

Ovina

habet, qtiod ut credos melius,

rem

ecce 5

Sequenti die rurfus venatum, captique mas ^'^ fimulque abd.onmt apernit. fcemina : huic ad pedk longitudinem : c£tera mulieri jimillimct

Mamm£

fuit

ty

nifi

quod Intefiina

qiioque

herbk

oppleta, e$"

cujufmodi
lent.

Ovk,

habuiP,'

Totum. ntique pilofum Corpus, fed pilo brevi, ac fatk

Our Animal was not
cofius relates

fo bearded, as that
;

of Natalk
as
it's

,

and what Ar-

feeding upon Grafs from ours 5 tho' as to it's docility and capacity of performing thofe Anions mentioned, I can't but think our Subjeft inight eafily have been taught to do them j and, it may be, others too of the ^pe-kind, tho' different : As there are wonderful Inflances of this kind given of them by Nierembergius (:^6') and others. Dapper's (57) Defcription is much the fame. TAere k- a fort of Ape (faith he ) call'd Baris, which they take when young:, and breed them up, and make them fo tame, that they will do almoll all the Work, of "' Slave : For they go ordinarily upright as Men do ; they will beat Rice in a Mortar, carry Water in a Pitcher, and fljeiv fuch pretty ASiions of Addrefs, that they extreamly divert their Mafters. And in Nierember" In Guinea fcribit P. Jargit^ (38) there is much the fame A.ccount. " ricus exiftere Simias, quae inftar famuli in Pila tundant qua^cunque in

of

his

Wild Man, or Barrk

and having

it's

Intejiines like a Sheep's, all this is far different

(55) Vb.^. p.m. 171.
V' 24?.

(3^)
1.

(38)

I^ifl'

m.

Hifl. I^at. lib. 9. cag.
.

44,

(37) Dapper VeM^r.

de

I'

AfiiqHt,

9.

cap. 43,,

"

earn-

•»

22
"
"
«'
'

Orang^Outang five Homo

Sj/lveflm

:

Qr^

imponuntur, qus; aquam a fluviisin Hydriis capite domum deferant, ita tamen ut ubi primum domus fores attigerint, illko Hydriis
earn
fint,

" exonerandse
item

clanioribus ac fletu
alia obire

alioqui eas excidere, cafuque ifto frangi, atque turn Neque ifta modo, fed plurima compleri univerfa.
Baris.

de domefticis minifteriis dicuntur hi Simij

To-

"

ro(i funt 8c robufti.

inform us of the particular (hape ftru£ture, and make of the Body and the feveral Parts of this Animal, fo as to be fully certain whether it be the fame, or a different Creature And tho' I have mentioned it, as a Confrom t\\t Ourang-Outang. je6ture that probably the Bark might be, what we call a DrJU^ yet I own it as an uncertainty, fince I have not met with what can juftifie, or

But

all

this

does not

fufficiently

fully

fatisfie

me

herein.

The Vongo
Man,
is

likewife

different

which is defcribed by Furchas^ as a fort of WiU from our Subjeft ; as it may be alfo from the reft hi-

The Reafon, therefore, why I infert the Defcriptherto mentioned. tion of this, as likewife of the others, I own to be, that hereby I might excite fome Inqmftjve Obfervers to give us a truer Account of this large and noble Specks of Animals. Tis an Enquiry that would recompence their Curiofity with abundance of Satisfaction, by the many and ufeful Difcoveries that they would make, and extreamly enrich the Natural Htflory of Animals, whofe enlargement, I think, in this Inquifitive Age, hath not advanced fo much as that of Botanic. For how great Diligence hath been ufed of late, to ranfack both the Indies, to pry into all the Corners of the World, both inhabited, and uninhabited, to find out a new Plant, not before defcribed ? And with what greac Expence, and how magnificently are their Figttres Printed ? And how little hath been
done in the Improvement of the F/^wj of Animals? Not that I any ways diflike the former, but the latter being a Nobler Subjeft, I can't but recommend it, as deferving the Labours of the Curiom likewife ; and if any, this kind, I think, which comes fo near to a Man, may befpeak
the preference.

But I beg the Reader's Pardon for this Digreffion. Purchas's (39^ words This Pongo is in all Proportions like a Man, but that he is more are thefe like a Giant-Creatnre, than a Man : For he k very tall, and hath a Man's His Face and Ears are Face, bolloiv-eyed, with long Hair upon hk brows. Hk Body k full of Hair, but not very Hair,^ and hk Hands alfo. without He d/ffereth not from a Man, but in thick,, and it k of a dimnidd colour. hk Legs, pr he hath no Calf He goeth always on hk Legs, and carries hk Hands cLtJped on the Nape of bis Neck. vphen he goeth upon the Ground,
: ,

fz?) Pp.rcha5 Filirms, Part.

2.

1.

7., cap. 3. §. 7.

The Anatomy of a

T Y G MTe,

^3

the Trees, and build (Jjelters for the Rain. They Jleep They Jied uton Fruits that they find, in the Woods, and upon Nuts ; for they eat no kind of They cannot f^ca/i, and have no Z)nderjianding, 7to more than a FleJJ}.

m

Beaji.

The People of

the Country,

Fires, where they fleep in the

when they Travel in the Woods, make Night : And in the Mor7ting when they are
fit

gone, the
ther,

Pongoes
kill

-will

come and

about the Fire,

till it
'

goeth out

for

they have no

XJnderfianding to lay the

Wood

together.

They go many toge-

Woods. Many times they feed where they he, and fo beat them with their clubbed Fifls, and pieces of Wood, that they will run away roaring fiota them. Thefe Pongoes are never taken alive , becaufe they are fo flron<7 that Ten M.en cannot hold one of them : But yet they take many of their Toung Ones with poifoned Arrows. The Toung Pongo hangeth on hk Mother's Belly, with hk Hands fafl clafped about her ; fo that when any of the Country People ^i// any of the Females, they take the Toung one which hangeth

and

many Negroes

that Travel in the
to

fall upon Elephants, which come

fafl tipon

hk Mother.

Dead

with great

among th^mfelves, they cover the heaps of Boughs and Wood, which k commonly found in
they

When

die

'

the Forrefis.

Oar Pygmie had
and

it

Calves in his Legs, tho' not large, being emaciated ^ being young, I am uncertain to what height in time it might have

grown ; tho' I cannot think to the juft Stature (if there be any fuch) of a Man. For different Nations extreamly vary herein, and even thofe of the fame. Nor did our Pygmie feem fo dull a Creature as thefe Pongoes, but on the contrary, very apprehenfive, tho' nothing fo robuft
and ftrong
I
(hall

-

as they are reprefented to be.

only further add what le Compte, a Modern Writer, tells us of Man, and fo I think I (hall have done : For this Argument is [o Fruitful, that one does not know when to conclude. (40) Lewk k Compte therefore in his Memoirs and, Obfervations upon China, tells us That what k to be feen in the J/le of Borneo, k yet more Remarkable, and furpafieth all that ever the Flifiory of Animals hath hitherto related to be the
the Savage
z-zoB admirable, the People

.

kftown to be true

:

of the Country affure us, as a thing notorioufiy That they find in the Woods a fort of BeaB, called the

Savage

Man

^

Members of
pjould have

the Body, are fo like ours,

whofe Shape, Stature, Countenance, Arms, Legs, and other that excepting the Voice only, one
not to reckon them equally

much ado

Men

with certain Barbarians

in Africa, who do not

much

differ

from

Beajis.

endued with extraordi(peak,, nary firength, and notwithjianding he walk/ but upon two Legs 5 yet k he fo People of ^tality fwift of Foot, that they have much ado to out-run him.
or Savage

Thk Wild

Man, of whom T

^

;

H^)

Pag. m.

5 JO.

24
Courfe

Or ang^O Jit ang five Homo Sykejlns

'.

Or,

htrti^ as ws do Stags here, and thk fort of Hunting is the Kings Skin k all hairy, hk Eyes funk^ in hk Head, a Divertifement. ufnal tanned Face 5 hut all hk Lineaments are petty proporfiern Countenance, 1 learn d all thefe Par' tionable, although harfj, and thickned by the Sun. tiadars from one of our French Merchants, vpho hath remained fome time

Hk

Neverthelefs, I do not believe a Man ought to give much upon the Ijland. Credit to fuch fort of Relations, neither muU we altogether reje£i them as fabulous j but wait till the unanimous Tejlimonies of fever al Travellers may with the Truth of it. more particularly acquaint

m

China to the Coafi of Coramandel, / did my felf fee in the Straits of Molucca a kind of Ape, that might make pretty credible that which IjuU now related concerning the Savage Man.
Pajjlng upon a time f'om

bends a little, lih^ ^ T>ogs, that hath been taught to Dance^ it makes ufe of it's two Arms as we do 5 it's Vifage k in a manner as well favoured,as theirs of the Cape of Good Hope 3 but the Body k all covered with a white, blacks, or grey Wool : As to the reji, it cries exa&ly like a Child ; the whole outward A^ion k fo Humane, and the PaJJJons Jo lively and fignifcant, that dumb Men can fcarce They do ej^ecially appear to exprefs better their Conceptions and Appetites. he of a very kind Nature ; and to JJjeiv their Affe&ions to Perfons they know and love, they embrace them, and l^fs them with tran^orts that furprife a. Man. They have alfo a certain motion, that we meet not with in any Beafl,
It

marches naturally upon

it's

two hind Feet, rvhich

it

_

very proper to Children, that k, to make it -noife with their Feet, for Joy or Jpight, when one gives, or refufes them what they pajjionately long for.

Although they be very big, (for that I faw was at leali four Foot high") it k Pleafure beyond exprejpon to their nimblenefs and flight k incredible Jee them run up the Tackli>?g of a Ship, 'where they fometimes play, as if they had a particular k^ack^ of Vaulting to themfelves, or as if they had been
•,

paid,

li/^e

our Rope-Dancers, to divert the Company.
poife themfelves for fame

Sometimes fSended by one Arm, they
ligently to try themfelves,

time neg-

and then

turn, all on the fudden,

round about a

Rope, with as much qnickpefs as a Wheel, or a Sling that k once put in motion fometimes holding the Rope fucceJJively ivith their long Fingers, and letting their whole Body fall into the Air, they run full jpeed fom one to the There k no Pojiure other, and come back, again with the fame fwifinefs. nor Motion but they perform-^ bending themfelves like a' hut they imitate,
-^

roivling like a Bowl, hanging by the Hands, Feet, and Teeth., according to the d/Jferent Fancies which their whimjicdl Imagination fupplies them with^ which they ACl in the moU diverting tnanner imaginable ; hut their Agility to jling themfelves 'fiom one Rope to another, at Thirty and Fifty Foot

Bow,

dijjance,

k yet

more

furprijlng.

The Anatomy of
may

a

T YG

M

I E.

25

In this Character there are feveral things I could take notice of, and' hereafter have occafion to refer to fome of the Particulars 5 But I what is mention'd of it's C7, like a Child's ; and it's expreffing the Paf~ fions of Joy and Grief, by making a Noife with it's Feet, is agreeable enough to the Relation I had of our Vygmh : For I heard it Cry my felf like a Child ; and he hath been often feen to kick with his Feet, as Children do, when either he was pleafed or angered.
the Anatomy^ which in a Hifiory of Animds.^ the moft Neceffary, mofl: Significant, and Inftruftive Part. is certainly Nor can I fee, how an Hijiory of Animds can be well wrote without
(hall

We

now proceed to

giving the Dijfe&ion of the Inward Parts : 'Tis as if one fhould undertake to defcribe a Watch, and at the fame time, take notice only of the Cafe or Cover, and tell what fine Garniture there is about it , but inform us nothing of the admirable Contrivances of the Wheels and Galen (41) thought Springs rpjthin, which gives it Life and Motion. of Apes very ufeful for the underftanding the Structure of the DiJft£lion the Parts in Humane Bodies ; and recommends it to his Scholars to PraNot that he only differed -^P^-*"? (isVefali^ ctice themfelves herein. oftentimes charges him with ) or preferred it, before the Diffedion of Humane Body : But where that could not be had, he advifes them to get
Apesj

and difled them

5

especially thofe that

Had he known our
for this purpofe, as
Cynocephalus,

Pjgmie,

come neareft to a Man. no doubt but he would have preferred it

much beyond

and

all

the Ape, as he does the Ape beyond the other Animals. For, as we (ball obferve, there is
that fo exa6My reas

no Animal, I have hitherto met with, or heard of, fembles a Man, in the Strufture of the Inward Parts,
where
it differs,

(as

I

both from a with both of them.
different

Man and

have remark'd ) there it an Ape And in many things agreeing
-^

our Pygmie : But being refembles an Ape

:

The Skin of the whole Body of our Pygmie was whitifh 5 but that' on the Head was tawny, and of a darker colour. 'Twas thin, but ftrong, and adhered pretty firmly, and more than ufually to the Flefh 5 it's greateft adhsefion was at the Linea alba, and in iht Palms of the Hands, and the Soles of the Feet, and in the Fingers and Toes 5 as it is in Men. In the Skin of the Arm-pits, I obferved thofe GlanduU Cutanes AxiUares, which fecrete that Or^/z^e-coloured Liquor, which in fome Men ftains the Shift here, with that colour. I call them Cutane£^ to diflingui(h them from thofe larger Glands,\hzt lie bedded under in the Fat, and are call'd GlanduU AxiUares. For thefe I have obferved to be Lymphatic Glands ; and have traced the LymphaduHs thence to the head of the Du&tfsThoracicm, where they empty themfelves.
De
Admimjlr. Hb.i,
cap. 2.

.

{^i")

Atiat.

-p.m. 27.

E

Together

26

Qrang'-Outang five

Homo

Sylvejlris

:

Or,

Together with the Skin^ we took off" the Maram^ or Brcafisj which ftuck clofe to it : And in our Subjed, being a Male, they were but fmall and thin 5 yet I could plainly perceive they were made up of abundance of (mail Glands. I have already mentioned, how large the Breafis are
in the Female Orang-Ontang^

and the Bark, fo that no Woman s are larger. to th€\r Situation, and their being placed upon tht Pe&oral Mafcles, this I find is common to the Ape-kind : And they are fo defcribed by the

hs

Pari/ians (42) in the by Drelincourt : (43)

Monkeys they differed ; as alfo in the Jpes diffefted And becaufe I (hall have frequent occafion of referring to thefe Authors, unlefs I fignifie otherwife, I (lull always raeait the Places here quoted, without mentioning them any more.
InBrtitesj next under

the Skin,

lies

a

Mufadom Membrane, which

Carnofm, which gives a motion to it, whereby they can fliove oft what offends them. In Man 'tis otherwife 5 for next to the Sh^n, lies the Memhrana Adipofa ^ or the Fat, and under that, tht Membrana Carnofa : And the fame I obferved in oar Pygmie for the Es^ here lay next to the 54z». Drelincourt, in the ^fej he diffeded, obferved the Pannicdus Carnofm next to the Sk^n,2iS 'tis in Brutes. For in the Male Ape, he tells us, Adeps nuUm inter Panniculnm Carnofum Cutim 5. and in the Female, Pannicnlffs Carnofm citti coh^rens, nttUo adipe interje&o, Adipofus nullus. So that in this Particular, our Pygmie is like ta
is

therefore

call'd Pannicidus

-^

&

zMafi, and

different

from the

Ape-kind,.

Having feparated the Skin and Membrana Adipofa, which in our Subwas not very thick, it being emaciated by it's illnefs, we come now to the Mufcles. But I (hall referve my felf to treat of them in the Mydogy. Next under the Mufcles was the Peritonmm, a Common Membrane, that lines all the, infide of the Abdomen, and fends a common outward Membrane to all the Vifcera contained therein, and fo fecures their Situation. In this Membrane in ^ladrnpeds there is in the Groin of each fide, a Perforation, or rather a Procejfm, by which the Seminal Veffels pafs down to the Teftes in the Scrotum, as is very plain in Dogs and other Animals. But in Man, whofe Pofture is ereSt, 'tis otherwife. For here thefe Veffels pafs between the two Coats, that make up this MemjtOi

brane, the Periton£Hm

,

fq that the inward Coat, that refpefts the Cavity

of the Abdomen, is altogether entire, and continued^ and 'tis only the outward Coat that is protruded into this Procefs ; and this for a very good Reafon. For otherwife, a Man, whofe Pofture is ere^, would be conftantly liable to an Hernia, or a Rupture 5 which happens when this inward Coat is protruded down likewife ; and if there be a defcene of the Intefiines, 'tis then call'd Entero-cele : If of the Omentum, Epiploocele.

In our Pygmie

I

obferved the Peritomeum, in this refpeft, to be
j..

BUfi),

(42) Memoirs for a Natural Hiftory of Animals, Ami> Animal, cap. 33. pag. lop, fyc,

l6^, i;c. EngUJf) Tranflation.

(43) Apud Ger.

formed

The Anatomy of a
formed exactly
as
'tis

T YG
and to be

M

I E.

27

in
it

Mm
go

^

if Nature did defign

to

ere[i.

entire, and not protruded as In Apes and Monkeys 'tis otherwife.

So BUfius (44) obferved irj the Ape he differed, Procejjus Peritonai (faith hie facilis via (lyla he) eodem modo hie fe habet^ ac in Cane. Datur ex 'ventre in Procejfttm di&um inferendo. And the T'arijians have remarked the fame in the Monkeys they difTefted, which is a notable difference of our Pygmies from the Ape-kind^ and an agreement with the Humane. Hereafter, whenever I mention Blafim, unlefs I fpecifie otherwife, be

^

pleafed to take notice, that

I refer

to this Quotation.

The Omentum or Caul in our Vygmie was very thin and large, falling over and covering moft parts of the Guts. 'Twas faftened a little to the Periton£um in the Left Side. It had but little iv??, and was tinged in many places with a deep Yellow Colour, by the Bladder of the Gall^ as was likewife part of the Duodenum. It had numerous Blood -Veflels, and it's adhsfion to the Stomachy Colon , and other Parts, as in Man. The Remarks the Parifians make upon the Epiploon or Omentum of the Monkeys they differed, were different from our Subject. For they tell us, That the Epiploon was different pom that of a Man, in feveral things,
Firft, It

was not fajiened to the Colon in fo many places, having no connexion with the left part of this Intefhine. Ours I found was faftened juft as 'tis in Man. Secondly, It had another Ligature, which k not found

in Man, viz. to the Miifcles oj the Abdomen, by means of the Peritoneum which formed a Ligament 5 which we have obferved in the Hind of Canada. Ours adhered to the Left fide : Drelincourt obferved it in an Ape, to be faftened to the Right Side. Both I believe to be accidental, as I have And in one Patient I found it frequently feen it in Humane Bodies. to the Peritonaeum in the Groin, which gave- him a great deal of Pain fixt and Trouble, efpecially when his Bowels were any thing extended with Wind. Thirdly, The Parifians fay. The Veffels of the Epiploon, which in Man proceed only from the Vena Porta, did fieverthelejs in one of cur Subjects come from the Cava, having there one of the Branches of the Hypogaftrica, which was united to the Branches of the Porta. In our Animal thefe Veffels came all from the Porta^ or rather emptied themfelves into it. But they obferving it only in one Subjed, and it being different in all other Animals, it muft be accidental. Fourthly, In fine, the ivhole Epiploon was without Comparifoft greater than it generally is in Man ; becaufe that it did not only cover all the Intefiines, which is rarely feen in Man, {whatever Galen fays') but it evetz enveloped them underneath, as it does in where it is fiequently feen, that the Epiploon is larfeveral other Brutes ger than in Man, ej^ecially in Animals that do run, and leap with a great deal of Agility : As if it were fo redoubled under the Intefiines to defend ihem, with the reU of the Boveels, againU the rude jolts which thefe Parts do
i^

.

(44) Gef.

Elafi)

MfceSan, Amt. Hominis

Bmtmmque
-E 2

variorum, 5cc. in O^avo..-p. m, 253.

28
receive
entire

Orang'^Outang five

Homo

Syheflris
the

:

Or^,

m running.

It

is triie^
??z

that the

Membranes of

Epiploon were

and continued,

as

Man, and

not perforated like a Net, as they are

The Epiploon or Cattl in our Pygmie was very in the generality of Brutes. large, yet I have feen the fame frequently in Humane Bodies 5 but when
they are difeafed, Vis often lefs, and wafted; fo that G^Ws Obfervation may be true. But methinks the Keafon they give, why it (hould be fo large in Brutes, may be doubted of; for it being fo tender a Part, it would be in danger, upon thofe violent motions, of being broken, had not Nature m2idit it loofe below, and free from any adhsefion ; and it being fo, it cannot perform the Office they aflign it. Drelincourt's Account of the Epiploon^ as he obferved it in the Female .Ape, I lik« better. Epiploon macrum ( faith he ) vafis tnrgidk involvens Inteftina omnia, ufqitead puhem, adherens Extremo Hypochondrio dextro, qua parte Colon Jul?jlratum jecork limbk. Idem adh^ret ventriadi fundo d^ Colo, ut in homine; And in the Male Ape he differed 'twas tinged yellow, as ours was.

We (hall proceed now
It

to the

DuBus

Alimentalis, at leaft thofe partsof
vi%.

the Stomach and Intejiines ^ of an Animal, and a Proprium quarto modo. For all Animals have thefe Parts 5 and all that have them, are wanting in a great are Animals. The Senfes, or fome of them many Animals, and in fome we perceive none but that Dniverfal one , TaBm, yet here we find a Ventricle and Tntejiines. By thefe Parts 'tis, that the Animal Kingdom is principally diftinguifti'd both from the Ve^ getable and AngelickVegetables., 'tis true, receive conftantly Nourifhment, and without it, they perifh and decay ; but 'tis in a far different manner 5 'tis not received into fuch an Organic^. Body, where the Food is prepared and digefted, and fo the Nutritive parts thereof difpenfed afterwards into all the Body, and the reft ejefted, as Excrementitious \ this is only to be met with in Animals, and in all of them. But yet I find there areintermediate6)'mej of Beings httwttn Vegetables znd Animals, as the Zoophyta : the Hiftory of which I could extreamly defire might be given us ; and can't but think that regularly in compiling a Hijiory of Animals, one ftiould commence from them ; and amongft thefe, no doubt, but that there are feveral degrees of Perfeftion, till we come to what might be properly called an Animal. I have had no Opportunity of obferving any of them, but only one ; wherein I could perceive a fenfible Motion and Contradion of fome of the Parts, but could not diftinguifti any thing like the Structure of any of the Parts in an Animal, or the Organs that belong tothem. An Accident difappointed me of perfefting my Obfervations, otherwife I fhould have communicated what Thad difcovered. But am fenfible that there are great Curiofities here to be met with, if diligently enquired into , and ihat they might be, was the occafion of this Digrejjion,
that are contain

d in the Abdomen,

whichT make to be the

true Chara&erisk.

,

This

The Anatomy of a
T\\\s Cafialk

TYG

M

I E.

2^

for the Reafons

AUmentdlk therefore, ox Jndn&ory Vejjkl (as I call it, I have often mentioned in my Anatomical Lectins at

ChiritrgeoniHaW) is commonly diftingiftied into three Parts ; The Gula^ the Ventricle^ and Inteftines : The two latter do lie in the Cavity of the Abdomen, the former, in the Thorax and Neck. ; but being but one continued Canalfs^
I Ihall treat

of the whole

here.

The G«/^

fl:ure he gives us,

ox Gullet, by (45) Tk/^ (in that excellent Jw^/^^^/V^?/ Lewhere he is proving a Providence') is call'd Stomachus.

As 'tis alfo by Celfm, (46) fo likewife in A. Gcllim, (47) and frequently by Hippocrates. (48) And Arijiotle (49) and Galen (50) exprefly tell us^, that that Part between the Fauces and the Ventricle, which the Antients called Oefophagus, after Arijiotle's time, was wont to be call'd Stomachus^ tho" now this word is more appropriated to the Ventricle it felf, which So true is that of Horace, ThUji in the fame place calls Alvus.
(51)

Ut

Sylv£

foliis pronos
:

Prima cadunt

ita

mutantur in annosverborum vetus interit

£tas.

However
I fhall

follow Horace's Rule, fince Cuftom now hath appropriated the'word Stomach, to the Ventricle, efpecially our EngliJIj Tongue^
I (hall

do

fo too.

Multa renafcentur, qt{£ jam cecidere : cadentqiie ^<£ nunc funt in honor e vocahda : fi volet ujus : vis (^ norma loquendi. (52) Unem penes arbitrinm ei?,

&

a Funnel
it,

This Gula or Gullet is a Hollow Mufcle, and fitly enough compared tt) where the Mouth, which may be thought a Part belonging to
-J

being more capacious,

firft

receives the Food,

and prepares

it,

by

chewing, and then forces it down into this Stem or Pipe, to convey it to the Ventricle. I did not obferve, upon the Difleftion, any difference of this Part in our Pygmie, from that of a Man. For as in a Matf-^ (and fo conformable too in other Circumftances) it pafied under the lower Mufcle of the Diaphragm, which by that llant running of it's flefhy Fibres over k, may perform to it the Office of a Valve, and prevent the Which may be the more neceflary Regurgitation of the Food that way. in our Subjeft, becaufe being ufed to climb Trees, and in coming down, to be prono Capite, it might be the more liable to this Accident. But for
the better preventing this,
little
I

find here, that the Paflage
it

above where

it

empties

felf into

the Ventricle,

of the Gula, a was ftraiter, and

cap.

(45):M. T. Cicero de Nat. Deorum, lib. 2. §. 54. p. m. 427. (46) Cornel. Cclfus, de re Med. lib. 4. I. -.(47) A.Gellij. NoU. Attic, lib. 17. cap. n. (48) Vid. Anut. Fsefii Oeconom. Hipp, in verbo. (49) Arift. N:J1: Anim. lib. i. cap. 10. §. 108. p. m. 89. & paffim alibi. (50) Galen de locis ajfeliis, Iib..5. cap. 5. p. m. 490. (51) Horace de Arte Poetic. v<:rf. 60. (52) Horace. Ibid. v. 70.

30
the inward

Orang-Outang five Homo Syhejim
Membrane here more rugous than
Valve. in a

:

Or^
it

Man

5

fo that
it,

feemed

fomewhat Analogous to a

Drelincoitrt defcribes

in the Female

Jpe he dilTeded, thus. Orrficmm ejus fuperius, mtUa. Valvula claufum 5 fed interceptum dupUd porthne D'mphragmatk carnosai^ ab ejus tendin'ibm orhmda.

.

we {hall call this Part, in our Vygmk^ as and Figure , exactly reprefented a Humane Stomach. to it's Situation When inflated, from the entrance of ihtGtda along the upper part to the Vylorus^ it raeafured Two Inches and three quarters. Meafuring with a Thread from the pylorus along under the Fundus^ up again to the near entrance of the Guh^ I found it to be Fifteen Inches ; in all fcrait Line, was Six The length of the Stomach in a Eighteen Inches. Inches and an half^ and it's breadth in a ftrait Line, where broadeft, The Girth of the Stomach in the middle, was near near Four Inches. Twelve Inches. So that I thought the Stomach large, in Proportion It had numerous Blood-Veffels^ fpreading to the bulk of the Body. and I could plainly perceive the themfelves all over, as in a Mans Inofculations of large Trunks of the Coronary Branches, with thofe that defcended from the upper Parts.
The
Ventricle or Stomachy as
,
-^

The
for
it

Parijians obferved

in their Monkeys^ That the Ventricle
it's

Tpife differ

from a

Mans^

inferiour Orifice

king very

large

did and

likelovp ;

was not elevated fo high as the fuperiour^ as it is in a Man. I did not obferve this in our Pygmie. So Drelincoitrt tells us in the. Female Ape, Ventricidt0 rngk interims niillis gaitdet ; and fome other Particulars he But there v.'as nothing in ours, that I obferved, diffetakes notice of.
rent from a

Mans.

to their Food^ I find it very different in the Ape-kjnd 5 as in part appears by what I have already mentioned of the Onrang Oiitang^ the Bark^ the Pongo, &c. So that I can't but think, (like a Man) that they

As

are omnivorous.

informed of

our Pygmie affected, when Wild^ I was not was taken, and made tame, it would readily eat any thing that was brought to the Table 5 and very orderly bring it's Once it was made Plate thither, to receive what they would give him. Drunk v^ith Punch, (and they are fond enough of ftrong Liquors) But it v/as obferved, that after that time, it would never drink above one Cup, and refufed the offer of more than what he found agreed with him. Thus we fee Injiin£f of Nature teaches Brutes Temperance ^ and Intemperance is a Crime not only againfl the Laws of Morality, but of

What

chiefly

-^

after it

Nature

too..

Jacdf&

'The

Anatomy of a
(53)
as
(J!"

'WYG~MTK

~~~^

'jacobus Eonthii

machs of Jpes^ vidi (faith he)
teretes

funt

® longitudtnetn digiti aliqu.tnd'b
Pa-za&ar, he
tells

tells US, that the Bezoar-jlone is bred in the Stowell as Goats^ and he prefers it as the bell:. Ponl Lapides 'Pa-zsiha.r naios in ventriaiUs S'wsiomm^ qui

excedxnt^qiil fr£(lantt(Jif}^i
little

om~
the

n'nim cenfentur.
Vcrfian^ contra,

us a

before,

fignifies

in

whence may come the word Bezoai: Joh. Georg. Volchamsrus (45) takes notice of one he had from Grimmim out of the Bahon-kmd, as big as a Wallnut. And in the Scholium on that Obfervation, Job. Bapt. Tavemier's (55) Travels are quoted, where he prefers two Grains of this, before fix of the Goat-Bezoar. The' Philip. BaU£USj in his Defcription of Malabar and Cortnandd does efleem it much cheaper. Ca^cr Baitbinus hath wrote a diftinft Treatife of the Bezoar-fiom, to whom I refer my Reader;, and (ball only farther ojjferve of it, that I think this Medicine QUght not to be defpifed, becaufe in Health a Man may take a large Quantity of it, without any Injury 5 for I have evidently feen in the greatefl: WeaknefTes, mofi: Remarkable Effeds from it, and have had Succefs beyond expectation ; it fupporting the Spirits, and relieving them, where a more aftive Medicine might over-power them, and yet not have done that Service.
venennm^
,

and M(5«%kj is a Difeafe, and not Natural 5 as Stone in the Bladder or Kidneys of a Man. Bontim (56) therefore obferving the good Effeds of the Bezoar-jlones bred in thele Animals.^ argues with himfelf, why thofe in Men, which he finds laminated in the fame manner, might not be of as great an Efficacy 5 and upon Tryal, he afTures us, that they are fo. Hoc certs compertum habea, Lapidem in vefica. homink repertum, urinam d^ fndores probe ciere, quod tempore ingentk illius feflk, que Anno \6i^(^ 1625. Leydam., Patriane
this 5'^(?«e in G^^/j-

But

well

as the

meam d^
nuria
datio^

reliquas

HoUandie

Civitates, miferandrtm in

Lapidk

Bafaartici, nos exhibuijfe niemini^
excellentiiis invenijfe.,

cere ) melius

©

^ Sudorificum

modum

vajiabat, in pe-

( aujim di-

cnin

admixta Theriaca^ ant Mithri-

cnm

Oleo Succini aut Juniperi guttk aliquot.

Stage of the Du&us AUmentalk^ the Intethe feparating the Chjle from the Feces, and fo fiines ; which ferve for tranfmitting it into the VafaChylifcra, or Vene La^e<e, as they are call'd, which Conveys it into the B/^tf<;^, for the recruiting the conftant wafte that is made there, and repairing it's lofles 5 as alfo for the Nourifliment
for the doing this, 'tis requifite and they being fo, that they (hould be Goyled and winding 5 that this Separation might be the better performed, and fo we find the Guts in our Pygmie. For from the Pylorus
:

We come now to the Third

and Augmentation of the Parts

And

that the Inteftines fliould be long

5

(53) Jac. Eontij, H'lft. Nut. ify" Afed. lib. 4. in An'madv. in OxrciA rf6 CJr^D, cap. 45. p. m. 484 (54) Mifcell. Curiofa German. Bemrig. fecund^ annm fecundus An. 11S83. Obfeyv, 189. p. 420. (55) Jo. Bapt. Tavern, lib, 2, Itm, Indic. mJ. 24. (56) Bontius ibid, in cap. ^6. p. m. 48.

32

Orang-^Outang five

Homo

Syivejlru

:

Or,

to the Anus, they raeafured Thirteen Feet and three Inches, v'?%. from the Fylort0 to the C£CHm or beginning of the Colon ^ was Nine Foot Ten Inches ; and the Colon and Rectum were Three Feet and Five Inches long. The CuecHKt here, or Appendiada ver/fiiformk^ was Four Inches and three
quarters long.

So that the length of the Guts here, in proportion to the length of the Body, is much the fame as 'tis in a Man. But in two of the Sapajom differed by the Parifians, the whole Inteftines were but Five Foot two Inches ^ and in the other two Monkeys^ Eight Foot long. So that herein our Pj/gmk more refembles a Man , than their Monkeys
did.

And
jiines

as in

of our Pygmre were

the length, fo iikewife in other Circumftances, the Inteliker to thofe of a Man^ than thofe of the
are.

Monkey and Ape-kind

and that the Ileon rcas in proportion a great deal bigger^ than in a Man. In our Subjeft we found a fenfible difference. For the fntaU Guts^ which were much of a bignefs, being a little extended, meafured in Compafs about Two Inches and three quarters. The Colon was Three Inches and three quarters about ; and the Appendkula Vermiformk ( which was in our Pygmie as 'ris in a Man^ and is not to be met with in Apes and Monf^eys ) was about the bignefs of a Goofe-quiil. It's length I have mentioned before.
keys, the Intejlines were

For the Parrjians almoU all of the fame

tell us,

that in their

Mon-

bignefs,

Into the

Duodenum of our Pjgmie,

a little

below the

Pylorus^

were

inferted the Du&u-s Comtmink of the Gall^ and the Dh&ks Pancreaticm ^ they both emptying them.felves into the Gut at the fame Orifice as is And the fame is obierved Iikewife by Drelfnco^irt in the ufual in Man. Male Ape he difledted, where he tells us, a Pyloro qui videtur fuggrtinda
effe

circtilark

& carnofa
;

principio Ecphyfeos

intra

eandem
ejl

Ecphyfitt

Commune Du&iti
ab
illo

pr£pofita , ad foran/en ufqiie Bilario €^ hVirzimgiano, pracife

pol/ex

Mathematicus

aiitem for amine intra

tnnicam

ftilui

graciU'mus intrtifm efi in pradi^am

duplicem Ecphyfeos Vepcula fellex recnrvi-

idem fiilm comptdfm eU in Wir%ungia7mm. But the Parifians obferved in the Monkeys, that the Jvfertion of the Duftus Pancreaticus into the Intejiine, (ivhich in Man ^/te Porus Bilarius) reas Two Inches dijiant there-fi-om. i'S always niar So that in this Particular the Monkey does not fo much refemble a Man, as Apes and ovir Pygmie do.
tatem, rarfufque ab eodem Intejiinali foramine

DuBum

The Convolutions and Windings of
and
all

their Situation,

were much the fame,

the fmal/ Guts in our Pygmie ^ as in a Man : And they were

In the inward Coat of the could obferve the Miliary Glands, defcribed by Dr. WiUk 3 as alfo thofe larger cluflers of Glands, mentioned by Joh. Conrad. Peyerm. The Colon I thought proportionably longer, than 'tis in a Man. It had the hmt Ligaments and Cells, and leaves of Fat hanging to it, as a Man's hath
plentifully irrigated with Blood-Vejfels.
Intejiines I

The Anatomy of a
hath
;

T YG
:

M

1 E,

33

but it being fo long, it had and the fituation, was the fame windings than ufually. The P^rijians obferved in their Monkeys^ more
that the Colon was not redoubled like an S. <h in Man^ being quite jlraii, Drelineotirfs Ape was more like ours, for fpeaking of the Colon, he faith,
retorquetitr varie

antequam prodttcat

Re&um

^

re/Mas habet

ttt

in

Homing

For the length of the Colon in the Monkeys differed by the Varifians;^z% but thirteen Inches ; and an Inch in Diameter 5 whereas, the Colon of our Pygmie with the Rei^u^/, was three Foot five Inches, as I have mentioned
'j

and therefore

liker to a

Man's

,

and

requiring, thefe convolutt-

ons the more.
in a

Man

the Intepnes are
:

commonly

diftinguifhed into Inteftina. Te-

nuia and Crajfa

The Temna

are fubdivided into the

Diwdenmn jejunum
,

and Ikon
cuKt
at the

^ The Craffa^ into the C£cum^ Colon and Re£lnm : and the Cecommonly is reputed that AppendicuU Vermiformis which is placed

beginning of the G/<?», where the Ikon empties it felf into it. Now this Part in a M<?», being fo fmall ; and being obferved never to contain any Excrement ; I can't think, that it deferves the Name of an 'Tis true , in Intejijne, much lefs to be reputed one of the Crajfa. large and capacious ; and to Brutes^ this part is often found to be very be filled w\t\\f£ces ^ and in fuch, it may be juftly efteemed an Intejiine. As in a Rabit, 'tis very long and hath a Cochlear Valve ^ fo in an Oflridge^ there are two Cecums 5 each a yard long, with a like Valve. But in far different. think this Procejfm Ver~ Man, 'tis Many therefore do not miformk , to be the C£cum 5 but r.uher take for is, that bunching out of the beginning of theC<?/^«^ which is projeded beyond the entrance of t\\tlk<^n-^ which in the Common Ape and Monkey is more, than in a Man. However, I think it not enough,as to make it a diftinft Intefljne-^

and

the

number of the

Jnteflines in a

Man^ ought

to be

made fewer.

Verm:for jnJs in all Clrcumflances, fo like to that in 2.Man and Monkey s^x\^ ^/le/ having nothing like it it is a remarkable difference of our Subjeft from them, and an agreement to the Strufture of a Humane Body. So the Parifans tell us in their Monkeys, tJje Ctsaim had 710 Vermiform Appendix. So in the A^e diflefted by Blaf/nf, he feith , Proceffus Vermiformis intotnm hie defideratur. And fo Drelincourt, Crecum caret Epiphyf Vermiformi^ qnalem homines habent. We will fee therefore, what kind of C<ca(m'i\s, that they defcribe in the Monkeys and Apes.
this Procejjus
f,

Our Pygmie therefore having
:

of their Monkeys 5 That the containing -two Inches and half in length 5 and aft Inch Diameter at the beginning : it went pointing, and wai fortified by three Ligaments, like as the Colon if in Man ^ there to form little Cells , thk Conformation is 'wholly different from that df a Man's Caecum. °Tis true, 'tis more projefted, than in a Man ; So Bla_fus in his Ape , makes it jutting oat F
Parifians tell us
tvas very large,
,

The

in the Diflection

CsECum

34-

Orang-^Outang five

Homo

Sjlveflris

:

Or,

out beyond the Infertion of the lleon^ Maniis tranfverfie, fen trium digitorum f^dtium. And DreltMconrt tells us, duamm unciarum ei?. But fince if hath thofe Ligaments of the Colon^ 'tis plain, that 'tis only a part of it, and not a diftinft Inteftine ^ or as Blajitfsmort truly calls it, Pr'mcipmm Coll. He hath given a ^^«re of it, but not very exa6t; and in another Jignre he reprefents the Vahe of the Ileofz at the Colon , or rather Valves 5 for he makes more than one. U'ls Defcription, as 'tis faultily printed ; fo I am afraid, it is not very accurately drawn up, and therefore do omit it.

from the Ape and Monh^ya fort of Valve I obferved at the other Extream of the Colon in our Pygmie^ where it paffes into the R-eCtum. For the turn of the Colon here, is very fliort 3 and in the infide I obferved a Membranous Extenfion like a Valve^ an Inch in length, wliich divided the Cavity half way. The Rei$um did not mudi differ from the G/t?// in the magnitude of it's /!////<?, but was much the famej, and in other refpeds, as 'tis in a Man.
But what
is

different

from a Man^
I

as alfo

too, or any other Animal

yet

know of 5

is

This great length of the Intefiines in our Fygmie was orderly colligated aad fafteiied to the Mefenterk, which kept them in a due fituation ^ and fo, as to make in them, feveral windings or convolutions, that liereby they might the better make a diftribution of the Chjle 5 and the whole was, as 'tis in a Man. But I obferved here, the Membranes of the Mefinterie, to be more loofly joyned together, than ufually. For by moving them by my fingers, I found the blood vejfels which were fattened to the vpper Membrane^ would eafily fhove over thofe, that were fixt in tho. under Membrane o^ ihtMefenterie ; and run on either fide of one another, as I would draw them. I have fometimes feen the fame in Hu-

mane

Bodies.

Vejfels here , were very mimerous ; as they approach they form feveral Arches^ whereby they communicate with one another ; and from thefe Arches^ they fend out numerous Branches to the Intejiines of each fide, which runclafping them, afterwards they fubdivide, and inofculate with one another in infinite Ramuii': fo that by injecting thefe Vejfels with Mercury^ they appeared fo numerous j as almoft wholly to cover the Trunk of the Intejiines. And » the fame is in Marrt.

The Mefarak
,

the Inteftines

have likewifefeen,by injecting the Me/e«fer/V4?^^/-<" 5 that the Mer^ Lymph^didis ; and fo into the Ven£ or Vafa LaUea. Which is a great contrivance of Nature. For the Motion of all fluids being Pulfion^ without this advantage, part of the Chyle^ muft neceflarily ftagnate infome of the VelTels , till a frefli diftribution oi Chyle comes, to protrude it on^.andfo it would be apt to coagulate and
I

€ury has paffed into the

caufe

~
Chyle

ne
is ftill

Anatomy of a

T YG

M
-^

1 E,

^

But by the Lym^ha thus paffing into them 5 the forced forwards, and the Vejjhls wafhed clean of it ^ and being thus often moiftened, they are preferved from becoming over dry or clofed or obftrudled. So Provident therefore is Nature , that in the whole Via laSiea^ not only in thz Mefenterie but into the Receptacubttfi C/jyli, and DiiSuf Thoraczcuf likewife^ abundance of Lymphiedi<^s are emptied. Which gives us one good Reafon ; that Nature does not a£t in vain,in making fuch a reparation of a Liquor from the Mafs of Blood
caufe Obftruftions.
5

which

is

fo foon to be return'd to

it

again

3

fince

hereby (he performs

fo groat an Office.

In the MefenterJe of our Vygmje I obferved feveral fraall Glands fcattered up and down, as in a Man 3 but not fo regularly araafled together in the middle 5 as the Pancreas AfeJlij is in Brutes. And Drel'mcoiirt obferved much the fame in the Male Ape. Glandula ad radicem Mefenterij^ d^ fajjim in ambitu, numerofe phwie, magnitudiNem LentttU, fed vales. Anajhomofes fieqHenti\jim£, Venaritm cum Venk Arteriamm cum

&

^

Arteriis in univerfo Mefenterjj circulo.

And

as that

which fattens the Colon is call'd Mefocohn ; flip of it repreffented in our figure, that runs
for^fs, ma.jbQC^\rdtheMefo-c£cuxft.

the Mefenterie fo for the fame reafon, that
to the Procejjus vermi-

pKt of

down

{hall next proceed to the Liver^ in which part our Pygniie very remarkably imitated a M^?z, more than our common Monkeys or Apes do. For the Liver here was not divided into Lobes as itisinSr/z/e/^butintire as it is in a Man. It had the fame (hape 5 it's fituation in the body was the fame ; and it's Colour, and Ligaments, the fame. It meafured in it's greateft length about five Inches and an half 3 where broadeft , 'twas about three Inches; and about an Inch and three quarters in thicknefs. Towards the Diaphragm 'twas convex : it's under part was Concave^ where it receives and emits the Veffels, having a little Lobe here, as 'tis in a

We

Man.
the Liver was having five Lobes as in a Dog 3 viz. tn>o on the right fide ; and tvpo on the left 5 and a fifth laid hpon the right part of the body of the Vertebr£. This lati Wits divided^ making as it So Drelincourt in the Male Ape obkrves^Jecoris Lohi duo rpere two kaves^ pixta umbilica,lemvenam^ quorum fecundo incuneata eratvefcula fUis^ duo alij ventriculum ample^ebantur^ cum lobulo quinio fe inferente in Jpatium

The

Varifians

remark in the Monkeys they differed, that

very different fiom the Liver of a

Man

,

So likewife in the Female Jpehe tells Jecur opplet regionem Epigajiricam quintuplici lobo, unofcxto minima opplens cavitatem lunarem ventriculi. But Blafius in the Ape he diflefted
ventriculi intra, orificium utrumque.
u,?,

faith

,

Epar cum humano minime^ optime cum Canino
lobos

fime in

Vll

divifuTrt,

conveitit^ manifefiftant£ ffiagnitudinis ut etiam utrumque Hypochon•F

2

drium

^6
drmm
Slf<s en'rm

Orang'-^Ou'^ang
oceupet.

fiw Homo

Syhejlrts

;

Or^

Vefalna ( 57 ) therefore is in the right, where he faith, Diffedlonnm Profcjfores ds-Jecoris fortna'^ acpemdkfenfibrjs (qms ?Jioiig Gr£ci vacant} comment an'mr--, i Canum potius ^ jimiarum fcBion'tbm^ cjitam homimtm didzceriint. Humannm enim Jecur in fibras^ Porc/ni, acfnnlt)) adhuc minus Can'mijecorhntodo^ non difcinditur. And that he hints here at Galen,' is plain, from what he exprefles in his Epiftle ad And Galen JcacMi/s-'Roelants, (j^Zy where he farther enlarges upon it. So Theophiluf (5 9) himfelf tells us, that Herophilus was of this Opinion. andP.moj^,aUrii0r(6d) {d!n\\\; that the Lzz»er is divided into four Lobes Arijlotk, (61) 'tis certain, was gives us there a diftinftName for each. '^ -n rs dv^^oena much more in the right, where he faith, i^^-^J^vXov sira^,, a, Oytiaioy vaf ySosia. Rotundum Jecur hontink eji, ac fmile bnbulo. For the. Liver of a Bullock, like a Man's is entire 5 and not divided into -Lobes. However Francifcm FttUm (62) in his Apology, having named feverai Phyficiansand Chirurgians, that were with him at the opening,. o£:Chark.i the Ninth, Duke oi Savoy, faith, hi omnes per Jovem mihipofJacaJil^nt cjje Tejles, qnod obfervatitmeU Epar habnijje qnatuor pinnuloi. tells us, bus.Sy.hius (69) likewife juftifies G<?/e«, zgzm'ii Vef us alt and ^tin €^ Hippocrates Lobos Epatis htimani qninque connnmerat libro [no de %^t Renati^ Henerus (64) hatb ojjlbm^ Rnfm antem quatHor velqiiinque. anfwered Sylvim as to this matter ^ and there needS' no farther difpute a^. bout it, if one will but believe his own Eyes, he may fully fatisfie himfelf, that, in an Httmane Liver there are none of thofe Lobes, but that But in Apes and 'tis one entire Body ; as it was alio in our Pygmie. the Liver is divided into Lobes. Monkeys

&

-^

y

--^

The great ufe of the Liver is for to make a feparation of the Gall^ from the Mafs of Blood. We will therefore here examine the Biliary VeJJels 5 nor do I find them any thing different from thofe in a Man 5
only the Bladder of Gall here in our Pygmie feemed longer, being four Inches in length. It's adhxilon to the Liver was not fo much as it is in a: Man ; for ^t th^ fimduf or end, it juts beyond the Liver about half an Inch. For about three quarters of an Inch, it is more clofely joyned to the Liver afterwards it is faftened to it only by a Membrane, as is alfo the DtiilufCyfiicx^. So that the Feficafellea when inflated with wind, feemed more to reprefent an Intefline by it's anfiaBm and length , than' theufualftiape of the Bladder of Gall -which commonly is more belly-^
-^

ing out.

The

Parijians obferved in their

Monkey s,th'^t thtBladder vpasfajlened to
it

the

firjlofthe two. Lobes which were on the right frde.That

was an Inch long,and'

(57) Vefalij c/e fahjca corporis hinnani, lib. 5. cap. 7. p.m.^ip. (58) Andryefali] Ep!nola,S(.c.p.tn,8i,. (i^j Galen. deAnar.AdminijTrtit.lih.S.ci-p.S,. (60) Theophilu^ de Corporis humanifabrka, lib. 2. cap. 2. (61) Arifl. NiJ}. Animttl. lib. 1. cap. i7>-p. m. 595. (62) Franc. Putei Apologia pro Galetio in Anatomkk' contra Andr.yefalium, \ih. $.p. m. 153. I'd?) t^afanicujufdam CalumniarKmin Hipp. Galenique rem A(1J4) Renat. Hcnerui adverfiu Jacobl Syhij yiat. depulfio. per Jac. Sytvium. vid. Depulf. 26. p. m. 150. jyepulfionum AnaP. Calummas pro Andteafefiilie Apoloi!g,^,tn,}^,

.

The Jnatomy of a

TYG
is

M

I

E/

3.7

half an inch broad ; H had a great Dadus, rphich was immediatelji mferted Thk Du6i:us received three others^ which inflead underneath the Pylorus.

Hepaticus^ thefe three Lobes of the Lione in each of the three right Lobes s^er, fo that the firii had four roots ^ viz. and one in the fir li of the left ; thefecond and third Duftus had both their roots in the fecond of the left Lobes, thefe branches did not run under the
of that^ which in
called

Manis fingle^ and which
Branches dijperfed
like

Duftus'j-

had

their

Roots into

all the

Tunicle of the Liver ^ fo that they were apparent, and not hid in the Parenchyma, as they generally are. But in our Subjedi the diftribution of the

DuBus Hepaticus was altogether the fame as it is in Man. In the MateJpe, Drelincourt defcribing the Bladder of Gall, faith, Vefictda fellea longa. 2 \ pollicibus a fundo ad cervicem, ubi recurvitatent habet maximam, dimi-'
diat^ hsret merfa fiibfianti£ fecoris.

our Pygmie iffued out of the Liver vi^ith twa branches 5 one arifing from the right, the other from the left part of the Liver ; and after a (hort fpace, joined into one Trunk ; and that, after a little way, joyning with the DuBj0 Cy(licu<f, do form the DnSm Com-^ munk, which empties it felf into the Duodenum a little below the Pylorus^ at the fame Orifice with the Dnthis Pancreaticuf, exaftly as 'tis in Man, as I have mentioned.

The Dh&us

Hepaticus' in

of the Liver I obferved the Vena Porta to enter, as likewife the Epatic Arteries and Nerves. And here in the Membrane about"
part
thefe
Veflels
,

At the Simom

I

obferved a pretty lar^e

whitifh Gland.

The

Fen/t'

It feemed large, but I found' Z)mbilicalis entered the Liver at the fijfure. clofed. Vena Cava iflued out of the Liver at The It's Ji(ii{la or pipe was
tViQ

Convex

p^irt,

where 'twas joy ned- to the

D/<jfp/jr<?^^/,

In the Spleen

o^om Pygmie I
Humane
our
,

or different from a
ton£um-^zx]d by the
inflating

did not obferve any thing extraordinary, Spleen. It was of a lead Colour, and of the"
3

ftiape reprefented in

figure

'twas faftened

by Membranes to the Peri-

the

Omentum and Vafabrevia to the Stomach,{o that upon Stomach the Spleen would be brought to lye dofe on
it

the Stomach, as if
v/as

was

fafl-ened
5

immediately there.

The

Spleen here

two Inches and an half long
Splenic//^

feated as ufually in

and one Inch and a quarter broad; and the left Hypochondre under the Baflard Ribs. The Ra-

mus
as

was very remarkable, fending it's Trunk along the Pancreas, in Maftj and having numerous branches near the Spleen^

The
being
Inch.

Parifians tell US, that in their
as-

Monkeys

the Spleen was feated along

'

theVentricle

in Mair:^ but

made

as the

Heart

is

it's figure tvos different , in one of our Subjeits reprefented in Blazonry 5 its Bafis containing an
it,

i

They

give z figure of
figure of

but nothing like that of ours, which-

more reprefented the

often obferved very different.

an Humane Spleen ^ tho' in Man its figure isBlafius'imht^ Ape he difieded, obferves

38

Oi-ang^Outang five

Homo Syheftm

:

Ov,

that the Spleen trJanguUrk figur£ ef"/, exrguuf ddmodum rejpe^u corporis, colork nigricantif^ Uve equidem moUecjue valde corpus, ajl exterms inaqua/e,

quaji ex globulk variis confcBiini , adeo ut
vclle^
tali

etiatft

coMglomeratisGlandHlfS-

Subfiantram LknfS annumerare

in Jitbje^io

fimdamentum

ali-

quod agnofcat.

Ex Ramo

Splenica niiwerofos eofque inftgms

Ventriculo

fuppeditat ramos^ magniUidin&m &' figHvam externum Fig. g^ Tab, Buthis/^«re of the Spleen was nothing like to that of ours. hibet.
I

XL

ex"

For

did not obferve thofe inequalicies in the Juperjice which he reprefents "Tis true, having injeded in his, to QyL\{i[ntt\\& conglomerate Glands. the Spleen of our Pj/gmie, the Mercury filling the cllulated body of the Spleen, did make an appearance on the furfare fomewhar- like thofe ineBut Frederic, de Rufeh (65) is very poiitive, that qualities in \i\i figure. neither thofe G/<««i5?j', nor Ce^j- mentioned oy Malpighius, ire to be met with in a Humane Spleen : tho' he grants, ttiat they are in the Spleen of Drelincourt in the Female Ape faith, Lien Scalenum figura refert, Brutes. And in the Male Ape coh£ret Rent finifiro &• liber ei? a Diaphragmate, crajjior qnam in fcemini, Pancreas exhe obferves, Lien triangularis

©

cipiens.

(hall therefore now proceed to the Pancreas, which in our Pygwasfituated, juft as it is in a Humane Body ; lying under the iS'f*?It was «?rf(r/j,tranfverfe to the Spine/roiu the Spleen towards the Liver. half an Inch broad, of a white yellowifh about two Inches long, about
r/iie

We

Colour
it's

furface uneven, being made up of abundance of Glands 5 DiiB s.m'^Ut^ itfelf into the Duodenum, juft where the Dh^us Communis of the Gall doth, as I have mentioned before.
;

it's

Secretory

The

figure, which made

Parifians in their Monkeys obferved, that f^e Pancreas had only it's it to refemble that of .Man ; it's connexion, and infer'

tion being wholly particular.

For

itvpas jlrongly fafiened to the Spleen'.^

and

the infertion of it's Ductus into the Intefiine the Porus Bilarius) ivas two Inches dijiant theref-om.

(which in

Man

is

always near
in his Ape

Blafius

thus; Pancreas ventriculo J ubftratum, folida admodilem fub/ian^ Lonti£ eii, ncc adeo moUe, quam in Canibm aliifque Animal? bm notatur. gum itidem infigniter, a^ latitudinis ejus, qu£ ne minimi digiti latitudini rejpondeat.RQ takes no notice here,how the DuUus Pancreaticus was inferted 5 which Drelincourt tells us in the Female Ape was eight lines above Pancreas connatnm Lienali Cauda , d^ extremo Rent the Porus Bilarius. Ejus du^m infer itur oBo lineis fupra Porum Bilarium , contra ac finijho. Canibus, fubfiernitur immediate Ventricdo, d^fuperjiernitur brevi Intejiino. Tho' in th^Male Ape he tells us, 'tis inferted into the Duodenum at the fame Orifice with the Du^ of the Gall , as I have already mentioned and
defcribes
it

quoted before.

('<J5)

Efifiola

Amtomica Problematm qurta.
i

The

The Anatomy of a
The GUnduU

TYG M fET^
:

39

"

Renales in our Pj/gftne were very large , and placed a That on the right fide little above the Kidnies as they are in Man. They were v/as of a triangular 5 that on the left of an oblong figure. about three quarters of an Inch long and almoft half an Inch broad. They had the fame Vefiels, as there are in a Man.

The Farijians in their Monkeys^ obferve that the Gland calkd Capfula Atrabilaria, was very vij/hle, by reafon that the Kidney rvas without fat. Thk Gland was white, and the Kidney of a bright red 5 it's figure was triangular. Blafius in his Ape tells us, Glaudula Renalis triangularis ferh figurcc eU, notabilk valde pro ratioue Corf ork, and gives US a^^«re of it, which was nothing like ours. What Dre//«C(7«r^ remarks in ihz Male Jpe^ is,

Capjnl<e Atrabilari£ triplicem Scrobiculum habent,

quarum

"

liquor exprejfus lin-

guam non
he

it a. confiringit,

ttti

in Capfnlis f(sminek.

And

in the Female Ape
habet
;

tells us,

Ren

Succenturiatus finifier ab Entulgente

venam

idem

major Dextro. This I obferved in our Pygme 5 but he faith nothing farther here of their L/^z/iT, nor did I tafte it in ours. In our Pygwie I did obferve proceed to the Kidneys. little or no fat in the cotnmon or outward Membrane, ufually called! Adifofa : Drelincoart obferved the fame, nuUus hie Adeps in Tunica communi vel propria, as he tells us of his Ape. The Kidneys of our Pygm^s were two Inches and a quarter long, an Inch and an half broad 5 and about an Inch in depth. They had not altogether fo large a Sinus at the Entrance of the Emulgent Vcflels, as there is in a Man's ; and the whole appeared fomevvhat rounder 5 but their fituation was the fame, as were likewife thcEmulgents. Having divided the right Kidney length-.ways, I obferved the Cortical or Glandulous Part to appear like a diftind Subftance, being a of tawny or yellowilh colour 5 and different from the Inward or Tubulary Part ^ which was more entire and compared together, than in a Man's ^ and was of a red colour, by means of the blood vejfeh which run between the TubuH VrinariJ or Secretory Duils, which make up this part of the Kidneys. Which Veffels when inflamed and overextended, by making a Compreffion on thefe Tubuli TJrinariJ, may caufe a Supprejfion of Urine ; in which cafe Phlebotomy or Bleeding is very neceflary. And without doubt was the Caufe of the Succefs Riverius (66) met with in a Patient, who had a Supprejfion of Urine for three days 5 for upon bleeding freely, he was prefently relieved, and in a fliort time rendered a large quantity of Urine. In this Tubulary Part of a Humane Kidney I always obferve thefe BloodVeffels : but here ufually the Cortical or Glandulous Part makes a deeper defcent between the heads of this Tubulary, and divides it into feveral Bodies ; and as many of them as appear , fo many lefler Kidneys may be reckoned to make up the Body of each Kidney. In Infants the Kidney externally appears more divided
{hall

We

now

very

"

(€16) Rmr'i'] Obferv..Med.

Cent.t.Otf.

i,

-

than-

40
than in
Vorpois

Orang^Outang five Homo

Syhejlris

:

Or^

^<^«/f Perfons i but moft remarkably they are fo, in a Beai\ the and an Oftrkh;, where there are abundance o( d\[tin(if^jal/ Kid-

neys amaffed together to

make up

each.

The

Var'jpms In the Kidneys of their Monkeys obferve, that they

n>ere

rottnd aftd flat 5 their fitnati on rcas more unequal^ than in a ; the right being much lower than the left, viz. half it's bignefs. Drelinconrt in the

Man

Fcfnale Ape remarks, Renes globofi, dexter intra Hypockond.rium inaimbit
Coflte II.

C^ 17.

Sinifler

di/f/idia uncia.

Renalitifn

loaim habet intra Cojlam tdtimam. Altitndo Renis venarum dextra longe elatior Jtnifira. Rene

aperto Carnis difcri;fien ut in hofnine, exterior qttidem 'nigricans linek quatnor craffa^ interior albicans linek diiabus'.

the Kidney in our Pygmie was as 'tis ufually in a Man^ had nothing remarkably different in their Strufture, from and the Ureters They were about the bigneis of a Wheat ftrawj the common make. and were inferted into the neck of the Blad.der, as reprefented in our figure 5 rather foracvvhat nearer the neck, than in an Humane Bladder.

The Pelvfi' of

have no remarks upon the Ureters. DreUnf OT/rf. in the ALz/c yil/^c fa'uh, Uretercs fupra Pfioi Mufculo Waco, atque fob! us vafis Spermatids, qnibtfs dccuffatiw fiibjlratifont etiam quibm vafcula adn/ittunt, fefe refleSlunt in Hypogajiricam, decnffantes ramos lliacos EAnd in the Femak, Ureterk expanfiones arcuailm rcflex£ ut jaculatorios.

The

Parifiatis

and

Blajius

&

&

in homine.

Vafa habent fopertie a Rcnalibm., inferne aMufculis.

Bladder of Urine in our Pygmie was of an Oblong figure, not fo as commonly in Man, for being moderately blown up it meafured four Inches in length ^ and two Inches and half in breadth. In other Circuaiftances 'twas agreeable enough with zn Humane Bladder.

The

globous

Monkey, the Neck, of the othermfe than in Women, being -very far in the Neck, of the Matrix, viz. towards the middle, at the place where it's rottghncfs began, which werefeen only towards the Extremity of the Du6i:us, near the internal Orifice. 73/^/^ faith nothing of it in his.'^/^e ^ and all that Drelinconrt
Parifians tell us, that in the Female
it's

The

Bladder had

hole

tells

us

is,

Vefica Peril on £0 fojpenfa

tit

in difs Brutis.

Before
iht Blood,

we

proceed to the Parts of Generation (which remain befides

of thofe large Canales of &nd the Vena Cava, and the Rivulets thty emit or do receive 5 all which I find in our Pygmie to be juO: the fame, as For from the Aorta arifes here, the Arteria C^liaca^ they are in a Man. the Arteria Mefentericafupcrior ^ then th^ Emulgent Arteries ; below them,
to be here defcribed)
t[\Q

we

(hall a little take notice

Arteria Aorta

the Spermatick, Arteries

|

then the

Arteria. Mefenterica inferior

3

then the

Trmk,

'

The Anatomy of a
Mm.

T YG

MI E,

41
Pjig

Tr»«4. divides into the Iliac Branches. mh exaftly imitated that in a

So the Vena Cava too in our

the Strudure of thefe Veffds are in Monkeys^ the 'Parijians do nof tell us, and their /^are is very imperfed^ as is likewife that in BUfim^ which feems altogether fidtitious. What he writes,is this ^ Arteria magna
circa

How

Kenem dextrum fuccnmbit Vena Cav£^ €^ ubi
contra ac in

Jliacos

Radios

confiitml:

Homine^ Cane, aliifque animalihmfieri, eandem fupergreditur 5 reperimtfs-, ubi finiflra occupat, hinc h finijira ad dextram progreditur fnpra So Drelincourt tells us in the Male Ape, Aorta, defcendens mox Arteriam. adfcendenti Cavs incmnbit. atque hifurcatur equitat,

&

We come now to the Farts of Generation ; and ftiall begin with the our Vafa Pr£parantia The Arteries and Veins. The Spermatic Arteries Vygmie do both arife out of the Trunk of the Aorta, a little below the Emulgent Arteries, as in ouvfigure 3 and after having ran a little way,they meet with the Spermatic Vein ; and are both included in a common CapThefe Arteries do carry the blood fida, and fo do defcend to. the Tefles.
i,

m

from whence the Serften is afterwards feparated 5 the refidue of the Blood is return'd from the Tejies by the Spermatic Veins whereof that on the right fide enters into the Trunk of the Vena Cava, & little below the right Emulgent Vein ; and that of the left, is emptied into the \th Emulgent Vein )uft all one as it is in a Humane Body. Having injefSted the Spermatic Vein with Mercury, it difcovered abundance of VeiTels, running waviiig ; which otherwife did not appear; and a great many of them were extreamly fine and fmall.
to the
Tefi:es,
-^

,

The
key's

Parifiatis give

no

defcription
left

of the Spermatic
is

Vejfels in their

Mon-

j-and in their figure the

Spermatic Vein

omitted, or

left out.-

Thomas Bartholine (67) in his Anatomy of a Mamomet (which he defcribes, as not having a Tail ; and therefore it mud be of the J/ig-kind, and not a Cercopithecm, or a Monl^y, as he calls it) in his figure of thefe parts, reprefents the left Spermatic Vein, emptying it felf into the left Emulgent, as it is in our Creature. Blafif/iP therefore in the account ©f the Ape he diflefted, muft be miftaken j both in his figure and defcription. too 5 for in the former, .he reprefents the left Spermatic Vein running into the Trunk of the Cava ; and juftifies it in the latter 5 in telling us, Aort<R oriuntur, '& quidem Vafa Spermatica ntroque latere ex Trunco Cav£ idfiori loco eaquafunt l^teris dextri, inferiore qu£ finifiri. But DrelincoHft certainly is more in the right, who informs us, that in the Male Ape lie diflefted, Vena Spermatica dextra crajfa, ab interieri trunco Cav£ adfcendentk poUice inpa Emulgentem finifram enafcitur , fiirculofque cmittit finiArteria. Spermatica dextra a trunco anferiori ftros in Membranas vicinas.

&

^

4-2

Orang'-Outang five
Cavam
prache

Homo
,

Syheflris

:

Or,

Aorta f aula injraEmulgentent finifli am ertafcensfub Vena EtMHlgente jntercrttciat
ciali eo

afcettdentem^ qt{£ fnperineqmtat
loci ubi

@ conJMngitHr Vena Confo-

Vena inferitur fiitim in truncitm. Sinijira Vena Spermatica inferitnrin Emulgentem juxta truncum Cava , d^ confocialem Arteriam admittit e)> pracise loci, in quo enafcitur dextra. So in the Female Ape he faithi, Spertaatica Vena finiflra ah En/ulgente Jinijira^ dextra e Trtmci parte anteriore^ poUice infia Emnlgentem Jinijiram.

which in our Pjgme were not contained in a pendulous Scrotum, as they are in Man, but more contraded and purfed up by the outward Skin, nearer to the Os Pubis, and were feated by the fides of the Penis, without the Os Pubis 5 and I obferved them bunching out there , before the Difledion 5 fo that it feemed to want a Scrotum ; or at leaft the Skin which inclofed them , was not fo dilated, as to hang down like a Cod 3 but contrafted them up nearer to the Body of the Penis 5 which to me feems a wife Contrivance of Nature. For hereby thefe Parts are lefs expofed to the injuries, they might otherdefcrlbe the Tefles,

We

come now to

wife receive in climbing Trees, or other accidents in the Woods. However, the outward Skin here that inclofes them , performs altogether the office of a Scrotum. And if I miftake not, I obferved that Sepimentum, as in a Humane Scrottim ^ which is made by a defcent of a Membrane there, which divides each Tejiicle from one another.

But whether the

Tejies being thus clofely purfed

up to

the

Body,mighe

contribute to that great falacioufnefi this Species of Animals are noted for, I will not determine ; Tho' 'tis faid, that thefe Animals , that have their
Tejiicles contained within the Body, are more inclined to it, than others. That the whole ^pe-kind is extreamly given to Venery, appears by infinite Stoifies related of them. And not only fo, but different from other

Brutes, they covet not only their ovpn Species , but to an Excefs are inclined and folHcitous to thofe of a different, and are moft amorous of

Women. Befides what I have already mentioned , Gabriel Clauderus (68) tells us of an Ape, which grew fo amorous of one of the Maids of Honour, who was a celebrated Beauty, that no Chains, nor Confinement, nor Beating, could keep him within Bounds ; fo that the Lady was forced to petition to have him bani(hed the Court. But that Story of Cajianenda his Annals o( Portugal (if true) is very remarkable 5 of a Woman who had two Children by an Ape. I (hall give it in Latin, as 'tis related by Licetus ; and 'tis quoted too by AntoH. Deujingius (6<^') and
fair

m

others*

retulit in

In banc Sententiam faciunt (faith Fort. Licetus (70) ) qua Cajianenda Annalibus Lufitanix defiliis ex muliere, ac jimio natis, mulierem
CumfaGeman.

(<58) MifceU.

Veeur. 2.

Am.

Katme ejr

Loqucla Bmtarum, p.

m. j §6.

5. Obf. 187. (69) Ant. Deufingi) FaJficul.DiUertat.felen.de (70) Fortun. Lketui de Monjlmiim C«H/5j-,Iib.2.cap.6?.p.m.2 17.

nemps

:

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E,

43

nem^e ob quo Adam crimen in infulam defertam navi deport atam , quum ibi expojita faijfet, earn Jimiorum, qitibus fertilis locus er at, agmen circumfletijjh frcmebundnm 5 fupervenijfe %inum grandiorem , citi reliqni loco cejferint hunc midierem blandi manu captam in antrum ingens ahditxijjh, eique cum Tpfitm turn ceteros copiam pomorum, nucum^ radicumque variarum appofuijfe-y d^ nutu ut vefceretur invitajje 5 tandem d ferh coaBam adjluprum 5 facinm hoc muUk diebus continuatum adeo^ ut duos ex fera liberos pepererit : ita miferam (qumto mors optabilior I) viBithJfe per annos aliquot 5 donee De~ us mifertus navim eo Lufitanatn detulijfet ; quumque milites in terram aquaturn ex proximo ad antrum fonte exfcendijfent : abejfetque fort?- fortuna Jimius
5

feminam ad invifos diu mortales

plickjfey uti fe facinore^

accurrijfe, & occidentem ad pedes fup~ & calamitojijjima fervitute irent ereptum adjenti'
,

entibufqiie^^ cafum miferantibus illk^

ecce tibi Jtmium fupervenientem inconditk gefiibus

non conjugem revocantem :

Sed pemitibus conjugem ut vidJt vela ventk data, concito curfu de liberk
ipjis
,

eam cum

navim
d>^

adfcendijje.

nnum matri ojlentat,

minatur, ni redeat, in mare pr£cipitaturum ; nee fegniter fecit, quod minatus : turn recurrit ad antrum, ©" eadem velocitate ad demergit : fubfequitur, donee littus rediens ojientat alterum, minatnr,

&

und£ natantem

vicere.

Rem

totam Lufitania

tefle

notijfimam,

&

a

Rege

mulierem Ulyffipone addiUam ignibus, quorundam precibus vita impetrata^ letbum cum claujiro perpetuo commutajfe.

But to return to our Bufinefs.
Scrotum,
tell us,

Our

Pjigmie in this Particular

of the

more refembles the Ape-kind, than

a

Man.

For the

Rarijians

that the Parts of Generation in three of our SubjeUs, which were Males, were different from thofe of Man, there being no Scrotum in two of thefe Subje^s, and the Tejiicles not appearing, by reafon that they were hid in the fold of the Groyne. It is true that the third, which was one of the Sapajous, ^^^ <? Scrotum, but it was fo Jbrunk,, that it did not appear. Or, as they afterwards exprefs it, The Tejiicles were flmt up in a Scrotum, which joyned them clofe up to the Penis. So in the Ape Blajius defcribes, Tejles infignes fatis, facculo fuo inclufi, non dependent extra abdomen, ad modum eum quo in Homine, Canibus, fimilihufque Animalibus alik, fed vicini adeh funt tendinibus mufculorum Abdominis , quos vafa Spermatic a tranfeunt, ac fiiis uniti effent, fie ut potius in Inguine utroque coUocatos eos dicerem^quam ultra offa Pubis a Corporependulos, And fo Drelincourt to the fame purpofe ; Scrotum pendulum nullum eU, feli Tefliculi utrinquejuxta Ojfis Pubis

fumma latera, velSpinam fummam ejm decumbunt
Mufadorum

extra prorfks Abdo-

minis cavum, d^ proindi extra

Epigajirij Aponeurofes.

In the other Parts T am here to defcribe, I find our Pygmie more conformable to the Structure of the fame in a Man. For the Tefies were Incladed in zTunicaFaginalis, and had a Cremafier Mufcle which being leparateJ, I obferved the Epididymis large, and the Body of the Tejlis to be about the bignefs of a Filbird 5 and it's compounding Parts nothing at all different from thofe of a Man. Jaeobrfs Syit,

G

2

vim

44-

Orang-^Outang five

Homo Syhejlm

;

Or,

vius (71) in the

Ap

he

diiTe^ted, obferved, the Tefles

bwiank major es.

The P<?r7/<z;?j- tell
long (indjira'rt^
their

us, that in
bii^t

fome of

their

and

one line

in breadth^ and

Sapajous they were found of a figure quite

Subjeds the Tefiides were eight in length. In one ofcontrary, and almoU en remote

fiom the figure of thofs of Man, being perfe^ly round. Drelincourt's account in \\\% Ape is, Tunica Elytroides fibris carnek a Cren/ajiere conj^erfa^ut
in ho mine.

dorfum.

Tefticuhfs

ArteriaSpermatica mfro lufu, Jpirattm revolviturfuper Tefiiculi autem Ventri Epididymidum adhtcret, nijtfibrjUk pauck'

C^

laxk., capitefuo, quo Spermatica

Defer entia admittit, Jeparatur
quot

illtefifs,

Cauda autem fua^ qua
hibet
,

ejaculatoria vafa emittit, tot

punBula candicantia excanaliculi proteu"

divttlfus

ab

Epididymide

,

a

Tefiiculo

Aunim\

From the E,pididymk in our Pygmie (as it is in a Man") .was continued^ the Vas Deferens 5 a flender DuBusj which conveys the Semen from the Thefe Veficulx W€re two celltdated Teftick to the Veficula Seminales. Bladders placed under the neck of the Bladder of Drine 5 which en the outfide, did feera (as it were) nothing elfe but the Vas Deferens dilated, and placed in a waving figure there. And as the Body of the Tejies
a curious convoluted Contexture of Seminal Vejfels , v/hich running into fewer, form at laft the Body of the Epididymk 5 and thefe Veffels afterwards paffing all into one Z)«^, do make up the
v/as

made up of

Vas Deferens : fo this Vas Deferens here, being dilated and enlarged,does form the VeJicuU Seminales. And the fame is in a Man.

The Parifians here do take notice of that PalTage in Ariflotle T have already quoted, where he likens the Parts of Generation in the Male Ape But the Philofopher herein, is unito thofe of a Dog^ more than a Man. der a Miftake^ for , as they inftance, in the Penk of a Dog , there is ^ Bone, which is not in the Monkey s'^ fo likewife in Monkeys, there are They deVejicuU Seminales, which are not to be met with in a Dog.
fcribe

them
;

in their Monkeys thus

:

The Glandulom
\

Proftatce were

the Paraftatse Gyrfoides were in requital very large

they contained

fmall ^ an Inch

was unequal , being four lines towards the neck, of the Bladder, and a line and an half at the other end, differing herein from They ihofe of Man , who has them flendereU near the neck of the Bladder. The Ti^ere compofed of fever al little Baggs, which opened into one another. BlaCaruncle of the Urethra was fmall, but very like to that of a Man. ftus hath given us ^ figure of thefe Parts , which I do not like 5 as neither that of the Parifians. He defcribes them thus : VeficuU Seminales hlc valdh amplce, qu^e immiffo fiatu per du&um Seminalem Ejaculatorium in~ fipremantur, manifejiijjime ohfervamus Matefignithr intumefcunt.
in length
thtir breadth

^qd

(72) jM..Sylvij Vanorum Corporum

diffell.

Operum^ p. m. 1300:

-

nam

The Anatomy
7''/am iis

of a "PYG
in
,

MI E.

45

contcntavt mover)

quidem per foramen fingulare

Meatum Urhiarhtm^ Vejicm continuum^ quod in nnoquoque latere vnicttm e§i , qn£

^
res

occajionem videttir dedijfe Jacobo Sylvia duos duSfus Sefninaks in fimia conAll that Drelincoitrt faith of them is, Vafa ejaailatoria refro Ve(}Huendi.

jicam tenduntin Corpufada padtira mire anfraUuofa , ut d^ ipfunz initinm Epididymidk. Which is very conformable to what I obferved in our Fygmis. ,

Between the root of the Penis, and neck of the Bladder^ is feated the Cerpm GUndKlofiwt, or the Pro^at£, which in our P)ig/f/ie appeared the fame as in Man. The Parijians tell us in their Monkeys that they were fmall. BUJiuf in his/^«re, befides the Predates, which he faith are
Glandula vejick adfians, albidior folidiorqae reprefents another , at the plexn Nervoruffr^ betters (H. H.) viz. GlanduU alia, major, rnhicnnda aliontmqHe vajorum pradita 5 which is no Gland, but the Bnlb of the PeDrelincourt in his Ape tells us, Corpora Glandfdofa duos veliit Nates^ »k. circa vefias cervicem fuprh Sphin^erem exhibent.

^

We
long

come now
the girth

to the Penis,
it at

which

in our

Pygmie was two Inches

the root was an Inch and a quarter 5 but it ; grew taperer towards the end. It had no f-anum , fo that the Prapuce and herein our Pygmie is different could be retraded wholly down from a Man. The Slit of the Penk here was perpendicular as inaMz»o

of

--,

In the^wre the P^^rT/Jkwj- give us, it feems to be horizontal, as it is plainly reprefented by BarthoUne in his third and fourth figure of his Mamomet, altho' by his fecond figure one would think otherwife. Whether there was any Balanus or Gkns in the Penk of onr Pygmie,ox whar In my it was, I am uncertain : I do not remember I obferved any. third figure the Penk is reprefented decurtased at the end , and v/ithou£ the Pr^putiuffi, which was left entire to the Skin. DrecUncourt's account of it in the Ape is this 5 Genitale prorsxf expers eli fianuli ac proinde Pr^°

'

'

denudatur Glans ipfa, atque , Balanus confimilk virili, excepto fi-£nulo , atque praterea hiatum maximum exhihet, qua parte Ligament a Cavernofa definant, Glans" ntrinque prominet. At the root of the Penk of our Pygmie , we obferved the Mufculi Ere^ores to be ftiort, and thicker proportionably than in a Man 5 and the Ligamentum Sujpenforium larger : The Mufculus accelerator TJrin£ was large, covering the Bulb of the Cavernom body of the Urethra. The Corpora Nervofi, or thtWo Cavernou-s bodies of the Penk were divided length-ways by a Sepimentum in the middle , as in Man. In the Urethra likewife there was a Cavernombcdy. The Peffels'oi the
putium. dtvolvitur ad radicem ufque Penis

&

Penk

integer.

^

Penk anfwered exadly

to thofe

oi^Man.
micuKitanfsm
habere

Blafius in his Ape faith, Pe?9k Nervofttm Corpus
'&rdetur,

fepimento notabili defiitutum. But I am ' miftaken^ for in our Subjed 'twas yery-plainly divided, b-jf mors itmarkablj 5
apt to think he tnight be

,

^6

Orang^Outang five Homo Syheflris
What
Penk Tuberculum
exile occnrrit^

:

Or^

raarkably towards the root than forwards.
Circa radicem
terius reticulari

he adds afterwards

exterius carncfa naturte, in-

vaforum plexu refertuv/, interflitia ippm materih rnbiaind^ accHpante^ by this I fuppofe he means the Bulb of the Fenk. Drelincourt exprefles it better, where he faith , Totm T'enk duobus Ligamentis Cavernojis a tftbcribuf Ifchij gaudet. In our Subje6l thefe two bodies were very large and cavernous within. But v/hat Drelincourt adds. Urethra phnb carnofa ^ This was different in our Pjigmie ; for as I have mention'd, the fides of the ZJrethra here were Cavernous too , tho' not

much.

How
nimals^

the Organs of Generation are in the Female
I

of

this Species

oF A-

have had no opportunity of informing my felf. But by Analogy I can't but think, they muft be very like to thofe of a Woman^ fince they are To even in Monkeys and Apes in feveral refpedt 5 tho' in fome,
they imitate the Structure of thefe Parts in Brutes. Thus the Parifians obferve , The generative Parts of the Female had alfo a great many things which rendered them different fom thofe of Bitches, herein refembling thofe of Women ^ there tverefome of them likevpife which were as in Bitches, and after another manner than in Woman 5 for the exteriour Orifice was round and fir ait, as itt Bitches, and the generality of other Brutes, and had The Necl^ of the Bladder had it's hole neither Nymphse nor Carunculs. other wife than in Woman, being very far in the Neck^ of the Matrix, viz. towards the middle, at the place where it's roughnefs began, which werefeen only towards the extremity of the Dudtus near the Internal Orifice. The Trunks of the Matrix were alfo different fiom thofe of Women, and refembling thofe of Brutes in that they were proporiionably longer , and more redoubled by various turnings. The Clitoris had fomething more conformable to
is feen in other Brutes that have it, than in that of Women, being proportionably greater, and more vifible than it is in Women. It was

»

that which

.

compofed of two Nervous and Spongious Ligaments, which proceeding from the lower part of the Os Pubis, and obliquely advancing to the fides of thefe Bones, did unite to form a third Body, which was ten lines in length. It was forKted by uniting of the twofir^, which a very flrong Membrane joyned together, going f-om one of the Ligaments to the other , befides a hard and nervous Membrane which inveloped them. They terminated at a Gland The little Mufcles, which were fafilike to that of the Penis of the Male. ned to thefe Ligaments, proceeded as ufual from the tuberofities of the IfchiUtn.

Thefe Ligaments were of Subflance fo thin and j^ongious , that the wind penetrated, and made them eafily to fwell, when blown into the NetThis Network^ was work, of the Veins and Arteries which is in this place.
vifible in this Subjetf,

being compofed of larger Vejfels than they proportionably was fitnated as ufual/y under thefecond pair of Mufcles of ^/>e Clitoris. It's figure ivas Pyramidal, ending fiom a very large ^Sids in a point, which run along the third Liga^fent to it's extremity towards the
are in

Women.

It

Qlanfl.

The

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I B.

4.7

The refi of the Parts of Generation were like to thofe of Wo/^nn. J he Neck^of the Bladder had it's Mufcles as in Women : For there were a great number of flefiy Fibres^ pphich proceeding Jrom the S^hinCtcr of the Anus, tvere fajiened to the Jides of the Neck^of the Uterus , and other fach li\e Fibres which did come from the Sphinfter of the Bladder to infert thcmfelves at the fame place. The Body of the Uterus^ it's Membranes^ internal Oriit's Ligaments as well the round as broad, and all it's Veffels had a. fice, conformation intirely lih^to that, which thefe fame Parts have in Women. The Tefticles, which were ten lines long, and two broad, were as in Women, compofed of a great number offmall Bladders, and faflned near the Membranes which are at the extremity of the Tubx, and which is called their
Fringe.

Drelincourt hath very
riibicundafolida

little

& brevk.

on

this Subject

Vagina admodum

medio , Papillk extuberans ut in Palato , PoUicem lata. Orificium interius valdi folidum.
dura,

he faith is , Urethra rugofa, monticulum habens in. PoUicem longa,tranfverfim fciffa,
,

all

Cervix interior

admodum

& pauto intrh ofculum internum duritie cartilaginofi.
(hall

We
and

proceed

now

here, as the Parts are fewer, fo

to the Parts of the Middle Venter,t\\Q Thorax t, my Remarks will be alfo : and the

rather, becaufe in our Pygmie we obferved fo very little difference from the Strudure of the fame Parts in a Man. I muft confefs I can't be fo
I would , becaufe for the preferving , as the Sceleton more entire, I did not take off the Sternum. However, I obferved enough to fatisfie my felf with what I thought moft ma-

particular in all Circumftances

terial.

Aponeurofis or Tendon feemed rather larger than in a
fair.

This Cavity was divided from the Abdomen by the Diaphragm, whofe Man : and the fecond Mufcle which encompaffed the Gula, as it pafles through it, was very

I

made no Remarks upon

the Pleura,^n^ Mediajlinum

The Thymus

was about an Inch long, and placed as 'tis in downwards 'twas divided, but upwards 'twas joyned together.
in our J^^^i/e

Man

^

So in

have often obferved it divided. Generally this part is larger and Embrios than in grown Perfons , for the Reafons I have frequently mentioned in my Anatomical Tenures. The Parifians obferved in their Monl^ys that the Thy was large. Blafius and DrelincourP have no Remarks about it.
a
I

Man

in Infants

mm

The Lungs

in

the other, five in
their

our Pygmie had three Lobes on one fide, and but two on all. Their Colour, Subftance, Situation, and all-

Circumftances exadtly referable a Mrf«s.

The

Parifians tell

us, that

in-.

Moneys

the Lungs had feven Lobes, three on the right fide,

and

as

48
mafiy on the

rang'^O lit ang five
left^

Homo

Sykeftrts

:

Or^

thefcvetith was in

generality of brutes. ternal parts of the Ape,

Cavity of the Mediaftine, as in ths This again makes a notable difference between the iwthe.

and

thofe

(?/Man, whofe Lungs have generally at

Vefalius the rdosi hut five Lobes, oft ener but four ^ and fometimes hut two. in Man thk fifth Lobe, which he reports to be in affirms that he never faw

The Paflage that the Varifians Apes, fuppofing that they have but five. hint at in Vefalius is this, Lobum auiem qui in Canihus, fimiifque Vcn<e Ca^ hunc iUo defiitm V£ Caudiceni fnfidcit, nunquam inhomine obfervavi , Galeni locus in feptimo de adminifirancerto- ceriiusfcio, quamvis interim dis DiffeUionibus mihi memoria non exciderit, quo inqitit, quintnm hunc Vul'monk Lobum eos non latere, qui reSe fe^ionem adminifirant ; innuens Marino ejufmodi Lobum fuijfe incognitum, uti fani fidt^ Herophilo cum illi Hominnm Cadavera, non autem cum ipfo, fimiarum ac Canum duntaxat aggrederentnr, in quibus prsfenti Lobo nihil eft manifefiim. (72) Gakn be herein miftaken , Vefalius certainly is too fevere in his Tho' Cenfure, in charging him, that he never difrefted any thing but Apes and Dogs 5 for the contrary evidently appears in abundance of InftanAnd one v^^ould think he had not difces, that might be produced. Apes and Monkeys in making but five Lobes in their Lungs^ fered In vs^hat he argues, that this fifth whereas in either there are more. Lobe in a Man could not lie upon the Vena Cava ; becaufe in a Man the Pericardium is fattened to the Diaphragm, and the Vena Cava enters there, and ib immediately pafles to the Heart ; this is true , and the fame I obferved in our l^ygmie. So that in the formation of this Part, our Pygmie exactly refembles a Man 5 and is different from both the Monkey and Jf e-kind. The former we have feen 5 as to the latter, Lohus Drelincoiirt tells us in the Male Ape ^ Pulmo dexter quadrifidm

&

&

,

Irfimta

omnium
fitu

crajjijjfmm

medim
fuperior

&

,

fuperior

minus

craffus

magnitudine.

§>uartui

denmm

intermedius reaps? crenam infculptam habet ,
,
,

qua parte

Cava fulcrum prxbet. Pulmo finifter hifidus So in the Female Ape, Lobi Ptdmonk bifurcatus.
totus

&

Lobus
in

ejus

dextri

totalitey

divifi JV,

parte

:

quorum fuperior , bifidus fimfi:er Pulmo bifid.tfs totm,

& Lobm

,

adeo

tit

fint quinque

el

fuperior ultra

dimidium fui

divifus.

our Pygmie was altogether the fame as or Wind-pipe in a Man \ confifting of a regular order of Cartilaginous Annuli ^ which were nor perfedly continued round ^ but tov/ards the Spine, were joyn= ed by a ftrong Membrane. Drelincourt faith of it, Trachtcts annulife ha-?

The Trachea

m

bent uti Intcfiinorumjpira, nervofis Membrams coUignntur, rifon, I think, is not fo well made.

The Compa?=

(72) Andr,Ve[ali) ds Cor^ork !mmmfab'icii,lib, 6. cap.

7.

p. 724,

for

ne

Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

4.9

For the prefent we will leave following the Dudt of the Trachea w^ to the Larynx^ ( the Part according to the Method of Nature^ we (hould have began with ) and make fome farther Obfervations, on thofe under
our prefent view. In the Cavity of the Thorax therefore, (as I have remarked) the Pericardium or that Bag that inclofes the Hecrt in our Pyg~ I muft confefs, f»ie^ was fattened to the Diaphragm, juft as 'tis in Man. when I firft obferved it, I was furprifed, becaufe I had not feen it fo in And Vefaliuf, and others make it as a peculiarity to a Brutes before. Ma». I will quote Fefalir/s's words, and make an Inference from our Obfervation, and fo proceed.
'
.

pm

dextri ipVefalius (j ^') therefore tells us, Cxternm Invohcrimucro, laterk egregia portio Septi tranfverji nerveo circulo validijjiffie, amploqtte
Jpatio connafcitiir,

&

^ Canihm & Porcis involucrum a fepto multum
fjiagnafui portione conne^eretur, adeo fane
ttt

adniodum

quod Homimbus eU

peculiare.

Sim/is quoque
abeii ut ipji
claritfs conjiet^

dijiat.

Tantkm
luce

d^ hinc

Galenum hominis vifcera aut ofcitanth Canes nobk defcribentem, immerito

^

,

aut netitiquam Jpe&iJJe, Simiafque veteres argurjfe. He can't forbear at
is

here in the right, and Galen miftakcn. So Blancardus (74) tells us, Homo pr£ c£terk Animalibi's hoc peculiare habet, quod e'jm Pericardium Septi tranfverji medio femper accrefcat,
all

turns to have a fling at Galen

:

But he

cum idem
fit.

in

HHadrHpednm genere

liberum,

& aliquantoJpatio ab ipfo remotum

phragm,

Pygmie having the Pericardium thus fattened to the Diafeems to me, as if Nature defigned it to be a Billed and to go ere^. For therefore in a Man is the Pericardiu?fz thus fattened, that in Expiration it might affitt the Diajiole of the Diaphragm : for otherwife the Liver Siud Stomach being fo weighty, they would draw it down too
it

Now our

much towards the Abdomen 5 fo that upon the relaxation of it's iCs Diajiole, it would not afcend fufficiently into the Thorax,
caufe a Subfidence of the

Fibres in fo as to

Lungs by leffening the Cavity there. In ^ladrupeds there is no need of this adhsfion of the Pericardium to the Diaphragm: For in them, in Expiration, when the Fibres of the Diaphragm are relaxed, the weight of the ^yreri^ of the Abdomen will eaGly prefs the Diaphragm up, into the Cavity of the Thorax and fo perform that Service. Befides , was the Pericardium fattened to the Diaphragm in
,

it would hinder it's Syflole in Injpiration ^ or it's defcent downwards upon the contraftion of it's Mufcular Fibres 5 and the more,

^iadrupeds,

becaufe the Diaphragm being thus tied up,
force

it

could not then fo freely

the weight of the Fifcera, which are always preffing upon it, and confequently not fufficiently dilate the Cavity of the Thorax , and
therefore mutt hinder their In(piration.

down

Thus we

fee

how

neceflary

it is,

Cl^J

Andy. Vefalij de Corpork Jfumani fairkafih^.cup.S.^.uujiS.

Cl'iJ

Ste}h: Blancardi Anatonu

Kforntat. ca^,2= ^.8,

H

that

50
that in a

Orang-Outang

five

Homo

Sjheflris

:

Or,

Mait the Pericardhtm (hould be faftened to the DUphragm , c^'wir///'^^/ how inconvenient it would be^ that from hence I think we may fafely conclude, that Nature defign'd our Pygmk to go
and in
ered, fince in this particular
•-,

'tis

fo like a

Man 5 which
to

the

common
'tis

Apes

and Monkeys are not and tho' they are taught £lian what Dogs may be taught to do.

go

ere^^ yet

no more

where we obferved that in GUI' Pj/gIt's Aimcles^'Ventricles^ Valves and- Fejfels were much the fame as they are in a Man's. It's Cone was not fo pointed, as in fome Animals^ but rather more obtufe and blunt, even more than a Man's. What Avkenna (75) remarks of the Heart of an Ape^ having a donble Cone^ muft be accidental and extraordinary for he tells us, Et, jam repertum eft Cor cujiifdam Sim'ij habens duo Capita. And a little after, he denies the Heart to be a Mufcle aiitem erravH (faith he) qui exijiimavit, quod jit ^ Jam ILacertm^ quanivk jit jimilium reriim in eo^ verum motus ejm non eti vobintarim: The Perfon he hints at,I fuppofe,is Hippocrates ^who fo long ago afTerted this 5 'H ^p^M (fa:lth (jS) Hippocrates) /juig '^v yj.f^la. Ixv^q, k -raf yA^pst), dy^a. '7n/\n^Ltc(.1i oTtpKog. Cor mujculm eU validfts admodkm non Nervo, verkr/t Carnk f^7Jja?nento. And i'^mo and Dr. £<?z3?er fince have (hewed us the way of diifeding it,and have made it moft evident that 'tis Mufcular 3 and it's motion is fuch ^ but as Avicenne obferves , 'tis not a vohntary motion, but involuntary. 'Tis pity we had not a better Tranjlaiion of his Work/ j for unlefs it be fome particular Pieces, the reft is mofV barbaroufly dene, as appears from that little I have quoted of him. But to return to our Pygmie ^ the magnitude and figure of the Hearthcrs, was exactly the fame as reprefented in our Scheme^ where part of the Pericardium is left lying on it. Both in the right and left Auricle and Ventricle^ I obferved two Polypous Concretions^ which plainly reprefented the Valves both in the Arteria Pidmonalis^ and Aorta. I muft confefs by what I have hitherto obferved of them, (and I have very frequently met with fuch Concretions in Humane Bodies) I Cannot think thefe PolypMS to be any thing elfe, than the Si%.e of the Blood, or the Serum coagulated after Death.. The Obfervation I formerly gave (jy) of a Polypus in the Trachea and Bronchia of a Patient troubled with an Hiemoptoe, in it's kind
proceed

We

now

to the Heart

-y

MJe^

:

I

think remarkable.

The
Brutes.

more pointed^ than

Parijians obferve that the He.art of their it ufnaUy is in Man which
-^

Monkey
is

n?^ a great deal Ukevpife a Chara&er of
.

J'e^/^ ^Ae/^fer/w/r Superficies <?/7fVVentricles, it
fleftiy

number of Fibres and
in his
wi^^e

Columns, which arefeen

in

obferves, Cor folidum in ventriculo jinijiro^
:

had that great Men. Drelincourt laxum in dextro ^

pr^durus Conus ejm

pr^fertim circa Ventrmdum.
Imi

Serum in Pericardio falfum. Vafa Coronaria tnmida^ Adeps circa ea mtUus.
(j6) Hipp, de Corae, p.m.270.

(75) /^Mcwnijlib.j. Ken.2. Traft.r. p.m.(57o

AUa Med.

(77) Vide Tho. Bartho-

(^

Philof. Hafnienf. Vol. 5. Obf. 30. p.94.

There

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

51

There was nothing farther, T think, tliat I obferved peculiar in the Thorax oi am Vygmk, I (hall now therefore follow the Duft of the

And here as in M^w, I obferved placed the Trach<ea up to the Throat. Glandula Thjroldea, upon the CartHago Scutiformh of the Larynx ; 'twas red and fpungy, fullof Blood veflels, not much unlike the inward Part of the Sfleen^ but fomewhat firmer. In a Man I have always obferved Drelincourt's Account of it in the Ape is , GUftduU this part to be red. iUas per meant farfubnigric antes 5 Thyroide£ d^ Cricvide£ crajjk ftint^ ctili Corotidk Arter'ts d^ Jugular fs ven<e externa ; cum ftirculk Nervi RecurThere is no fenfible account yet given of the ufe of this part, as rcntrs. I have met with And I think that from a Comparative Survey of it in other Animals, and a ftrift Obfervation of it's Strufture, and the Veflels that compound it , it were not difficult to allign other ufes of it more

&

^

:

fatisfadory.

As to the Larynx in our Pygmk, unlefs I enumerate all the Cartilages go to form it, and the Mufcks that ferve to give them their Motion^ and the Vejjels that run to and from it, and the Membranes and Glands^ there is nothing that lean further add, but only fay, that I found the whole Strufture of this Part exadly as 'tis in Man. And the fame too I muft fay of the Os Hyoides. The Reflexion that the Parjjians make upon the obfervation of this, and it's neighbouring Parts in the Difleftioa of their M?«!)^e/s, I think is very juft and valuable. And if there was any farther advantage for the forming o( Speech, I can't but think our Pygmie had it. But upon the befl: Enquiry, I was never informed, that Tho' Birds have been taught to imiit aiterapted any thing that way. tate H/imane Voke^ and to pronounce Words and Sentences, yet Sluadrupeds never ; neither has this ^tadru-manous Species of Animals, that fo nearly approaches the StrudtureofM*?;^^^^^:/, ab&t'ingtht Romances q£ Anthat
tiquity

concerning them.
P^rT/MK-j therefore tell us
,

The

That

the

Mufcles of the

Os Hyoides,

Tongue, Larynx, and

word^ were vohoUy like to thofe of Man ; and a great deal more than thofe of the Hand j which neverthelefs the Ape, which f^saks not, ufes (dr/toVt mth as much perfe&ton as a Man. Which demonfhrates, that Speech is an A&ion more peculiar to Man, and which more diflinguijlies him from Brutes than the Hand ^ which Anaxagoras, Ariftotle, and Galen have thought to be the Organ which Nature has given to Man, as to the wifeU of all Animals 3 for
to articulate a

PhAvyn-K., ivhich do

moB ferve

Reflexion : For the Ape i-s found provided, by Nature of Organs of Speech with fo much exaClnefs, that the very three fmall Mufcles, which do take their rife jrom the Apophyfes Styloides, jure not wanting, althd this Apophyfis be txtreamly fmall. This partiadarity does Ukewifefiew, that there is no reafon to thinly, that Agents do perf&rmfuch andfuch anions, becaufe they arz found with Organs prober there-until in 2

want perhaps of

this

all thofe marvellous

52
unto
5

Orang^Outang Jive Homo Syive/his
for, according to thefe Philofophers,

:

Or^,

Apes fhohkijpeal^, fe^^^g that they

hctve the Injlrttments necejjarj/ for Speech.

I

(hall

not engage in
j

this

Argument
it

here, becaufe

it

would

be too

great a digreffion

hereafter,

may

be, I

may

take an occafion to

do

it 5

for this

not the only Inftancein our Subjeft, that will juftifie fuch an Inference tho' I tliink it fo ftrong an one,as the Atheijis can never anfwer.
is
:

next of the Vvnla^ a Part of fome ufe too in forming the Voice ^ for where 'tis mifling or vitiated, it much alters the found ; and even this I found in our Pygmie to be altogether alike as in Man. it had thofe two Mufcles which are in a Manfh^ Mufculm Sph£no-Palatinuf, and the Pterigo-Palatin/0 feu Sphteno-Pteri^o-Palatinus ; the Tendon of which laft, paffed over the Pterigoidd Procefs, which was to it like a Trochlea or Pul/y, and was afterwards inferted as in a Alan.
(hall take notice

We

Uvula, which is in no other Brutes, rpas found in our Apes (it (hould ht Monkeys) -wholly refentUing that of Man. Kn^ {o Blafitis , TJvnlain Animalibus aliis pr£ter hominem (& fimiam nuncjuam a me obfervata. All that Drelincourt faith of it is, 'Uvula firma. * eli d> carnofa.
Parijians tell us that the

The

The Tongue of our Pygmie

in all refpeds, as I

know

of,

refembled a

Humane Tongue 5 only becaufe 'twas fomewhat narrower, it feemed longer: Andunder ther(7«^«einourP;/g«?/e weobferved the Glandule Sublinguales ^S\n Man.
Drelincourt obferves in the Ape, Lingus bafis non tantkm incumbit Hyoidi fuperno^fed ample&itur ejuf tuber inferius pojiici : Papil/as habet Bovinis
fimiles,

^ tunicam propriam permeantes.
Root of
the Tongue

At

the

of each

Vygmie, as they are in a Man. not foforaminulous, as ufually in Man ; very probably being vitiated by the Ulcer in the Cheek. For Drelincourt tells us in the Ape, Amygdala
cav<e , pertufte

were placed the TonfiUce in our They were protuberant and hard, and
fide

& Scrobiculos habenfes.

The Parotides under each Ear in our Pygmie were large , and of the fame Figure as in Man. Parotisglandula contegit Mufculum Sterno-Majioideum, articulationem Maxilla Mufculi Pciioralk portionem, faith Drelitt'

&

court.

Maxillary Gland of the left fide (where the Ulcer in our Pygmie was) had two of it's Lobes, globous and protuberant, above the Surface of the other Part, being infefted and tumefied by the Ulcerous Matter. Thefe Glands were about an Inch long, and about half an Inch broad 5
.

The

and

The Jrmtomj of a —
--

"PYG

-

~-

M

I E, ,.,

53

and there were two other fmall QLmdsz little diftant from the head "of GlanduU faljvaks ad angidn/n Maxillie Inferior k oblofigie, the Maxillary. Ux(B^ nioUes^ albicantes^ faith Drelincourt.
But before I leave thefe Parts, there are fome others I muft here take notice of, in this Comparative Survey 3 which tho' they are not to be met with, either in our Pygmie or in Man , yet are very remark.able,both in the M<?«% and ylpe-^'K^, \\z. t\\o{^ Pouches the Monkeys and Apes
have in their Chaps^ which ferve them as Repojitories for to hoard up, upon^occafion, food in when they are not difpofed for the prefent to de* vour it 5 but when there Stomachs ferve them,they then take it out thence and fo eat it. That the Ape- kind has thefe Pouches^ Drelincourt does inform us where he tells us, Mttfctdus latijjimus Mentum univerfum (^
f, x,

huccas obtegit, qua parte Jimi£faccHm

form ant ^

intra quern Efculenta recon-

very exprefs. That both^ Satyrs and Sphinges (which I make to be of the M(?«|e;/'^/«^J have them likewife, (78) Condit mMox indeSatyrorum Genus. Thefauros Maxillarum Ctbum Sphingiorum quod formick in annum folenfenjim ad mandendum manibus expromit d^ we el?, hfs in dies vet horas. The account th^P arijians give us of this Pouch in the Mouth of the Monkeys they differed , is this 5 That it ppos
dunt.
Pliny
is

&

-^

compofed of Membranes and Glands^ and of a great many Mufculoui and. It's Jituatien vcas on the outjide of each Jaw, reaching obCarnous Fibres. liquely fiom the middle of the Jaw to the under part of it's Angle, P^Jfif^i ^^^' It was an Inch and an half der a part of the Mufcle called LongxiUmus.
long,

and almoU as broad towards it' s bottom. It opened, into the Mouth be'Tk into thk Pouch that Apes tween the Jaw and the bottom of the Gum. ufe to put what they would keep h and it k probable that the Mufculous Fibres which it has, do ferve to Jldut and open it, to receive and put out what thefe Animals do there lay up in referve. our Pygmie having none of thefe Pouches in it's Chaps, nor nothing like them ; 'tis a notable difference both from the M<i«% and Ape-kjnd, and an Agreement with the Hu^

Now

mane.
xh^ five Senfes : But there is lit-^ For in the Organs of thofe of tie I have at prefent to remark of them. TaHus, and Guftus, there was no difference I could obferve between our

We

thould

now come to difcourfe of

Pygmie and ^Man. As to thofe of Hearing and Smelling, I (hall makemy Obfervations upon them, in the Ojieology. Here therefore I (hall only remark fome things of the Eyes, the Organs oi Seeing 5 and fo prO'ceed to the Brain.

of the Eye in our Pygmie was large , conical, audi Here we obferved the Glandula Lachrymalk , and Innominata. deep. The Bttlb of the Eye in proportion to the Bulk of the Body, was rather The Irk was of a light hazel Colour: The Pm larger than in ^Man.

The Bony

Orbit

(78) P/;«9 Hift. Nap.

lib. x.

cap. 72. p, m. ^66,

>

54pil

Orang^Outang five Homo Syhefim
large
:

'.

Qvj

Humour Sphserical or Lentiformk^znd. The Optk Nerve was inferted exactly as in almofl: as large as in a Man. The Tiimca Choroides rather blacker than in a Man. And wherea Man. as in Brutes^ that are prono Capite , there is ufually a Mufculm Septimm^ which from it's ufe is call'd Suj^enforim ; in our Pygme there was none of
round and

The

Gyjialline

All the other Mufiles of the Eye, were exactly the fame as is alfo wanting in the Ape^ as appears by in Man. Neither has given us of the Eye of an Ape. the figures Cajferim (79) the Parrjians, nor Blafius, nor Drelincourt do give us any Remarks upon
this Miifcle.

This feventh Mufcle

this Part.

proceed now to the upper Venter^ the Head, where at prefent we {hail examine the Brain , that Part, which if we had proceeded according to the Method of Nature in forming the Parts, we muft have began with. For I can't but think, as 'tis the firft Part we obferve formed, fo that the whole of the Body, i. e. all the Containing Parts, have their But I (hall not enlarge upon this Argument here j it would rife from it. be too great a digreflion, to give my Reafons for fuch an Hypothejis. From what is generally received, viz,. That the Brain is reputed the more immediate Seat of the Soul it felf 5 one would be apt to think, that

We

between the Soul of a Man^ and a Brute, which 'tis placed (hould be very different too. Yet by comparing the Brain of our Pjgmie with that of a Man ; and, with the greateO: exaftnefs, oblerving each Part in both ; it was very furprifing to xne to find fo great a refemblance of the one to the other, that nothing So that when I am defcribing the Brain of our Pygmie, could be more. you may juftly fufpeft I am defcribing that of a Man , or may think that I might, very well omit it wholly, by referring you to the accounts already given of the Anatomy of an Humane Brain, for that will indifferently ferve for our Pygmie, by allowing only for the magnitude of the Tho' at the fame time I muft obferve , that proportionaParts in Man. bly to the Bulk of the Body, the Brain in our Pygmie, was extreamly large; for it weighed (the greateft part of the Dura Mater being taken The P^r//£«»j remark, that off) twelve Ounces, wanting only a Dram.
iince.there
is

fo great a difparity

ihtOrgan likewife in

in their Monl^eys the Brain was large in proportion to the Body, it weighing tnv Ounces and a half: which neverthelefs was inconfiderable to ours 5 dace our Pygmie exceeded not the Stature and Bulk of the Common Mon}\sy

or Ape
is

-^

fo that herein, as in a great

many

other Circumftances, our

Pygmie
bles a

different

from the

Common Monkpy and

Ape

,

and more

refem^-

Man.
with
Vefalius, that the Stru6ture
FiJIies

I can't agree

drupeds,

nay

all

Birds, and of fome

of the Brain of all ^tatoo, is the fame as in Man.
Vide de

{19) jHl.Caffm}?kcentmFent&fths[em,h,t,deqHinqtiefenfibM,

Orgam

v'tfui.

Tab.

3,

'The
There
is

Anatomy of ^

T YG

Ml

E.

~

55

tobe obferved in the formation of the Parts, compofe the Brain in thefe various Animals. And tho' the Brain of a Man^ in refpeft of his Body, be much larger than what is to be met with in any other Animal (for Fefalim makes the Brain of a Man to be as big as thofe of three Oxen) yet I think we can't fafely conclude with him, that Animals, as they excell in the largenefs of the Brain^ fo they do likewife in the Principal Faculties of the Soul : For if this be true, then our Pygmie muft equal a Man, or come very near him fince his Brain in proportion to his Body, was as large as a Man's. J'^efalius (80) his words are thefe ; Cerebri nimirum conjimSiione Simia, Cank\ Eqitus, Felis, C^ ^ladrupeda qua ha&enus vidi omnia, d^ Aves etiam univerfs, fliirimaqHe Pifcium- genera, omni propemodum ex parte Hominz cora vaft difterence

that fer.ve to

,

rejpondeant

:

qnam

illorum

neque itUitm fecanti occurrat difcrimen, qnodfechs de Hominisr, Animalium funSfionibus fiatuendnm ejje pr^fcribat. Nijiforte'

quis meriib dicat Cerebri

molem Homini, Perfe^ijjimo fane quod novimus

Animali, obtigijje maximam, ejiifqae Cerebrum etiam tribm Bourn Cerelrk grandius reperiri : d^ deinfecunditm Corporis proportionemmox Simile, dein Cant magnum quo que non ferns obtingere Cerebrum, quam ft Animali a Cerebri

^

tantum praftarent mole, quanta Principis Anima
donata. videnttir.

viribi^^ apertius

mciftiufve

Since therefore in all refpefts the Brain of our Pygmie does fo exactly referable a Mans, I might here make the fame Refleftion the Parifians did upon the Organs of Speech, That there if no reafon to think,, that Agents do perform fuch andfuch A&ions, becaufe they are found with Organs
proper thereunto
:

'

for then our Pygmie might be really a

gans

m Animal'^odatssiXt only ^rtgxA^x Compages
this Organicul

Man. The Orof Pipes and Ve/Tels,
'

for the Fluids to pafs through, §nd are paffive. What aduates them,are the Humours and Fluids : and Animal Life confifts in their due and regular

motion in

Body.

Mind o^ Man, muft certainly

But thofe Nobler Faculties in the have a %/jer Pr/«<r7/?/e ; and Matter orga-

nized could never produce them , for why elfe, where the Organ is the fame, fhould not the Jtl/^^j- bethefametoo? and if all depended on the Organ, not only Pygmie, but other Brutes likewife, would be too Hear akin to us. This Difference I cannot but remark, that the Ancients

om

were fond of making Brutes to be
philofophically, the
ter,

Humour

is,
is

Men : on the contrary now, moft unto make MenhmmtQX Brutes and Mat;

Whereas in truth

Man

part a Brute, part an Angel

and

is

that

-

Linli^ in the Creation,

that joyns

them both

together.

This Digrejjion may be the more pardonable, becaufe I have fo little to naming the Partsx, and to tell you (what I have already) thatthey were all like to thofe ma. Man: For the Dura Mater, as a Common Mswbrane, firmly fecured the fituation of the whole Brain,{[n(klf
fay here,befides juft
{So) And. l''efalijds'Ccrfom Humamsfabrica,
lih.j, ca^.i.^,j-]^,-jyjs^.
_

adheriHg"c;

<y6

Or ang'-Qntang five Homo Sykejlns

:

QTj

adhering to the Sutures of the Cranium above 5 before to the Crifta. Galli ; and at the bajis fo ftrongly, that it was not eafily to be feparated. By it's anterior Procefs of the Falx, it divided the two Hemi^heres of the Cerebrum'^ by it's tranfverfe Procefs^ which defcended deep, jufl: as in a Man , it feparated the Cerehmm and Cerebellum : it enjoyed the fame Simus\ and in all Particulars 'twas conformable to what is in a Man.

The Via Mater

in our Pj/gmie

was

a fine

thin

Membrane which more

immediately covered the Subftance of the Brain^ and may be reckoned it's proper Membrane 5 infinuating it'sfelf all along between t\\^ Anfradlus of the Cerebrum and the Circilli of the Cerebellum ^ being copioufly furnilhed with numerous Branches of B/00^ V'ejfeh, but they appeared more on the Convex Part, then at the Bajis.

whole Brain in our Pygmie was globous ; but by means of a greater jutting in of the Bones of the Orbit of theJBye, there was occafioned a deeper depreffion on the Anterior Lobes of the Brain in this place, than in a Man. As to other Circumftances here, I obferved all Parts the fame. The Anfia&us of the Cerebrum were alike ; as alfo the Subjiantia Corticalk and MeduUark. On the bafs of the Brain, we may view all the Te« p^/r of Neraex exaftly fituated and placed as in a Humane Brain 5 nor did I find their Originations different, or any Particularity that was fo. I (hall therefore refer to the figures I have caufed to be made of the Brain, and their Defcriptions ; where we may obferve the ArteriiC Carotides, Vertebrates, and Commttnicans, and the whole of the Blood Vejfels in our Tygmie to be the fame as in a Man. Here was the Infiindibulum, the Glandule du£ alh£ pone Jnfundihulum, the Medulla Obthe
longata with
Spinalis, ju ft as in

The figure of

Annular Protuberance, aj^d the beginning of the Medulla Man. I am here only a Nomenclator, for want of Matter to make particular Remarks upon. And the Authorrs that have hitherto furnilhed me with Notes, how the fame Parts are in Apes and Monkeys, do fail me now ; it may be, finding here nothing new or different, they are therefore filent. All the Parijians do tell us of the Brain intht'xt Monkeys \st\\\S :
it's

The Brain was large in proportion to the Body : It weighed tvpo Ounces and an half. The Dura Mater eritered very far to form the Falx. The Anf'a^mfities of the External part of the Brain rvere very like thofe of Man in the Anteriour part 5 but in the inward parts before the Cerebellum, there

much deeper in proportion. The ApoMamil lares, which are great Nerves that do ferve to the fmelling, were not foft, as in Man, but hard and membranous. The Optick Nerves were alfo of a Subftance harder and firmer than ordinary. l!he Glandula Pinealis was of a Conical figwe, and it' s point was turned towards the hinder part of the Head. There was no Rete Mirabile for the
was
hard.ly

any

:

they in requital were
f^/Zet/

phyles, which are

:

Carotides being entered into the Brain, went by one fmgU Trunk^.on each fide

of

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

.^7

to pierce the Dura Mater, and to be of the edge of the feat of the Sphenoides In our Subject I thought the Anthe Brain. difirjbuted Into the hafts of fra&us of the Brain much the fame, both in the anterionr and hinder Nor did I obferve any difference in the Mamillary Frocejfes or Oppart. tick_Nerves^ ox Rete Mirahile, but all, asinzMan.

The

Cerebellum in our Pj>gf^"s

was divided by

CirciUi^

as in

Man.
this

It

ha'd like wife the Procejfus Ver miformes.

Dr. Wil/if (80) makes

Re-

mark upon this Part bm, ejufdem figure
reperitur.

:

Cerebellum autem ipfum, in quibufvis feri

Animali-

& proportionis,

nee non ex ejufmodi lamellk conflatum

Cerebrum diverfmode ab homine conjiguratum habeni , nti Volucres (S Pifces, item inter ^adrupedes Cuniculi d^ Mures, quorum Cerebra gyris feu convolutionibus carent ; his Cerebelli Jpecies eadem, fimilis pli'Tis from carum di^ofttio €?• Tartium cAterarum compojitur£ exijiunt.

^ne

hence he forms liis noted Hypothejts^ How that the Animal Spirits that are bred in the Cerebrum , do ferve for Voluntary Motions ; and thofe in the
Cerebellum for involuntary.

If we furvey the inward Parts of the Brain in our Pygmie, we fliall here likewife find all exactly as in a Humane Body ; viz. The Medullary Subftance running up between the G?y//V(?/i Tht Con earneration ^ the CorThe Ventricles large and pus Callofum, the Fornix and it's Crura the fame. The Corpora Striata^ the Thalami Nervorum Opticorum all alike. fpatious. The plexus Choroides the fame 5 as were alfo the three Foramina as in

Man ; The
Orbiculares

Glandsda Pinealis proportionably large. The Protuberantis i. e. The Nates and Tefles in our Pygmie were the fame as in Man ; whereas in Brutes (as Dr. Willis well obferves) the Nates are always proportionably larger than in Man ; but it was not fo in our Pygmie. The Valvula major here was very plain. The Cerebellum being divided, the Medullary Parts reprefented the Branches of Trees, as a Mans does. The Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spinalis the fame as the Humane ; and all Parts being fo conformable here to a Humane Brain, I thought it fuflBcient juft to name them, fince I have caufed to be made two figures of the Brain in our Pygmie from the Life, and in its Natural Bignefs, where all the Parts are plainly reprefented to the Eye.
;

(80) walk

Cei'ehrl

Anat. cap.j, p.22.

,

^B

Orang-'Outang five

Homo

Sjlvejlris

:

Or,

THE

OSTEOLOGY,
DESCRIPTIO

we may obferve already of the other Parts) that here too, Gur Pygmk more refembles a Man than Apes and Monkeys do ; but where it differs, there 'tis like the Ape-J^nd. Gdeft (as I have already quoted
that
(as

ON WE
come now
of
a

OF THE

to the Ofleotogy^ to give a Defcription

of

the Sceleton of our

Fygmk

,

by comparing which, with
a Monkey^

Man^ an Ape and

we have

p. 15.) tells us that an Ape of all Creatures k the moU Uk^ to a in the Vifcera, Mifcles^ Arteries^ Veins and Nerves^ becaufe 'tis fo in the StruSlure of the Bones. But it may be queftioned , Whether even

him, vjd.

Man

the Structure of the Bones themfelves, does not depend upon that of the Mnfdes : fince in their firft Formation, they are j^//^ and vafcular i then Cartilaginojis ^ and in time at laft are hardened into Bones, In Ricketty Children too, we find, that even the Bones are rendered crooked, by the Contraftion of the Mnfdes^ how much more, when they are tender and foft, might they be bended any way by them. But by underftanding exaftly the Structure of the Bones^ we fhall the better apprehend the Rife and Infertions of the Mufcles. And for the better attaining this Galen in the fame Chaper (81) recommends to his Students^ when they cannot have an opportunity of Confulting an Humane Sceleton , then to

(81)

Gdm.

de

Amt, adminijlr.

lib. i.

cap. 3. p. m. ap, 19-

make

The Anatomy of a
make
ofe
:

T YG

M

I E.

59

of thofe of Apes 5 not that he thinks them both alike, but the moft like and tells them, that it was worth their while on this account to go to Alexandria, where the Phyficians taught their Scholars the Doftrineof the Bones from the Infpedtion oi Httmane Scektons themfelves, which he much prefers before Books. But tince in his time Humane Scektons were not to be had but at Alexandria^ for the fupplying this Defedt, they might obferve the Bones oi Apes 5 and after that, they might read his Book De Ojjium Natura, and to do as he did, vifit the Sepulchres and Graves, and to obferve there the Humane Bones themfelves And ht tells u&.o£ two Scektons he made ufe of 3 One that the River had waftied out of a Tomb, where the Flefti was corrupted and wafhed away, yet the Eones held together. The other was of a Thief that was Executed, who was fo much hated, that none would bury him 5 but the But faith he, Birds pick'd off his Flelh, and left his Bones as a Scekton.
:

c^mv dx^^^Qouc-, &C. i. e. If )0H cant happen to fee any Then he advifes of thefe, dJjffcS an Ape, carefully vicrv each Bone , Sac. what fort of Apes to make choice of,as moft refembling a Man : And concludeS,a7ra}'7a)V,cJ; i'(ptw,'iwv q/^mv '(cffla.vOYi^v.i ^^n rlw fvaiv 9ir '^^ di-Qpociru aroit^i^cv tUv

^lavwanv

puum
go

dvaHofjkio i>^'iv,

i.

e.

either in a
to the

Humane Body,

or in

One ought to kpovp the Strudure of all the Bones an Apes ; 'tk heii in both 3 a;nd then to

Anatomy of the Mufcles.

What
both.

Galen advifed, no doubt he praftifed himfelf , and obferved For in his great But Andreas Fefalius will not allow him this
:

and

excellent

Book De

Corporis

Hnmani Fabricd,ht

all

along
.•

tell's

us, that

Galen gives us rather the Anatomy of Apes than of a Man And in his Epifola ad Joachimum Roeldnts de Radice Chyme, his chief Defign is to prove, that Galen never diflefted a Humane Body : and that he is often miftaken in the Hiftory of the Parts, as alfo in their IXks 3 and that his Reafonings are frequently unconclulive.

Upon

the

coming out oi Vefalim

his

firft

falius his Mafter in

pofed by Jacobus Sylvius a Phyficianat Paris, Anatomy 3 in a Treatife ftiled Depuljio Vefani cujufdam Calumniarum inHippocratis d)" Gakni Rem Anatomicam. This was anfwered not long after by Renatm Henerus, who publifiied another Treatife, vi%,. Adverfui Jacobi SylviJ Depulftonum Anatomicarum Calumnias prs Andrea Vefalio Apologia. Sylvius afterwards procures a Difciple of his

Book, he was warmly opwho had formerly been Ve-

to write againft Vefalius,

Gakno
cellenfi

puts out, butunfuccefsfiilly , Apologia pre contra Andream Vefalmm BruxeUenfem, Francifco Puteo. Medico VerAuthore. A Scholar of Vefalius, Gabriel Cunaus, makes a Reply
in

who

to Putern in his Apologia Francifci Putei pro Galeno

Anatome exam^n^
as

Upon

Fep///;^ his leaving

i^<?z;^e,

a Difciple of his, Realdus Columbus^

grew very famous for Anatomy^ but ungratefuf'toJiis Mafter,
I 2

Vefdim

com-

6o
complains

Orang-^Outang five
in his

Homo

Syheflrk

:

Ot,

his Examen Obfervationum Falloppim was always kinder to him, and mentions Falloppij. But Gabriel him with the greatefi: Honour, and calls him Divine 3 tho' in feveral things he diflents from him, which occafioned VefaUus his putting out
his ObfervatJonHm Fal/oppij

Book De Radice Chyn£^ and

Examen.

Realdm Colur^bus was fucceeded at Rome by Bartholomauf Euflachius 5 a Man very knowing and curious in Anatomy^ but extreamly devoted to Galen, as one may fee by this Paflage 5 TJt tmo verbo tne expediam, talem enm ejfe (fc. Galenum) ajjeverem, qualem opinor neminem in pojieruffz futnriim, fnijje nunquam plane confirmo. ^tare ditbik in rebus diffentire ab eo
honefis

non pojjkmus, fed mcigk expedire, decereque putandnm ei?, illo Dtice errare, qiiam his illifve Magifirfs hodie eritdiri, ne dicam cum ik vera fentire (82). Too great a Partiality for fo ingenious a Man. And it may be, this was one Reafon why Vefalim fo much endeavoured to lefTen Galen's Authority ; becaufe the Humour of the Age was fuch, that nothing then was to be received, but what was to be met with in him. But certainly they are in the wrong, who , becaufe Galen is miftaken in

fome

things,

nothing.

do now wholly rejefthim, and lay him afide as good for The wifeft and raoft experienced in the Art may read his

ledge, a Satisfaction

Works," and in reading him, ifjuftand not prejudiced, will acknowand an Advantage they have received from him.
writing that Difcourfe of his, Ojjium Examen, is to juftifie Galen, that he did not only difleft Apes, but Ehtmane Bodies likewife and that his Defcriptions are conformable to the He therefore draws a Parts in Man, and not to Apes and Monkeys. Comparifon between the Sceleton of an Ape and a Man 3 and fhews wherein they differ 3 and how far Galen's Defcriptions of thofe Parts are Folcher/0 Coiter has likewife made the different from thofe in an Ape. fame Comparative Survey, in his Analogia Ojjium Humanoriim, Simi<e In moft things vers caudatxe, qu£ Cynocephali Jimilis eU, atque Vtilpk. I find Coiter to follow Etiftachius, but Ettflachius T think is to be preferred, becaufe in his Annotationes de Ojjibm , he quotes the Texts of Galen at large. Johannes RioUnus the Son hath wrote upon the fame Argument likewife 5 vi%. Simile Ojieologia Jive Ojjium Simile d^ Hominis Comparatio 5 and he being later than either of the former, and having madeufe of all before him, he may be thought to be the moft exadt.
f,

The Defign of Bartholom^us EuUachim in

&

^

the better to compare

In giving therefore an Account of the Ofleology of our Pygmie, and it's Sceleton with that of a Man, and an Ape, and a Monkey, I thought I could not do better, than to infert this Difcourfe of Riolanus 5 and hj Commenting upon it, to (hew wherein our Pygmie a-

(8 z) Barthol. EuSiachij Ojfim Examsn , p. m.

1

89.

grecs.

a

The Anatomy of a
grees or differs.

TfG

M

I E.

61

This

other Obfervations I And tho' I may be cenment, I (hall add at the clofe of this Difcourfe. by feme for difcourfing fo largely upon an Ape, yet this Apology I fured have to make, That 'tis an Argument that has exercifed the Pens of the greateft Anatomifls we have had ^ and ours being one of a higher degree than the Common fort, and in fo many Particulars nearer approaching the Strudtureof M<««, than any of ihtApel^nd, and it being fo rare and uncommon, it may the more excufe me, if I endeavour to be as particular as I can.

thought the mofb compendious way, and what have, that conveniently I can't infert in my ComI

Ian sfirfl Chapter^

But in fome meafure to avoid this Fault , I (hall omit Riowhich is but Prsefatory, and begin with thefecond.

Cap.

IL

T>e Capitis &" Faciei Ojjibm,

Slmia Caput (a) rotundum eH^humano fimile^
gim.
yeat vejligjum.

cynocephali verb caput ohlon-

Utriufque (b) Suture adeo funt ohfcur£, nt earum nnllum appaPropterea potius harfftonJa did merentur^ quam future ^qui

Attamen Volcherus Coitery«?«ras attribuit fimik, parum ab humank difcrepantes. In cercopitheco jqitamntiformes dejiderantur. (c) Frontis Os in calvaries bafis fede^ ad conjun&ionemOjJis jphenoidk , tranfverfa potius linea qiihmfutnra dijlingnitur ^ ampla oblongaqne fcijfura homines divifum obtinent, in quam alittd Os injlar cribri perforatum conjicitur, arlfijpmeque conflringitur. At (d) Simis Os Frontale ea in parte omnino continuum exijiit^ €$'^ qua nafus principium fu" mit, non longe ab ea fede , qua front em conftituit, alto df" rotundo for amine parumper a lateribus comprejfo^ illo foramine quod nervum viforium emit tit ^ nonnihil ampliori, excavatum eli. In ejus humiliori profundiorique fede^ quatuor ant quinque alia foramina re&a d^ lata cernuntur. Jn Jimia caudata. (e) Os Ethmoides admodum profunde in nares defcendit , paulo infra cam regionem ex qua nafm exoritur. Harmonia per medium dividitur^^ utrimrerum confutarnm jiguram non (Srmdantur.
perficies fells

que ab Ojfe frontis, quod etiam profunde defcendit effingi videtur, ( f ) SuSphenoidis ad narium principium inOjJe frontis non e^i plana ©" £qualis ut in homine, fed eU eminentijfima. In pofteriori feUee eminentia

ftantia nulla latet cavitas ut homine.

glandulam excipiente, reperitur foramen exfculptum. In fella (^ hujusfub(h) Cavitates ilia; qua in apophyfibus pterygoideis exfculptdd funt, maxima: (i) OlTa, BregprofundiS apparent,

&

matis, 8c

Temporum,
i^eel?,

ftec intus,

nee foris

,

ullam demonjlrant divijionem^

quafi ex unico continuatoque Ojfe conftarent.

(k) In Ojfe temporum apophy^
Cavitas
atiris

yzVMaftoidis

StjldldiS exiguaelt.

(1)
aiires

videtur unica,

orbiculatim in phtres gyros Jiriata, nee tria Ojjicula Malleolm, Inqus,

^ Sta^
Os.

pes reperitmtur, qui bus aliortim animantUim C^L^tno^ fed egofemper obfervavi,

itifiru&^funt, ji

eredimm

62

Orang'-^Outang Jrve
medium
linek potius

Homo

Sylvejlris

:

Of;.

Os Zygaima
el?, atque ejus

(tn), ([lu parte ah Ojfe orbitario procedit^craJfnm

^

robujijim

in.

qmm futura

dijiingHitur.

In homins

/ver^tentie exijlit.^

(^ fittnra

dirimitnr.

antrorfum frotuberans^ Simis Fades (n) rotunda eU^cynecephali oblonga Maxills fuperioris rej^ondent humanis. (p) Suturte Jknt harmonik^ fiverimis fimiles^ potijjlmum ea qua tnedium palatum interfecat. Sed peculiar^ Jutura notatur^ ab inferior e orbita incipiens , fecundum longitudinem maxiU£ ad caninum dentem cujufque Uteris prorepit, ipfumque palatum
Ojfa verb

&

dirimit.

Maxilla inferior (p) Integra e/?, nulla lineh in mento dijJeSia^ brevijjima corporis proportioned it a ut ex omni animantium genere miUtim breviorem Extremitas qua. cavitati temporum articulatur^ haheat^ exceplo homine. ut in homine. eji condyloidfs^ Square non elh gynglymoides hac articulatio^ ntfcripfit Volcherus Goiter.

eU

molaribus differt ah homine. Caninos (q) Simi a in dtntihns caninis quidem habet dentes humanis fimiles^ in ttnaquaque maxilla binos, qui u~ accumbunt inciforibus. Singular radices ut incifores hatrimque ajjident bent^ fed altius inHxas robuftiorefque, minus etiam ex anteriore parte^ quttm

^

&

pofieriore prejfas

© anguflas.

Ac ftmia

cynocephalos dentes caninos longiores

Molarium dentium Humerus prominentiorefque^ qu:im verafimia obtinet. in homine incertus eft^ authore Galeno : faspius enim in utraque maxilla funt
At fimia: ferri'fexdecim^ interdum viginti^ nonnunquam viginti quatuor. per certus ac definitus molarium numerus. Dijferunt quoque Maxillaresy?radicum numero^ quamvis enim prio^ mi£ ab hiwianis^ infignra externa^ res duo molares Jlmia^ ab humanis, aut nihil, ant certe parum difcrepent,quia in fimia primits inferior unum tanthm apicem obtinet : Attamen in pojierio' rum dentium metifis, fecundum longitudinem maxillarum, profunda admodum linea exfculpta eft. ^lam lineam altera etiam tranfuerfa, qu£ in quinextrinfecm ad gingi^ to dente fimitB non caudata gemina ei?, intrinfecits ru^im ufque protradlata Interfecat. fit, ut finguli ejufmodi dentes emi-

^

^o

&

plurimum quatuor in angulis (nam qulnto fex funt J tres vera foveas iit medio habentes^ duarum ferrarum mutu)) phi occurrentium modo committantur : quod profe&o accuratijjius Author Galenus explicare minime pr£termififfet, fi molares fimi arum defcripfiffet.
nentias, ut

Os Hyoides

(r)

humano firmi fimillimum

exifiit,

prsterquam quod mepofieriore fede infigni-

dium iffus ojflculum amplitfs eU,
or em oflendit cavitatem,

quhm

in homine,

^

gfbbis ipfius laryngis partibus invehitur, fitque pro-

pugnaculum
interiores

In ilia enim lata oblongaque apophyfi^ Ojps hyoidis efformat, quce deorfum adeo producitur, ut inpartes
cartilaginis fcutiformis.

liar clypei cartilagini thyroidi obtendatur,

(a) The

The Anatomy of a
(a)

T YG

M

I E.

^3

, and it feemed to be three times as big as the Head of a Common Monkey 5 for, that I might the better compare them, I procured the Scekton of a M^;?^'j which I found was exaStly the length ot that of our Pygmie : though at the fame time we (hall fee, that in feveral of the Parts, 'twas vaftly different. For meafuring the Head of our Pygme by a Line drawn round from the Nofe, over the OrhU of the Eyes, to the Occiput or hinder part of the Head, and fo to the Nofe again, I obferved 'twas ThirThe Cranium of the Monkey meafured there only Nine Inteen Inches. The girth of the Head of the Pygmie^ from the Verches and a quarter. tix round by the Ears to the Fertix again , was Eleven Inches and an half : in the Monkey 'twas only Seven Inches and an half. The longitudinal Diameter of the Cranium of the Pygmie was Four Inches 5 of the Monkey Two Inches and a quarter. The latitudinal Diameter of the Cranium of the Pygmie was Three Inches and above a quarter 5 of the Monkey a little above Two Inches. The profundity of the Cranium of the Pygmie^ from the Vertix to the Foramen where the Medulla Spinal^' palTes out, was about Three Inches and a quarter 5 in the Monkey Two Inches. So that in the largenefs of the Cranium, the Pygmie much ex-

The Cranium of our Pygmie was round and globous

ceeds the Monkey ^ as alfo Apes, and

more refembles

a

Man.

our Pygmie perfectly refembled thofe In an Humane Cranium ; The Sutura Coronalis, Sagittalis , and Lambdoides being all In the Lambdoidal Suture I ferrated or indented very curioufly,as in Man. obferved Nine Offk. triquetra Wormiana. In the Cranium of a Monkey 1 found the Coronary Suture for the mofl: part to be Harmonia^ and only for a little fpace to hz ferrated towards the middle , where it meets the Sagittal Suture. The Sagittal Suture here was indented throughout. The Lambdoidal Suture^^s extended frorn ihcSagittal of each fide for about half znlnch,W2LS ferrated ; then the Suture difappeared,and there was formed here a rifing ridge of the Cranium, which was continued to that Apophyfs which makes the hinder part of the Os Zygomaticum. There was no fuch bony ridge in tht Cranium of the Pygmie. In the Monkey too I faw the Squammom Sutures very plain, tho' Riolan denies them ; which likewife in our Pygmie was very, apparent. Our Pygmie therefore in the Strufture of the Sutures exadly refembled a Humane Cranium^ and more than Apes and Monkeys do For in them the Coronary and Lambdoidal Sutures were only in ^3Xt ferrated-^ and they had no Offa triquetra Worin
:

(b) The Sutures

miana.

(c) In our Pygmie there was an Os Cribriforme, as in Man ; 'twas about half an Inch long, and a quarter of an Inch broad ; in it I numbred about Thirty F(?r<2a2?»<? 5 here was iikewife that long ridge, (which is caird Crifa Galli) as in a Man , to which the Dura MaUr was
faftened.

"

"

6/\.

Orang^Ontang five Homo
In the

Syheflris

:

Or^,

{d)
which
But

Cramum of

the Monkey there was

where the Os

Cr'tbnforme fhould have been, there

led towards the beginning of the

no Cnjla Galli 5 and was a hollow Paflage Noftrils, at the end of which

Os Cribriforme perforated with four or five holes. Partappeared very different from the Structure of a Humane Skull, as likewlfe from our Fygnne 5 which was occafioned chiefly by the great bunching in of the Bones of the Orbit of the Eye, tho' our Pygmie too had thefe Bones more protruded in, than they are in a Humane Cranium.
there might be a fmall
this

(e) This appeared more in the Cramum of a yionkey than in V^gmie 5 tho' here too 'twas fomewhat more than in a Man% Skull.
(f) The

our

Sella Equina in our Pygmk was exadly like a Man's. In a obferved it more rifing and higher. Monkey I In the middle of the Sella. Turcica feu Equina of our Pygmie, I obferved a Foramen 5 and the fame I

found

in a

Humane Cranium
I

I

have by me.

did not obferve thofe two Cavities under the be met with in a ff»«z<z«e 6'/^«//. But the Bone here was very fpungy and cavernous, and might anfwer the fame end, tho' not formed perfeftly alike.

(g) In our Pygmie

Sella Turcica \^\)\ch ZXQ. to

(h) Thefe
mane
SktiU.

Cavities in our

Pygmk, were nothing
of

fo large as they are

Part in an Huobferved the Pterigoidal Procejfes our Pygmie too, I as they are in Man, but I did not find them in the Monkey.
this

in a Monkey, but conformable to the Strufture

And

in

The Offa Bragmatk and Temporum in our Pygmie were very plaind\(Ymgm(hQd by ^nindented Suture. In the Cranium of tht Monkey thefe Bones were divided by a lineal Suture call'd Harmonia.
(i)
ly

(kj The Maftoid And Styloform^ Procefs
yet

more than

in the

Monkey

j

our Pygmie were very little, but herein our Pygmie rather imitates the
in

Ape-kjnd.

CO Becaufe I would not fpoil the Sceleton, I did not examin the Organ of the Inward Ear : But am wholly inclined to Riolan, who tells us he always found thofe Three little Bones, the Malleolus, Incus, and Stapes there and no doubt but they are to be met with in our Pygmie. Tho' Cajjerim therefore thinks Galen does not mention them, and never obferved them, becaufe they are not to be found in Apes : But Riolan
u,

tells

us the contrary.

(m) The Os Zygomaticum
as in the

in our Pygmie was not half fo big or large
5

Cranium of the Monkey

herein therefore our Pygmie

more

re-

fembles a

Mm.
(n)
Tl-o'

The Anatomy of
(n) Tho'
the Face of our

a

T TG

M

I E.

^5

Pygmk was rounder than an 4pe's,as that is and a Monkeys more than the Cynocepkalm^ yet 'twas not altogether fo much as a Mrf« s 5 the upper Jaw being proportionably longer and fomewhat more protuberant. The Bones of the Nofi too in
than a Monkey.,

our Pygr/tk more refembled the Ape-ki»d. than the Humane, being and Jimous hencs fima, and not protuberant and rifing as in Man.
-J

flat

Suture of the Palate in our Pygme was jufl: the fame as in a In a Monkey I obferved thzt peculiar Suture Riolun mentions, but did not find it in the Pygme : Only in the Palate of xhtPygmk I obferved a Suture, not from the Z)e«x Camnus, as was in the Monkey, but from
fflj

The

Man.

the Second of the Dentes Indfores.

as 'twas in the
'ATZztvlcev

(p) In our Pygmk the under Jaw was perfeftly Monkey^ and 'tis fo in a Man.

clofe-d at the

Mentum,tells us,

Galen (85)
cJ;

^

7»r

^a'Ct)!'

av9f aoT^

c'^&i

0pci.yy1a.rtw

rtw yivlw,

-ar^? Tom) a^'a-

?\.v\'KAg, i^g dv^pdiTCfj Tn^fcog, ;C)(miv^i, Ka'Tnt^' i^i KiJVO}dipx./\Qi. l. e. That of all Animals a Man katb the Jljortefi Chin, or under Javp, in proportion to his Body 3 then next to a. Man, an Ape, then aLyn:ii, f/je« Satyrs, and after thefe the Cynocephali. And I may add, of all Apes, our Pygmie hath the (horteft. The Articulation of the under Jaw in our Pygmie w3lS Condyloides, as 'tis in Man ^ :and not Gynglymoides, a5 Volcher^s Coiter and Bart hoi. Eujiachim obferve.

y\oyixv ^AovoTT

TO

Travlhc,

(mfAzn.!©^'

&i^'

^m

(q) Our P)/^«??e had in each Jaw before, ^omx Dentes Indfores-^ then following them, of each fide a Dens Canhms 3 then after them of each fide, Four Denter Molares, in all Fourteen Teeth in each Jaw, in both Twenty eight. But our Subjeft being young, I obferved that all the Teeth were not perfectly grown out of the Jaw-bone, and could perceive -fome of the Molaru, that fiill lay hid there, or were not much exerted. In a Monkey in each Jaw there were two Dentes Incifores before^ then four Dentes Canini, two of each fide ^ then eight Dentes Molares, fout of each fide. The Number of the Teeth in each Jaw, and in the whole the fame as in the Pygmie : only the Monkey had four Dentes Canini -each Jaw, the Pygmie had but two, as in a Man : Or at leaft in the Monkey, the two firft of theC"^«/«z feeraed to be Amphibious, between an Incifor and Caninm , being not fo broad as the two firft Incifores, nor fo much exerted or extended as the two other Canin't were. In the number of the Teeth our Pygmie imitated more the Ape-kfnd than the Humane : But in the Strudure of them , more the Humane than the Ape-kind for the Menfa or Superfcies Oi ths Molares, was not {o fer ra-

m

;,

ted as the Monkey's, but liker
I

Humane

Teeth.

have omkted the Printing the next Paragraph in Riolan, becaufe
Adininiflr.. lib. 4. cap. 3. p.

I

(83) Oakn de Anat,

^4.

E

would

66

Orang'^Outang five
:

Homo

Syhefiris

:

Or,
particu;

would not be tedious
larly defcribe each
I

And

for the fame reafon,

do not here

Bone in the Head and Jaws of our Vygmie
'tis

for

where

do not remark

otherwife,

to be underftood, that all thofe Parts are
the Afe-kjnd.

the fame in a Mafz, our

Pygme and

(r) There was nothing particular that I obferved in the Os Hyojdes of our Pygmie that was different from that of a Mans.

Cap.
T>e Spina &"

III.

Ofjibtis (s"

Adnexis^

M ^ (a) Cervix brevis SItebrarum anterior parte non
I
I

eJ?,

ftint rotunda,

feptem vertebris extrnSta , corpora verrPoJikiC tit honi'mi, fed plana.

acitt£. apophyfes jpmof£ nonftmtlongte^ bifida^ fed breves^ Jimplices^ In prima (b) vertebra^ niiUum (pina veftigium apparet, ima nulla fentitur

^

^

in anterior e parte corporis prima vertebra humana obtufa quadam eminentia apparet^ qua in (imia tnagk extuberat^ d^ in mucronem prodiicitur.
aJperitaSj

^wd Ji vertebras
primis vera fexta
epta e!i,
vertebris.

d^

obtinuit longioresj atque
colli

Jpinas breves habet fimia ^ (c ) apophyfes tranfverfas ad anterior a magis., quamin homine rejiexas. Im-

vertebra,

eumque

bifidum.,

qua hunc procejfumpra cateris injignem adaduncum^ quam in aliis magifque recurvum

®

Hie autem jj^ondylusfextus maximus

eff, propter illas tranfverfas

apophyfes grandiores^ in fimia caiidata minor e^.

Septimi jpondyli

iranf-

tenues., in caudata ftmia bifida, verfa apophyfes fimplices exijiunt, qua licet in homine fimplices appareant ^ fexto tamen

©

& fatis

longa

crajjltie

non

cedunt.

(d) Prima fimia vertebra adfinem procejfus tranfuerfi afcendentk utrimque foramen habet ^ ad nervum tranfmittendum^ quo humana caret vertebra,^ feptima colli vertebra in homine fapius eB perforata : ZJnde evenit, quod tranfberfi procejfus hujus vertebra non funt fimiles apophyfihus tranverfis colli^ fed potius thoracis apophyfibus tranfverfis ajfimilantur. ( e ) Vertebrarum dorii corpora parum ab humanis differnnt, neque apophyfes multum diffimiles flinty exccptis re&is ultimarum duarum vertebr arum, qua relliores funt in fimiis\,paHlkm deorfum inclinat inhominihm. In^i^ poflremis vertebris In dorfi reperiuntur quatuor inferna apophyfes articuli gratia conftru&iB. humanis vertebris du<s tanthm notantur, quas etiam in lumborum vertebris obfervabis. (g) In fimia decima dorfi vertebra^ injra fuprave fufcipitur^ at in homine eU dnodecima.
(h) Lumbi.^

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

~"

6^

(h) Lumbi, inquJt Galenus, injimik funtlongiores qtiam in hominibus, ft fro ratione reliquarum fartium hoc aftimare vdk^ nam in homine quinque vertebra Inmbos effbrmant^ in fimik non fecus^ quam in alits quadrupedibus Si~ fex adftwt. ( i ) Harum vertebrartim procejfus ab humanh differtmt. oblongi, nonnihilin exterior a conqujdemtranfverji in homine teretes Jhnt In/imiajknt ampli^ intro Jpe^ antes ^ <^ verfi, cojiularum vie em gcrentes.

&

figura caudam hiriindink referunt, aut cornn retortum^ quod oblongo acutoque mucrone erigitur, ac fnrjhm vergit. Ac tertia
injiar

fqttamma tenues

:

lumbi vertebra prima incepit tranfverfum confeqm procejjkm^ qui brevk

eil.

Reliqui fitbfequentes longiores exifiunt. (k) Pojieriores procejjuf Jpinoji non funt re^i, fedfuperne jpe^ant, atque excipiuntur a fnpernk incttmbentibm

vertebrk

,

qH£ hiatu five fcijjitra

triangulari inter duos tranjverfales procef-

fus exijiente,
excipinnt,

dumin

pojieriora fimia

jpinam

injie^it

,

eofdem tranfverfaks

Qbfervandum venif in homine circa radices infernos tranfverfarum apophjiftoDfz hmbarium, atque etiam duarum infirmarnm thorack^ quadam
(
1

)

tuber cula magnitudine figuraque mejpilorum nucleos referentia f<epiuf repeririy

qua cum in canibus d^ fimiis non habeantur^

fujpicari pojjet aliquk

vicem iUa-

rnm quas pautb

ante defcripji proceritatum in homine tenere.

(m) Os SiLCrum Jpinafundamentum in homine,ex tribus

vertebrk conflafHr

:

Infimik ex duabus tantum componitur, quibus ilium Ojfa copulantur.
(n) Simi£ longior eB Coccyx, quam homini^ pluribus ideo conftruUus Ofqu£juxta commiffuram Ojjis Sacri perforata funt, meduUamque continent, atque nervos antrorfum retrorfum emittunt , qu£ omnia defunt in coccyge homink : cur autemfimia vero coccyge caruerit, rationem reddit Fal-

jibus^

^

lopius, in Obfervat. Anatomicis.
(oj)

HomOy

inquit Galenus, ex omnibus animalibus Coftas

curvijfimas

habet, propter ea latijjzmum pe£ius obtinuit,

Simi£

latius

aeterk pe&us da-

tum, fed humane anguftius,
(^p) Porrofmia, tarn caudata^quam non caudata,coJias viginti fex pra fe Harum utrimque fert, cum in homine tantum viginti quatuor reperiantur.
cofl£, in homine feptem, qu£ per articidum Jierno committun^linque vero notha coJi£ non dejinuftt in perfeUam cartilaginem vertur. fus Jiernum invicem conJiri^£, ut in homine, fed ojfea magk quam cartilaCofts in fimia, tarn caudata, quc^m non ginofa, a fe mutuo disjunguutur. caudatd, f^atik vertebrarum intermedik inferuntur : at in- hominibm magk

funt oUo ver£

ccrporibus vertebrarum attexuntur.

(q) Sternum
ti'agines

o£lo conjiat Offibus

rotundk, quorum primum aliquantij^er

prcm'inet, fupra cartilaginum

duarum primarum conjun£iionem, qu£ du£carCartilagines videntur ampkxari fuperiore parte primum os Jierni,
K. 2

coflarnm

6"

8

Orang-Outang five Homo Syhejlrts

:

Or^

cojlarum commiffurk Ojjium jlerm accrefcuntj dii£ ult'wite concurruntjifmil in articuUtionem nhimi petinUimi ojjis Jierni. Ultimum os jlerni xiphoidem

^

cartHaginem refer etis^ impensi longum
(j)
dity

eli^

&

teres.

Shma quoadfcapulas

& clavreiilas hotn'mi maxim's fim'tlk eU

,

auihove

Clavicula ifuipiens a prima (lerni ojfe ad medium coji£ re&a proceinde ad acromion ufqiie multum curvata intumefcit : hitic articulationi interjeUum ei? ajjiculum, quod in homine ad decimitm oUavum annum ©" «/trs^ appendix exijiit : at inj/mia, nee ijiud ajjiculum , nee illim vejiiginm

Galeno.

tiUum apparet, imo pars
(a")

ilia

rohujiijjima elf.

of the Neck, as there are in a Man^ and an Ape too 5 but they were fhort, making in length about two Inches , and fecmed more to imitate thofe in Apes^ being flatter before, and not fo round as in Man. And their Spines, iho they were longer, and more obtufe, and not fo acute as in Monkeys ; yet they were
In
there were feven Vertebra

om Pjgmie

not

bifide.^

as

they are in Matt.
firft ;

(Ji)

In the

Vertebra o^ the

Neck

in the

Pjgmie there was no Spim^

but an Afperity

in a

Man there nzfmall Spine.

And

before, 'twas like

to the Humane, having an Obtufe Eminence, and not running to a Mucro, as in the Ape and Monkey. The Dens of the fecond Vertebra in the Pyg-

mie was partly Cartilaginous.
(c) I did not obferve in the Pygmie the Tranfverfe Apophyfes to be lonnor to be reflefted more forward, nor the fixth Vertebra to be lar^

ger,

ger than the others

from the fame in
Ape-kjfid.

nor the feventh Vertebra, to be any thing different 5 but in all thefe Circumftances, our Pygmie feemed to imitate the Structure of the fame Parts in Man, more than does the

Man

(d) Thofe Foramina obferved in the Vertebrae of the Neck of Apes, were wanting in our Fygmie, who herein imitated the Humane Sceleton.
(e) I did not obferve any difference between the Vertebra of the Back^ of our Pygmie and thofe of a Mans 5 nor what Riolan remarks of the Apophyfes re^a of the two laft Vertebra.

(f) In the lower Vertebra of the Back of the Pj/^«?ie,r obferved but two Apophyfes inferna, as 'tis in a Humane Sceleton : in a Monkey thereare four
Apophyfes there.

(^)

Our Pygmie
5

if

Ape and Man too prave fufcipitur.

Riolans account be true, is different both from the for here 'twas the thirteenth J^r/^/r^, quis. infra, fu-

(h)

The

The Anatomy of a
(/j)

TYG MI E,

69

Vertebra of the Loins in our Fygm'ie were about two Inches long, and their number the iame, as in a Man^ viz. five ^ and not fix, as are in Apes and Monkeys : But the Os Ilium of each fide does afcend fo high, as to include the two lower Vertebra , which is not fo in Man.

The

(f)

The

Tranfverfe Frocejfes of the
thick, as

were round and
the Monl{ey.

Lumbal Vertebrs in the Fygmis^ inMan-^ and not thin and flat, or broad, as in

(k) The Spines of the Lumbal Vertebra in the Vygmie , were ftrait, as in a Man ^ and not bending upwards, as in the Ape and Monkey ki^^d,

jedt

am apt to think thefe Tubercula are in our Fygmie ^ but our Subbeing young,and feveral of the Parts not yet hardened into Bones^ bat Cartilaginous I was not fully fatisfied herein, and do leave it as a
(/) I
i,

^are.
miftaken, nor is he here confident with himfelf, as to what he writes of this part in other places. Job. Philip. Lngrajjias (84) who has wrote a moft learned and incomparable Comment
(nt) Riolan in this account
is

upon

Galen's

Book de Ojjibus^

tells

us

5

Amplum ^acrumve Os

in

Homine

Galenus tamen, Simiarum CaOjjibtis conjiat. interdum qnatuor ex OJJibus componi inquit. Sab^ Ojfe inquani Sacra largius fnmpto, Coccygem quoqtte comprehendens : (^quem Coccygem pro nno Ojfe , tit in prsfenti textu facit ^ tanquam quartnm adjungens ajfumpjtt^ a Sacro interim difiinguens-^ fepius anient tribus duntaxat proprie fumptum Os Sacrum ^ Coceyge diflinEium exprejjit, uti nunc etiam facit : unde tribm ex partibm conjiru&um ejje ait, tanquam ex propriis Ver-

fex vel ad minus quinque ex

mimve

Sceletos dijfecans,

tebra.
fift

So
fix

Falloppius

and others do make the Os Sacrum
:

in a

Man

to con-

Bones, fometiraes five. In our Fygmie the Os Sacrum was compofed of five Bones But in the Sceleton of a Monkey I obferved but three Bones or Vertebra which did make up the Os Sacrum.

of

But

as

our PygMie in the number of the Vertebr£ which compdfes the

imitate the Humane l^nd ^ fo in other refpefts 'twas touch liker to the Sceleton of Apes and Monkeys : For the Os Sacrum here, was nothing fo dilated and fpread, as 'tis in Man 3 but contracted and narrow as 'tis in Apes 5 and very remarkably different from the Humane Sceleton-^ as 'twas likewife in the «S)pi«w and Froceffes which more refembled the^pe-A/W.

Os Sacrum, did

(n)

TheOj

Humane

Sceleton, 2X\A thefe

Coccygk in our Fygmie confifted of four Bones, as 'tis in an. not perforated. In the Ape,^nd efpecially in the

(84) Comment,

in Oalen. de Ojjibm,

Cap.

x. Text. 3, pag.

m. 184,
mkey,:^

70

Orang-^Outang five
ftiles it ,

Homo
o

Syheftris

:

Qr,

Mjonk^y^ there are

more Bones, and thofe

perforated, as Riolan defcribes

»ox>tt»|, Perforaim Coccyx. them. Hence Julius Pollux This Os Coccygk makes a little bunching out of the Skin in the Pygmk, as I have reprefented it in my fecond figure^ and is remark'd before (vide fag.j^.yont. in Mrf«,'tis not protuberant. What Riolan obferves out of the Nubian Geography y of a Nation in the Ifle of Namaneg^ having Tails, I think is fabulous ^ unlefs they be Monkeys^ or of that kind : I am certain that Story of the Kentifi Longtails he mentions, is utterly falfe, tho' he modeftly exprefles himfelf, fabulofum puto. His words are thefe : In Oriental^., Gens eU caudata^ ex Geographia ArabiInfnla Namaneg cS Nubienfi, pag. 70, fabulofum puto quod de Anglk Catidatk referunt Bifiorici, quibm ob injuriam D. Thomse Cantuarienfi illatam, Deus Coccygem

t^nlh

Mam

injiar

Cauda produxit (85).

(o) In our Pygmie the Ribs were altogether as

much

curved, as in an

Humane

Sceleton

5

and

it

was as full

che(led as a

Man.

(p) In the number of the Ribs our Pygmie imitated the Ape-hjnd : for it had thirteen of a fide, fix and twenty in all : In a Man there is but twenty four, tho' fometimes there has been obferved thirteen of a fide.

As to the other Particulars that Riolan mentions, viz,, the number of the Cofl£ vera, and the offious Extreams of the Noth£,3.nd the Articulation of the Ribs, herein our Pygmie more refembled a Man : for it had but feven Cojia vera that were articulated to the Sternum ; and the Extreams oi the Notha v/exe Cartilaginouf, not OJJious, and continued to the Sternum as in an Humane Sceleton ; and the Articulation of the Ribs was more on the Body of the Vertebra, than in the Interftices. Drelincourt is miftaken in mentioning but twelve Ribs in thtApe, of a fide, or his was diiFerent. makes eight Bones in the Sternum of Of) Jo. Philippus IngraJJias (86) time thefe Bones do coalefce, and grow Infants 5 and tells us, that in Galen makes feven Bones in the Sternum , according to the numfewer.
ber

of the Cojits verts that infert x{\t\xCartilages'mx.o them. But the eighth Bone Ingraffias faith, is for the Cartilago Enjiformts. In the Sternum of our Pyq^mie I numbred feven Bones, the two lad being fmall and partly
and here the Cartilages were inferted at the Commiffures and Joyningsof the Bones of the Sternum. The Cartilago Enfiformk was long and roundilh. The whole of the Sternum of our Pygmie much more refembled thtHumane Sceletonfiizn the Monl^y s,htmgmxxch. broader and larger, and as far as I obferved juft alike.
Cartilaginous
;

(r)

The

Scapula
I

Man's^ yet
Ojfibus ,

o( our Pygmie, tho' in moft refpedts it refembled a thought it did not fo much, a s a Monke/s ; for it feemed
p.

(85) Rjolan. Enchdrid. Anat. lib. 6.cap. i6. Cap. 1 2 . Text, i . jag. m. 1 90,

451.

(85) Jo.

Phil. IngraJJias

Comment,

in

Oalen.de

narrower.

.

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

71

narrower, and the Bafis was proportionably longer. But this I fuppofe might happen in preparing the Sceleton by paring away the Cartilages (for the Creature was young) which in a longer time would have hardened into a Bone. So likewife that Procefi which receives the ClavkuU call'd Acromion^ was Cartilaginous, as was likewife the End of the Procejjus Coracoides , and of the Cervix it felf, which la ft received the head of the Shoulder Bone. So that as yet there was not a Sinus formed here for the receiving it j but thatExtream was flatter than ufually and plain 5 nor was there that Sinus under the Spine^ as in an adult Humane Scapula.
obferved no difference in the Figure and Structure of the ClavicuU our Fygmie and in a Man. Nor did I obferve that Bone Riolan mentionSjbut a large Cartilage ^\\\zh. did conjoyn that Extreamof the ClavicuU to the Acromittm, which in time might become long , this Cartilage was about a quarter of an Inch long.
I

in

Cap.

IV.

De Jrtubus Suferiorihm.
(a)

O
ex

Q

I

MI ^

dijjimilis
refleSiitur

Omoplatx omnino fmiles fnnt. (b} Humerusy?z«7<s nan admodum ab humano differt, in caudata. eUjuxta inferius caput, quod cubito articulatur. Hac enim regione
C^

Homnk

rit

ab exteriori parte introrfum, atque in il/afiexura canaliculum acquis oppofito latere pervium.

(c) Cubiti Offa

duo

in utraque pmiahumanis re^ondent.
differ t ab

(d) Carpus

y?/»/<g

non v aide
:

de quo ^c loquitur KvL^achius

Hoc

ojjiculum

eU locatum, fed tertio ejufdem aciei ojji d^ medium digitum fujiinent feipfum inferit :
offe

Immano, obtinuiitamen nonumos^' non in prima brachialkacie incumbit, atque inter ea qu(S indicem
vocatur a

Galeno
protuberat.

h'pv^<;,

hoc

videntur carer e fimije caudate, fed ejus loco adipifcuntur os
ojfi

quod carpi

cubito fubjirato anne£litur,

& fatk longe
,

pecitliare, >

Deinde

inflar cornicis verfus

manus volam incurvatur

atque

cum

proceffu ojjis carpi

radio articulati,

magnam

cavitatem mufculorum tendinibus efformat.

(e) Metacarpij,DigitoruraqueOfra/»?i^,?<i«« caudate

parum admodum ab humank ojjibus difcrepant. nus digitum VoWicem, mutilum obtinct, d^ curtum^ &• indickfro^inquum^
non oppojitum,
injiar alterius

quamnon caudat£, Simia qitfdem magnnm ma:

manus, ut in homine

Rcliqt/i digiti

mults

funt minores digitis pedum.

:

-72

Orang^O lit ang Jive Homo
I

Syhejiris

:

Or^

have already mentioned that the Scapula or 0/fwplata in our Pygmie did not feem fo like a Man's, as a M^^^'s did ^ nor does it appear fo in my figure j not but that I think 'tis fo, when adult ; and it's Carriages are hardened into a Bone : but my figure only reprefents what was now formed intoaB^i^e, and without the Cartilages, which in, time would have become bony.
(<?)

was a little above five Inches long, and not altogether fo thick. juft: the fame length with tht Thigh Bone That end which was joined to the Bones of the Cubit, was about an Inch and a half broad. I obferved here, upon the flexure of the Cubit forwards, that in theOj-H;/^/erzdiere was a deep/?7^,and the Bone fo thin ,here,that it would admit the Rays of Light thorough-^ but 'twas not pervious as Riolan faith it is in a Monkey ; nor did I obferve it fo , in the Sceleton of a Monkey.
(b)
in our P^'^^^we
,

The Os Humeri

Pygmie the Bones of the Cubit were exactly like a Mans. was five Inches long ^ the Raditfs five Inches and an half. They The Vina had large Cartilages at both Extreams.
(f) In the

(I) So likewife the Bones, of the C<jr/7A^ in-thePj'^^/ze refembled thofe of a Man. I did not obferve here that ninth Bone defcribed by EuflaFor indeed in our Subj eft, there were but four in each C?rp;Kf, chiifs. that were ojjifisd : the others were only Cartilaginous.

For

Hand^ our Pygmie refembled the Ape and Monkey-^md. Bones of the Metacarp indFingers were like to thofe of a Man:, yet the Thumb wzsmuch fmaller,than the other Fingers, and (horter, and This G<?/e« frequently takes notice of. 'Tis true,the liker the Jpe-kjnd. orher Fingers svevQ much larger in our Pj/^^z/'e than in the Jpe-kind, and more refembling thofe of a Man,[o that I was furprifed to fee them fo big but the Thumb^ which tht'Ancients and Gal/en olII dvri^f^iiocc^ind Hippocrates lAyxv, in our Subjefl: was fo difproportionate and little, that as Galen remarks (87), any one that fiiould view it, would think that it was but a ridiadorfs imitation of Man-kjnd, and nothing anfvveringto it's Names. And in the precedent Chapter he vigoroufly difputes againft the Epicureans and the Followers o( Afclepiades ^ and from the admirableStrufture and wile Contrivance of all the Parts, and particularly the Tendons that he confutes their Hypothefis as vain, and hath this go to the Fingers noble Epiphonema, <S.r\ cS vr^Jc 3^mv i^^v i^ovlig o^ ToaaDra.ic, ^jfla^va^ai ljJijj--\a.^ajl, o'jt' hv -t- I^-miv r^ t^vovImv^ «te t tq-ttw, oun -r r^Simv tk; i/x:p'j(!ijii(;
(/) In the
rho' the
•-,

(87) Galen de

i.fit

Far turn,

lib.

i.cap. 22, p.

m.^KO,

The Anatomy of a
yui,

T YG
^m
ipccTi,

M
jy

I E.

73
S,7mv1ce.
ttx.

aX\'

077 (j^Siv aZ-ryic, i^^n^ofjiAV,
\. e.

X^^'' "^^^^j

ToiMTtt in tot Infertionibjfs reprehendatJ^, neqite que Jnfertionis modum, fed in his omnibus mirabikm qnandam Proportionem hoc nonjlne videatis^ una folk in uiroque magna digito fimilithr perdita ahfque Arte omnia, hujuf rations^ quod et nan egebamm) temere dicitk
-yfyovivauj.

Vos^ per Deos immortaks^

cum nihil habeatk^ quodTendonum mokm, neque locum^ ne-

©

(&

modi facta fiu^e.
the Metacarpm in the Pygmie were an Inch and three laft Joints of the Thumb were fcarce an Inch the Thumb was a little above an Inch. The long 5 the firft Joint of Forefinger was two Inches and almoft an half : The middle Finger^ two The third or Ring-finger was two Inches Inches and three quarters. and half a quarter 5 and the little Finger was not full two Inches long. The firft Joint of the fore and middle Finger was above a quarter oi an

The Bones of

quarters long.

The two

Inch broad, and the Girth ot each about was an
therefore in the i^i«'_gerj,having

Inch.

The Pygmie

hut in

and thick, imitated a Man 5 the Thumb, which was fo flender and fraall, it referabled the

them fo

large

Ape-I^nd»

Cap.
!D^ Artuhus Inferiorihm,

OS
•nis,

S

A

(a) Ilium in utraque Jimia, tarn caudataquam non caudata^iotBi

pubis Offa

humanis : dehifcunt enim eo in loco, ubl debebant, atque omnino privantur Ojfe pubis : propterea ad ve^ effe lociter currendum ineptafunt. Ifchij articulm plane dijjimilis ef/ ab illo homihabitu^ (&• figura dijlant ab

Ht notavit Galenus,

(b) BaetiY^moxxs^mdimzinftmia, ut e&mfiarere&amnonpermittat^ nee inflar homink corpus fuum erigere, aut incedere, ne quidem federe, quia,
femoris caput obliquius in articulo coxa^ committitut\ (c) In homine cervix rotundi capitis femoris oblonga e!i , oblique deorfum ducitur. Ik fenjtm propemodum tranfverfa vijitur. Sed femoris ctrvice, fmia vero brevis,

&

^

apophyfes du£, trochanteres
iJIa,

di&a^ in fimia Jimiles funt humanis , verum in

nt in caudata minoresc

(d) Patella utriufque Jtmia manifeftum dif crimen ah human a demonprati e^enim oblonga, ten rotunda. Suamvis autem extrinfecus gibbapt, atqtie
intUi cava^

nihiUmmus

longe aliter fe hubet

qmm in homine,
L

Namfecun-

74
ditf/t ipjius

Orang-'Outang five
longiUtdinefn rscurvatur
,

Homo

Sjkeflris

:

Or,

excavaturque adeo^ nt nihil popeniodnm in medio emineat, curvo aduncoque ejus finu navicidam qnandam ele~ gantijjimi referre videatur. In caudatajimia patella videtur ex dHobi0 Ojji^
bus mutub adnatrs confiriiUa.
(e) Tibix

utrumque Os in

utraqttejimia humanis

O^ihm fimilUrmim eU.

(f) SimixPes ah humano maxinih difcrepat^ eU enim ohlongus latufque homini^ angtiftus brevifque fimi^y pro ratione corporis\pedifqne digitilongiores ffint^ fed metatarji Ojfa brevier a^ calcanenm vero anguUim^ d^ anteriori in parte qua cum Ojfe cyboide cotnmittitur ^ latius evadens^ magijque inibi longtim^ quiim retro ^ in/pedit nefifnia diif eredfa, jlare^d^ ambulare queat,

^

fed manens fublimk , 0]fl fcayboidi qua aflragalus humilem^oblongam atque tenuem cervicem habet. Plant a in fimia ex quatuor Ojjibus componitur. Pollex ex tribus, inqnit Euftachius. ^amvis Volcherus in caudata fimia nnllam ohfcrvarit differentiam^ quh difcreparent ah homine. (g) Digitornm notifinia eli difcrepantia in homine^ ut notavit Galenus, omnes una ferie dij^onuntur^ brevijjimoque j^atio difcreti , multo ininores funt^ qitam qui in mann habentur. Nam quant)) pesfumma manu major ell , tanto iUius digiti ntanus digit kfunt minores.
Afiragalus
tennis
ejpcitttr^

Galeno

non

conJHfigitur,

quod fmi£

repfignat, in

Qi) Accedit quod poUex longitudine Indict ^equalfs ei?, quern dupla crafjiiudine fiperat, talifque efi quatuor digit arum commenfuratio^ut ab indice ad

minimum femper

defici at longittido :

&featnda

indice aciei Ojfa^ fi

m

exce-

p£rfs^ breviorafunt iis, quiC in tertia

phalange reponuntur.

Hiec omnia in

ntraque fimia aliter fe habent^ omnes enim pedis digiti infigni Jpatio difcreti funt^ multoque longiores^ quhm in manu exijlunt : PoUex c£terk digitis brevior tenuiorque ei?, atque diverfam ab aliis pofitionem fortitur, dehifcit etiam,
nt pollex in manu valde ab indice. Digiti pedis fimia, manus humanne digitorum ferie fn imitantur, ei? enimpoUex in pede fimi£ reliquis digitis bre"viar, inter alios quatuor digitos nt in manu^ medium omnium longijjimus.

(a) There was no Part I think in the whole Sceletm where the Pjg^ mie difFered more froni a Man, than in the Strufture and Figure of the Os Ilium : for in a Humane Sceleton thofe Bones are fpread broad, forming a Sinus or Hollow on the Infide. In the Pygmie they were proportionably longer and narrower, and not fo Concave on the infide, but in all refpe^ls conformable to the Shape of the fame Bones in the Ape and Monkey-kind. But why i??Wrf;z (houlddeny the Os Pubis to be in Monkeys, I fee no reafon 5 for naturally there is not that Dehifcence or Separation of the Os Pubis, as Coiter has given in his Figure of the Sceleton of a Monkey, and as he defcribesit ; from whence I fuppofe Riolan borrows this Defcription : for in the Sceletons of two Monkeys I obferved thefe Bones were joined together, and in the Pygmie they are clofed as in a Man. When the Cartilage that joins them is divided, they will part

afunder ^

,

The Anatomy of a
afunder
is
5

T YG
fo.

M

1 E,

°"~~°~75

no

reafon,

but otherwifc they are firmly knit together. This therefore why they (hould not run faft ; and the contrary was ob-

ferved of the

Pygmk

that

it

did

length of the Os Ilinm^ from it's Spine to it's Conjunftlon with Os Ifchium^ was three Inches 5 where 'twas broadefl, 'twas an Inch and half ; where narrowefl:, but three quarters of an Inch. The Os Ifchhtm was an Inch and tTiree quarters long j the Os Puhis was an Inch
the

The

long.

did not obferye any difference in the Strudure of the ThrghI^^^^ze from that in Man 5 nor was it's Artkdation or Infertion of it's Head into the Ae?rf^«/««?, more oblique than in Man. So that from this Articulation^ I faw no reafon why it (hould not walk upright and fit f our Pygmie did both When I faw it, 'twas juft a little before it's death 5 and tho' 'twas weak and feeble, it would fland, and go

f^J

I

bom in our

:

upright.

length of the TJjjgh-hone in the Vygmie was five Inches : The girth middle an Inch and three quarters^ where 'twas joined to the Bones of the Leg^ 'twas an Inch and almoft an half broad.

The
it

of

in the

(c) The Neck of the Head of the Thigh-bone in our Pygmie was not it's length, as I didobferve, from that of ^Man's^ but the fame proportionably 5 as were likewife the two Apophyfes , called Trodifferent in

chanteres.

(d) The Patella in our Pygmie was not yet offified. As much as I could difcover of it's fliape, it was the fame as ifi Man 5 round and not long 5 and but one Bone, and not two, as Riolan defcribes it in the Monkey. In the Sceletons of the Monkeys I ufed, thefe Bones were loft fo that I did not obferve them.
'

(e) The two Bones in the Leg^ the Tibia, the fame in the Pygmie as in Man 5 and their The Tibia was four Inches long 5 the Fibula girth of the Tibia in the middle was about an half an Inch.

and the Fibula were juft Articulations were alike % wSs a little fhorter. The Inch 3 of the Fibula, about

makes the foot of the Pygmie feem different from aMe^'s, of the Toes^ and the Structure of the great Toe. In other refpeds, it has a great refemblance with it. For the Bones of the Metatarfus here, feemed proportionably as long as in Man. The Os Calck^ Calcaneum or Heel-bone was not narrow, but broad 5 and forewards, where 'twas joined to the Os Cuboide or Cubiforme^ not broader, nor longer, than behind 5 where it jats out fo far, as fuliiciently fecures it's
is

Cf) What

chiefly the length

L

2

{landing

.

q6
from

Orang^Outang jive Homo Syhejlrts
The
a Man's,

.-

Or^,

ftanding or walking ereft.

Ajiragalus I did not obferve different

or NavkuUre here was CartHagimus. If one reckons three Joints in the greai Toe, then there can be but tour Bones in the Planta PeJ^r, or Metatarfus ^ which with B.ti^iachius I am more inclined to, becaufe really this Part performs upon any occafion the ufe of an Hand too ^ and the great Toe^ (like the Thnmb in the Hand) ftands off from the range of the other Fingers. Befides, I obferved a difference in the Colour in the Bones of the Metatarfuf and the Toes for the Colour of the Toes was white and opace , the Colour of the Bones of the Metatarfus was like to that of the Cartilages, and more tranfparent. Now all the three Bones in tht great Toe were of the fame colour, white as were the other Toes. Therefore I (hall make but four Bones in the Metatarfm, anfwerable to thofe of the Metacarpus in theHaad, and three Bones in ths great Toe.
Scaphoides
.•

The

C^J And as the Hand of our Pygmie in fome Parts refembled the Humane in others the Ape-kjnd : So the fame may be faid of the Foot too. For the Heel, the Tarfus and Metatarfuf were like to the Humane. But all the T£>(?x were liker toihtApe ^xid. Monkey -kind : For the Toes here , if we may call themT^cj, and not rather Fingers, were almoft as long as the Fingers in the Hand ; much longer proportionably than in Man, and not lying foclofe together: But the i5(7«ex of the Fingers in the Hand^ were larger and bigger than thofe of the Toes..
-y

(h) The great Toe
Toes
5

tho' in a

the Ape-kind. diat in ApesXh& middle Toe is the longeft , as is the middle Finger in the Hand ; In the Sceteton of the Fygmie I did obferve, that the^Jri? andmiddle Toe were both much of a length , each meafuring an Inch and three quarters : The ?/jzr^ and little Toe- were about an Inch and an half long ; the little Toe being rather fomewhat (hotter than the third Toe^ If in the^re^F r<?e you reckon three Artiaili, as Eitjiachius does, then from the Tarfi0 to it'sExtream, the great Toe meafured two Inches and an half : but if with Coiter you make but two Articuli or Joints in the
great Toe,

was {hotter than thefirft of the other altogether as long 5 and herein it refembles But whereas Ariftotle ( as I have remarked ) mentions,
in the Fygmie,

Man 'tis

and the other to be a Bone of the Metatarfus 5 thefe two were only an Inch and a quarter long: The four Bones of the Metatarfus were much of a length, being about an Inch and a quarter long.
frequently remarked) being fet more refembles a Thumb. This Dif-* ference I obferve in it's make, That the Bones that compofe it, are much bigger and larger, than any of the other Toes ; and in refpeift of the Thumb in the Hand, vaftly bigger. In the Sceletou of a Monkey I did not obferve the Bones of the great Toe , to exceed thofe of the other. But as the Thumb in the Foot is much bigger,than that in the Hand-^io the Finders in the Handzt^ much larger than thofe in the Foot. GAPo
off
T\\\s great Toe ( as has been already

from the range of the

others,

^

The Anatomy of a

TYG

MI E.

77

Cap.
De
Sefamoideis,

IN Homine ^
fa^

Ofia Sefamoidea pauca

fuftt,

magnaque ex

parte cartilagmo-

pea. qH£ pollki applicaatur exceperk^ in conjianti fede firmata. Cmqxe ojfea perpetuo ftmt. verb mnltA^ atqne magna, occurrunt, InjimU poUick gemina fere femper fecunio prima quattior digitartim mternodio,

&

&

^

adne^unUtr.

Duo

ojjicula

magnitudine cicerk, fnpra utrumque tuberadum
reperiuntur.

femork
hs,

in origine

gtmeUorum

it

to the Offa Sefamoidea in our SubjeftJ have very little to fay ; For being young, very likely they might be only CartHaginot^ ^ and the'

Skin adhering fo firmly here, they might be taken off with it. Since they are in Apes., I do not doubt, but that they were in our ?ygmie too, tho' I did not obferve them.

Having

now made my Remarks upon the

Comparifon^ that Riolan., or"

and Cotter, have given us, between the Sceleton of a Man., an Ape., and a Monhgy ; and {hewn wherein the Sceleton of our Fy^mie either agreed or difagreed from any of them , I thai 1 make fome R efieftions upon the wholes and more particularly upon fome Parts, which deferve here a more diftind Confideration. But (hall firft of all take the Dimenfions of the Sceleton^ and of fome other Parts I have not mentioned already.
rather Ettfiachtus

As from the top of the Crammi to the Extream of the Heel in a ftrait Line, the Sceleton of the Pj/gmie meafured about two Foot ^ from the firft Vertebra of the Neck, to the laft of the Os Coccygk , eleven Inches 5 from the head of the Shoulder-bone, to the end of the middle Finger 'twas about fifteen Inches; the end of this Finger reaching in an ereft Pofture an Inch and half below the Patella : whereas in an Humane Sceleton, from the end of the middle Finger to the lower part of the Patella, it wanted five Inches and an half Our Pygmie therefore herein imitated the Ape'kjnd. From the head of the Thigfj-bom, to the bottom of the Os Calck'm the Pygmie, was about ten Inches. From the fetting on of the firft Rib, to the faftening on of the laft, was four Inches. Thediftance between the laft Rib, and the%*«e of the Oj-I/7««^, not full twoInches. From the Spine of the Os Ilium, to the bottom of the Os Pubk^ in a ftrait Line, was four Inches and three quarters. The diftance between the end of the Scapula, and Spine of the Os Ilium about three
%

=

inches,"

m

,

78

Orang-^Outang five

Homo

Sykeftris

:

Qx,

Both when it was alive, and after it's death, I admired the ftraitnefs and (hape of it's Back. Now the Scapula, coming down fo low on the Ribs, and inclining towards the Vertebra of the Back, and the Os llmm riling fo high,they do contribute very much towards it 5 and muft alfo afford a great fafeguard and flrength to the S^c^^and <ypz>e.
t.\\tScektonoi om. 'Pygmie •wd.s juft the fame length of one of a Monkeys that I borrowed : But becaufe 1 obferved moft of the Apophyfes ot tho-^on^s to ht Cartilaginous in the Pygmie, I muft conclude, that 'twas hut yofing-j and that probably it might grow taller 3 to what height I am uncertain. Yet I can by no means be induced to believe , that it would ever arrive to the Stature of a M<?«, as fome .fort of this Specks of Animals has been obferved to do , for then I could not exped,to have feen here, the Bofies themfelves fo folid, or the Cranium to be fo entirely oflSfied, or the Sutures to be fo clofed and indented, and the Backc hone and Ribs fo fully hardened, as all the Bones of the Artus or Limbs were likewife, except at their Apophyfes, and in the Carpus and Tarfus. Now all thefe Parts that had thefe Cartilaginous Apophyfes, had~ already acquired fo great a length, in proportion to the reft of the Body^ that 'tis not to be imagined, that they would have exceeded it, or at leaft not much 3 and confidering that Animals come to their aKfAv, of growth fooner or later, according to their Longevity, as a Man, (till he is paft the Age that any of thefe Creatures, it may be, arrive to) does not leave growing: this inclines me to think, fince we found moft parts of the Body fo perfefted here, that it might not in time much exceed the height I could have wifhed that thofe that have wrote it had already acquired. of any of this Species oC Animals, had given us their Dimenfions anci Ages, but they are filent herein, or at leaft too general only Le Compte obferved an Ape in the Straits of Molucca four foot high 3 but this may not be our fort. As to thofe of Borneo, I was informed by a SeaCaptain who ufed thofe Parts, that the King there formerly had one as
:

tall as

great

a Man, that would frequently come down to the Town, and a many Stories are told of him. The fame Captain had two given

him, both young, and about the height of our Pygmie 3 but thefe were not hairy, but naked as a Man 5 and one of them that he carried ro Batavia, was looked upon as fo great a Rarity, that all the time he ftaid But 'tis there, his Ship was conftantly vifited by fuch as came to fee it. beft determine this doubt Matter of Fatft, not Reafoning, that will and a faithful Obfervation that muft inform us^ to Vv^hat tallnefs this ion oi Anir/tal in Angola, and the Countries thereabout, does ufually

grow

3

for in different Countries they
is

tho' the fame iSjpeaey, as

be different in this refpeft, feen even in Mrf«4'«^»

may

'Tis not therefore that I
call'd

am fond of
I

om Ammalio^

or that

the word Pygmie, that I have undertake to juftifie our prefent would

Subjea

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

79

Subjeft to be exadtly the Vygr^ik of the Ancients : Of this ^.adm-manm fort of Animals there are divers Species, and fome may be taller and others {hotter 5 but all of them being but, Brutes, I was unwilling to call

Twas neceifary to give it a Nanie,beours a Mtf», tho' with an Epithet. caufe not tallying exaftly with the Defcriptions of thofe that are given us, I did not know but that it might be diifcrent : and it's prefent height correfponding fo well Vv^ith that of the Pygmies of the Ancients, ( and we may allow fomething for growth too) induced rae to this denomination: For as A.Gellius^^'^^ tells us, the Pygmies were two Foot and a quarter high. Pygmaos quoqiie (faith he) baud long^ ah his nafci , quorum
qni longijjimi Jltnt, non longiores
ejfe

quhm pedes duos

& quadrantem.

And

fo Pliny (89), Supra hos extrema in parte M.ontium Trij^ithami, Pygmceique narrantur, ternas Spimathas longiiudine, hoc elt ternos dodrantes non excedentes ^ that is twenty feven Inches. For as Ludovicus Fives (90)
obferves, a Foot contains fixteen Digiti or twelve Pol/ices.

The Do-

drans or Spithama^ which is the Palmus major, contains nine PoUices 5 the Palmm minor is but three PoUices, or four Digiti, that is, a quarter of a Foot And fo Herodotus (91) informs us, that the Valmm contains four Digiti, and the Cubit fix Palmi. The Pygmie therefore being TriJ^ pithamus or three Spithams long, was twenty feven Inches long , or as A. Gellius tells us, two Foot and a quarter. So our Animal, before Diffeftion meafured twenty fix Inches ; but in the Sceleton, only four and twenty Inches. Not but Strabo (92) out o£ Megajihenes, does mention
:

too, the -Trivlaum^cifMig ar6^(»7ra?, as well as the r^am^x/utag
ter
tells

;

but thefe

lat-

fight the Cranes, How(he ever it be, if our Ape be not the Pygmie of the Ancients, yet I can't but think, the Pygmies of the Ancients were only a fort of Apes, notwithftanding all the Romances that have been made about them. And if fo, and our Ape be'found not much to exceed the mcafures given, I (hall think my Conjedture in giving this Name, not amifs. But of this here= after. And to proceed :

us) were thofe, that

Homer makes to

Since the Bones are the main Timber-work in this Fabrick of Animal which the whole is fupported, and upon their Strudure, in a good meafure, does depend their manner of local motion, we will here more particularly enquire, which may be thought the moll: natural way of walking in our Pygmie, either as a ^ladruped or a Biped, for it did both upon occafion ; and we will fee whether by Nature 'tvv as equally
Bodies, by

provided for the doing both.

Now when I

obferved
it

it

to

go upon all

four,- as

z^adruped

(as has
fiat

been already remark'd)

did not place the Palms of the Hands

to

CommentM
4^i8'

(88) ^.(reZ^.iVff^.^W/c. lib.9.cap.4.p,205. (89) P/;n?j2»;d^/S,ff.lib.7.cap.2.p.m.i3-. (90) Lu£Vives V.Auguftini de Civhate Dei, lib.i^.cap.8.p.ra.882, (91) Hmdotifs inEuterpej'N'', iti^.'p. m,
(92) Strabo.Geo^raph,]ib.iS.^.m-4rS9.

8o

Orang-^Outang five

Homo

Sykejlrk

:

QVj

the Ground, but went upon it's Knuckles, or rather upon thefirft Joints of the Fingers of the Fore-hands , the fecond and third Joints being bended or touching the Ground ; which feem'd to me fo unufual a way of walking, as I have not obferved the like before in any Atiimal. And I did expeditthe lefs here becaufe the Fore-limbs being fo very long,it might be thought, that it had the lefs need of thus raifing the Body.
:

whole weight of the Body thus lying upon thefe Joints of the one would think, that they (hould be foon tired in fupporting it, and that Nuttire did not defign it for a Conftancy, but only upon occafion, or a prefent (hift For if it was to be it's ufual way of walking, no doubt, for it's greater eafe, it would place the Palms flat to the Ground,as all other Animals do t\\tfok of the Foot^ and hereby it would
the

And

Fingers,

:

be rendered better able to bear

this

weight.

Befides, when it walks thus upon it's Fingers^ the flexure at the Elbow will be inwards, towards the fides of the Body, which is different from
all

other ^ladmpeds, and in

it's

Progreffion will be of

no

ufe at all,

nay, will be an hinderance to it 5 and it will require a great tention of the Mufcles to keep thefe Forclimbs ftrait 5 and if they are not kept fo, they mufl: halt, and can't move fwiftly ; which makes me diffident, that this can't be it's Natural Pofture in goings for Nature always contrives the eafieft and beft ways of Motion. Now in ^ladrupeds the fledion of the fore and hinder Limbs, is both the fame way : But in a Man and an Ape (as I have before remarked from Ariftotle) 'tis contrary ; or as Vliny expreffes it , Homini genua d>" Cubit a contraria, item Urfis d/^ Simiarum gencri, ebid minime pernicibus. But how Pliny comes to bring in the Bear here, I do not underftand : for if with the Parijians (95) v/e fhould here underftand by Genua, ths Heel-bone, and by Cubita a Bone of the Carp/^ (which are often longer in Brutes than in ManJ then this will be a Property not peculiar to Bears, but might be obferved in other ^ladrupeds too. I fhould rather own it as a Miftake in Pliny. Nor can I afient to the Parijians, That all Animals have thefe Parts turned after the fame manner, rehatever Ariftotle may report thereof I muft confefs I am of ^?-7^<?//e'smind, and any Body may experience it in himfelf, and obferve t\\t flexure of t\\t Cubit to be different from that of the Knee:,

and where 'tis fo, there the Motion upon all four, will be very awkward and unnatural, and as Pliny obferves, it can't be fwift.
here further obferve, that in ^tadrupeds the make of the Tho^ on of the Scapula, and the Articulation of the Humerj/s, or Shoulder-bone, are much different from what they are in Bipeds : for Stuadrupeds are narrow Chefted, and their Tfjorax not fo round as in a A/<?«, becaufe in them the ^.Ci-?/)///^ are to be placed more forward upon the Ribs, and not fo back wards.as in Merr. And the Articulation of the
I fliall

rax, the fetting

iPi)

y'ii^s

their Asatomic Defcription of a Bear in their Mcmoiri, f.m. 44.

.

Shoulder

ne

Anatomy of a

T fG

M

1 E.

8i

Shoulder with the Scapula in Mltiadrupeds lies nearer the Ribs 5 in Man Now our Pygmze fo exaftiy imitating 'tis extended farther from them. Humane-kind in all thefe Circumftances, makes me think that Nature did not defign it a ^adruped, but a Biped. For it had a full round Cheli or Thorax, and it's Scapida placed backwards, not fo forwards on the Ribs, and the Articulation of the Shoulder with the Scapula, flood
off

from the
four,

/?//^j-

as

it

do's in

Galen (94)
all

tells us,

That a

Man. And from this -very Confideratioii Man, if he would, could not walk upon
( faith he )

AiQvlcac,

h arQpaJTrigL
i.

ov^ d /B'aM^tm

iSx^^i^v 'On -^^

quidem amlongs a hulare quatuor artubus queat , And Gakn all along owns, that the Strudure of Thorace fint ahduBi. the Scaprda in the Ape, is the fame as in a Man 5 and tells us that an Ape is exadtly neither a ^tadruped , nor a Biped , but amphibious between both. For in the fame Chapter, fpeaking of the Ape, he faith,
Tag
Mfxa.'Tck'i'm.c,

i^^m.

e.

Merit

itaqiie

Ho wo

ne, fi volet,

qtibd in ipfo

Scapularum

Articuli

'TTOlv,

oMtk-Tm^v Tc

ct.!uui-,

it)

0^^,

Sid

70

7:X&i?'0v

a.7ry<^Qcif

rS ^QCf.x@u

vero ad Scapulas d^ Claves tS 3fflg9ix@^ (Me7o$ '£xm^(t)^yia-biiV i. e. attinet, homint maxima eU JimiUs , quamquar/t ei parte homitti Jimilis ejfe non debebat , nam quod ad ambulationk celcritatem pertinet, fimia inter genus utrumque ambigit , neque enim Bipes pcnitus eli , neque ^ladrupes 5 fed quatenus efi Bipes. clauda eff,no7i enimre&e plane flare pot cff quatenus ei? ^tadrupes, mutila fimul eli, ac tarda, quod Humeri articulus a Thorace plurimum ft abdn^ius , quern ad,mod.um fi idem arliculus in alio quopiam animante a Thorace divnlfus extra fecejjijjet. altho' Galen tells us here, that an Ape can fcarce ftand upright 5 yet in another place he declares quite the contrary 5 for, faith he C95) ,
:^

^od

&

Now

;c^7t£$t?
H^

,

it)

Yi'Mga,

htaix;,
i.

it)

opdi; igctlcq

f{jf.\o6i,

cio<;

Hj /Sss^^eiv djjLijLi-^mg,,
,

Eii autem fimillima ho mini Simia ut qits rotundam pr£cipud habet faciem, Dentes Caninos parvos , latum Pedfus , Claviculas longiores, minimkm Pilofa, qu£ reSa etiam flat bel/h , ut (0 iucJ^tia?

^Av

^uox&of.

e.

cedere fine errore,

C^

currere velociter pojjit^

We have feen upon what accounts our Pjgmie may be thought not to be a ^ladruped , or that it's natural Grejflon is not on all four, and how ill it is provided to go that way. We will now enquire. Whether there is not more reafon to think that Nature defigned it
1^94)

Gakn

de ufu

Parfmm,

lib.

13. cap. i i. p. m. 627.

M

(95) Qalen de ufu Farpitim,
"

lib. i i. cap, 2.

to

82

Orang-Outang

five

Homo

Syheftris

:

Or,

to be a Bi^ed , and to walk ereft. And in the doing this, we may obferve the largenefs of the Heel-hone in the Foot , which being fo much extended , fufficiently fecures the Body from falling backwards, as the length of the Toes do's it's being caft too forwards ; and the Arms being fo long, may eafily give a poife either way, for the preferving the MquiUhrhim of the Body. And it may be, this is the

Reafon why the Pongos hold their hands behind their Necks , when they walk ered. If we confider the Artkidnthn of the Os Femork in the Acetabulum^ there is no difference to be obferved from a Man ^ nor indeed in any other ICircumflance that relates to this Matter. Tis true, in my Brfk figtire I reprefent him as weak and feeble and bending 5 for when I firft faw him, he was dying ; befides , being young, and ill, it had not that itrength in it's Limbs as in time and in health, it might have acquired, and I was willing to reprefent what, I faw my felf. But what very much fways with me to think him a Biped, and to go ereft, and that Nature did defign it fo, much more than any of the Ape and Monhy-V^md befides, was my obferving the Peritonesum to be entire, and not perforated or protruded in the Gro'm^ as it is in Apes and Tiogs^ and other ^ladrupeds : as likewife, becaufe I found the Pericardium in our Pygmie to be faftened to the Diaphragm, 2iS 'tis in Man, and which is not fo m Apes and Alonkeys. Both which are fo remarkable differences, and (as I have already remarked) fo particularly contrived for the advantage of an ere^ Po!fure of the Body, that, I think, the Inference is eafie, and we may fafely conclude, that Nature intended it a Biped, and hath not been wanting in any thing, in forming the Organs, and all Parts accordingly 3 and if not altogether fo exaftly as in a Man, yet much more than in any other Brute befides For I own it, as my conftant Opinion, ( notwithftanding the ill furmife and fuggeftion made by a forward Gentleman ) that tho' our Pygmie has many Advantages above the refl: of it's Species, yet I ft ill think it but a fort of Ape and a meer
, ,
:

Brute

i,

and

as the

£^«, tjiifx^oAx.,

Proverb has it, vn^x©^ '7n^K@^ An Ape k an Ape, t ho finely clad. C 9^ )

^

,

>(J^v

^^tiatct

This Proverb, perhaps, might have it's rife from fome fuch occafion as Lucian mentions in another place ^ and the Story being pleafant , and relating to what we have been juft now difcoiirfing upon , viz. it's manner of Motion, we will infert it here, and then proceed to the Myology. Lucian ((^j^ therefore faith, Aiytla^ f) ^^ /SarnXdji tk; Aiy!>-^iog, •m^nag •zsror^ 7roppi;^/^&tv §i^|o^, 8cc. i. e. tertur JiLgyptiuf Rex qui dam Simian ut tripudiarent injiitttijje , Animaliaque (nam admodum ad res humanas imitandas funt apta') celerrim^ didicijfe, ut Pe^fonata ac Purpurata faltarent
:

eratque

admodhm

vifu res digna^

donee tipeSator quijpiam

($6) Lucian. adverfm indoHum. Oper.p. m. 865.

(97) Lucian. Pifcatorftve

Ravivifcentes. p.

m. 214.

nrbanm

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

1 E,

"83

urbanus nuces d fimi deprof^ptas in medium abjiceret : id Jimi<e videntes tripudij oblitie, id quod erat , /imi£ pro faltatoribuf evaJerHnt , Ferfonas conterebant^ vejiitum difcerpebant, invicemque pro fiu£libus depugnabant^ ita ut Pyrriches ordo dijfolveretur, a Theatroque ridebatur. And in another place (98) he tells the like Story of Qeopairds Apes. So that they can, not only go ereft, but can dance in a figure too,if taught to do fo. But
this is not natural^ but acquired by Art j and even Dogs have been taught to do the fame. So JElian (^<^) tells us, that an Ape is eafily taught to perform any Adtion 5 if 'tis taught to Dance, 'twill Dance, or Play upon the Pipe ; and that once Jie faw one fupply the Place of a Coachman ; holding the Reins 5 pulling them in, or letting them loofe., and ufing the Whip, as there was occafioh. And that Story in Kercher (100), of the Embaffie that the King o^ Bengal fcnt to the Great Mogul the Year 1660, is very remarkable, where a great Ape richly adorned, did drive a Chariot magnificently gilded, and fet with Jewels 5 and did it with the greateft State and Pageantry in the World „ and as skilfully as the beft Coach-man could do.

m

It would be infinite to relate all the Stories that are told us of them 5 and I have been too tedious already, I (hall therefore haften now But muft inform the Reader, that I am obliged to my good Friend Mr. Cowper, not only for defigning all my figures ^ but obtained of him likewife to draw up this enfuing account of the Mufcles 5 whofe great Skill and Knowledge herein, is fufficiently made evident by his Myotonia Re:

formata, or, Nevp Adminijiration of all the Mufcles in Humane Bodies , publilhed fometime fince : To which I refer my Reader^ for a fuller account of them, whenever 'tis faid , that fuch and fuch Mufcles in the Pygmie refembled thofe in Humane Bodies. And for his greater Eafe, there are References all along made, to tht figures ; where the firfl: Number fignifies the Figure^ or Table ; the fecond Number the Mufcle exhibited or reprefented there.

{<$%) Lucian.
cher.

pa Mercede conduSis, p.m.161, China illujlrata, Vixtii-ci'p.-j.Tp.m.ip^.

(^$) /^I'mn, Hi^. Animal.

\ih.S.Tp.m,2i$.

(loo)

Kes'-

M2

T

84.

Orang-Outang Jive Homo Syheflris

:

Or,

THE

MYOTOMY OR
DESCRIPTION

MUSCLES.
Of the Mufcles
of the

OF THE

Abdomen.
it's

THE

Ohljquuf DefcefTdef!s(^Fig. ^^.^B.") agreed in
that

fituation

and progrefs, with

of

a

Humane Body

,

as the accurate

and did not partly fpring from any of the Tranfverfe ProceJJes of the Vertebra o^ the Loins ; or their Ligaments and Membranes, as the later Writers would have it in Htm/ane Bodies. Neither did any part of the Obliqiius Afcendens (Fig. 5. 59.) arife from t\iQ Lumbal Vertebra^ as Vefalim defcribes it in Men : but agreed with the Defcription of Galen, and did not differ from the Humane. Drelrncourt obferves the like in Jpes : The fame Author takes notice, that the Pyramidales are wanting in thofe Animals'.^ which were abfent alfo in the Pygmk. The Re£lus (Fig. 5. 40.) agreed with the Humane, and had no Connexion with a Mufcular Portion, fpringing either from the ClavJada or firO: Rib, as Vefalim has figured Gden's Defcription of it in Apes and Dogs. The Parifians fay, In Monkeys H afcends to the top, pajjlng under the Pedoralis and Little Serratus H tvas Flejhy only to the half of the Sternum, the reli being but a meer Tendon. DreI'mcourt obferves the Tendinom Infcriptions of thefe Mufcles in Apes.y appeared only on their infide, and not on the out. The Tranfuerfalk in this, as in moft ^tadrupeds, did not differ from that in Man.
Fe/^/7*sf defcribe it,
,

G<«/e«and

The

The Anatomy, of a

"PYG

Ml E,

85

The Cremajler Mufcles were very fmall by reafon of the leannefs of The Accelerator Spermatk (Fig. j. G. ) Ere&or Penis ( Fig.\ the Subject. ib. K.) and Tranfverfalk Penis (ib. L.) agreed in their Situation and Figure with thofe of Men y the laft of which only varied in it's Termination, as appears in the f%?/re.
with the Figure of the Bladder of Vrhe'' of this Animal. The Sphin£ier Vejic<e difter'd not from that in Men ; and moft, if not all ^adriipeds 5 it being placed in the Nec^ of the Bladder, beyond the Caruncula or Caput Qallinaginis , immediately above the Vrofiates. The SphinUer Ani diiter'd not from the Humatie 5 unlefs The Levatores Ani were longer and more it might feem fomewhat lefs. divided from each other, than in Humane Bodies ; The like may be obby reafon of the Length and dif-' ferv'd in moft, if not all ^adrupeds fering Figure of the Bones^ whence thefe Mufcles take their rife.

The

Detrttfor Z)rin£ agreed

i,

I

could find no Occipital nor Frontal Mufcles in
Orbicularis Falpebrarum (Fig.3. ^.)

this

Animal.'

The

and Aperiens Palpehram Re&m'

agreed with the Humane^ and thofe of moft ^iadrupeds.
Superior, Inferior, Elevator, Defrejfor,

The

Obirqims

Addu&or, and Abdu^or Oculi, a.' greed with thofe of the Humane Eye and an Ape's, as Juliifs Cajferim Pince«^z«;;^ Figures them Tab. 4. Or^(?«/ F(/»j-, Fig. XII. XIII. Nor was The Ala Nafi of there any Mufculus Septimus Brutorum in this Animal. the Pj/_g«??e being fmall, thofe Ma/c/e-f only appear'd, which from their Office are call'dConJiri&ores Alarum Naf, ac Deprejfores Labij fuperioris.

&

or Platufma Mjioidej, by reafon of the Lean= The Buccinaof the Subjeft, (as I fufpeft) did not appear Fleftiy. tor (Fig.^.j.') was longer than that in iW^^.Nor was it any where intertext with various orders of Fibres, as Anatomijis commonly reprefent it in Man:, or feem'd to arife from any other Parts, but the Procejfus Corane ^ from whence it's Fibres had a ftrait progrefs to the Angle of the Lips ; as in Men : This and the former Mufcles, are counted Commonnefs
hiufcles to the Cheeks

Tht^adratufGen£,

'

and Lips.

X\\t Mufcles Common to both Lips, are the "Zygomatictis, (Fig. 3.3.} Elevator, Deprejfor, and Conjiri^or LabJQrHm, which were not fo confpicuous, asinMe». The Proper Mufcles of the upper and under Lip, vvere' very diftinftin t\i\S Animal, (c^fe.) the Elevator and Deprejfor LabiJ Su-'
periorjs,

(Fig. 5. 4.) the laft of which is mentioned above, and calledConfiri&or Ala Naji the Deprejfor and Elevator Labi) Superior/fy ( Fig,
1,

:

Br-

5-).

8^

Orang^Outang
Auricula,

five

Homo

Sylveflm
Ammal was
any

:

Qr^
not

Tho' the
ferv'd for

or Outward Ear of this

as large, if
Mufcle.,

larger than that
it's

of

a Man., yet I could not obferve

which

mmt

Motion. I could not examine the Mufcles of the Tym^aand Stapes, by reafon the Bones were kept entire for a Sceleton.
Sternohyoideiis-

The

,

Coracohyoidem
5

,

Mylohyordem and Gemohjioideus,
alfo obferved
arife

did not differ from thofe in Me« of the former in the Female Ape.

which Drelinconrt has

The

Stylohyoideus

did not

from

the Styljform Procefs 5 that Frocefs being wanting in this Animal., or at it was young ^ this Mufcle therefore leaft: did not appear, by reafon feem'd to arife from the Os Fetrofum.

Gemoglojp0, by reafon of the length of the Lomr Javo, was longer than that in iVL;?. The Ceratoglojfp^is SLnd Styloglojfus differed not 5 except that the latter arifes from the Os Petrofum, like the Stylohyoideus. The other Mufcles appear'd in this Animal belonging to it's Tongue. The

The

Sternothyroidet^., Hyotkyroiderfs, Cricothyroideus, Cricoaryt^noideus
•,

,

Pojii'

cuf and Lateralis the Thyroaryt£noideuf, znd. Aryt£noideus varied not from The Mufcles of the Fauces alfo, differ'd not from thofe thofe. in Men. (viz.) The Stylopbaryng£m ?terygopbaryng£US Oefophag£Uf in Man.,
., .,

and VaginaUs Gida.
actly lika the

The following Mufcles of the Gargareon were exHumane, (viz.) the Sphenojlaphylimfs and Pterygojiaphy-

linm.

Lower Jaiv may be feen without incommoThzTemporalk (Fig. 3. i.) and Majf/efeem'd fomewhat larger than the Humane, and as they ter (Fig. 5. 6.) are commonly in Brutes, by reafon theirlowcrjavp-hones are larger than thofe o? Men ; yet thefe Mufcles were notfo ftrong, as thofe of Monkeys.,
ding any hereafter mentioned.
as the Parijians reprefent

Now all the Mufcles of the

them.

The

Superior Salival

DuB

paft over the

Maffder, and entred the Mufculm Buccinator of the Py^mie, as in Man. The Digaihicifs arofe not from the Mammiform Procefs, as in Men ; but fprana; from the Occipital-bone j it's progrefs in this Animal agreed exactly with that in a

Humane 'Stody.
fed ab
ojfe

Drelincourt defcribes

it

in Apes thus,

Tendinem

habet intermedium poUice longum,
Styloide,
Bajilari.

C^ gracilem,

enafcitur,

autem

nan ab Apophyfe

The Mufcles of the Thorax which The Intercofiales externi znd interni,
-^

appear

on

the fore-part

come

next.

(Fig. 4. 52.) Triangularis, Scalenus Subclavius ( Fig. 3. 34. ) Serratus minor Primus, Seeund//s a.nd Tertius anticiis, (Fig. 3. 35 •) Serratm major anticiis, (Fig. 3. 37.) All thefe were The Parijians tell us, That the Great Serratus did in like the Hnmatte.

from the fourth, fifth, and fixth Vertebra of the was not fointhe Pygmie: The like is taken notice of by 'Neck.-', The Diaphragm a was hrg^r in this Animal, than in Drelincourt in Apes.>
in their Monkeys arife

but

it

Many

The Anatomy of a
Man^
of the
after.

T YG
its

M
The we

I

B,

87

agreeable to the Capacity of

Thorax

:

reft

of the Mitfcks
niention here-

Thorax appear on

it's

Back-part, which

(hall

Before

I pafs

to the Mufcles

on

the Back- part

of onr Pygmk
in

,

I

(hali
;

take notice of a Pair of

Mufcles, that

do not appear

Humane

Bodies

which from their life may be call'd Elevatores Clavicularw^i^ (f^'g- 3- 12.) Either of them arifes Fle(hy from the Tranfverfe Procejfes of the fecond and third Fer^e^r^ of theiVec^j and defcends obliquely outwards to it's
broad
Infcrtion at the

whole Shoulder. The fituation of this Mufcle, part of that reprefented by Fefalim in his fixtli is not unlike the upper and Table of th^Mnfcks O. T. P.-Q. which he fays is found in

up the Clavicle, Cnculark^ in raifing the

upper part of the Clavicula 5 when it Afts, it draws affifting the Elevator ScapnU^ and upper part of the

D%s

Apes^ and defcribed by Galen in Humane Bodies , in whom 'it h Hot exiftent. Drelineourt czlh'xt Levator Omoplat<£ , (adding) ab Afophyfbrfs
tranpuerfis cervicalihus in

Acromion d^ extremum clavicula

extenditttr.

Mufcles imploy'd in the Motion of the Scapula , are the Cucrdark. (Fig.4. I.I.I.) Khomhoides Qc\^.&f.6?) Levator ScapuU (ib.^.) Thefe alfo agreed with the Humane : The like being taken notice of by Drelincourt of the Cucularif, in the Female Ape. The reft of the Mufcles of the Thorax, are the Serratm fupertor pofticus, ( Fig. 4. 7. ) the Serratm inferior
poflic:^ (Fig. 4. 32.

The

32.) Thefe dilfer'd not from thofe in Men. Sacrolumbalk (Fig, 4. 29.) was not fo thick as in Men, but was every

The way

llenderer.

imploy'd in the Motion o^x}ciZ Head of the Pygmie, diffrom thofe in Man-^ as tliQ Splenim (Fig. 4. 2.) Complexus, (Fig. 4. 4») Re&us major, Re^us minor , ObJiqiws Superior, and Obliquus Inferior, neither was this Inferior Oblique Mufcle larger than ia Man as Vefulim, Lib. II. Cap. XXVIII. aiTures us,it is in Apes and Dogs.

The

M;//2'/w

fered very

little

-,

i,

Mafloideus (Fig. 3. 8. 8.) was chiefly inferred to the Occipital-bone, the Parifians obferve it in Monkeys, as The RcSlus iniermis major, not commonly defcribed by Authors in Humane Bodies , tho' it is vety plain and conftant in all thofe, I have hitherto lookt for ir, was alfo in the Pygmie. The P<e^Uf internum minor, or Mufculm Anmicjts , fometimes obferved by me in Humane Bodies, was alfo in this Animal 5 and fo was the Rec$us Lateralk defcribed by Falloppius in Men.- 'Nor was any of thofe M?i/2'/ej- 1 have difcovered in Humane Bodies, wanting in this J»z-mal, but the InterJ^inales CollL

The

The Longi
thofe of

Colli

of thxs Animal, appear 'd to be longer and

larger than

Humane Bodies. The Spinalk Colli and Tranfverfalk Colli were thofe in Humane Bodies. like The Interjj>inales Colli, which I have elfev;here defcribed in Men, did not appear in this AnimaL The Longijji'

mu^.-

88

Orang^Outang five Homo

Syivejlris

:

Or^
was

mm Dorfi

(Fig. 4. 28.^ not unlike the Sacroliwibalis above noted,

not fo thick and fle(hy at it's Origin from the Os Ilium , hacrnm ^ and Vertebra of the Loins 5 nor was it's external Surface in the Pygmre fo tendinous, as in Humane Bodies^ but was fomewhat broader. The ^tadratm Lumbonun was longer than in Me», agreeable to the fpace

between the Spine of the Os Jlium^ and lower Rib of this Animal. See the Figure of the Sceleton. The Sacer^ and ScKfij^inatm , differ'd not from the Humane^ as I have reprefented them in my Myotomia Reform at a^
..pag.i35»

of the Superior Parts and Trunk of the Body being dito thofe of the Limbs ; and firft of the Arm or Os Humeri. The Pe^oralk (Fig. 3.53.) was much broader at it's Original, from the Sternum, than in Man : it's Fibres were decuflated near it's Infer tion. Galen and Jacobus Sylvim take notice of another Mnfch under the Pe& oralis in Apes^ which is implanted into the Arm near the Peroral Mufde. Thi Deltoides (Fig. 3. 1 5. aiid 4. 12.) was alfo broa-

The

Miifcles

fpatch't,we

come next

Jac. Sylvim tells us, this Mufcle in Apes is like that Suprajpinatm (Fig. 4. 8.) agreed with the Humane in it's fituation but was fomewhat broader at it's Origin from the upper The Infrajpinatus, as the former Mufcle was -part of the Bafis ScapuU. broader at it's Original from the Scapula, this on the contrary was there

der

at

it's

Original.

of

a

Man.

The

:,

-narrower than the Humane. Sylvius Aud Drelinconrt mention thek Mufcles in Apes j but whether they refemble thofe of Men., or this Animal, Teres minor , ( Fig. 4. 10. ) this is do's not appear by their Accounts.

fometimes wanting in Men : it was fomewhat thorter and thicker in this The Teres major, (Fig. 4. II.) was very large in the Pygmie. Animal. The Latijfiwus Dorji agreed with the Humane in it's Original and Progrefs towards the Ann ^ but when it arrived at the JxiZ^^, it parted with a flelhy Portion, which defcended on the infide of the Arm, with the

and becoming a flender Tendon is inferted to the in-' tcrnal protuberance of the Oj-Jy//«/cri/ f w<^e Fig. 8. C, ) which reprefentS the production of this Mufcle. Th\s Appendix ox Acceffory Mufcle Latijjiinm Dorfi, is not peculiar to this Animal ; the like being of die found in Apes according to Jacobus Sylvius , who, I am inclin'd to think is raiftaken, in reprefenting it's Infertion at the Olecranum of th^t Animal This part of the Latijjimuf Dorfi feems a proper Inftrument in turning the Os Humeri to a prone Pofition, when, thefe Animals go on all four, for the more advantagious ftepping with the Fore-feet , by Galen in Lib. de Mufraifing the Os Humeri^^nd turning it backwards. culk, C^/j.XIX. defcribes this Appendix of the Latijfimus Dorfi, under the The Title ok \ fmall Mufcle found in the Articulation of the Shoulder. Coracobrachial^ was like that in Man, but had no divifion in it for any Nerve to pafs through. The Subfcapularis was alfo like that in Mati.
Biceps,
:.

Mnfc 111m

The

The Anatomy of a
little

T YG

M

1 E.

The Mufcles employed in Bending and Extending the C«^7/^,differ'd \tTY
6.16.) Brachi^usmtemus^ (ib. 18. ) Gemellus, (Fig. 4. 14.) Brachiaus externus. Anconeus, (Fig. 4. 1 5. 15.) The like is obferved of thefe Mufcles by Sylvius in J/7ej,who only adds that the Extenders are remarkably large in that Animal. The

from the

f/»«/<?»e, viz. Biceps, (Fig. 9.1

Biceps in the Pygmie, had the fame double tendinous Termination, as in

Man.
Caro Mufculofa ^adrata appear'd in the Palm of the Tygmie : nor was there any flefhy Belly, and long Tendon to the Palmark 5 yet there was a Tendon or Ligament extended in the Palm 5 the like has been The often taken notice of in Men, as Realdus Columbus alfo obferves.

The

Parijians tell US, the

Palmam

in

Monkeys

is

extraordinary large.

of the four Fingers wert, the Perfor at us, (Fig. g, 24.) 25.) Lumbricales (ib. 51.) thefe agreed exadily with the Humane ; but the Extenfor Digitorum Communis ( Fig 4. 21.) was larger and diftind from the Extenfor minimi Digiti, as in Men and
Mw/c/ej-

The

Perforans, (Fig- 5.

-^

^pej-,which Drelincourt obferves.
(P'lg.i^.^O. ^Extenfor

The Extenfor Indicis,

Ahduifor Indicis,

minimi digiti,(¥\g./\..20.')Ahdu&or minimi digitis(J\g. 4. 25. ) and Interojjlj Manus , difter'd not from thofe in Men. All the Mufcles of the Thumb refembled thofe in Men, (viz,.) the Flexor tertij inter nodij foUicis, Abdu&or ToUicis, (Fig. 3. 28.) Flexor primi fecundi ojjis pol/icis, ( ib. 29.) Addu^or ?ollicis, ( Fig. 4.27, ) Extenfor primi internodij Pol/icis, ( ib. 23. ) Extenfor fecundi oJJis PoUicis, and ExThe Mufcles of the Wri^i alio agreed with thofe tenfor tertij ojfis poUicis. in Men 5 viz,, the Flexor Carpi Radialis, ( Fig. 3. xg. ) and IJlnaris,

^

(ib.20.) (ib. 26. ) the Extenfor Carpi Radialis, ( ib. 19. ) and Vlnaris The two laft Drelincourt fays, are alfo like the Humane in the Male- Ape.
-^

Mufcles employ'd in the Pronation and Supination of the Radius in The Pronator the Pygmie, were larger in proportion than thofe in Men. Radij teres (Fig. 3. 20.) had a double Origin ; the one from the internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, the other from the upper part of the
Z)lna
:

The

the Pronator Radij ^ladratus.

The

Supinator Radij

Longus

is

taken notice of by Drelincourt in Apes to be like that of Men.
pinator Radij brevis, (Fig. 4. 24.) agreed exactly with the

The

Su-

Humane.

much from thofe in Men, as thofe Animal : Here was no Gluteus minor nor did the Gluteus maximuf ( Fig. 4. 35. 33.) xtiemhXe tht Humane : It was meerly Tendinous at it's Origin, from the whole Spine of the Os Ilium 5 it was much longer, and not fo thick as in Man 5 nor were it's fiefliy Fibres The fo divided ; This Sylvius defcribes for the Membranofus in Apes. faripans give a very im per fed account of the Mttfculi Glutcei in Monkeys, where they tell us, The Mtifcks of the Buttock^ bad a Figure differing from
of the Thigh of
this
x,
.

The

Mufcles of no partdifagreed fo

N

thofe

50
thofe in
ter than in

Orang'^Outang five

Homo

Sjlveftm

:

Or^

Men; behfg porter, by reafon the OlTa Ilium m Jpes are mnchfiraiMan. The Ghit£m medius was alfo longer than that in Man. The P/tf^ ^ii?i;g«/^ vvas alfo longer ; \v\iv:^ Sylvius (from it's Figure I luppofe) calls Lumhark Bleep mApes. The Pfoas parvus was alfo longer and larger, than in Man. Befides this, the Parifians tell us of two other little Mufdes in Monkeys^ which have the fame Origin as the Pfoas 5 and were inferred into the upper and inward part of the Os Pubis. The Iliacus Internus was long, conformable to the Figure of the Os Ilium oi
this Animal-^

(FideFig.

5.

28. 28.J

The

Triceps

(Fig. 4. 37. )

was not very difdnft. had no Tendinous Termination at the lower
Pe(^Ti«e/iy

The

Appendix of the Thigh-bone internally. Jacobus Sylvius fays in Apes, Tricipitfs pars longijji/na a Tubere in Condyhtm : altera portio infignis^ a Tubere etiam nata, pojiico cruri propi toil affixa, ad ufque Cavitatem ittter duos
brevijjima ojjis pubis in medium po(Fig. 4. 35.) was like the Humane ^ nor did it appear lefs in proportion, as the Parifians reprefent it, in Monkeys, who fay, This Mufcle, injie ad of taking it's rife fiom the loiver and external part of the Os Sacrum, it proceeded from the Ifchium near the Cavitas Cotyloides, The Marfupialis had its Marfupium much broader than in Men. The ^ladratus Femoris was lefs than in Man. The Obturator extrorfum was much larger.
:

condylos ntediam

tertia

minima (^

pcnmOs Cruris.

©

The

Pyriformis

The Common Mufdes of the Thigh and Leg^ agreed in their Situation and Number, with thofe of Me«. The Membranofus (Fig. 5. 41.) had not fo ftrong a Tendon to cover the Mufdes of the Thighs and Tibia, as in Man. The Sartorius ( Fig. 3. 42.) agreed with the Humane. The Gracilis (Fig. 3. 48. ) was thicker and larger near it's Origin. The Seminervofus ( Fig. 4. 40. ) and Semimembranofus , differ'd not from the Humane. The Biceps (Fig. 4. 41. ) had it's fecond beginning fomewhat lower, than in Men : The Pari/ans tell us, The Biceps in Monkeys had not a double Origin as in Man, hit proceeded i»tire, from the Knob of the Ifchium , and was inferted to the upper part of the Perona. This Jingle Head was in requital very thick and firong. The ReBus had a double order of Fibres, as in Man. The Popliteus, I muft confefs efcap't my notice. Sylvius tells us, in Apes, it agrees with Men. The reft: of the Mufdes of this part, which we eftieem Proper to the Tibia,and arife from the Os Femoris, were much lefs than the Humane, as the Vafius Internus (Fig. 3. 44.) Crureus, &nd Vajius externus.
,

The Mufcles of the T<?r/Ay or F<?of, agreed in with the Humane ; but varied in their Figure.
ternrn ( Fig. 4. 43. )

Number and Situation The Gajlerocnemius exit's

had not
it

fo large a Belly,
flefliy

nor were

Fibres fo va-

rioudy difpofed

^

but

continued

much

lower, than in

Man.

Sylvius tells US in Apes, Capita GemeUorum ( meaning this Sefamoidea habent , frmantia in Condylis Crus cum Tibia.
differ'd

Mufde

The

_) Offa Plantaris

not from that in Man.

The

Gafierocnemim internus, or foleus, (Fig,

The Anatomy of a

T YG

M

I E.

^~srL

( Fig. 4. 44. ) continued flelTiy to the Os Calck, as Sylvius obferved it The Tibials Antkuf ( Fig. 3. 49. ) was much Iarger,and conin Jpes. Sylvius obferv'd an OsSefamoitinued fleftiy much lower, than in Man.

des in the
9.

Tendon of
differ'd

this Mtfile in Apes.
little

51.)

very

from

that in

The Veronem primus ( Fig. M<?;? 5 it's Tendon having the

fame progrefs in the Bottom of the Foot^ to the Bone of the Metatarfus of the Great Toe 5 which is neverthelefs denied by Galen to be exiftent in Man for which Vefalius, lib. 2. cap. 59. feverely Cenfures him. 1 have more than once, feen a Boney body-, placed in this Tendon at it's
-^

Flexure

of by Man.

Sylvius in

Os Cuboides in Humane Bodies : The like is taken notice an Ape. The Feroneus fecundus differ'd not from that in The Tibialis Fojiicus ( Fig. 4. 45. ) was not fo large as in Man.

on

the

The

Mufcles of the Great Toe differ'd from the Humane.

The Exten,

for foUicis longus (Fig. 3. 52. ) had a more Oblique progrefs flethy lower. The Extenfir VoUick Jbrevis (Fig. 5. 59. ) was
ger,

and was
lar-

much

and it's progrefs on the Foot almoft tranfverfe. The Flexor VoUicis longus was pretty large. The Flexor Pollick brevk ( Fig. 4. 47. ) was very large, and infeparably joined with the Abdu&or which was very little.The Farijians tell us, The Great Toes of the Monkeys had Mufcles like thofe of a Man's Thumb. Tht Extenfir Digitorum Fedk longus ( Fig. 3.53. ) had no Tendon implanted on the Os Metatarfi of the Little Toe. The Perforatus ( Fig. 4. 46. ) Perforans, ( ib. 48. ) Lumbricales, and AbduUor winimi Digiti, differ'd very little from thofe in Men. The Mufculus Extenfir Digitorum brevif, and Tranfverfalis Fedfs did not appear in this
,

Animal.

not at prefent give the Reader the trouble of the Reflexions, upon the Obfervations made in the Anatomy of this remarkable Creature ; fince I am confcious ( having been fo tedious already ) that 'twill but farther tire him, and my felf too. I fhall therefore now conclude this Difiourfi, with a brief Recapitulation of the Inftances I have given, wherein our Pygmie, more refembled the Humane kind, than Jpes and Mcnkeys do As likewife fum up thofe, wherein it differ'd from a Man, and imitated the Ape-kind. The Catalogues of both are fo large, that they fufBciently evince, That our Fygmie is no Man, nor yet the Common Ape ; but a fort of Animal between both 5 and tho' a Biped, yet of the ^tadrumanus-kind 5 tho' fome Men too, have been obferved to ufe their Feet like Hands., as I have feen feveral.
I (hall

that I intended,

:

N

2

The

92

Orang-^Outang jive

Homo

Syheftris

:

Ov,

T/'^Orang-Outang or VygvaiQ more rejembled a Man, than Apes and Modkeys do,
I.

TN
J.
2.

having the jy<2z> of the Shoulder tending downwards of the Arm^ upwards.

;

and

that

In the Face 'twas liker a Man j having the Forehead larger, and the Rojirutft or Chin Ihorter. 9 In the outward Ear likewife 5 except as to it's Cartilage^ which was thinner as in Apes. 4. In the Fingers 5 which were much thicker than in Apes, 5. In being in all refpedls defigned by Nature, towalkeredj whereas Apes and Monkeys want a great many Advantages to do fo.
.

6.
7.

The Nates
It

or Buttocks larger than in the Ape-kind.
it's

had Calves in

-Legj.

8.

The Shoulders and BreaH were more fpread. 9. The i7ee/ was longer. ID. The Membrana Adipofa placed here, next to the Skin. 1 1. The Peritonanm in the Groin entire , and not perforated, or pro-

truded, as in Apes and Monkeys. 12. The Intejiines or Guts much longer. 13. The Intejiines being very different in their bignefs , or largenefs. of their Canalk. 14. In having a C<gc««? or AppendicHlaVermiformk, which ^;?ej- and

Monkeys have not : and in not having the beginning of the Colon fo projeded or extended, as Apes and Monkeys have. 15. The Infertion of theD«i^»sf Bilarius and the Dul$us Pancreaticus in a yW^«, the Pygmie, and an ^/^e was at the fame Orifice. In a Monkey there was two Inches diftance16. The Colon wzs here longer. 17. The Liver not divided into Ltf^ex, as in j(^/?e/and Monkeys , but
entire, as in
/Wrf/?.

18.
1 9.

20.
21.

22.

The Biliary Vejfels, the fame as in Man. The iS]p/ee» the fame. The Pancreas the fame. The Number of the Lobes of the Lungs, the fame as a The Per/Vj?ris?7««« faftened to the Diaphragm, asm Man

Man's.
;

but

is

not

and Monkeys. The G«e of the i/e^rf, not fo pointed, asin^/?ex. 23. 24. It had not thofe Pouches in the Chaps, as Apes and Monkeys have. 25. The i5rrf7» was abundantly larger than in y^/^ex 3 and all it's Parts exa&ly formed like the Humane Brain. 26.The Cranium more globous ; and twice as big as an Ape's or Monkey's.
fo in ^pej
27.

AH

The Anatomy of a

TYG MIE,
Crijia Galli
5

^3

27. All the S'wfwrej' here, Yiks the Hutaane : And in the Lambdoidd In Apes and Monkeys 'ds otherSuture were the Ojpt triquetra Wormiana.
wife.

28. It

had an Os
Sella

Cribriforme^

and the

which Monl^eys
Ape-kjnd
'tis

have not.
29.

The
The

Equina here, the fame as in
iW^«
.*

Man j

in the

more

rifing

and eminent.
Procejfus Pterj/goides, as in

30.

In Apes and Monkeys they

are wanting.

31. The Ojffa Bregmatk^ndTemporum here the fame as in Man. In Monkeys they are different. 32. The Oj Zygomatku/u in the Pygmk was fmall ; in the Monkey and ^/ej 'tis bigger. 33. The Shape of the Teeth more refembled the Humane^ efpecially the Denies Canini and Molares. 34. The Tranfverfe Apophyfes of the Vertebr£ of the Nei'^iand the Sixth and Seventh Vertebra^ were liker the Humane, than thefe Parts in Apes and Monkeys are. 35. The Vertebr£ of the Nec;^had not thofe Foramina for tranfmitting the Nerves ; which J/>ej have and iW<?« has not. 36. The Vertebr£ of theB^c^o ^^d their Apophyfes ReBaYikt the H««?<?«e and in the lower Vertebr£ but two Apophyfes inferme 3 not four,
.•

as in Apes.

37. There were but five Vertebra of the Lw^i- here, as in Man : in Apes and Monkeys there are fix. 38. TheiS^p^/ze/ of the Lumbal Vertebr£ ftrait, as in /^^;?. 39. TheOj Sacrum was compofed of five ^r^e^r<g,as in Man : xnApes and Monkeys there are but three Vertebr£. 40. The Oj Coccygfs had but four Bones, and thefe not perforated, as 'tis in Man : In Monkeys there are more Bones, and they are perforated. 41. In the Pygmie there were but feven Cofi£ ver£j and the Extreams of the Notha were Cartjlagmom ; and the JS//'/ were articulated to the body of the Vertebr£. In Apes and Monkeys there are eight Cofi£ ver£ ; and the Extreams of the Notha are ojfious ; and the ArtkulatJon is in the Interftices of the Vertebra. 42. The O.f Sterni in the Pygmie was broad , as in a y^^« : in the. Monkey 'tis narrow. 43. The Bones of the four Fingers much larger than in the Ape- kind. 44. The Thigh-bone in it's Articulation, and all other refpefts, like the Humane. as 'tis faid to 45. The F^feZ^4 round, not long 3 fingle, not double
j,

be in Apes. 46. In the Heel, the Tarfus, and Metatarfus
47.

,

the Pygmie was like a
'tis

The «?/^<;i/e

T<;e

in the F/^^^/e was not the longeft, as

in the

Ape-kjfid.

48. Thele

^4

Orang'-Outang five

Homo

Sylvejlris'.

Or^

48. Thefe Mufcles^ viz. The Obliqum Inferior CapHk^ the 'Pyriformk and Biceps Femork^ were like the Humane ; whereas the fame in Apes and Monkeys are different. And Note, That all the other Mufdes that are not otherwife fpecified in the following Catalogue^ were like the Humane alfo ^ but whether all the fame Mufdes in ^/^ej- and Monkeys refemblethe Hufnane ^conXdi not be determined,for want of a Subject to compare them with, or Obfervations made by others.

The Ot2ing''OlJX.QLng

or

Pygmie

differ

d from a

Man,

andrefembled more

theApCaud

Monkey-

\N

the littlenefs
2
.

of it's

Stature.

flit in the Nar'tum. In having a riling Ridge of the Cr.w7«z?/ under the Eye-brows. 3. 4. In being more haiXy behind,than before. 5. In having the Thnkb fo little, tho' larger than in the Ape-kind. 6. In having the Pal/n of the Hand longer and narrower. 7. In the length of thtToes. 8. In having the Great Toe fet at a diftance from the other,like a Thumb', and being ^adrtwranus^ like the Ape-kjnd. 9. In having the Shoulder and Thigh (horter. ID. In having the Arms longer. 11. In having no pendulous iSrr^fK*'/. 12. In the largenefs of the 0«;?e«?««?.

In the flatnefs of the Nofe, and the

AU

The G^Z?-B/(?^£/er long and (lender. 4.The Kidneys rounder than in Me« ^and the Tubuli ZJrinarij different. 15. The Bladder of Z)rine longer. i6i In having no Fnemim to the Praputium. 17. In having the Bony Orbit of the Eye fo much protruded inwards, towards the Brain.. 18. It had not thofe two Cavities under the Sel/a Turcica, as in .Man. 19. The Pro^ejfus Mafloides and Styloides very fmall, almoft wanting. 20. The Bones of the Nofe flat. 21. In the Number of the Teeth, it refemblcd the Ape-kind. 22. The Vertebra of the Neck, fl^ort as in the Ape-kind^ and flat before, not round ^ and their Spines, not ////fij/e, as in Man. 23. In the firfl: Vertebra of the l^eck.thext was no Spine. 24. In an Ape the Tenth Vertebra of the Back,^ in a M^;? the Twelfth in the Pygmie the Thirteenth Vertebra, infra fuprave fufcipitur.
13.
1

2 5. The

The Anatomy of a
25.

T YG
a fide: a

M

I E.

55
number

The Oj Sacrum
Vertebra.

altogether like the Jpe-ki?!d, only in the
i??Z'j-

of the
27. 28.

26. In having Thirteen

on

M^» has

but Twelve.

ThtBone oi thzThumb but fmall. The Oj- ///««« perfedly like the Jpe-4z«<s^ D being longer, narrower, and not fo Concave as in Man. 29. The Bones of the Toes in their length, and the Great Toe in it's
Strufture imitated the Jpe-kjnd.

found

30. Thefe Mufcles were wanting in the Pygmie^ which are always in Men ; viz. Occipitales^ Frontules^ Dilatatores Alarum Naji^ feu Elevatores Lahij Superioris, Inferjpinaks CoUi^ Glutai minimi^ Extenfor

Digit orurn Pedk brevis^ zxidL'Tranfoerfalis Pedis. 31. Thefe i^a/t'/ej- did not appear in the Pygmie ^ and are fometimes wanting too in Humane Bodies , viz, Pyramidales ; Caro mufculofa ^tadrata 5 the long Tendon and fleftiy Belly of the Palmaris , AttoUens ricdam and lietrahens Auriculam.

Aw

t,

32. The Elevatores Clavi> '.farum are in the P/^^^/e and the Ape-l^nd^ ~>and not in Man. 33. Thefe yy/z/c/ej refetnbled thofe in 4pej and Monkeys^ and difFer'd from the Humane^ viz. Longus CoUi^ Pe&oralis^ hati^imm Dorfi, Glutaus ntaxitmis d^ medius, Pfoas magnws parvus^ Iliacus internus and the

&

,

Gajierocnemius internm,
toides 5 the Pronator

34. Thefe Mufcles difFer'd likewife from the Humane^ viz. the DelRadij teres 3 the Extenfor Pollicis brevis.

The

Explan/ition of the Figures,
Figure the Firji

1

REprefents the Fore-parts of the Orang-Outang or Pygmie in an Ereft Pofture Where you may obferve the largenefs of the Head 5 and
,
:

fomewhat funk

broadnefs of the Forehead-^ the jutting out of x!i\t Eye-brows 5 the Eyes 5 the 'Nofe flat , the Face without hair and wrinkled 5 the Teeth like the Humane 3 the Chin fhort j the Ears (landing off from the Head 3 the Head hairy 3 the Shoulders fpread and large 5 the Arms
'

and Palms of the Hands long 3 the Nails like thofe in a Man 5 the Hair of the Shoulder inclining downwards, and that on the Arms^ upwards 5 the Fingers large ; the Thumb little ; the Breaft full chefted and fpread 5
the Mamm<e or Teats placed as in Man 3 the Belly flat ; the Navil as in M^« ; the Pe??^ half-way covered with the Prepuce, which had no Fr£num 5 no pendulous Scrotum here 5 the Thighs a little divaricated 5 the

Legs

^6

Orang-'Outang five
^

Homo

Syhejlris

:

Or^

Legs long and with Calves

the Foot like a Hand^ having long Toes^ and the Great Toe placed at a diftance from the others, like a Thumb 5 the i^ee^. Hands ^ Face, Ears, and Pe«i^ without Hair , and all the Foreparts of the Body rather lefs hairy than here reprefented j and the Head
is

too much (hrunkdown between the Shoulders.

-

The Second Figure
REprefents the Hinder Parts of: the Pygmk m an Ere6t Pofture likewife; where may beobferved the Glohouf Figure of the Head ^ the
ftraitnefs

of the BacI^

5

and

Fingers of the right Hand when it goes on all four ; for then it places only the Kmickles, not the Valms of the Hands to the Ground. The Sole of the left Foot, by reafon of the length of the Toes, and the ietting on of the Great Toe^ looks like the Palm of the Hand : but the right, having fo long a Heel^

'tis more hairy behind, than before 5 the reprefented bending , to (hew the A&ion^ are

that

and

its Toes being hid, appears rather like a Foot, and upon occafion performs the Office of both, either of a iv'f?^ or fi^«<^. A little above the Antff, there is a black Spot, which reprefents a fraall Protuberance of the

Os Coccygk.

The Third Figure
which appear on the Fore-part of the Body. of the Coronary Suture. A. Part B. The Divifion of the Cranium made by the Saw.
^Eprefents the Mufcles
c.

i

The Meatus Auditoriuf.
of the Os Jugale, or Zygowaticum.

/.

d. Part
e.

',

f.

g.
h.

The Parotid Gland. * The Satival Du^. The Inferior Maxil/ary Gland. g. The Clavicul<e.

i

f
',

Part of the Spina Scapula, as joyned to the Clavicle. j. The Kerves, and Blood Vefiels which pafsto the Arm. 4. The Trunk of the Nerve in the left Arm, that goes to the Fingers. /. A large Trunk of the Arterie, and a Nerve in the Cubit, as in Humane Bodies. tft. m. The Internal Protuberances of the Os Humeri.
n.
0.

,

The Radius of the

left

Arm made bare.

I

..a

lihtUmbilictfs, or Navil. p. The Linea Alba.
J}, q.

The Tendons of

the Oblique Mufcles^ call'd Linea Semilunar^.
r. r.

The

sPi.

.'1/

MV&'rf"^'^

M I'^nJ^r^'uMSaJ

jij^'

f^/taer^if tteni Ju^i.

The Anatomy of a
r. r.
J. s.

1^

Y6 Ad I E,

97

The Timica Vaginalisy The Tejies or Stones.
Blood
Veffels of the

containing the Vafa Pr£parantia^ &c,

f .The

Thigh,as they pafs under the Ingmnd Glands.

The Os pubis. The Ligamentum ftt^enforhim Penis. The Great Trochanter. re. The Penis. X. X. The two PatelliS. y.y. The internal and lower Appendix of the Os z.z. The Tibia. N° I. The Mufculus Temporalis. 2. The Orbicularis Palpebrarum.
T. V.
11.

Femoris.'

3. ZygomaticuSj feu dijl or tor oris.

i

•'

:,

4. Elevator Labij fuperioris proprius.
5.

Elevator Labij inferioris proprius.
MaJJeter.

6. 7.

Buccinator.

8. 8,

Majioideus.

9. Sternohyoideus. X. Part of the Corocohyoideus.

11. Part of the Digaftricus^ and it's Infertion into theCAz>. 12. Elevator Clavicul^^ which Mufcle is not in Man, but in the Pygmie

and

Apes.

13. Part of the Complexus Capitis. 14. Part of the Caf^/izm. 15. 15. Deltoides. 15. 16. The Biceps. 17. The thin Tendinous Expanfion of the Mufcles of the Cuhit, as in Man.
1 8.
jB/Vepj-,

which involves the

Brach£m internus. 19. The Tendinous Elongation of the Latijjifnus Dorjt^ which is found in the Pygmie^ and in Apes and Monkeys ^ and not in Man ; near it's Infertion into the Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri. 20. 20. The Pronator Radij teres. That of the left fide, being differed from it's Infertion, and left at it's two Originals.
Part of the

21.21. The Supinator Radij Longus. 22. Part o£ the Extenfor Radialis. 23.29. The Flexor Radialis^ that of the
fertion.

left

Arm hanging
hanging by

at

it's

In-

on

24. 24. The Perforates the Palm of the Hand.
25. 26.
2 J.

5

that

of the

left fide

its

Tendons

The Perforans^ The Tendon of
is

a

little raifed

in the left
it

Arm.

A Tendinous Expanfion,

no Mufcle, which

runs to the Carpus. like the Palmaris in Man 5 but here was often feen in Humane Bodies.

the Flexor ZJlnaris as

2^. 22.'XheAbdH&orPQllicis.

O

2f.

The

^8
29. go.

Orang-outang
The Flexor Secimdi
AhdnBor Indick^

five

Homo

Syhejlris

:

Of,

jnternodij Vollkk.

31. 51. 'Wis. humhrlcahs. 52. Tht Abdnilor mnimi digltj. 95. The Ve^loralis 5 that of the
cuffation
2,^.

left fide

being raifed

,

to (hew the de-

of

it's

Fibres, as in

Man.

^Vzrto^ x.\\tMiifcHlm.fnbclavJHs. 35. SerraUis minor anticiis.
^6.
:^6.

37. 37.

Tht Intercojiales exterm. The Serratus major anticus

-^

where

'tis

indented

with the

M/ifcul/is oblrqnus defcendens.

38. 38. 39.

The ObUquus defcendens. The ObliquKs afcendens^ as it appeared

after the defcendens

was

re-

moved.
40.40. The Mufcidi i^e^7,with their VaragraphsOY Infcr/ptiofts^^s in M<?;? 41. 41. The Mufctdtts communis Membranoji.

42.42. The

5^?t<7m/x.

43. 43. 44. 44. 45. Part o( the Fajiiis externits. 46. 46. Parts of the Triceps.

The Refftis Femoris. The Vajins internns.

"

47. 47. The Fecfin<eiis. 48. The Gracilk. 49. 49. The Tibialk Antictis. ^o. Pzrt oftheGajierocnemms. 51. Parts of the Per^;?e7. 52. ThtExtenforVoUicis
53. in M«;?.
54.
longtis.

The

Extenfor Vollick brevls^ which differ'd in this Animal^ from that

The Tendons o^ \h.t
Interojfi,

Extenfor Communis digUonim^ as they pafs be-

tween the
55*
')6.

ThsAbduShr minimi digiti. The Pronator RadrJ ^i.idratus.
;

57. Part of the Supinator Radij brevis

at

it's

Infertion to the Radiut,

Figure the Fourth
Shews the Mufcles of the BacJ^part of the Body.
a.

^~Y^UE
3b.

Sagittal Suture.

The Lambdoidal Suture.
of the Th&raxy and of one
d.

c. c .c.

The

of th

^Inferior

Spines of the Superior Vertebra of the Neck,.

The

!,,g...

i

Jd-Pofu/ef^ ^ucAt Jcu^i

The Anatomy of a
d.

TYG MIE,
it is

^^

The Extremity of th.Q Clavicle, where

connefted to the Spine of

the Scapula.
e.

f. g.

The Spme of the Scapula. The lower Angle of the Scapula. The upper part of the Os Humeri, made

bare,

by

raifing the Deltoid

Mufcle.
h. h.
i.

The Acromion or Elbovp. The External Protuberance of
is

the

Os Humeri, where

the upper part

of the Radius,
k.

Articulated.

The Vltta. 1. I. The Spines of the Back^zn^ Loins. m. m. The Spines o^thQOjJa Ilium. n. The Os Coccygis. 0. The Great Trochanter. jp. The Trunk of the Great Crural Nerve
q. q.

Tb'^ Ojfa

Ifchij.

The Crural Nerves in the Hams. f.f. The Oj- Calcis. 1. 1. The Malleolus htternm, u. The Malleolus externus. w. vp. The Great Toe. X. X. The four little Toes. y.y. The Pelvis left open, by taking out
r. r. r.

the

Anus with the Re&um.
left

I

;

T.I. I.

The

Mufculus Cncularis, raifed on the right fide, and

faftened to the Occiput,

and

to

its

Infertion at the Spine

of the ScapuU

and Clavicle, 2. Part of the

iSjp/fwfiKf

3. V^rt Q^ tht Majioideus. 4. Part of the Complexus. ^.Vnvt of the Levator ScapuU. 6. Rhomboides.
7."

Part of the Serratus fuperior
Infiajpinatus.
is

poflicus.

8. Suprajpinatus.
,9.

X. The Teres minor, which
11. "Xhe Teres 7naior.
t.

larger here than in

Man.

12. The De/^wWe.f raifed. 13. 13. 13. 13. The Latjjjxmus Dorfi, on the right fide inptu, in the left, freed from it's Original and hanging down. 14.
I
ly.

The Biceps Externus feu The Anchon<em.

Gemellus.

Part of the Brachsus internus. ly. VsiXt of the Biceps interm^. 18. The Supinator Radij longus.
1 6.

1 9.

The

Extenfor Carpi Radialis.

O

2

so. 20.

The

loo
21. 21.

Orang-Outang Jive Homo Syhejlris
,

:

Or,

20.20. The Extenfor Carpi ZJhark. ThtExtenfor Commutik digitorum by its Tendons.
22. 22.

on

the right fide hanging

25.
24.
25. 26.

27. 28. 29. 30.

The Extenfor mifiw/l digrtz, on The Extettfores PoUicis. The Supinator RadiJ brevfs, The Abdti^or mini t»i digiti^ The Mitfculi interojjei. The Abdu&or PoUick. The Longijjimus DorJi. The Sacrolumhalk. 30. The Intercojiales.

the right fide hanging down..

31. Part of the Serratus major aniicm. 32. The Serrafm inferior poUku-r. 33.

The Ghtcem maximm on
Origin, and

the

left fide z»/if«

,

on

the right freed

from
34.

its

left at it's Infertion.

35 36.

.

The Glut^eus medim. The Pyrifortnk. The Marfitpialk /.Obturator.
Triceps.

^7.^7. Part of the
38. 38.

39. 40.

41. 42. Part of the Fajius externum.

The Gracilk. The Semimembranofus. The Seminervofm. The Biceps fefnork.

43.43. The Gajierocnen/ius externum, that of the right
its

fide

hanging to

Infertion, at the

Os

Calck.

44. The Gajlerocnemiifs Internm. 45. Part of the flexor Dzgitorum perforaus. 46. The flefhy part of the flexor Digitorum perforatum. 47. The flexor Ojjis Po/Jick, together with the Abdu^or Pollick^ raifed from it's Origin, and hanging down.
48.

The

Mnfculi Lumbricaks.

The fifth Figure
Reprefents the Scektorty or the Bonesi
I.

''TpHE
I
4.
5. 2.

Os Frontk.

The Oj Bregmatk.
,

3. Vaxt

o^ the OsOccipitk.

6.
7.

Os Temporale feu Sqitammofum. Os Jugale^ feu Zygomaticnm. The firft Bone of the ZJp/^er ^^^BJ. The Os Lachrymak.
8.

Th^

M-VanS7r4uc^ Jci//-

The Anatomy of a
8.

TYG

M

I E.

loi

.

The Os Narjum. The fourth Bone of the ZJp/ier 3^425?. 9. I o. The upper part of the Oj- 5'p/j^ff<?iiiej'. II. The lower Jaw. a. The Procej^i/s Condyloides of the lower Jaw. b. The Procerus Corone. c. The Coronal Suture. d. The Sutura Ojjis Temporalis^ feu Squammofi.
e.

A Foramen for the pafiing the
A

Nerves, and the Blood Veflels in the

upper Jaw. like f.
g.

Foramen in the under Jaw,

Where the Sk^ll was fawed, to take out th.t Brain, h. The Tranjverjfe Procejfes of the Vertebra of the Neck: j.j. The Oblique afcending Sitid defcending Procejfes of the Necks 12.12. The Vertebrts of the Neck^ 13. 15. The Claviculie^ ox Collar Bones. K. K, The Connexion of the Clavicula to the Spina ScapuU^ 14. 14. The Internal parts of the Scapula. 1. 1. The Procejfus Chorocoides Scapula. 15.15. The Os Humeri. f.f.^. Sinus for receiving the External Tendon of the head oHhe Biceps.m. m. A Sinus for receiving the Prominence (n.n.) of the ZJ/«^ upon
,

bending the Arm. 16. 16. Th^ Vina. 0. Part of the Olecranon of the Ulna, of the
17. 17.

left

Arm^

Radius. A Prominence of the Radius., to which the internal great Tendon p. of the Mufculus Biceps is inferted. 18.18. The Bones of the Carpus, which in a great meafure were Cartilaginous.

The

The Bones of the Mef<?c^rpax. The Bones of the Thumb. 2I.ZI. The Bones of the -F/»^erj-. 22. 22. The Sternum ox Os PeCfork. 23. The Cartilage Bnjiformk.
19. 19. 20. 20.

lo.ii. 12. i3.TheThirteen R?*/'/of each fide^ Vertebra oi the Back^ 7'^. T\\t Vertebra oitht Loins. q. The Tranfverfe Procejjes of the Vertebra of the Loins. r. The Foramina for the paflage of the Nerves. 26. ThtOs Sacrum.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

24.

The

27.
29.

The Ox

Coccygis.

28.18. Tht Os Ilium.
90.
s. s.

The Os Pubis. The Os Ifchij. The Cartilaginous Conjm^ionoUhi Os

Ilium with theGx Pfe^^

and

Ifchij ditth^ Acetabulum.

^ ^ The

102
t. t.

Orang'^Outang f've

Homo

S/heJiris

:

Or>

The large Foramm of the Os Pubis and Jfchij. 51. 31. Tht Os femork. •V. V. The Head of the Osfemork in the Acetabulum. w. n>. The Great Trocha/zter, which was Cartilaginous. X. The leffir Trochanter. 32. 32. The Patella^ which v^'StS Cartilaginous, gg. gg. The T//"/^.
34. 34. Tho: Fibula.
35. 35. 36. 36.

37. 38. 1\x<t OsNaviculare^ feuCuneiformemajus. 59. The 0^1? Cuneiformia minora.
.

The Oi- G/r^. The JJiragalus. The Oj- Cubiforffie.

40. 40. 41. 41. 42. 42.
y.

The 0/^ Metatarfi. The 0^ Digit orurn. The Bones of the Great
Malleolus externiis.

To,e,

The

%. T\\t •^^•^ -^

MaUeolus internus.
Signilie, that thoCe Parts

were

Cartilaginous.

The lixth Figure
Reprefents the Stomachy Intejiines, Famreas, Spleen^ Liver, Scc^
A. A.'^~~W~^
.

back fide of the Stomach, it being turned upwards. B, Part of the Oefopkagus. or Gullet, before it joyns with the upper or left Orijice of the Stomach, C. Tht right OriJice of tht Stomach, or Pjiloruf.
_|_

HE

a. a. The Extremities of the Vafa Brevia^wliich. pafs between the Spleen and the Stomach. b. b. &c. Divers LymphatickSjlands on the Stomach. D. The Superior Coronary Arteries and Veins, and their Ramifications. E.E. The Inferior Coronary Blood Fejels of the Stomach, which fends Branches alfo to tlie Omentum. F. F. The Omentum or Caul turned up, to (hew it's lower Leaf. G. G. The Liver, like the Humane ; and not divided into Lobes, as

Vis in Apes.
c.

A

fmall

d The
Vein.
f. f.

entrance of the Vena Porta. . Fijfure or Cleft in the Liver at the entrance of the Vmhilical

Lobe of the Liver

at the

The Gall Bladder. B. The beginning of the L I. The Pancreas,

D;/:<?6?cw/^/.

g.g.The

A-

%

r.n

MrJ^.f fi'^'

^"'^'

'The Amtomy of a
g. g.

TYG Ml
efpecially a

E.

103

The Blood

Veffels

of the

Spleef/,

Branch of the Vena

Porta.

K.K. The Spleen.
L, L. L. The S/f/al/ Guts. M. The Ikon juft before it enters the G/i?^. N. The beginning of the C(?/<3«. h. h. One of the Ligaments of the Colon. Oj 0. The Cscum.^ or Appendkula Vermiformis
P. P.
j.j.

The

Colon in

its

whole

Progrefs, to the ReSlum.

4
I.

4'

Part of the Mefenterie. The Glands of the Mefenterie.
Mefenterie^

That part of the

which

is

connected to the Ccecnm^ or
is

the Mefocacum.

m. The Mefocolon^ or that Part of the Mefenterie that
Colon.

faftened to the

^

The upper

part of the IntefUnmn

KeUum.

The feventh Figure
Shews the Organs of
A.

GE

N ER AT I

N.

'T^ H E

X

back part of the Bladder of Vrine^ the greateft part of the Bladder being cut o£

The Penis. The two ZJreters. D. D. The Vafa Deferentia. E.E. The Vefailtf, Setninales, F. The Glandule Projiata, or Corpus Glandofum. G. The Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Urethra^ covered with
B.
C. C.

the

Mufculns accelerator Urin£feu Spermatis.
a. a.

inferted to the
thra,

The two Produdions of the laft mentioned Mufcle^ which are two Cavernous Bodies of the Penis, on each fide the Ureby which means that part of the Urethra is compreft, and it's Con-

tents forced out.

The beginning of the two Cavernous Bodies of the Penis. H. The Cavernous Body of the Urethra. J. One of the Tranfverfe Mufcles of the Penis , calFd the Third
b. b.

Pair.

K. K, The MufcuU Dire^ores Penis,

The

104.
,

Orang'-'Outang five Homo
1
I

Syhejlris

^y

i.i II

HI

I

^

mi

l

III

1^

Ll

^

I

II

I

'

111

"

-I'll

-

:
I

Or,

!!

nil

^^M*M

III

The Eighth Figure
Exhibits part of the Mttfculm Latiffimm Dorft differed
A.

A/
B.
c.

i"'"^H
_|_
It's

AT

pact

of the Mnfck that

lies

on

the S^c4,as in

Humane

Bodies.

Te«<^(7« which is inferted to the Os Humerij as in Men. TheTendinousExtremity of a fleOiy Produdion of this Mnfcle, which is implanted on the Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri of this Animal ; as 'tis alfo in A^es and Monkeys.

The

ninth Figure

Reprefents the tJrtnary Farts and Organs of Generation,
A.^~T"^

HE
a-

left
ii-

Kidney

entire.

X

The Membrana

Adipofa, partly freed

from the Kidney

,

and turned back.
B. The Right Kidney opened, to (hew its Glandulous Subftance, and Urinary Tubes and the Pelvis. h The Tubuli Urinarij v^Mxda arife from the Glandulom Subftance, and like Lines drawn from a C/Va/w/^rewe to a Center^ pafs to the Fimbria or Edge c c ^ \n Man to the fceral PapiU£^ where their Orifices open and empty themfelves into the Pelvis. c. c. The h\d Fimbria, of a Semicircular Figure, where the Extreams of the Vrinary Tubes difcharge the 'iJrine into the Pelvis, or rather Funnel of the Kidneys. d. The Pelvis or Infundibuhtm : For being large here in the Kidney, and running into a long flender Stem in the Ureter, it more properly reprefents a Funnel, and ferves for the Conveying the Urine thence into the
'

^

'

.

Bladder.
C. C.

The GlanduU

Renales.
Arteria

D.D. The Defcending Trunk of the
the Diaphragm.
d.

Magna or

Aoria, below

The Csliac ArteriJ?. The Arteria Mefentericafuperior. g The Arteria Mefenterica inferior. E. The Defcending Trunk of the P'efia F. F. The Emulgent Arteries. f, f. The Emulgent Feins.
S".

Cava,

G.G. The

M'l^a^a^r-^uMt Jcu/ :^

I

The Jnatomy of a

TYG

MI E,

105

G. G. The Ureters. H. The Bladder of Vrme. h. L The Spermatid Veins which difcharge themfelves into the Vena Cava., and the left Emulgent., as in Man. j. The Spermatick_ Arteries., as they arife from the fore-part of the

Trunk of tht Aorta. Corpora 'Pyramidalia. J. J. The Vafa Praparantia Fampini-formia^feu K.K. The Tejies OT Stones J which appear here flaccid, having been keptfome time, before the^«re was taken. „ L. L. The EpididjiKik, making feveral Convolutions on the body o£
the Tejies. M. Part of the Cremafter Mufcle> N. N. The Vafa Defcrentia. 0. 0. The VeJicuU Seminales.

The Projiates or Corp^ Glandofnm. The Mufculus Ere^or Penis of the right fide. R. The upper part or Dorfum Penk. S, The Corpora Cavernofa Penk., cut tranfverfe,
P.

^
T.
hi

TheZJrethra.

4 The main Trunk of

the Iliac Arterie

and

VerK.

The TJf»bilical Arteries. The Arterie that goes to the Penis. ft. n. The Arterie that goes to the Bladder of Urine. 0. The internal 7//W Fez« and A/me. p. The external Jliac Vein and Arterie, q. The Vena Pudenda feu Penk. r. r. The Nerves of the Penk. f.f. The Arteries of the Penk.
1. 1.

m. m.

The

tenth Figure

Demonftrates the Parts of the Ihorax with the Arteria Jfpera

and Larynx.
A.
'"

1"^

HE

fore-part
Its

of the Os Hyoides.
ends,that arc connefted to the

J_
Procejfes

a. a.

two

two

Superior

long

of the Cartilago Scutiformk.

B.
C.
b.

The Epiglottk. The Cartilago Scutiformk.
ThtPvommtrAT^ixtoith-tAnnuUrjiCartiUge,

D. D. The Mufiuli Hyothyroidei.
E. E.

The Mufculi Stemothyroidei. The Mufculi Cricothyroidei. c. c. F. The Arteria A^era, or Wind-pipe.
G.
It's

-

divi(ion,where it pafles to the right and left

Loks of the Lmgs^
J.The.

H. H. The Lungs.

p

10^
J.

Orang'-Outang five

Homo

Sj/keflris

:

Or,

The Cone of the Heart. K. The right Ventricle of the Heart here opened,

fo that part of the

Pol)ip/0

contained there, came in view. L. Part of the Ferkardium, on the Bajts or upper part of the Heart, M. M. The Thymus^ lying on the Pericardiu/u. 2V,The MediafiinHtft freed from the Stermm.mi turn'd to the right fide.

0. 0.

P.

The two Subclavian Arteries. The Carotid Arteries.

^he

eleventh Figure
in the left Fen-

Shews the FoJypus or Coagulated Blood found tide of the Heart,
A. ''nr^H

part contained in the Ventricle, B. Three Impreflions, formed by the Semihmary Valves. C. That part, that lay in the Aorta. D. That part that paifed into the defcending Trunk of the Aorta. E. Thofe Ramiili of it that lay in the afcendent Branches of the Aorta.

i

AT

The
The
J. '*~T^

twelfth Figure

Polypus found in the right Ventricle of the Heart,
part contained in the Ventricle. B. The Impreflions made by the ValvuU Jigmoides. Branches leading to the right and left Lobes of the Lungs.

HAT

J_
C.

The

The

thirteenth Figure

Reprefents the Bafts of the Brain with the Mednlla Oblongata^ and the Nerz/es and Arteries cut off
tvvo anterior or fore Lobes of the Brain. B. B. The two pojierior or hinder Lobes of the Brain. a.a, depreffions in the fore Lobes caufed by the rifing of the Frontal bone, that compofes the upper part of the Orbit of the Ejie--^ which in this Animal^ and in Monkeys, is more eminent than in Man. b. b. The divifion of the right and left Hemij^here of ihzBrain^ where the Falx is placed. This fore-part of the Brain in this Animal appeared

A A. "^T"^ H E
I

Two

fomewhat
C. C.

flatter

than in Man.
Spinalis, or that part

The Cerebellum. D. The Princifium Medul/a

of the Caudex Medullarkf

Jd' V'^Tzh e'*'
'

^ucA^

*/£zt^i

^2'«,a^^y^, y^^;

ne Anatomy
Humane
E. E.
e. e.

of a

T YG

M

I

e7~"

T^
as in

duUark^ where the Corpora Pjiramzdalia znd Olivaria&TQ^hcQd^
Brain.

am

The Protuberantia Annulark^ or Pons Verolij.. The Carotid Arteries. f.f. The Vertebral Arteries. g. The Cervical Arterie. h. The Communicant Branches between the CervicaHviii Carotid, Arteries,
j.
hi
1. 1.

A

fmall Arterie defcending

down the

Spinal Marrorc.

The Infimdibulum. The Glandulte du£

alb£ pone Infundibulnm^

,

or rather

two Medul-

lary Protuberances there.

m. Parts of the Crura MeduUte Oblongata before they unite under the. or Annular Protuberance. 1. TheO/f^^(7ry, orfirftpairofNerves. 2. The Optick^ or fecond pair of Nerves. 3. The Nervi Oculorum motori)^ or third pair of Nerves, 4. The Pathetick^^ or fourth pair of Nerves. 5. The fifth pair of Nerves. 6. The fixth pair of Nerves. 7. The Auditory^ or feventh pair of Nerves. 8. The Par Fagum, or eighth pair of Nerves. 9. The ninth pair of Nerves. 10. The tenth pair of Nerves, which may be reckoned rather the firft pair of the Neck. * * The Nervus accejjorins^ that goes to the eighth paitjOr Par Vagum.
f^.

Pons

Verolij^

The fourteenth
Hori'z.ofjtalSeSiioni

Figure,
,

Reprefents the inward Parts of the Br ^/«

as

divided
is

by an

where the Bafis of the Brain

reflected

upwards.
the hinder Lobes of the Brain. B. B. The upper part of the Brain next it's Hemij^heres^ divided from the lower, C. C. The lower part next the Bafis^ reflected or turned up. a. a. The Cortical or Cinericious part of the Brain^ which is Glandulouf.b.b. TheMeduUary part, that runs up between the Cortical^ and is
J.
J.

A.T^hrts of

Nervom.

D. The Corpuf Tranfverfak. E. The Fornix. e. e. The Crura Fornick, f. The two Roots of the Fornix,

P

2

R

F,.

The.

io8
-

Orang'-Outang five

Homo

Sylvejlris

:

Or^,

F. F. The two firfk Ventricles of the Brain. G. G. Parts of the Corpora Striata, entire. g. g. The Stria as they appear in this Seflion in the Corpora Striata in the lower part of the Brain. h. h. The fame Stri<e, in the upper part of the Brain. H. H. The Flexus Choroides. Nervorum Opticorum. J. J. The Thalami The Plexus Choroides continued. j. K. K. The Cerebellum divided perpendicularly, to (hew the ramifications of the Medullary part in the Cortical. ki The Foramen anterim that leads to the Cavity under the Protuberauti£ srbiculares.
I.

The

Glandula Ptnealk.

m. The Nates.
n.
0.

The Tejles. The Commijfure

of the Medullary Procejjes of the Cerebellum and Te-

fies.

p.

The fourth Ventricle opened. q. q. The Accejfory Nerves. 10. The tenth pair of Nerves. r. The Foramen pojierius or inferius^

that leads

to the Cavity undet

the Vrotuberantis orbiculares.
s.

The Rima or Foramen^

that leads to the Tnfiindibulum.

The fifteenth Figure
fs

a

Copy of the Figure

that Nicholaus Tulpius gives

of the Orang-

Ontang that was brought to Holland from Angola.

'The fixteenth Figure
Reprelents the Figure that Jacob. Bontius gives of the Orang-^ Outang in F//£>.

J 1

The feventeenth Figure.
Is

taken out of Gefner, which he

tells

us

,

he

met with
Land,

in

German Book, wrote about the

Holj/

FINIS.

A

PHILOLOGICAL
Concerning the

PYGMIES
THE

CYNOCEPHALI,
THE
F

SATYRS and SPHINGES
O
T H E

ANCIENTS,
Wherein
either
it

will appear that they
s

A?e

M E N,

or onk e y s, as formerly pretended.

M

were and not

By

Edward Tjfm M. D«

C

i

)

A

Philological Effay
Concerning the

PYGMIES
O
F

T H E

ANCIENTS.'
had the Opportunity of DlfTeaing this remarkawhich not only in the outward Jhape of the Body, but likewife in the ftru£ture of many of the Inward Parts, fo nearly refembles a Man^ as plainly appears by the Anatomy I have here given of it, it fuggefted the Thought to me, whether this fort of Animal^ might not give the Foundation to and afford an occafion not only to the Poets, the Stories of the Fygmies too, of inventing the many Fables and wonderful and merbut Hifiorians ry Relations, that are tranfmitted down to us concerning them ? I muffc confefs, I could never before entertain any other Opinion about them but that the whole was a Fi&wn : and as the firffc Account we have of them, was from a Poet, fo that they were only a Creature of the Brain, produced by a warm and wanton Imagination, and that they never had any Exiftence or Habitation elfewhere In this Opinion I was the more confirmed, becaufe the moft diligent Enquiries of late into all the Parts of the inhabited World, could never difcover any fuch Puny diminutive Race of Mankind. That they (hould be totally deftroyed by the Cr^we/, their Enemies, and not a Straggler here and there left remaining, was a Fate, that even thofe Animals that are conftantly preyed upon by others, never undergo. Nothing therefore appeared to me more Fabulous and Romantick, than their Hljiorj, and the Relations about them, that Antiquity has delivered to us. And
ble Creature,
.<?

HAVING

A

Thiiologkal Bffay concerning

not only Strabo of old, but our greateft Men of Learning of late, have wholly exploded them, as a m^tx figment ^ invented only to amufe, and divert the R^eader with the Comical Narration of their Atchievements, believing that there were never any fuch Creatures in Nature.

This Opinion had fo fully obtained with me,, that I never thought it worth the Enquiry, how they came to invent fuch Extravagant Stories: Nor Ihould I now, but upon the Occafion of Diffefting this Animal: For obferving that 'tis call'd even to this day in the Indian or Malabar Language, Orang-Ontang, i. e. a Man of the Woods or Wild-men 5 and being brought from Africa^ that part of the World, where the Fygmies are faid to inhabit ; and it's prefent Stature likewife tallying fo well with that of the Pygmies of the Ancients 5 thefe Confiderations put me upon the fearch, to inform my felf farther about them, and to examine, whether I could meet with any thing that might illuftratc their Hifiory. For I thought it ftrange, that if the whole was but a meer Fidion, that fo many fucceeding Generations fhould be fo fond of preferving a Story that had no Foundation at all in Nature 3 and that the Ancients fhould trouble themfelves fo much about them. If therefore 1 can make out in this Ejfay^ that there were fuch Animals as Pygmies ; and that they were not a Race of Mea, but Apes ; and can difcover the Authors, who have forged all, or mod of the idle Stori^es concerning them; and fliew, how the Cheat in after Ages has been carried on, by embalming the Bodies of A^pes^ then expofing them for the Men of the Country, from whence they brought them if I can do this, I (hall think my time not wholly loft, nor the trouble altogether ufelefs, that I have had in this Enquiry.
^
^ :

My
this

Defign is not to juftifie all the R elations that have been given of Animal^Qven by Authors of reputed Credit , but, as far as I can, to

amounts to a pretend to. I (hall accordingly endeavour to make it appear, that not only the Pygmies of th^ Ancients, but alfo the Cynocephdli^ and Satyrs and Sphinges were only Apes or Monkeys, not Men, as they have been reprefented. But the Story of the Pygmies being the greateO: Impofture, I fhall chiefly concern my felf about them., and (hall be more concife on the others, fince they will not need fo (trift an Examination.
diftinguifli
5

Truth from Fable
'tis

and herein,

if

what

I alTert

Probability,

all I

will begin with the Poet Homer, who is generally owned as the Inventor of the Fable of the Pygmies, if it be a Fable, and not a true Story, as I believe will appear in the Account I fhall give of them. Now Homer only mentions them in a Simile, wherein he compares the Shouts that the Trojans made, when they were going to joyn Battle with the Gr<£cians,to the great Noife of the Cranes,goixig to fight the Pygmies.'
firft

We

he faith (a\
(a) Homer. Iliad,
lib. a. ver.

4.

The

TYG MIES of the Ancients.
lai
yt. 'TTfTovlct)

KAaf^^

he

oeKAavoib poacuv
i. e.

'Ay^gjcffi •Trvy/uutmai pdvov ;^ a^g^i (fn^aaoj,

^iS fmul acfitgere
Cum magna Oceani

Imbres, Hyetftemqne NivAkfft

clangor e ferantur ad undas Fygmais pugnafftqne Virk^ cadefquefevent es.
(^).

Or

as

HeUus Eobanm Heffus paraphrafes the whole

Fojlquam fub Dndbus digejia per agmina fiabant ^aquefuk^ Equitum Uirma^ Veditumque Cohortes, ObvJa torquentes Danak vefiigia Troes
Ibant, fublato

Non fecus ac

cuneata

Campum clamore replentes : Gruum fublime volantuni

Agmina^ diim fiigiunt Ifnbres, ac frigora Bruw(e^ Per Cmlum matutmo clangor e feruntur^ Oceanumqm petunt, mortem exitmrnqne cruentum Irrita Pigmak moturk armaferentes.

By dv^^si 'mj^fAMiom therefore, which is the Paffage upon which they have grounded all their fabulous Relations of the Pygmies, why may not Homer mean only Pygmies or Apes like Men. Such an Expreffion is very allowable in a Poet, and is elegant and fignificant, efpecially fince there is fo good a Foundation in Nature for him to ufe it , as we have already feen, in the Anatomy of the Orang-Ontang, Nor is a Poet tied to that ftridtnefs of Expreffion, as an Hi(iorian or Philofopher , he has the liberty of pleafing the Reader's Phancy, by Pictures and Reprefentations of his own. If there be a becoming likencfs, 'tis all that he is accountable for. I might therefore here make the fame Apology for him, as Strabo (c) do's on another account for his Geography, a -^ ti^T a.yvoia.v -n-mmv Aiyilaq^ dM' n^vrii; ;c,'^^4iti>g )^cl^v. That he faid if, not thro' Ignorance, but to pleafe and delight Or, as in another place he ex-

^

:

prelTeS himfelf (^d), a

;i^

tc^f ayvoiav

'^

i^'Og/a? '^JzuOM-Sdov ylvisJdj 7S7Z3,aMai

ro^yo^ai; ;)i^a^v. Homer did not make this flip thro' Ignorance of the true Hijiory, but for the Beauty of his Poem. So that tho' he calls them Men Pygmies, yet he may mean no more by it , than that they were like Men. As to his Purpofe, 'twill ferve altogether as well, whether this

bloody Battle be fought between the Cranes and Pygmean Men, or the Cranes and Apes, which from their Stature he calls Pygmies, and from their (hape engage , they 5 provided that when the Cranes go to make a mighty terrible noife, and clang enough to fright thefe little Wights their mortal Enemies. To have called them only Apes, had been

Mm

(b)

HmKYt
-

Ilias
]p.

(d) Strabo

ibid,

Latino CarmfiK nddita ab m. ^o.

Hdk Ecbm Hejfo.

(c) Strabo Olograph,

lib. 1. p.m.

2 5.

B


.

&t

A
fiat

Philological Efjay concerning

and low, and leflened the grandieur of the Battle. But this Peyi/'/j;'<2fis of them, av^pj; rmXiMZiQiy raifes the Reader's Phancy, and furprifes him, and is more becoming the Language of an Heroic Pcau,
But how came the Cranes and Fjigmes to fall out ? What may be the Caufe of this Mortal Feud, and conftant War between them } Foi-Brntes^ like Me«, don't war upon one another, to raife and encreafe their GloUnlefs I can acquit my felf herein, and ry, or to enlarge their Empire. afHgn fome probable Caufe hereof, I may incur the fame Cenfure as Straho (e) pafled on feveral of the Indian Hifloriajis^ dtix^'mmv § si, rlta 'Ofm^j.}tluj T^ ThlfAzticinv yi^vQ^AM^Qdv r^icsnd^clju&ii mTTvvlig, for reviewing the Homerical Fight of the Cranes and Pygmies, which he looks upon only as a fiftion of the Poet. But this had been very unbecoming Homer to take a Simile (which is defigned for illuftration) from what had no Foundation in Nature. His Betrachomyomachia , 'tis true, was a meer Invention, and never otherwife efteemed : But his Geranomachia hath all the likelyhood of a true Story. And therefore I ihail enquire now what may be the juft Occafion of this Quarrel.
Atheneeus (f) out of 'Philochorus^zn^ fo likewife JElian (g) , tell us a That in the Nation of the Pygmies the Male-line failing, one

Story,

Gerana was their Queen 3 a Woman of an admired Beauty , and whom the Citizens worfhipped as a Goddefs 5 but (he became fo vain and proud, as to prefer her own, before the Beauty of all the other Goddejfes , at which they grew enraged 5 and to punifh her for her Infolence, Athen£i0 tells us that 'twas Diana,h\xt JElian faith 'twas Juno that transformed her into a Crane, and made her an Enemy to the Pygmies that worIhipped her before. But iince they are not agreed which Goddefs 'twas, I
flball let

this pafs.

Pomponius' Mela will have it , and I think fome others, that thefe Engagements ufe to happen, upon the Cranes coming to devour the Corn the Pygmies had fowed 3 and that at lafl: they became fo vidtoricruel

ous,as not only to deftroy their Corn,but
Fttere interius Pjigm^i
,

minntum genus

Grues dimicando, defecit. rel 3 but it not being certain that the Pygmies ufed to fow Corn, not infift on this neither.

them alfo : For he tells us?(f), d^ quod fro fatis fiugibus contra, , This may feem a reafonable Caufe of a QuarI

will

v;hat feems raoft likely to me, is the account that Pliny out of Megajihenes, and Strabo from Qnejicritm give us 3 and , provided I be not obliged to believe or juftifie aU that they fay, I could reft fatisfied in great part of their Relation : For Pliny (h) tells \xs,Verfs tempore univerfo
(e) Siraba Oeografb. lib. 2. p. Hift. Animal, lib. 15, cap. sp.
lib. 7.

Now

m. 48.

(f )

Athend Deipnofoph.
lib".

lib.

p, p.

m. 3P5.

(f) Pomp. Mela defipu OrbH,

3. cap. 8.

f g ) Mian. (h) Plinij Hift. Nat,

cap. 2. p.in.

13

agmine

TheTYG
agmine ad
ffiare

MIES of
,

the Ancients.

defcendere

That

in the Spring-time the

©" Ova^ FttUofqne eanim Alitum conftimere whole drove of the Fygmks go down to the

Sea fide, to devour the Cranes Eggs and their young Ones. So likewife to?; Ti^voit; (Jv ;^ Onejtcntus (i) , Yi^c, ^ th; rpiamS-a/uag 'TixAif^

^

TO. fiJa, Kj

ip9si^&lJ''

OK&i

^

(^oloZ&V

TO? Ti^VHC,' ^O-m^

f/JAhtf/>U

fm^

cad wqJ.-

i. e.. That there is a fight betvpeen the Pygmies Cranes (as Homer relates) and the Partridges, which are as big as Geefe 5 for thefe Pygmies gather tip their Eggs , and deflroy them 5 the Cranes laying their Eggs there-j and neither their Eggs^nor their Nejis^ being to 'Tis plain therefore from them, that the Quarrel be found any where elfe. is not out of any Antipathy the Pygmies have to the Cranes , but out of love to their own Bellies. But the Cranes finding their Nefts to be robb'd and their young Ones prey'd on by thefe Invaders, no wonder that they ihould fo fiiarply engage them 5 and the leafl they could do, was to Hence , no doubt, many a fight to the utmoft fo mortal an Enemy. happens, with various fucccfs to the Combatants 5 fomebloody Battle times with great flaughter of the long-necked Squadron 5 fomctimes with great effufion of Pygmean blood. And this may well enough, in a Poet's phancy, be magnified, and reprefented as a dreadful War ; and no doubt of it, were one a Spebator of it, 'twould be diverting enough.

tnti&ajj TiQ^voev^ fjwif Sv yjorffa*

and

the

-Si videos hoc

Gentibus in

nojtris,

rift quatiere :

fed

il/ic,

^tanqnam eadem ajjzdui fpe^antur Pralia, ridet Nemo, nbi tot a cohors pede non esi altior nno (k).
This Account therefore of thefe Campaigns renewed every year on Provocation between the Cranes and the Pygmies^ contains nothing but

this

what a cautious Man may believe^and Homers Simile in likening the great (bouts of thtTrojans to theNoife of the Cranes^ and the Silence of the Greeks to that otthtPygmies^ is very admirable and delightful. For Arijiotle (I) tells us. That the Cranes, to avoid the hardftiips of the Winter, take a Flight out of Scythia to the Lak^s about the Nile , where the Pygmies live, and where 'tis very likely the Cranes may lay their Eggs and breed, before they return. But thefe rude Pygmies making too bold with them, what could the Cranes do lefs for preserving their OfF-fpring than fight them 5 or at leaft by their mighty Ncife, make a fliew as if they would. This is but what we may obferve in all other Birds. And thus far I think our Geranomachia or Pygm^omachia looks like a true Story 5 and there is nothing in Homer about it, but what is credible. He
only exprefles himfelf, as his meaning, 'tis not his
a Poet ihould
fault.

do

5

and

if

Readers will miflake

(

i

) Strah. Geograph.
lib. 8.

'Animal,

cap.

1 5.

lib. I s. pag. 48^, Edit. Scalig.

(k) Juvinal. Satyr, 13, verf.

1

70.

(I) Ariflotk. Hifl.

B2

Tis

'^i.

A Thilological Effay
dreft

concerning

who have by their fantaftical Inventions , that there is fo odly no knowing the truth, till one hath pulFd off thofe Masks and Vifages, wherewith they have difguifed it. For tho' I can believe Homer ^ that: there is a fight between the Cranes and Pjigmes, yet I think I am no ways, obliged to imagine, that when the Pygmies go to thefe Campaigns to fight the Cranes, that they ride upon Partridges, as Athendetfs from Ba^e^ Tr^-^SuJilis an Indian Hiftorian tdls US 3 for, faith he (m) , BxniM
up
this Story
'z^poo'P^''hhK.civ, ol
B-Jl/uLctli

'Tis not therefore the Voet that is to be blamed, tho' they ther it all on him ^ but the fabulous Hifiorhns in after Ages,

would

fa-

ye£v1a^.

fMX.^}, fnmv, a.v^pigol'm?i;ri^Qii; ^-zTsMjuHvliglUp^^iv For prefently afterwards he tells us from Menecks ,

that the i^ygmies not only fight the Cranes, but the Partridges too, Msfs-TroAe'/AKai.

This I could more readily agree to, becaufe Onejicritus, as I have quoted him already confirms it 5 and gives us the fame reafon for But whethis, as for fighting the Cranes, becaufe they rob their Nefts.
ther thefe Partridges are as big as Geefe, I leave as a

^are.

Megafihenes methinks in Pliny mounts the Pygmies for this Expedition much better, for he fets them not on a Pegafus or Partridges , but on. Rams and Goats : Fama ef? (faith Pliny (n) ) znfedenfes Arietum Caprarumque dorjis, armatis fagittk, veris tempore vniverfo agrtiine ad mare deAnd Onejicritm in Strabo tells us, That a Crane has been often fcendere.
"obferved to fly

Sword fixt in him , ^^'^a.fuc, dni^ ^td t^ c^tt^sv "Tjkn^jLuiTav (0). y iicm-^^v But whether the Pygmies do wear Swords, may be doubted. Tis true, CteJiM tells us (p). That the King of India every fifth year fends fifty Thoufand Swords, befides abundance of other Weapons to the Nation of the Cynocephali, (a fort of Monkeys, as I (hall fhew) that live in thofe Countreys, but higher up in the Mountains But he makes no mention of any fuch Prefents to the poor Pygmies 5 tho' he affures us, that no lefs than three Thoufand of thefe Pygmies are the Kings conftant Guards: But withal tells us, that they are excellent Archers, and fo perhaps by. difpatching th^ir Enemies at a diftance, they may have no need of fuch Weapons to lye dangling by their fides. I may therefore be miftaken in rendering dutht, a Sword ^ it may be any other (harp pointed Inftrument or Weapon, and upon fecond Thoughts, fhall fuppofe it a fort of Arfrom thofe
parts with a brafs
yiogivov ^atihlud ^^Hirttv
, :

row

thefe

cunning Archers ufe

in thefe

Engagements.

Thefe, and a hundred fuch ridiculous Fahles, have the Hifiorians invented of the Pygmies, that I can't but be of Straho's mind (qj, 'Pd^ov

y
Ji

av

ng 'Hsuoe^i^,

K) '0/Mip<^ m'^Aja^iv r]pMO?ioyS.ai

,

iy

itTg
i.

tQc^yiwnq

nicQinlctiq,

That one mayfoonK7«(nct Ti K) "H^Stotfitf, ii) er believe Hefiod, and Homer, and the Tragick Po^ts Jpeaking of their
'ET^xvlxii}, k^ a?^oii 7o;a70j$'
e.

(m)

AtheimDiepnefoph.Ey.ip.9

Qes^ra}bAib. 15. p» 48^.

. m. 350. (p) Vide Fhoti]

(n) Plimj Nat. HiJlAih.j.c3'p.2. p. 13.

(o) Strtho

BlblM.

(q) Sprabo Geograpb.

lib.

ir. p.

m. 550.

HeroV,

rioeTYG
Hero'j-,f^^« Ctefias

MIES of

the Jnctents.

7

and Herodotus and Hellanicus, and fuch like. So ill an Opinion had Strabo of the Indian Hijionans in general, that he cenfures them all as fabulous (rJ^ATmvln; fjAv -mivvv ol Trsg/ -^ 'b^mi y^-\a.v1ic, di 'On 70 -sroAt) if.'^'^bAo'j/Oi yiyovctm, ^r^' \^Qq/\!m) '^ A)iV,m^;^(^' to "^ ^i^-n^ Aiy&t MiyA^divKf 'OrM(nzp(7o?TE ;^Neap;^©^, aj, aMoj OTiBTor i. e. ^Zi^ vpho have

Daimachus

moU part^ are fabulom , httt in the highell degree Megafthenes, Oneficritus, and]>i&3.rchus, and fuch lil^e. And as if it had been their greateft Ambition to excel herein, Strabo ("s) brings in Theapompuf^ as braggingi^OTr it^ fjuu'iiii dv toic, 'Ig'o^aii ip&i scp&tTfoy, M ceg "H^Sbl^u, ;t, Klmcci, it^ 'E?^dvi}c!^, it^di to. '\vh>(^ avJ\^-\ot,v1i^' That he could foi^ in Fables into Hifioryy better than Herodotus and Ctefias and Hellanicus, and all that have wrote <?/ India. The SatyriB therefore had reafon to fay,
wrote of India, for the
^

^/6e«

'Et quicquid

Gr£cia mendax

.

Audet in Hifloria
Ariflotle

(t).

(u),

°tis

true, tells us,

^OAa; g

to. (aav

aypics; dyptoeTi^
'j)

e^

-ra

to g^ T>! A<QvT^' K) ?\.iyi1cij ^ Tie, ym^iiMo.^ AiSyn )(cf.mv' i. e. That geoti a&t ipsp&i 'n nerally the Beajis are wilder in Afia, fironger in Europe, and of greater variety of //japes in Africa ; for as the VxQytxh faith , Africa always produces fomething new. Vliny (w) indeed afcribes it to the Heat of the Climate^ Animalium, Hominumque ejfigies monfiriferas, circa extremtates ejus gigni^ minimi mirum, artifici ad forntanda Corpora, eff-giefque aslandas piobilitate tgneh. But Nature never formed a whole Species o£ Monfiers j and 'tis not the heat of the Country, but the warm and fertile Imagination of thefe Hijiorians, that has been more produftive of them, than Jfiica it felf 5 as will farther appear by what I (hall produce out of them, and particularly from the Relation that Ctejias makes of the Pygmies.
'Ama, dv^p&tQTi^
2) Travla.

radv

t'^ Eu^avr*?,

'ziroXvfxopsfi^Ta.la,

I am the more willing to inftance in Cte/ias, becaufe he tells his Story roundly j he no ways minces it 5 his Invention is ftrong and fruitful 5 and that you may not in the leaft miftruft him, he pawns his word, that all that he writes, is certainly true : And fo fuccefsful he has been, how Romantick foever his Stories may appear, that they have been handed down to us by a great many other Authors, and of Note too 5 tha fome at the fame time have look'd upon them as meer Fables. So that for the prefent, till I am better informed, and I am not over curious in it, I (hall make Gf/^, md the other Indian Hijioyians, the Inventors o£ the extravagant Relations we at prefent have of the Pygmes, and not old Honker. He calls them, 'tis true, from fomething of Refemblance of their (hape, avd^pn; But thefe Hijiorians make them to fpeak the India^^ Language 5 to ufe the fame Laws 5 and to be fo confide rable a Nation^
:

(r) Strabo ibid. lib. 2. p.
1

74.

m. 48, (u) Arijiotje Hiji. Animal,

(s) Strabo ibid, lib, i. p.
lib, 8.

cap. 2 8.

m. 25. (w) Flin. Nut.

(t)

fmmL

Satyr.

H^.

lib. ^.

cap. 30. p.

X. verf, m. 741.

andi

3

'

~

A

Thilological Ejjay concerning

and fo

valiant, as that the ICing oi India makes choice of them for his Simle , in making them Corps de Guards-^ which utterly fpoils Homers fight Cwwej-. fo little, as only to
Cteftas's
theca.

Account therefore of the 'Pygmlesf^^sl find it in Vhotrm'sEihUo' (x) , and at the latter end of fome Editions of Herodotus) is

this

:

"Ot?
£t(?i

d*

(AAavi rif
ii)

likXcLvic,^

Iv^n^ av^pocnoi K^XdUvmi 'jpS^oi,
fJUK^i

TvTg a??kO(? o/uLoyhceosoi'h^T^'

Narrat prater ijia, in media India. homines reperiri nigros , qui Pygntai Eadetn hos ^ qua Inda appellentur.
reliqui^
-vos,

M

d lAMX^Tztloi aZ-Pi/S mt' yiclov ^0, ol 3 3?L&i?'oi, kvh r\jJJ.(^'3^ "myiooi;, wajxku % eVasi fjui.v.^'m.'rlw
dsi KiolV

lingua

iiti.,

fed valde

ejfe

par•)

,

&

jixiy^
lipov,

K^'^

-myovccla,
/jjiyi^ov

it)

iri f(^1oii-

maximi dtiorum atbitorum^ plerique unius duntaxat cnbiti cum dimdio altitudinem non excedant.
nt

it}

•3ri$y«)ya

Travmv

dv

Comam alere

longijjintam,

ad

ipfa uf-

^poenciv' iir&i^v Sv
(pucnjoinv,

riiv 'ctroeyuvct

/xiyt
doc

iKiTi

djupivvzwla^ 8^v Ijudtpi-)^ciz,

que genua demijjam^atque etiam infia^ cum barba longiore, quam apud uUos

TiQv

:

.KnpaXa'.g,

eiMa TO? tm^iv

Tug fm>

T

)(a^^kv1ct! ris-oXv fi^TVi
J)

r^

yovdrav'

to;

•?§ •^i^w')Al^(^,

iju(,Tr^(Qiv fji.i')^^ 'zs-o^v i?\.rto//,ivag.

E^

vniTo.

7n^'Tvi(^<TdfA/ivoi

tk?

TPCf
g

inzj^

cc,7rav

td

raj;t*<«,

^wvvmjIiaj, ^pooy-i-

hominum. ^/<e quidem ubi illis promijjior ejje ctsperit, nuUa deinceps veJie nti : fed capil/os mulia injra genua a tergo demijos barbdmqtte prcBter peUm ad pedes ufque defluentem^ per totum corpus in orbem conjiipare
.,

&

fMvoi

alTicic, d.vn \fxct\iii. cu^oiov

'^
it,

i^ddtv.M^i-^sui^v -^^ afvpocv
cwTDili ai^ioin }y

Tra-)^.

cw'^, ou^fOf'. tk
it,

Jiimentiloco

3'3r'po'Sa7actJ7^5 B?
jt,

aps;.

ou /So2$

Of

ovoh

'^'i^v

omv K^oi.
it)

Zf ol

tir^oi
'TTZiv'lci.

cwT^
"Qocct,

it, 01

M/Aiofoi,

TO. clT^ci,

i§iv fMi^ct)

^cfn/K^i T^t!
avS'pig

x^Sv. iTTQvlcij ^ 7W 'h^Vi Tvmv'P^ '7ni\u/xim
C7(p6^^
')cl'p

ipjis fuos veVeretrum illis ejfe crajfum ac longum^ quod ad ipfos quoque pedum malleolos pertingat. Pjgmeos hofce fimk ejfe naribus^ defomtes. Ipforum item oves agnorum noftrorum inflar ejfe ; boves afnos, arietum feri magnitudine, equositem

cingere, atque

it a piles

ejfe.

&

&

r^^iAioi.
oiOfTio K-u ol

d(xi

multofque
„jhilo
ejfe

& catera jumenta
nojiris arietibus

omnia

rn0teij' hv.Mi-nthi ^i ^ai k<u v6f.mm

^^(SvTKi

'h^L Aay»85 7E
^

H^\ dXiiWi^c, ^pdjaaiv, a TvTq mjmv, dT^^Ko^li 1(^1 iK-r.cn x^} -Mpulvaic,
Kcu armg.

major a. Vygm^orum millia IndoXria horum ypfff^ regem in fuo comitatu habere^
qnodfagittarij jtnt peritijjimi.
jjjos ejfe

Sum-

iifdemque quibus Indi reliqui ^ legibus parere.
jujlitis cultores,

Venari quoque lepores vulpefque^ non canibus, fed corvk., milvis, cornicibus,
aquilfs adhibitis^

q

'

In the middle of India ({a.ith Ctefas ) there arc black Men, they are caird Pygmiesy ufing the fame Language , as the other Indians 3 they
'

(x) Fhoti) BMothic. Cod, 7a. p. m. 145.

are

The
' *

TYGMIES of the Jnaents.
,

them being but two Cubits, and moft of They have very long hair, reaching * down to their Knees and Ibwer and a Beard larger than any Man's. ; * Alter their Beards are grown long, they wear no Cloaths, but the Hair * of their Head falls behind a great deal below their Hams and that of 5 ' before comes down to their Feet: then laying their Hair their Beards * thick all about their Body, they afterwards gird therafelves, making ' They have a Venis fo long, that it reaufe of their Hair for Cloaths. * They are flat ches to the Ancle, and the thicknefs is proportionable. * and their Oxen Their Sheep are like Lambs ; nofed, and ill favoured. * and AfTes fcarce as big as Rams 5 and their Horfes and Mules, and all * their other Cattle not bigger. Three thoufand Men of thefe Pygmies ' King o^ India. They are good Archers they are very do attend the ' They kill Hares and juft, and ufe the ^me Lavps as the Indians do. ' Foxes, not with Dogs, but with Ravens, Kites, Crows, and Eagles.
are very
little

the talleft of

them but a Cubit and a half high.

-^

Well, if they are fo good Sports-men, as to kill Hares and Foxes with Ravens, Kites, Crows and Eagles, I can't feehow Icanbring ofFi/^j^s^er, Why did they not fly for making them fight the Cranes't\\tmk\vts. their E<z^/ej- againft them > thefe would make greater Slaughter and ExThe only Excufe I have is,thae ecution, without hazarding themfelves. Homers Vygmies were real A^es like Men ; but thofe of O^efias were neither Men nor Pygmies 5 only a Creature begot in his own Brain, and to be found no where elfc.
Ctejias vs^as

Phyfician to Artaxerxes
us.

Mmnton

as

Hiodorm

Siculus

(y)
little

and
later

Straho

(z) inform

He

was contemporary with Xenophon, a

than Herodotus 5 and Helvicus in his Chronology places him three hundred eighty three years before Chri^ : He is an ancient Author, 'tis true, and it may be upon that fcore valued by fome. We are beholden to him, not only for his Improvements on the Story of the Pygmies, but for his

Remarks likewife on feveral other parts of Natural Hiflory 5 which for the moft part are all of the fame ftam{), very wonderful and incredible 5 as his Mantichora^ his Gryphins, the horrible Indian Worm^ a Fountain of Liquid Gold., a Fountain of Honey^ a Fountain whofe Water will make a Man confefs all that ever he did, a Root he calls TrdpYiSov, that will attraft

Lambs and Birds, as the Loadftonedoes filings of Steel 5 and a great many other Wonders he tells us all which are copied from him by
:

JElian.,

Pliny ^ Solinus^ Mela., Phi lojiratus
CtejioiS

dudes

lAxi^7\.aySiv

and others. And Photius conAccount of India with this palTage 3 Tcei^ra y^<^mv xau KTnaicti;. y\iyn r d.An^tg'aifla, y^<p&tv' iTmyuv oe<; to. [mv aZiix; l^h

i7V)(ficl<p&iv'

i. e.

Thefe things (faith he) Ctefias writes
^.m,iiB.
(z) StraboGeo^raph,
lib.

and feigns^ but he
14.

(yy

Viodor. SkuHBibliotliecAih. 2.

p.4Sf«
hm.=^.-

lo
hmjelffays
all

A Philological Bjfay
he has wrote
is

concerning
,

very true.

Adding

that

fome things which

he defcribes, he had feen himfelf ; and the others^ he had learn dfiom thofe that had feen them : That he had omitted a great many other things more
wonderful, becaufe he would notfeem to thofe that have not feen them, to write incredibilities. But notwithftanding all this, Lucian (a) will not believe a

word he

faith

5

for he tells us that Ctefas has wrote of India

,

"A [JMn

auuTvq uS^,

fxkn. a,?^H e?7rov7(^ mis<nVf

What he

neither farv himfelf^nor

ever heard from any Body elfe. And Arijiotle tells US plainly, he is not fit to be believed : 'Ev '^ r^ Ivhz^ S><; (pnn K^Moia?, hk av <l^i^-mg@^ (/>). And the fame Opinion A. Gellius (0 feems to have of him, as he had likewife of feveral other old Greeks Hijiorians which happened to fall into his hands at BrHndufum^ in his return from Greece into Italy ; he gives this Erant autem ijli omnes iihri Character of them and their performance Gneci, miraculorHmfabularnmquepleni: res inandit£^ incredula, Scriptores Ifagonus, dS^Niveteres non parv£ authorifatis, Arifteas Proconnefius, Hegefias. ca:enfis, Polyftephanus, Not Ctefias,d^ Oneficritus, that I think all that Ctefas has wrote is fabulous ^ For tho' I cannot believe his Jpeakjng Pygmies, yet what he writes of the Bird he calls B/Tfa%^, that it would fpeak Greek, and the Indian Language, no doubt is very true 5 and as H. Stephens (d) obferves in his Apology for Ctejias, fuch a Relation would feem very furprifing to one, that had never feen nor
:

&

&

© &

heard of a Parrot.

^ut th\s Story o( Ctejias's Jpeakjng Pygmies, feems to be confirm'd by the Account that Nonnofus, the Emperour Jujiinian's Ambaflador into
/Ethiopia, gives
it

in Photius (e)
''Otj

of his Travels. I will , and 'tis as follows

tranfcribe the Paffage, as I find

X^
7"

"?

px^aztv Tikiovli tzS Nov-

>0(74),

'^^

i^ctrhuu

T^

vY[wx>v

f^^llwlyi'
)C)

Naviganti a Pharfa Noanofo, df ad extremam ufque infularum delato^
tale

ttoTi -zviov

Si 77 awoi^m,

^oZfAxt

ax5-

quia occurrit, vel

ipfo

audita ad-

aaj{. di'iTurji
cLv

yi^ ttoi fxo^:flw ixkvy^lSi' ^-^mv Iv^oodinvlw, 0^)^v1ix7vig Q to
-kj

.

fjJcyi^^,

iAAy\.a<n

t
3

')^^aLv.

\:fs^

3
;t,

mirandum. Incidit enim in quofdam forma qitidem d^figitra hnmana , fed brevijfimos, d^ cut em nigros, totum.que pilofos corpus.
tcquales

t^'^v
y^tacSnAi;

Si^aa'jy^Jvoig Sia vruvloi;
bi-TTDvh

tS
i-n

Sequebantur viros
d>" pueri

maiux,1(^.

Tvig
it)

cd^^ai

famina,

adhuc hre*
teBi,

Tm^Tihmtcti ^^.yvTiscty 7^^ vm^,
-^vyAo'i
•nvi

TmiSit^a.

viores.

Nudi omnes agunt,peUetanadultiores verenda
:

aZtm

dv^^Sv.

3 Wv ciTmvlii'

tum brevi
-oiri

yfktw Si^^^utli

pariter acf(emin£

agrefte nihil^

iJAzoM

T

aj^S,

nviojii^J.Xv^ov,

d

-jiPjk^iQrM-nc,
%'a.iKii.

6;tjw/a)?
?)

izv^^ig -A Kxt yj-

ay^iov

iSiv l-Tn^^KviuAo hS\

neque ejferum quid pne fe ferentes. ^tin vox illk hu'mana,fed omnihus, etiam accolk. prorfus ignota lin-

&

dimfXiP^v-

a'Mx

f(^i

pxvtw

il;)^ov

f/Av

g^a, multoque amplius Nonnoji fociis.

t£'f9gaiTO^x>,
(a) Lui'un
lib. 9.

^[vucgov

g

7mv1a,7ru(sir-

Vivunt marinis

oftreis,

&

pifcibus e

lib. I. vera

cap. 4.

Hijlor.^.w. ^7 ^. (b) Arifl.Hifl.Ammal.lih.S.cip.28. (c) A.Gellij No^esAttic. (d) ffenr. Stephmi de Ctefa kifiorko antiquijjimo difquifitio, ad jinem Herodoti, (e) Photi}

Mibliotkc. cod. 3. p.

m.

7.

SiaA€x7o»

TheTYG
haXixhvtoTt;rl
•OT379va TJ^iiOf roj"?

MIES of
ajntm,
f(^i

the Ancients.

ii
Aiidii-

Tn^oiitoit;

e

mart ad infiiUm ^rojeUk.

th^/

t

'iHowomv,

M-

ces

^a)v''^&>t Sfs.Xcu^i'jov o<^e^oev^}i^i-)(%vo6v,
T" %!Xi '^ BaXdasYic,

minimi funt, ut fiojirk conj^e&is hom'mihm^ quern ad'modtim nos vifa.
ingenti fera^

ug t vnmv

^OTppivr-

metu

^erculji fnerint.

*
' '

' ' '
' ' '

' ' '

from Pharfa, when he came to the farthermoil: very ftrange to be heard of, happened to him of the Iflands, a thing, for he lighted on fome (Animals) in (hape and appearance like Men^ but little of ftature, and of a black colour, and thick covered with hair all over their Bodies. The Women, who were of the fame fta-^ ture, followed the Men They were all naked,only the Elder of them,' both Men and Women, covered their Privy Parts with a fmall Skin. They feeraed not at all fierce or wild ; they had a Humane Voice, but their £)/^/e(!? was altogether unknown to every Body that lived about them 5 much more tothofe that were with Nonnofus. They liv'd upon Sea Oyfters, and FiQi that were caft out of the Sea, upon the Illand. They had no Courage 5 for feeing our Men, they were frighted, as we are at the fight of the greatefi: wild Beafl:.
*

That Nonnofi0

failing

5,

:

^xvlw
Speech
:

&i-)(Ov fjLiv

dvQpooTnvloj I

render here, they had a

Humane Voice not
^

had they fpoke any Language, tho' their D/aleSf might be fomewhat dift'erent, yet no doubt but fome of the Neighbourhood would have underftood fomething of it, and not have been fuch utter Strangers to it. Now 'twas obferved of the Orang-Oatang^ that it's Voice was like the Humane, and it would makeaNoifelikea Child, but never was obferved to fpeak, tho' it had the Organs of Speech exaftly formed as they are in Man ^ and no Account that ever has been given of this Animal do's pretend that ever it did. I fhould rather agree to what Vliny (f) mentions, ^iihttfdam pro Sermone nutr^ moUifque Membroriim eji ^ and that they had no more a Speech, than Ctejiashis Cynocephali which could only bark, as the fame VUny (g) rem.arks ^ where he faith, In midtk aittem Montibm Genus Hominum Captiihus Can'tnk , ferarum pellibus velari, pro voce latratnm edere, nngttibm armatum venatu Aucupio vefci^ hornm fiipm Centum But in Photi?0 I find that -viginti MiUiafniJJe prodente fe Ctejiasfcribit. Ctejias's Cynocephali did fpeak the Indian Language as well as the Pygmies. Thofe therefore in 'Nonnoftis fince they did not fpeak the Indian^ I doubt, fpoke no Language at all 5 or at leaft, no more than other Brutes do.
for

^

,

Ctefioi I find is

'twas' that the

Pygmies fpake

fort

of Tongue

the only Author that ever underftood what Language : For Herodotus (h) owns that they ufe a like to no other, but fcreech like Bats. He faith, Of Ta.-

f f ) Plinij

Nat.

H'lfl. lib. 6.

cap. 50. p.

m. 741,

(g) Ptmi] Nat. Hifl.

lib.

7. cap. 2, p.

m.

1 1.

(h) Herodot.

in

Mdpmem.

pag. 283.

C

Tfw=

12
T^ooyXo^taUj

A

Philological Effay concerning
TmvTav
dot,
'Pjjt^

ouSzOTTs; 'OT5bt?,7a;^i5'0( dv^^oiiTocv
1.i.1iov1om
'"^

fiju,&i<;

-ni^/t

Ao-

^8^ ^^^s^/W-eya? diu^ojMv.
TDicfJj'Tsi.r^^ 'E^TTilcev,

3

01

T^cc-j-Ao^ro!/
ce.?^J;i

opii;,

;t,

2c4^'^8?,

£,

to

nl^vyzai fc^Qd-m^

au

T^Sosav vvK^^hc,'

hi^fju^
e.

7nt^f.tjOilw vivo[ut(af,ai^

dT^a.

i.

Thcfe Garamantes htmt the

Troglodyte
;qs

Ethiopians

in Chariots with four Horfes.

The Troglodyte iEthiopi

m'e the fwjfteTi offoot of all

Men

Troglodytes eat Serpents and a Language like to no other Tongue,, but fcreech like Bats.

that ever he heard of by any Report. The Lizards, aftdfuch fort of Reptiles. Thejinfe

Now that the Rygmies are
from
Ariflotle (i),

Troglodytes, or

do

live in
$lov.

Caves

,

is

plain

who

faith, T^«}.Ao§^r<z/^<\'

&ioi -r

And

fo l^hilo-

And methinks Le Compte's flratm (4)? Tb^ q vru^/jLulnq oh&v /Mv \hniyi^'di. Relation concerning the wild orfavage Man in B(?r«e(?, agrees fo well with this, that I fhall tranfcribe it for he tells us , (/) That in Borneo this wild tfr favage Man is indued with extraordinary prength ; and notwithjlanding he walks hut upon two Legs, yet he is fo fwift of foot, that they have much ado to outrun him. People of ^tality courfe him , as we do Stags
:

Gaffendus in the Life of Peiresky, tells us they commonly hunt them too in Angola in Afiica, as I have already mentioned. So that very likely Herodotus' s Troglodyte JEthiopians may be no other than our Orang-Outang or wild Man. And the rather, becaufe I fancy their Language is much the fame; for an Ape will chatter, and make a noife like a Bat, as his Troglodytes did: And they undergo to this day the fame Fate of being hunted, as formerly the Troglodytes ufed to be by the Garathis fort
is

here :

and

of hunting

the

Kings

ufual divertifement.

And

mantes.

Whether

thofe dv^^i;

fjun^si;

fjml^m

i/\.dcsova? dv^^oev

which the Na-

famones met with (as Herodotus (ki) relates) in their Travels to difcover Libya, were the Pygmies 5 I will not determine : It feems the Nafatac nes neither underflood their Language, nor they that of the A'';f/rf»/(7«ej-. However, they were fo kind to the Nafamones as to be their Guides aJong the Lakes, and afterwards brought them to a City, dv r^ Tmvlcii 1^ ToTai dyaai 70 fjikyt^©^ fcra^, yeM/Mx, g (jJcXaxoLC,, i.e. in which aUwere of the fame flature with the Guides, and black,' Now fince they were all little blacky' Men, and their Language could not be underftood, I do fufpedi they may be a Colony of the Pygmies : And that they were no farther Guides to the Nafamones, than that being frighted at the fight of them, they ran home, and the Nafamones followed them.
I

do not

find therefore

Ctefias as fuch,

that the Pygmies ever ufed a

any good Authority, unlefs you will reckon Language or Speech, any

(i ) Anft. H'lfl. Animal, lib. 8. cap. 15. p. m. 913. (k) Philojlrat, in vita ApoUon. Tyitnti, lib. $. cap. i4.p."m. 152. (m) He(/) Lewiile Compte Memoirs and Obfervations on Cbina, p. m. 510. rodotui in Euterpe fcii lib. 2. p. m. 102.

more

TheTYG MlESofthe

Jncients7~

T^

more than other Bmtes of the fame Species do among themfelves, and what we know nothing of , whatever Democritm and MeUm^odes Fliny («),or ApoUonius Tyan£m in Porphyry (o) might formerly have done. Had the Pygmies ever {poke any Language intelligible by Mankind, this might have fnrniftied our Hifiorims with notable Subjeds for their Novels and no doubt but we Ihould have had plenty of them.
-^

m

But Albertus Magnus^ who was fo lucky as to guefs that the Tygmjes were a fort of Apes 5 that he Giould afterwards make thefe Apes to j^eak, , was very unfortunate, and fpoiled all ; and he do's it, methinks, fo very awkardly, that it is as difficult almoft to underftand his Language as his Apes ; if the Reader has a mind to attempt it, he will find it in the Margin (p).

Had Albertm only afferted, that the Pygmies were a fort of Apes , his Opinion poffibly might have obtained with lefs difficulty ,unlefs he could liave produced fomeBody that had heard them talk. But Ulyjfes Aldro•vandm (jf) is fo far from believing his Ape Pygmies ever fpoke, that he utterly denys, that there were ever any fuch Creatures in being, as the
Cum itaque Pygor that they ever fought the Cranes. he) dart negemtfs^ Grues etiam cum its Bellum gerere , ut fabulanUir^ negahimm^ tarn pertinaciter id negabimus , at ne JHrantibm credemus.
Pygmies^ at
all ;

nioios (faith

^

.

I find a great

many very Learned Men
;
i.

are

of

this

Opinion

:

And

in

the

firfl:

place, Strabo (r) is very pofitive
e.

""Eag^c^Me?

/^V

^

«^&i$ c^«5/^T<2y

j^ 'Tngixi; a|iW av^^oev' And upon all occafions

No Man

worthy of belief did ever fee them.

he declares the fame.

So

Julit^ Ccefar Scaliger

(j-)

makes them to be only a Fiftion of the Ancients, At ha^c

he ) Antiquorum figmenta mem Nug£^ ji exjiarent^ reperirentur. At cum univerfus Orbit nunc nobis cognitm jit^ nuUibi hac Naturae Excrementa.
reperiri certijjimum eB.
:

&

omnia (

faith

And

Ifaac Cafaubon (t) ridicules fuch as pre-

tend to juftifie them Sic noftra (State (faith he) noji defunt^ qui eand.em de Pygm<£is lepidam fabeUam renovent 5 ut qui etiam e Sacris Literk, fi Deo placet J fidem illis conentiir a^ruere. Legi etiam Bergei cujufdam Galli Scripta^ quife vidiffe diceret. At non ego credulm iUi^ illi inquam Omnium Bipedum mendacijfimo. I Ihall add one Authority more, and that is of
(o) Porpbjrm de Abjl'menfia, lib. j.pag. m. 103. (n) Plni] Nat. Hid, lib. lo. cap. 49, (p) S'l qui Homines futit Silveftres, ficut Pygmem, mn [ecundum umm rationem mblfcum diUi [unt Humines, fed aliqmd babent Homhis in quadam deliberatione (ly Loquela, S^c. A little after adds, Voces qv^dam Cfc.Animaliajformantaddiverfos conceptm quos habent, ficut Homo fy Pygmxm ; fy quAdmtnon fadunt Adhuc autem eorum qua ex ratione coghativa formani hoc, ficut midtitudo fere tota aliorum Ammdium. voces, qutidian fimt [uccumbentia, quedatrt autem mn fiiccumbeiitia. Dico autem hccumbentlt , a comeptu Anim£ cadentia fy mata ad Nature Infiinlium,ficv.t Pygmem, qui mn, fequitur rationem Loquela fed NatM-£ InjHnilum ; Homo autem mn fuccumbit fed fequitur rationem. AIbert.Magn.de Animal.Iib.i.cap.;, p.m.g. Aldrovandi Ornithokg. lib. 20. p. m. 544. \^t ) Strabo Geograph. lib. 1 7. p. m. 5155, ( q ) Vlyf. (s) Jul. c/f. Scaliger. Comment. in Arifi. HiS. Animal.iih.S. §. 126. p.m. $14. ( t) Ifaac Caufahm

Mt*

lis'

Qaftigat.

iii

lib.

i.

Strabom Geoff aph,

p.

m.

3 8.

C

2

i^
Adrian
Spigelius,

A Thilologkal

Effaji concerning

who produces a Witnefs that had examined the very Pygmies were faid to be ; yet upon a diligent enquiry, place, where the Spigeliuf (ti) he could neither find them, nor hear any tidings of them. therefore tells us. Hoc loco de Pygmsis dicendum erat , qui vnta^ -Twyov©^ Verum ego PGetartifft fabulas ejfe diSfi a jiatura^ qatz ulnam nan cxcsdunt. rainimi haheri vult^fid veram ejjh crediderim, pro qiiibus tamen Ariftoteles Ego quo minus hoc jlatuam^ Hiftoriam. 8. Hift. Animal. 12. ajfeverat. Anthoritate primum Do5iijJimi Strabonis i. Geograph, coaBm fitm^ turn turn potijjiffium nunc moveor^ quod no^ro tempore^ quo tmlla. Mundi pars efi, quam Nautamm Jndtijiria nan perlitjirarit , nihil tamen unquam Jimile aut Accedit quod Francifcus Alvarez httfitanm^ qui vifum ei?, aut auditum.
ea ipfa laca peragravit, circa

qu£ Ariftoteles Pygmaos ejje fcribit^ nallibi tamen tarn parvam Gentem afe conj^eSiam tradidit^ fed Populum ejfe Medio^thiopes tradit. crkjiatur£^

&

think my felf therefore here obliged to make out, that there were fuch Creatures as Pygmies, before I determine v/hat they were, fince the very being of them is called in queftion, and utterly denied by fo great in the doMen, and by others too that might be here produced. ing this, ^r//?(?f/e's Aflertion of them isfo very pofitive, that I think there needs not a greater or better Proof ^ and it is fo remarkable a one, that 5 find the very Enemies to this Opinion at a lofs, how to (hift it off. To lelTen it's Authority they have interpolated the Text, by foifting into the Tranjldiion what is not in the Original ; or by not tranllating at all the moft material paflage, that makes again ft them 5 or by miferably gloffing it, to make him fpeak what he never intended: Such unfair dealings
I

Now

plainly argue, that at any rate they are willing to get rid of a Proof, that otherwLfe they can neither deny, or anfwer,.

which I fhall give with Theodorus Gaza's Tranflation for difcourfing of the Migration of Birds, according to the Seafon of the Year, from one Country to another, he faith (vp)
Arijiotle's
:

Text

is this,

:

Mila. fMvtlw (p^ivoTTM^vlou'lmiiMpJ.au^dx.
•7X)v

Jam

ab Aufttmnali JEquino&io

tS

TIovIh K;

t^

4tJ)(^P'^y 'P^y°'''l<=^

Ponto, Locijqne fiigidk

ex fnghmtHye-

'^"^ovla. •^(^iJuccva: /xild

^ r!w sag/-

mem

fnturam.

A

Verno autem ex
:

!4?ta,

cACT^ ^^VMV, e^i nig irnmi; ra? \u-)^^H<;^<^'&Hii.'ixcL TO KctiJi^Axxflci.' TO. fjiAv,
QT/t.

tepida Regione ad f:igidam fefe con-

ferunt, <eftus metu futuri

& alia de

7y

T^
01^

iJ^tJi

TDTTODv wTtuHfjuevx

TO^

jJuda'^oXctgy Tiz '^iK^dicrr'lif i^a.Tav,M<;
e-iTT&if,

lock vicink difcedunt , alia de idtimk , prope dixerim, ut Grues faci'

a?

yiogivtii "TmScrt.

Milct-

/SaMjscji -j^

w.

T^

"S.haj^kS.v

dg to IAm
p&i;.

TO

a.vco

"ng Aiyjwfa^o^v

N&iA©u

Eri
(\x)

3

TD7r©o 'ir!^^ TTEgi ov

di 'TTu^'iuutT-

qu£ ex Scythick Campk ad Paludes JEgypto fuperiores, unde Nilm profluit^ veniunt, quoin loco pugnare cum Pygmak dicuntur. Non enim id
unt,
lib. i.

Adrian. Spgell] de Corporis
cap. 12..

Numani fabrica,

cap. 7. p. in. 15.

(w) AriftotehHiJl.Amntal'
Ct

lib. 8.

TheTYG
oj

MIES of
tSto

the Ancients.

1

fc^htJcScTiv'

8 yz^

'<Qi

^^i^-,
et

fabtda
(^nt
»;y',

a/9i' £?(

^7a r^
ooaxn^

dA^GsKxr. Tiv@yj^fMitj

eB , yeti? cer/^ , genm turn hontinuni^ turn etiam Eqitorttm priji/lum
dicHiir)
w-^/is^e

xpjv

f/^v,

Ae;j/47(X/,

ccutoi iy

ef?,

"I'STTiOf

T^ocyM ^utouj

^
:

^<jl TDv /S/oy.

Nomen

deguntque in CaverTroglodyte a fnb-

eundk Cavernk
In EngliOi
'tis

acccpere.

At the Autumnal JEquinox they go out of Pontui and the cold Countreys to avoid the Winter that is coming on. At the * Vernal Mqmnox they pafs from hot Countreys into cold ones/or fear of " the enfuing Heat \ fome making their Migrations from nearer places 5 ' others from the moft remote (as I'may fay) as the Cranes do : for they ' come out oiScythia to the Lakes above7Eg/p^,whence the Ni/e do's- flow. ' This is the place, v/hereabout the pygmies dwell For this is no Fahle^ 'butaTn^f^. Both they and the Horfes, as 'tis faid, are^a Xmall kind.
thus
'

'

:

'

They a«

Troglodytes^ or live in Caves.

'

We may here

obferve hovir pofitive th^.PMofopkr\Sy that there are

Pygmies ; he tells us where they- dwell,and that 'tis no Fable,buta Truth. But Theodorus Gaza has been unjufl: in tranflating him, by folding in,^w in loco pHgnare cum Pygmceis dicuntur ^whsK^is there is nothing in the Text that warrants it As likewife, where he exprefies the little Stature of the Pygmies and the Horfes, there Gaza has rendered it, Sed certe Genus turn Hominufn^ turn etiam EquorumptifHum. ^r//?(?//e only faith, Tiv@^ fJM^v He neither makes his Pygmies Men^ f/Av, wamo ^.lji1cif,.}t). OLiTxil, 39 01 "zffiroi. nor faith any thing of their fighting the Cranes ; tho' here he had a fair occafion, difcourfing of the Migration of the Cr^«w out of Scythia to th,e Lakes above ^^^p^,where he tells us the Pygmies are. Cardan (x) therefore muft certainly be out in his guefs, that Ariftotle only afferted the Pygmies out of Complement to his Friend Homer 5 for furely then he would not have forgot their fight with the Cranes , upon which occafion only Homer mentions them (*). I (hould rather think that Ariflotk^ being fenfible of the many Fables that had been raifed on this occafion, ftudioufly avoided the mentioning this fight, that he might not give countenance to the Extravagant Relations that had been made of it
:

Arijiotles

wonder that neither Cafatthon nor Duvall in their Editions oF Works, (hould have taken notice of thefe Miftakes of Gaza, and correfted them. And Gefner^ and Aldrovandus, and feveral other Learned Men, in quoting this place of Ariftotle , do make ufe of this faulty Tranflation, which muft neceHarily lead them into Miftakes, Sam. Bocharttfs (y) tho' he gives Ariftotle's Text in Greek, and adds a new
But
I
y£Ap-paret ergo ( faith Cardan ) P:_ cum omnia mmcferme orbii niiyabilia Sed quod tantitm Fbilofophum decepit, fuit Homeri Aulhrltm non apud ilfum kv'yi, innotuermt , declarat. cap. u. p.m. j6, (y) Bocbarti Hierozpk. S, de Ammalib. S. Script, part. Fofterior. lib. i.

(x) Cardan de Rerum varktate,
Hiftorlatn ejfe fabulofani,

lib. 8.

cap. 40. p.

m. 153.

C*-)

Wdorum

qmdfy

Strabo/enhV,

f(y noftr dated,

Tranflatioii

1
Tranllation of
it,

A

Thilologkal EJJay concerning

he leaves out indeed the Cranes fighting with the 'PygArjftoile do's not ; and by anti-placing, nt amnt^ he renders Arijiotles Aflertion more dubious ^ Neqm mint (faith he in the TranOation) id eB fahula^ 'fed revera, nt amnt. Genus ibi parvimi eli tarn Homimim qmm ^quorum. Jidim defar Scaliger in tranflating this Text of Arfjiotle, omits both thefe Interpretations o^Gaza but on the other hand, is no lefs to be blamed in not tranflating at all the moft remarkable paflage, and where the Ph/lofopher feems to be fo much tStd fjuuQ©^-, a?A' in earneft ; as, a 5S K^la, tlw aAwBeJaf, this he leaves wholly out, without giving us his reafon for it, if he had any : And Scaliger s (%) infinuation in his Comment , viz. Negat ejfe fabulant prude hk (7c. Pygmeis) Herodotus, at Philofophusfemper moderate dens etiam addidit^ ccesn^ hiytlojj, is not to be allowed. Nor can I affent to Sir Thomas Brown's (a) remark upon this place j Where indeed ( faith he ) Ariftotle plays the Ariftotle ; that ^, thevparyand evading Jffertor 5 for tho -with non eft fabula he feems atfirfl to confirm it, yet at lajl
mks^ytt makes them Me»,which
i,

i'^-t

i'g'i

&

And he claps in, ficut aiunt, andflmkes the belief he placed before upon it. therefore Scaliger (faith he) hath not tranjlated the firfi^ perhaps ftppofing
it

But had Scaliger known have remarked it; and But 'tis unworthy to then there had been fome Colour for the Glofs. be believed of Ariftotle^ who was fo wary and cautious, that he fhouldin fo (hort a paflage, contradift himfelf 5 and after he had fo pofitively affirmed the Truth of it, prefently doubt it. His wots^ ?\.iyJajj therefore muft have a Reference to what follows, Fufillum genus ^ut aiunt, ipfiatque
furreptjtiom, or unworthy fo great an Afiertor. it to be furreptitious, no doubt but he would

etiam Equi, as Scaliger himfelf tranflates

it.

I do not here find Ariftotle aflerting or confirming any thing of the fabulous Narrations that had been made about the P^^/Af/ex. He does not fay that they were a^^ps?, or avSr^oo'Tm /mx^i, or /AsAai/s? ; he only calls them 'TTuyf^uiToi. And difcourfing-of the Pygmies in a place, where he is only treating about Brutes, 'tis reafonable to think, that he looked upon them only as fuch. This is the place where the Pygmies are-^ this is no fible^ faith Ariftotle, as 'tis that they are a Dwarfifh Race of Men, that they fpeak the Indian Language 5 that they are excellent Archers , that they are' very Juft ; and abundance of other Things that are fabuloufly reported of them ; and becaufe he thought them Fables, he does not take the lea ft notice of them , but only faith,T/j/5- is no Fable,but a Truth that about the Lah§s <7/Ni]e fuch Anin/als, as are called Pygmies, do live. And, as if he had forefeen , that the abundance of Fables that Ctefas (whom he faith is not to be believed) and the T?tdian Hiftorians had invented about thera, would make the whole Story to appear as a Figment, and render it doubtful, whether there were ever fuch Creatures as Pyg(z) Scaliger. Comment, in Arift. Mjl. Animal, lib.S.p. lib. 4. cap. 11.

m .914.

(b) Sir

Thomas

Broxpii's

Pfeudodoxia
'

or, En^Hiries into Vulgar Errors,

mies

The
ff!ics

TY6MIES of the Jnciems.
5

1

in Nature
is

us,

That thk

he more zealouily afferts the no Fable, but a Truth,

Bemg of

them, and alTares

enquire what fort of Creatures thefe Pygmies were 5 and hope, fo to manage the Matter, as in a great meafure, to abate the Paffion thefe Great Men have had againft them : for, no doubt, what has incenfed them the moft, was, the fabulous Hifiorims making and then inventing a hundred ridiculous Stothem a part of M<?»;^ ries about them , which they would impofe upon the World as real Truths. If therefore they have Satisfadion given them in thefe two I do not fee, but that the Bufinefs may be accommodated very Points, fairly ; and that they may be allowed to be Pjgmks^ tho' we do not
I (hall therefore

now

W,

make them Men.
For I am not of Gefners mind, Sed vetenim nuUm (faith he f^J) altUr de Pygm£kfcr2pfit, qnam Homundones ejje. Had they been a Race of Men, no doubt but Arifiotle would have informed himfelf farther about them. Such a Curiofity could not but have excited his Inquifitive Ge~ mm, to a ftrifter Enquiry and Examination 5 and we might eafily have expefted from him a larger Account of them. But finding them, it may
be, a fortofu4pe/, he only
live.
tells us,

that in fuch a place thefe Pygmies
'
,

Herodotus (/) plainly makes them Brutes : For reckoning up the Jnimats of Libya, he tells us, Ka/ ol o(pl^i ol'^i^/AAyi^iq., iy of Movla; y^^la. r^THi; daifii) oj i^itpctvAi n }^ a,^>t1oi^ii, a.cimS)ii -n jlj woiot ta Kk^nz r^oi/Ti?* itj ol }wvoKA(^ct\Qi (in theMargin 'tisd^ipaAoi) 01 <lv -nTai g^^Svcrt ra? 0(p9aA/A«$ i^ovlig Qei (^ ?\.iyi.1cq "^ \^o AiSuctJv} iy aX^oi ^v^pig,}t) yiwctiHAi dy^otj .k^ a?^ct, 7^^691

^

'zrsT^a,

^^xd.)(^1a.-^dj?'ce,'\.e,That there are here prodigious large Serpents,and

Lions,and Elephants,and Bears,and Ajps,and Ajjes that have horns,and Cynocephali, (in the Margin 'tis Acephalfj that have Eyes in their Breaji , (as is reported by the Libyans) and wild Men, and wild Women, and a great ma^ 'Tis evident therefore that Heny other wild Beajis that are notfahdom. rodotus his ay^oi av^pi/;, iij yjvaiiac, ciypj.<tii are only r^Dg/a or wild BeafVs % and tho' they are cali'd av^pn;, they are no more Men than our Orangwhich has e'xadly the fame Outang, or Homo Sylvefiris, or vpild Man Name, and I muft confefs I can't but think is the fame Animal : and that the fame Name has b^en continued down to us, from his Time, and it may be from Homers.
..,

'So Philoftratm fpeakingof JEthiopia and Mgypt, tells us (d), Bocmsexi 3 K, ,3i?fja oTct b;^ iTipoe^i' st, dvQp-Ji'iTfiq fjilActvag, 6 fm aT^oLj mttsi^j, UvifAxtlojj'

7s G^ oLtoac, e^rn, ';^ uXcvtlivTUv
5

a/^o
blacky
(c)

a>A>j'

i.

e.

Here are bred wild Beafts
Country affords
:
(/) Phi-

that are not /« other places

and

Men, which no other

lojlralHis in

(b) Oefner. Bftor. HuacCniped. p. ni.835, vita ApoUon, T^anai, lib. 6. cap.

Hendot. Melpomene fen

lib.4. p. ni.285.

i. p.

m. 258.

afid

1
atid amofigfl

A Thiiologkal Effay
them
is the

concerning

Nation of the Vygmks^ and the

BARKERS,

that

is,

the Cynocephali. For tho' Philoftratm is pleafed here only to call them Barkers^ and to reckon them, as he does the Black^Men and the Pygmes

amongftthe
lojir at 10

2yi/^5e^_/?j of thofeCountreys ^t\:CteJias, from whom Phihzs borrowed a great deal of his Natural Hiflory^ (tiles them Me«, and makes them fpeak, and to perform moft notable Feats in Merchandifing. But not being in a merry Humour it may be now, before he was aware, he fpeaks Truth : Yor Cdim Rhodiginus's (e) Charadter
:,

of him

is,

Philojiratu-s

omnium qmtmqitam Hijioriam

confcripfcrunt^

men-

dac7Jjimt0.

Since the Vygmks therefore are fome of the Brute Beajls that naturally breed in thefe Countries, and they are pleafed to let us-know as much, I can eafily excufe them a Name. "Av^pa a^g/oi , or Orang-Outang^ is

me ^ and I am better pleafed with Homers av^^ig mjyjuuToi, than he had called -Tn^^^f. Had this been the only Inftance where they had mifapplied the Name of Man, methinks I could be fo good natur'd, as in fome meafure to make an Apology for them. But finding them fo extravagantly loofe, fo wretchedly whimfical, in abufing the Dignity of Mankind, by giving the Name of Man to fuch monflroils ProduQiions of their idle Imaginations, as the Indian Hiftorians have done , I do not wonder that wife Men have fufpefted all that comes out of their Mint, to
alike to
if
,

be

falfe

and

counterfeit.

Such are

their ^ KfjuuKn^n;

or^Appe?

,

that

want Nofes, and have only

all things, but they muft be 5 they are (hort lived ; the upper part of their Mouths is very pro5 minent. The 'Ei/o7B;d&tr<z^, whofe Ears reach down to their Heels, on which they lye and fleep. 1\\q' KgofiJuoi, that have no Mouths, a civil fort of People, that dwell about the Head of the Ganges 5 and live upon fmelling to boil'd Meats and the Odours of Fruits and Flowers ^ they can bear no ill fcent, and therefore can't live' in a Camp. The Mo^ow,-

two
raw

holes above their

Mouth

they eat

or MocopSaA^wxjthat have but one Eye, and that in the middle of ; they have Dogs Ears^ their Hair ftands an end , but fmooth on the Breads. The 27^poy9aAyu» , that have Eyes in their
A£.3i7oj

rheir Foreheads

Breafts.

The
,

UdvoLj afwoxA^xXoi

with Heads like Wedges.
'^'^opioi,

The Majepoyears.
o-mS^'Biiz-

;w?aAo»,^

with great Heads.
fo fwift,

The

who

live a

Thoufand

The

awTTzi!^?

that they will out-run a Horfe.

The

go with their Heels forward, and their Toes backwards. The Ma^^cxjA^?, The ^-nyx-voTrv^g, The MowtosA&T^, who have one Leg , but Will jump a great way , and are call'd Sciapodes, becaufe when they lye on their Backs , with this Leg they can keep off the Sun from their
luMi, that
Bodies.

(e)

Ctelij

BJiocCigim LeSion. Atit'q. lib. 1 7. cap. 13.

-Now

TheTYG
Soliffus,

MIES of
,

the Ancients,
collected
are

j

9

NowStrabo (f), from whom I have and they thefe Monftrous forts of Men

the Defcri prion of

mentioned too by Plinj^
,

Mela, 'Philofiratus, and others 5 and MunHer in his Cofmografhy has given aj%«re of fomeof them^ Straho^ I fay who v^as an Ene(g) my to all fuch fabulous Relations, no doubt was prejudiced likewife againft the Pygmies, becaufe thefe Hifiorims had made them a Puny Race of Men , and invented fo many Romances about them. I can no ways therefore blame him for denying, that there were ever any fach Men Pygmies 5 and do readily agree with him, that no Man ever faw them and am fo far from diflenting from thofe Great Men, who have denied them on this account, that I think they have all the reafon in the World on their fide. And to (hew how ready I am to clofe with them
:

in this Point, I will here examine the contrary Opinion, and what Pveafons they give for the fupporting it For there have been fome Moderns,
:

as well as the Ancients, that have maintained that thefe Pygmies were And this they pretend to prove, both from Humane Authorireal Men. ty znd Divine.

'

In by Men Pygmies we are by no means to underfVand Dwarfs. all Countries, and in all Ages, there has been now and then obferved fuch Miniture of Mankind, or under-fized Men. Cardan (Ji) tells us he faw one carried about in a Parrot's Cage , that was but a Cubit high. Nicephorus ( / ) tells US, that in Theodopus the Emperour's time, there was one in Rgyp that was no bigger than a Partridge 5 yet what was to be admired, he was very Prudent, had a fweet clear Voice , and a generous Mind 5 and lived Twenty Years. So likewife a Ring of Portugal itnt to a Duke of Savoy, \Nh.^x\ he married his Daughter to him,an MAnd Thevenot ( /) tells us thiopian Divarf but three Palms high ( 4)of the Prefent made by the King of the Abyjjins, to the Grand Seignior^ of feveral little black. Slaves out of Nnbia, and the Countries near lEthiopia, which being made Eunuchs, were to guard the Ladies of the Seraglio. And a great many fuch like Relations there are. But thefe being only Dwarfs, they muft not be efteemed the Pygmies we are enquiring about, which are reprefented as a Nation, and the whole Race of them to be of the like ftature. Dari tamen integras Pumilionnm Gentes, tarn falfum ef/, cju^m quod falfjfimum, faith Harduin (»i).
Neither likewife muft it be granted, that tho' in fome Climates there might be Men generally of lefs ftature, than what are to be met with in
other Countries, that they are prefently Pygmies. Natttre has not fixed the fame ftandard to the growth o^ Mankind in all Places alike, no mo re

Now

( f ) Strabo G eograih. Wh.i 5.p.m.489. (h) Cardan de fiMlitate,]ih. 11. p.458.

& lib.2.p.48.(&'
(
i

)

peimJnRelat.curiofts,N°.S$.ip.6-jj.

(I)

alibi (g) Munjler Cofmografb.\\h.6.^.i i 5 r. Nkephor. Hiftor, Ecclefiajh lib.12. cap. 37. (X)HapThevenot. Voyage de Levant. lih.2,c.62. Jo.

{m)

Hardmi

Kotx. in Plinij Nat. Hiti.

lib,

6. cap. 22. p.

688.

-

D

than

20
Climate^

A
may
differ.

Philological Ejjay concerning

than to Brutes or Plants.
If

The Dinienfions of them all according to the we confult the Original viz. Homer that firft
, ,

mentioned the Pygmies^ there are only thefe two Chara^erijiics he gives of them. That they are UvyfAMTbifett CubHales ^ and that the Cranes did ufe to fight them. Tis true, as a Poet^ he calls them a^'^p^?, which I have accounted for before. Now if there cannot be found fuch Men as are CubHales, that the Cranes might probably fight with, notwithftanding all the Romances of the Indian Hiflorians, I cannot think thefe Pygmies to be Me^,but they muft be fome other Animals, or the whole muft be a
Fiftion.

Having premifed this, we will now enquire into their Aflertion that maintain the Pygmies to be a Race of Me». Now becaufe there have been Giants formerly, that have fo much exceeded the ufual Stature of Man, that there muft be likewife Pygmies as defective in the other extream from this Standard, I think is no conclufive Argument, tho' made ufe of by fome. Old Cajpar Bartholine (ti) tells us, that becaufe J. Cajfanim and others had wrote de Gygantibus , fince no Body elfe had undertaken it, he would give us a Book de Pygmak 5 and fince he makes it his defign to prove the Exiftence of Pygmies, and that the Pygmies were Men, I muft confefs I expedted great Matters from him.
But I do not find he has informed us of any thing more of them , than what Jo. Talentonius, a Profcffor formerly at Parma, had told us before in his Variarnm d" Reconditarum Rerum Thefaurus ( <?) , from whom he has borrowed moft of this Tra^. He has made it a little more formal indeed, by dividing it into Chapters-^ of which I will give you the Titles 5 and as I fee occafion , fome Remarks thereon They will not be many, becaufe I have prevented my felf already. The/ri? Chapter is,
:

De

Homiincionibus

& Pnmilionibus

feit

Nank

a Pygm£is dijiiniik.

The

fecond Chapter, De Pygw£i nominibus Etymologia. The third Chapter, Duplex ejje Pygm£oriim Genus 5 €^ primum Genus aliquando dari. He means Droarfs, that are no Pygmies at all. The fourth Chapter is , Alterum Genus, nempe Gentem Pygmsorum eJJe, autfaltem aliquando fuijfe Autoritatibus Htimank, fide tamen dignorum ajjeritur. 'Tis as I find it printed j and no doubt an Error in the printing. The Authorities he gives,

&

Homer, Ctefias, Arifiotle, Philofiratus, Pliny, Juvenal, Oppian, Baptifta Mantuan, St.AuJiin and his Scholiajl. Lndovic. Fives, Jo. Laurentius Anania, Joh. Cajfanius, Job. Talentonius, GeUius, Pomp. Mela, and Olam Magnus. I have taken notice of moft of them already, as I fliall of St. Atijlin and Ludovicus Fives by and by. Jo.JLaurentius Anania (p) ex Mercatorum relatione tradit ({3.1th Bartholine") eos (Jf. Pygm£os) in Sep'
are.
tentrionali Thracis Parte reperiri, (^qu£ Scythia esi

Gruibus pugnare.

And

Joh. Cajjanius (q)

( as

proximo) atque ihi aim he is here quoted ) faith,

(n) Cafpar. Bartholin, OpHfcuhmde Pygm&k. (o) Jo.Talentoni] Variar.fy recondit.Rerum Thefauruf. cap. 2 r. (p) jfoh. Laurent. Anania frope finem traltatm pimi fua Geograph, (q) Joh. CaffaniHS libetlo tie Gygantibm, p. 73.
lib. 3.

De

The'PrG MlESofthe
De

Ancient

s7~~

21

Fygm£Js fubulofa qnidem ejfe omnia^ qtt£ de ik narrdri fohnt , aUquando exijiimavi. Verur/i cum vrdeam non umtm vel alterum^ fed complnres probatos Autores de his Homimcnlis mult a in eandemfere SentenClajjicos tiam tradidijje 5 el adducor nt Fygniaos fnijje infidari non mifim. He next brings in Jo. TaUntomm^ to whom he is fomuch beholden, and quotes his Opinion, which is fall and home, Conflare arbitror (faith Talmtomus) (r) debere concedi, Pj/gm<eos non folitm oUmfmJJe^ fed nunc etiam ejfe^ homines effe, nee parvitatem ilik impedimento ejfe qtto minns jint (^ ho^ifines But were there fuch Men Pygmies now in being, no doubt h\i\ we fint. mufl: have heard of them , fome or other of our Saylors, in their Voyages, would have lighted on them. Tho' Arifcotle is here quoted , yet he does not make them Men ; So neither docs Anania : And I mufl: own, tho' Takntomm be of this Opinion , yet he takes notice of ihe

&

©

of this Text of J?7i?(7?/e by G^z,^ and tho* the parno Impediment , becaufe we have frequently feen fu(!h Dwarf-Men, yet we did never fee a Nation of them : For then there would be no need of that Talmndical Precept which Job. Ludolphus (j) mentions. Nanus ne ducat Nanam , ne forte oriatur ex iis
faulty Tranflation
.-

vity or lownefs of Stature, be

Digitalis (in Bechor.fol.^^. )

»

I had almoft forgotten 0/aus Magnus, whom Bartholine mentions in the clofe of this Chapter, but lays no great fl:refs upon his Authority, becaufe he tells us, he is fabulous in a great many other Relations, and he writes but by hear-fay, that the Greenlanders fight the Cranes ; Tandem

(faith Bartholine') 7teque idea PjigmiCifint, JifortS fagittis
ali'j

homines^ Grues conficiunt
:

& occidunt.

d^
is

haflis, jicnt

This

I

think

great Partia-

For Ctejias, an Author whom upon all turns Bartholine makes ufe of as an Evidence, is very pofitive, that the Pygmies were excellent Archers : fo that he himfelf owns, that their being fuch, illufl:rates very much that Text in Ezekiel , on which he fpends good part of the next Chapter, whofe Title is, Pygmaorum Gens ex Ezel^iele , atque rationibuf probabilibus adflruitur ; which we will confider by and by. And tho* Olaus Magnus may write fome things by hear-fay, yet he cannot be fo fabulous as Cteffos, who (as Lucian tells us ) writes what he neither faw himfelf, or heard from any Body elfe. Not that I think Olaus Magnus his Greenlanders were real Pygmies, no more than Ctejias his Pygmies were real Men ; tho' he vouches very notably for them. And if ail that have Fable from Ctejim, mufl: be look'd upon as the fame Evidence copied this with himfelf 5 the number of the Tejiimonies produced need not much concern us, fince they mufl: all ftand or fall withhim.
lity

The probable
:

Reafons that Bartholine gives in the fifth Chapter, are taken

from other Animals, as Sheep, Oxen, Horfes, Dogs, the Indian FormiFor obferving in the fame Species fome exceffive large, ca, and Plants
(r) Jo.Talenton'm P'ariar. <^ recondit.
phi comment, in

Hijlorim ^hiofic,

p.

Rerum Thefaurm, m. 71.

lib 3. cap.

2i.p.m.5i5.

(s)

Job iMdol-

Da

md.

22
getabilihuf fiaftt
i)

A Philological Effay
little,

concerning
Animalihus

and others extreamly

he

infers,

^<e certe cum in
fit

& Vs"

probabik^ baud video: imprimis cum detur magnitudinis excejjus Gigant<eus ; cur non etiam dabitur Pygmtei. conDefe^us ? Huia ergo dantur Gigantes, dabuntur fequetttiam ut firmam^ admittit CardaniK^ (t) licet de Pygm<eis hoc tantitm
cur in

Humana j^ecie non

&

^am

How Cardan , tho' he allows Confequence, yet in the fame place he gives feveral Reafons why the Pygmies could not be Men, and looks upon the whole Story as fabuTJlterihs ut Probabilitatem Bartholine concludes this Chapter thus lous. fulciamus^ addendum Sceleton Pygm£i, quod Drefdse vidimus inter alia pinrima, fervatum in Arce ferenijf. "EXtOioXxsSzxoVLix^ altitudine infiaCubitum^ Ofjzum foliditate, proportioneque turn Capitis, turn aliorum 5 ut Embrionem, Addita infuper eU aut Artificiale quid Nemo rerum peritus Juj^icari pojjit. I hereupon looked into Dr. Brorvns Travels inInfcriptio Veri Pygmsei. to thofe Parts, who has given us a large Catalogue of the Curiofities, the Ele&or of Saxony had at Drefden, but did not find amongft them this Sceleton 5 which, by the largenefs of the Head, I fufpedt to be the SceBut had he given us either leton of an Orang-Outang, or our wild Man. a Figure of it, or a more particular Defcription, it had been a far greater
concedat^ qui pro miraculo^ nonpro Gente,
this
:

Satisfadtion.

The
riis

Title

o£ Bartholine's Jix:th~€hapter
,

\s,

Pygmaos

ejffe

auffuijfe

ex va'

eorum adjunUis, accidentibm
firft,

8cc.

ab Authoribus defcriptis ojienditur.

As

Magnitude : which he mentions from Ctejlas, Pliny, Gellias and Juvenal ; and tho' they do not all agree exaftly, 'tis nothing. Autorum hie dijjenfus nuUus elf (faith Bartholine) etenimficut in nofiris hominibus, it a indubie in Pygm£is non omnes ejufdem magnitudinis. 2. The Place and Country : As Cte//as (he faith) places them in the middle of /«dia-j Arijiotle and Pliny at the Lakes above JEgypt^ Homer's Scholiafi in the middle of JEgypt 5 Pliny at another time faith they are at the Head of the G(i«^ej-, and fometimes at Ger^WiZ, wh\chis\n Thracia, which beMela places ing near Scythia , confirms (he faith) Anania's Relation. them at the Arabian Gulf^ and Paulus Jovius docet Pygmaos ultra Japonem. efje \ and adds, has Autorum dijfenjiones facile fuer it coneiliare % nee mirum diverfas relationes a Plinio aiiditas. For ( faith he ) as the Tartars often change their Seats, fince they do not live in Houfes, but in Tents, fo 'tis no wonder that the Pygmies often change theirs , fince inflead of Houfes they live in Caves or Huts, built of Mud, Feathers, and Eggihels. And this mutation of their Habitations he thinks is very plain from Pliny, where fpeaking ofGerania, he faith, Pygmaorum Gens fuiffe Cnon jam ejje) proditur, creduntque a Gruibus fugatos. Which palTage (faith Bartholine) had Adrian Spigeli us cor\£\dexed, he would notfofoon have left Arijiotle s Opinion, becaufe Franc. Alvares the Portuguefe did not find them in the place where Ari^otle left them; for the Cranes, it
their
(
t )

Cardan, de Rerum vmetate,

lib. 8.

cap. 40^

may

rheTYG
may
be
,

MIES of

the Ancients.

23

had driven them thence.

which Jri^iotle faith is in Caves j us they build Huts with Mud, Feathers, and Egg-fhells. But vihztBartholine adds, Kb quod Terrs Cavernas inhabitent , non injuria di&i fnnt o~ Urn Vygmsi^ Terrs filii , is wholly new to me, and I have not met with it in any Author before : tho' he gives us here feveral other (ignifications of the word Terrs filij from a great many Authors, which I will not trouble you at prefent with. 4. The Form^ being flat nofed and ugly,
Their Speech, which was the fame as the Indians ^-aiS Ctefias ; and for this I find he has no other Author. 6. Their Hair ; where he quotes Ctefias again, that they make ufe of it for Clothes. 7. Their Vertues and Arts ^ as that they ufe the fame Laws as the Indians^ are very juft, excellent Archers, and that the Ring of India has Three thoufand of them in his Guards. All from Ctefias. 8. Their Animals , as in Ctefias 5 and here are mentioned their Sheep, Oxen, Afles, Mules, and Horfes. 9. Their various Anions 5 as what Ctefias relates of their killing Hares andFoxes with CrowSjEagles,®^. and fighting the Cranes, as Homer, Pliny,
as Ctejias.
5.

His third Article is, their Habitation, hence they ^xq Troglodytes. Pliny tells

"Juvenal.

fint homines^

has a promifing Title, An Pygmsi expected here fomething more to our purpofe 5 but F find he rather endeavours to anfwer the Reafons of thofe that would make them Apej^ than to lay down any of his own to prove them Men, hxi^ Albertm Magnus sO^xxixoxi he thinks abfurd, that makes them part Men^part Beafts , they muft be either one or the other, not a Medina^ between both ; and to make out this, he gives us a large Quotation out; oi Cardan. But G?r^rf« fwj in the fame place argues that they are not Men. As to Sueffanm (w) his Argument, that they want Reafon^ this he will not grant ; but if they ufe it lefs, or more imperfectly than others (which yet, he faith, is not certain) by the fame parity of Reafon, Children, the Bceotians^ Cumani and Naturals may not be reckoned Men 5 and he thinks, what he has mentioned in the preceding Chapter out oi Ctefias, &c. {hews that they have no fmall ufe of Reafon. As to Sueffanus's next Argument, that they want Religion, Juftice, ^c. this, he faith, is not confirmed by any grave Writer ; and if it was,' yet it would not prove that they are not Men. For this defeft ( he faith ) migl^t hence happen, becaufe they are forced to live in Caves for fear of the For this Opinion, Cranes ^ and others befides them, are herein faulty. Me«, he quotes likewife BenediUus that the Pygmies were Apes and not Varchim (x), and Joh. Tinnulus (y), and Paulus Jovius (7^), and feveral others of the Moderns, he tells us, are of the fame mind. Imprimis Geographici quos non pudmt in Mappis Geographick loco Tygmsornm fimias cum Gruibus pugnantes ridicuU dipinxijje.
Chapter
I

Tht feventh

m Bart holine

and

(

u

mah

lib. 8.

. (w) Sueffanm Comment, in Ar'ifl. de Hiftor. Ml) Cardan, de Rerum varktate, lib. 8. cap. 40. in Giotto. (x) Benedi^, Varchiw de Mmftrii. lingua wrnaciila. cap. 12. (y) Job.

Tmmlm

Chofio.

(z) Pitulus

Joviw

lib.

deMu[covit. Legations.

The,

24
The

^

T^hilologkal EJfay concerning
is,

Title of BarthoUne's eighth and laft Chapter
ce7tfent^rec}tantur

Argumenta eorum
refittantitr.

qui Vyg7n£orurfi HiBoriamfabnlofam

&

Where

;

he tells us, the onlyPerfon atnongft the Ancients that thought the Story of the Pygmies to be fabulous was Strabo ; but amongft the Moderns there are feveral, as Cardan, Bud£us, Aldrovandu^, FuUerus xndioxhtxs. The firft Objedion (he faith) is that of Sfigelitff and others ^ that fince the whole World is now difcovered, how happens it, that thefe Fygfnies are not to be met with > He has feven Anfwers to this Objeftion how fatisFadory they are, the Reader may judge, if he pleafes, by perCardans fccond Objedion (he •ufing them amongft the Quotations (a). faith) is, that they live but eight years, whence feveral Inconveniences would happen, as Cardan Chews 5 he anfwers that no good Author affertsthis^ and if there was, ytt^hzt Cardan urges would not follow 5 and inftances out of Artemidorm in 'Pliny (b)^ as a Parallel in the Caling4S a Nation of India, where the Women conceive when five years old, and

do not live above eight. Gey^zer fpeaking of the Py^^^/ej-, faith, Vtt£ antem longitudo atzni arciter 0UO ut Albertus refert. Cardan perhaps had his Authority from Albertus, or it may be both took it from this palTage in Fliny, which I think would better agree to ^/^ej- than Afe». But Arten/idoruf being an Indian Hijiorian, and in the fame place telling other Romances, the lefs Credit is to be given to him. The third Objedion, he faith, is of Cornelius a Lapide, who denies the Pygmies , becaufe Homer was the firft Author of them. The fourth Objedion he faith is, becaufe Authors differ about the Place where they ftiould be This , he tells us, he has anfwered already in the fifth Chapter. The fifth and laft Objedion he mentions is, that but few have feen them. He anfwers, there are a great many Wonders in Sacred and Profane Hiftory 'that we have not leen, yet muft not deny. And he inftances in three 3 As the Formic<e Indic£, which are as bigs as great Dogs : The Cornii Plantabile in the Ifland Goa, which when cut off from the Beaft, and flung upon the Ground, will take root like a Cabbage : And the Scotland Geefe that grow upon Trees, for which he quotes a great many Authors, and fo
:

concludes.

Now how far Bartholine in thisTreatife has made out that the Pygmies of the Ancients were real Men, either from the Authorities he has quoted, or his Reafonings upon them, T fubmit to the Reader. I ftiall proceed now (as 1 promifed) to confider the Proof they pretend from Ho(a) Reffondeo i. Contrariumteftari Mercatorum Relatknem apud Amniam fupraCap. 4. 2. Et licet mventi ejjent vivt i qmlibet, pari jure Monocenta fy alia mgare liceret. 3. Sui maria pernaijigant,vix eras paucas maritimas luftrant, ade'o non terras omnes a mart diffitas. 4. Neque in Oris illos habitare mari-

mn

timii ex Capite qulnto manifejium
inveniret.

eft.

6 Ita

in terra habitant,

^. Quit teftatumfe oinnem adhibuijfe diligentiam in inquirendo eos ut ut in Antris vitam toterare dicantur, 7. Si vel maxime omni abomni;

bw

diligentia qiLifiti fHiffent, nee inventi

fieri poteft,

Kt injiar Oiganpum

jam

defterlntnecfintampliui.

(b) r//nrj^//}..iV<!^lib. 7. cap.a.p.

iri.

14.

The
ly

TYG MIES

of the Ancients,

25

Writ : For Bartholine and others infift upon that Text in Ezekkl (Cap. 27. Ferf. ii.J where the Frtlgar Tranflation has it thus , FilJJ Arvad cum ExercHu ttio fitpra Muros tuos per circmtnm , Pygmai in Ttirribus

&

tuk fnertmt 5 ScHtafuafuj^enderuntfupra Mnros ttios per circuitttm. Now Talentonim and Bartholine think that what Cte/ias relates of the Pygmies^ as their being good Archers^ very well illuftrates this Text of Eze/{iel : I fhall here tranfcribe what Sir Thomas Brown (c) remarks upon it ; and if any one requires farther Satisfaftion, they may confult Job Ludolphus's Comment on his lEthiopic Hijiory (d).
Thefecond Tejiimony (faith
Scripture
5

thus rendered in the Vulgar Tranflation, Sed

rant in turribus tuis, from whence notwithftanding we cannot infer this Ajfertion^for firSi the Tranflators accord not^and the Hebrew -word Gammadim is very varioufly rendered.

deduced Jrom Holy Pygmai qui epharetras fuas fufpenderunt in muris tuis per gyrum t
Sir
is

Thomas Brown)

&

Though Aquila, Vatablus and Lyra will have it Pygmsi , yet in the Septuagint, it is no more then Watchmen ; and fo in the Arabick and HighDutch. In the Chalde, Cappadocians, in Symmachus, Medes, atzd in the French, thofe <?/Gamed. Theodotian of old ^ and Tremellius of late, have retained the Textuary word 5 and fo have the Italian, Low Dutch tf«<^Engli{h Tranflators, that is, thelMen of Arvad were upon thy Walls-. round about, and the Gamraadims were in thy Towers.

Nor do Men only
jition

dijfent in the Tranflation
-^

of the word

,

hut in the

Expo'

of the Senfe and Meaning thereof for fome by
tf/"

Gammadims underfland

a People

?^e Cappadocians,

Syria, fo called fiom the City o/Gamala 5 fome hereby underfland: many f^e Medes : and hereof Forerius hath a pngnlar

Expofition, conceiving the

Watchmen of Tyre, might

well be called

Pygmies,

a.

the Towers of that City being fo high, that unto Men below, they appeared inCubital Stature. Others expound it quite contrary to common Acception^

that is not

Men

of the

leaif,

but of the large^flze
is,

5

fo doth Cornelius con-

of a Cubit high, but of flrue Pygmsi, the largefl Stature, whofe height lik^ that of Giants, is rather to he taken by the Cubit than the Foot 3 in which phrafe we read the meafure of Goliah ,
or Viri Cubitales, that

not

Men

and a jpan. Of affinity hereto is alfo the Expojttion of Jerom ; not tah^ng Pygmies /i)r Tiwaifs, hut flout and vali'ant Champions 5 not taking the fenfe of •Tsvy/j.yi, which flgnifies the Cubit meafure, but that which exprefleth Pugils ; that is. Men fit for Combat and the Exercife of the Fifi. Thus can there be nofatisfying illation fiom this Text, the diverfity, or rather contrariety ofExpofltions and Interpretations, diflra^i-^
whofe height
is faid to

be flx Cubits

ing more than confirming the Truth of the Story.

in But why Aldrovandus or Ca^ar Bartholine fhould bring in St. Avflh as f o me a Favourer of this Opinion of Men Pygmies, I fee no Reafon.
(c) Sir

rhmncK Browifi Enquiries

into

Vulgar Errors,

lib.

4. cap. 1 1. p. 242.

(d)

^

eminent,

in Hijf.

Mthiopc.^.JS-

hs.

26

A

Thiiokgical Effay concerning
:

he feems to afiert quite the contrary For propofing this Qiieftion, An ex Vropaghie Adam velfiUorutn Noe, qtiadam genera Honihmm Monfirofa prodkrnnt ? He mentions a great many monftrous Nations of Men , as they are defcribed by the Indian Hijiorians, and amongft the reft, the Fygmres^ the Sciopodes , See. And adds, ^ad dicam de Cynocephalis,
qHOruffz Can'ina Capita atqne ipfe Latratus

magk Bejiias quam Homines
cjje^

confi-

tentur

.<?

Sed omnia Genera Hominum^

qit£ dicitntttr

ejjc

credere,

nan

And afterwards fo fully exprefles himfelf in favour of the Hypothejis I am here maintaining, that 1 think it a great Confirmation of It. "Nam Si mi as (faith he) Cercopithecos, Sphingas, finefciremm non Homines ejje^ fed Bejiias^ pojfent ifii Hijiorzci de fua CitrJoJitate gloriantes velut Gentes aliquas Hominum nobis impnnita vanitate menliri. At laft he concludes and determines the Queftion thus, Aut ilia , quce talia de qiiibufdam Gentibusfcripta flint, vmnino nulla fnnt, aut ji ftint , Homines
eji necejfe.

&

&

&

'non flint,

aut ex h.^2Lmfiint

f homines ftint.

nothing therefore in St. Attain that Juftifies the being of Me» were Men ^ he rather makes them Apes. And there is nothing in his SchoUafl Ludovicus Fives that tends this way. Tie only quotes from other Authors, what might illuftrate the Text he is commenting upon, and no way aflerts their being Men. I Ihall therefore next enquire into Bochartus's Opinion, who would have them to be the Nub^B or Noba. Hos Niibas Troglodyticos (faith (e) he) ad Avalitem Siniim ejfe Pygmceos Vetenim miilta probant. He gives us five Reafons to prove this. As , i. The Authority oi^ Hejychius, who faith lC*Saj/ UvyjuctToi. 2. Becaufe Homer places tht Pygmies near the Ocean, where the Nnb£ were. g. Arifiotle places them at the Lakes of the Nile. Now by the Nile BochartusteWs us, we muft underftand the Aflaboras , which the Ancients thought to be a Branch of the Nile, as he proves from Pliny, Solinm and lEthicus. And Ptolemy (he tells us) places the Niibae hereabout 4.Becaufe Arijiotlc makes the Pygmies to be Troglodytes, and fo were the Nnb^. 5. He urges that Story of Nonnofus which I have already mentioned, and thinks thatthofe that Nonnofus met with, were a Colony of the Nuba ; but afterwards adds , ^los tamen abjtt ut ptitemm Statitrafiiijfe Qibitali, proiit Poetx fingnnt , qui omnia in majus augent. But this methinks fpoils them from being Pygmies ; feveral other Nations at this rate may be Pygmies as well as thefe Nnbte. Befides, he does not inform us, that thefe Nnba ufed to fight the Cranes ; and if they do not, and were not Cubitales, they can't be Homers Pygmies, which we are enquiring after. But the Notion of their being Men, had fo poffefled him, that it put him upon fancying they muft be the Ntiba ^ but 'tis plain that tliofe in Nonnofus could not be a Colony of the Nui>£ 3 for then the Nfibie muft have underftood their Language, which the

There

is

Pj/gmies, or that the Pygmies

(e)

Sim. Bochirt.Ceoiraph.SMra, Part.

i. lib. 2.

cap. 23. p.

m. 142.

Text

TheTYG
Text
all.

MI ES of

the Ancients.

27
Nubs

faith,

none of the Neighbourhood did.

And

becaufe the

are Troglodytes, that therefore they

For Troglodytes here is Sparrow which is called P<?//er Troglodytes. Not but that in Africa xhtXQ was a Nation oi Men called Troglodytes, but quite different from our
TjgKiies.

muft be Pygmies, is no Argument at ufed as an AdJeSive ; and there is a fort of

be in the right, in gueffing the Lakes of the Nile (whereabout Arrflotle places the Pygmies') to be the Fountains of thtKwtx Ajiaboras, which in his defcription, and likewife the AL/),
far Bochartus

How

may

he places in the Country of the AvalUj; near the Mojjylon Emporium ^ I (hall not enquire. This I am certain of, he mifreprefents ArUiotk where he tells us Cf), ^tamvk in ea fabula hoc faltem verum ejjh ajferat Philofo" phus, PiiJJUos Homines in iis lock degere : for as I have already obferved 5 Arijiotle 'mtha.t Text faith nothing at all of their being Men: the contrary rather might be thence inferred, that they were Brutes. And Bochart's Trandation, as well as Gaza's is faulty here, and by no means to be allowed, viz. Z)t aiunt, genus ibi parvnm eli tarn Hominum, quamEqnori/m :,wh\ch. had Bochart/0 confidered,he would not have been fofond it may be of his Nub<e. And if theN^S^o; Ylvyf.uxi'oi in Hefychius are fuch Pygmies as Bochartus makes his Niibis; ^los tamen abfit tit futemusflatiira. fnijjk Ciibitali, it will not do our bufinefs at all ; and neither Homer skathority, nor Arijiotk's does him any Service.
,

But this Fable of Men Pygmies has not only obtained amongn: the Greeks and Indian Hiftorians : the Arabians likewife tell much fuch StoI will give his ries of them, as the fame learned Bochartus informs us. Latin Trandation of one of them, which he has printed in Arabick^ alfo : Arabes idem (faith (g) Bochartus) referunt ex cujufdam GxxcwXxjide,
qui

Jacobo

Ifaaci^fZ/V,

Sigarienfi/fr/»r ita narrajfe.

in mart Zingltano, (^ impulit me ventus in Oppidum cum devenijem, reperi Incohfs Cnbitalk
clites.

Navigabam aliquando quandam Infulam. In ciijus
ejffejiatur£,

&

plerofque Co-

me deduxit ad Regem fuum. -^^ in quandam Cave£ Jpeciem conjeElus fum , J^Jjit k, ut Captivus detinerer eos autem aliquando ad helium inflrui cum viderem, dixerunt Hojiem immiNee multo poji Gruum exercitus in nere, (d^ fore ut propediem ingrueret. Riorum
multitttdo in

me

congregata

quod eorum oculos ha confodijjent. ilU avolarunt atque auAtque Ego, virga ajfumpta, in eos impstumfeci, This Author,it feems, fugeruntx, oh quodfacinus in honore fai apud ilios. reprefents them under the fame Misfortune with the Poet, who firft mentioned them, as being blind, by having their Eyes peck'd out by their cruel Enemies. Such an Accident poffibly might happen now and then, in thefc bloody Engagements, tho* I wonder the Indian Hijiorians have
eos infurrexit.

Atque ideo erant

Coclites,

&

not taken notice of

it.

However

the Pygmies (hewed themfelves grate-

ful to their Deliverer, in

heaping Honours on him.

One would

guefs,

{() Boclmti Mknxsniars "^

Pojlerior, lib. i. cap. 1 1. p. 7^.
'

(g) Bocbartm iJ/</.p. m. 77.

^

E

for

28
for their
Irjjimo 3

A

Thilologkal Ej]ay concerning

own fakes, they could not do lefs than make him their Geuerabut our Author is modeft in not declaring what they were.
and endeavours
travel all

Jfaac Vojjius feems to unfettle all,

utterly to ruine the
(hall

whole Story

:

for he tells us, If

you

over Africa, you

not

meet with either a Crane or Pygmie : Se mhari (faith (h) Ifaac Vojjiu-s) Ariftotelem, quod tamferio affirmet non ejfe fabellam , qH£ de Pygmak Bel/o, quod cum Grmhfs gerant, narrantur. Si quis totam pervadat Afri cam, Kfil/cfs vel Grues vel Pygmaos invcniet. Now one would wonder more at Vofflus, that he (hould affert this of At/?*?^/^, which he never faid. And fince Fojjiuf is fo miftaken in what he relates of Arijlotle ; where he might fo eafily have been in the right, 'tis not improbable, but he may be out in the reft too : For who has travelled all Afiica over, that could inform him ? And why fliould he be fo peremptory in the Negative,when he had fo pofitive an Affirmation of Arifiotle to the contrary ? or if he would not h&Vitve Arijiotles Authority ,methinks he fliould AriJiophanes'Sy

&

who

tells

us (i),

STT&f'p&II' 07721/

IMvTi^V@^

^psej/^OOJ/ l^

rim

/KlSvluO fA/tlcf)^Uipyi.

Crams take their flight into Libya. Which Obfervation is likewife made by Hejiod, Theognis , Aratus, and others. And Maximjfs Tyrius (as I find him quoted in Bochartm) faith, Af jie^tvoi V^ AiY>'^is Mpa, ^pa^ dpgdfJLivaij, sk dn^o/JUH'cti to 3aA7r{^, rQiV(x.(7aij -^ipvyxi ct)am^ WU, <^l^v1ai) ^d tS dip@u iu^v 7^f ^kjuQSv yy^i. i. e. Grues per a'Tis time to

fow

rehen the noify

fia^em ex iEgypto abfcedetttes , quia Valorem pati non pojfunt, alis velortim injiar expanjis^ per aerem ad Scythicam plagam re£la feruntur. Which fully confirms that Migration of the Cranes that Arifiotle mentions.

But Vofflm I find, tho' he will not allow the Cranes^ yet upon fecond Thoughts did admit of Pygmies here For this Story of the Pygmies and the Cranes having made fo much noife , he thinks there may be fome:

thing of truth in it and then gives us his Conjefture, how that the Pygmies may be thofe Dvparfs^ that are to be met with beyond the Fountains of the Nile ; but that they do not fight Cranes but Elephants, and kill a great many of them, and drive a confiderable Traffick for their Teeth with the Jagi, who fell them to thofe of Congo and the Portuguefe. I yvill give you Vojjlm's own words 5 Attamen ( faith C^J he) ut folent fabella non de nihilo fingi aliquod plerttnque continent veri, id ipfumquO' que hlc fa&um ejje exifiimo. Cerium quippe eB ultra 'NWifontes multos re-" periri Nanos, qui tamen non cum Gruibus, fed cumElephantis perpetuum gerant helium. Pr<ecipuum quippe Eborfs commercium in regno magni Macoki per ifios tranpgitur Homunciones 5 habitant in Sylvis, mira dexteritate Elephantos fagittis conficiunt. Carnibus vefcuntur. Denies vera Jagis divendunt, il/i autem Congentibus d^ Lufitanis.
-^

&

&

(h) Ifatic Vojfiw de Nili almumque flnmlmm Ongme, Cap. i8. (k) Ifaac Vojfm ibid.

( i) Arijlofhanes in Nubibfit.

Job

TheTYG MlESof the

Ancients.

2^

Job Ludolphfff (I) in his Commentary on his JEthiopick Hijlory remarks, That there was never known a Nation all of Dwarfs. Nam qitjppe (faith Ludolphus) Nature quodam errors ex almjujid^jiaturts hommibus generantttr. ^alis vera ea Gens Jit, ex qua ijla Natrtr<e Lrtdibriatant^ copia proveniattt, Vojfiu?}z docere oportebat, quia Pumilidnes PumHes alios non gignimt^fedplerHnqueflerilesfimt, experientiatefiet^ tit plane non opm habucrunt Dolores Talmiidici Nanorum matrin/onia prohibere, ne Digitales ex iis
Ludolphus it may be is a little too ftrift with Fojjius for cal5 he may only mean a fort of Men in that Country of And £)<z;;/?er in hisHiftory of ^/V^, from lefs Stature than ordinary. whom Vojfius takes this Account, defcribes fuch in the Kingdom of MoBut I fee no l^kp, he calls Mimas, and tells us that they kill Elephants. the Pygmies of the Ancients, reafon why Vojfiifs (hould take thefe Men for or think that they gave any occafion or ground for the inventing this Fable, if there was no other reafon, this was fufficient, becaufe they were able to kill the Elephants. The Pygmies were fcarce a Match for the Cranes j and for them to have encountred an Elephant^ were as vain an Attempt, as the Pygmies were guilty of in Philoflratus (m)., ' who to re' venge the Death ot Antaus, having found Hercules napping in Libya, * muftered up all their Forces againft him. One P/?^ A?«x (he tells us) af' faulted his left hand; but againft his right hand, that being the ftron' ger, two Phalanges were appointed. The Archers and Slingers befieg* ed But againft his Head, his feetadmiring the hu^enei's of his Thighs ' as the Affenal, they railed Batteries, the King himfelf taking his Poft ' there. They fet fire to his Hair, put Reaping-hooks in hig Eyes , and ' that he might not breath , clapp d Doors to his Mouth and Noftrils 5 ' but all the Execution that they could do, was only to awake him, ' which when done,deriding their folly,he gather 'd them all up into his * This Lion's Skin, and carried them (Philoflratus thinks) to Eurifihenes. Ant£us was as remarkable for his height, as the Pygmies were for their Sertorita not being lownefs of Stature For Plutarch (n) tells us, that willing to truft Common Fame, when he came to Tingis (^now TangierJ he caufed Antaus'% Sepulchre to be opened , and found his Corps full threefcore Cubits long. But Sertorius knew well enough how to impofe upon the Credulity of the People, as is evident from the Story of his
nafcerentur.

ling them

Nani

:

:

^

TPphite 7f7»ii,

which Plutarch likewife

relates.

But to return to our Pygmies 5 tho' nioft of the great and learned Men would f;em to decry this Story as a Fiftion and meer Fable, yet there is fomething of Truth, they think, muft have given the firft rife to it,and
was rot wholly the produft of Phancy, but had feme real foundation, tho' difguifed,according to the different Imagination znd Genius
that
it

(I) Job LudolphM
p. m. 817.

in

Comment,

in

Htfioriam Mthioytcam, p. m.7r.
fii Sertori}^

(

m)

Philojlratm, Icon.

lib, 2,

{n)

Flut^rch, in nnta

E

-2

of

A Philological
of the
Relator
:

Elfay concerning

them to give their feveral ConLudolplms finding what has been offered at in ReJob lation to the ?ygmks^ not to fatisfie, he thinks he can better account for this Story, by leaving out the Cranes, and placing in their ftead, another I will give you his own words: Sed fort of Bird he calls the C(?«<^i7r. Ludolphu/) revertamar 5 fabuU de Geranomacbia. ad Pygmaos (faith (^o") Fygm£orHmfeH pttgna cum Grmbm etiam aliquld de vera trahere videtur, ft pro Grmhtts Condoras intelligas, Aves in interiore Africa maximas^ ^^tfidem pene excedat 5 a/UKt enini quod Ales ijia vituluKi Ekphatiti in Aerem Cam hk Pygmaos pugnare , ne pecora ext oiler e pojjlt , ut infra docehimus. Error ex eo natus videtur, quod primus faa rapiant , incredibile non eU. Relator^ alio vocabulo defhiUitus., Griies pro Qondoris nominkrit^ ficuti Plautui Picos pro Gryphibus, df' Romani Boves liicas pro Ekphantfs dixere.

Tis

this that has incited

je<3ures about

it.

ridicule mentions , was to be addone, that the Cranes could fly away with a Pjgmitted as a thing really mie^ as our Kites can with a Chicken, there might be fome pretence for hudovicm % Condor ox CtinBor : For he mentions afterwards C^ Jour of V. Job. dos Santos the Portnguefe, that 'twas obferved that one of thefe Condors once flew aWay with an Ape, Chain , Clog and all > about ten or twelve pounds weight, which he carried to a neighbouring Wood, And Garcilaffo de la Vega (q") relates that and there devoured him. feize and fly away with a Child fen or twelve years old. they will But Juvenal (r) only mentions this in ridicule and merriment , where

Tis

true, if

what Juvenal only in

he

faith,

Adfiibitas

Tbracum

volucres,

nubemque fonoram

Pygi>t£0s parvis currit Bellator in

armk

:

Mox
Befides,

impar

hofii, raptufque per aera curvk

UnguibmafdSvhferturGrue.

were the Condors to be taken for the Cranes^ it would utterly very unequal , 'tis ; for where the Match is fo Ludolphus leafl (hew of a fight. impoflible for the Pygmies to make the
rpoil the PygmeBomacbia

to fight thefe Condors , as Fojfius did, in making'therri fight E/e;?/jrf«^j-,but not with equal Succefsj for Voffim's Pygmies made great Slaughters of the Elephants ; but Ludolphus his Cranes

puts as great hardftiips

on them,

fweep away the Pygmies^is

an OvpI would a Moufe, and eat them up into the bargain ^ now I never heard the Cranes were fo cruel and barbarous to their Enemies, tho' there are fome Nations in the World
eafily as

that are reported to

do

fo.

Moreover, thefe Condors

I find are

very rare to be met with
Y>-

,

and

(0) Job Liidolphm Comment, in Hilloriam fuam ^thiopk. (r) (q) OarcilaJJb de la Vega Ko)al Commait. o/Peru.

J ^-

(j>)

Job Ludolphm ibU. pzg. 164.
15.7..

Jmenal

Satyr, i^. verf.

when

TheTYG
when

MI ES of

the Ancients.

31
Homer's^

they are, they often appear fingle, or but a few.

Now

and the Cranes of the Ancients, are always reprefented Ofplan (s) as I find him tranflated into Latin Verfe
:

in Flocks.

Thus
.

Etvelut lEthiopum venmnt, Nilique fimnta

TnrmatJm Palamedk Avesy

celfaque per alttim

Aera labentes fngittnt Athlanta mvojtim^ Vygmaos imhelle Genus^ parvumqiiefatigant, Jyon perturbato procednnt ordine denfk
Injir/i^fs volucres obfcurant aera Tjtrttik.

To

imagine thefe Gr«ej a fingle Gigantick Bird, would much leflen the Beauty of Homer's Simile^ and would not. have ferved his turn ^ and there I are none who have borrowed Homers fancy, but have thought fo. will only farther inftancc in Baptijia Mantuan :
Pj/gm£z breve vulgus^ iners Vlebecula^ quando Conveners Grues longk in pr^lia ro^rky Sublato clamore fremunty dumque agmine magna Hojtibus occurrit^ tellus tremit Indka, clamant

Lit t ora ^ ar en arum nimbis abfconditur a'er^ involvit Piilvkfolemqae, Poliimque, Et Genus hoc Hominum natur^ imbelle , quietum^ Mite^ Jacit Mavors pugnax^ immane Crnentnm.

Omnis d^

Having

learned fons they give for maintaining their Conjeftures ;I (ball beg leave to fubjoyn my own : and if what at prefent I offer, may feem more probable, or account for this Story with more likelyhood, than what hath hitherto

now confidered and examined the various Opinions of thefe Men concerning this Pygm£omachia , and reprefented the Rea-

been advanced, will not do, I

not think my time altogether mifpent But if this (hall never trouble my head more about them , nor think my felf any ways concerned to write on this Argument again. And I had not done it now, but upon the occafion of Diffecling this OrangT Outang, or ivild Man, which being a Native of Afiica,3.nd. brought from Angola, tho firfl: taken higher up in the Country , as i was informed by the Relation given me 5 and obferving fo great a Refemblance, both in the outward (hape, and, what furprized me more, in the Strudture
I (hall
:

likewife

of the inward Parts, to a Man 5 this Thought was eafily fuggefted to me. That very probably this Animal, or fome other fuch of the fame Species, might give the firft rife and occafion to the Stories of the Pygmies. What has been the TrpwW i6^^@v, and rendered this Storj' fo
difficult to

be believed,

I

find hath

been the Opinion that has generally

(

s )

Oif.iW.

lib,

I

.

di Pijc'iltn,

obtained*

^2

A

Philological EJJay concerning

obtained, that t\\dt?ygmks were really a Race o^ little Men And tho' they trt only Brutes, yet being at firlt call'd n?//^ Me», no doubt from the Refemblance they bear to Men ; there have not been v/anting thofe efpecially amongft the Ancients, who have invented a hundred ridiculous Stories concerning them ^ and have attributed thofe things to them, were

they to be believed in what they fay, that neceffarily conclude them real

Men.

fum up therefore what I have already difcourfed , I think I have proved , that the Pygmies were not an Humane Species or Men. And tho' Homer, who firft mentioned them, calls them av^^i? 'TnyiuaToi, yet we need not underftand by this Expreffion any thing more than Apes : And tho' his Geranomarhia hath been look'd upon by moft only as a Poetical Fidion ; yet by affigning what might be the true Caufe of this Quarrel between the Cranes and Pygmies, and by divefting it of the many fabulous Relations that the Indian Hiflorians, and Others, have loadI have endeavoured to render it a true,at leaft a probable Stohave inftanced in Ctejias and the Indian Hijiorians, as the Authors and Inventors of the many Fables we have had concerning them : Particularly, I have Examined thofe Relations, where Speech or Language •is attributed to them , and (hewn, that there is no reafon to believe, Butthefe Indian Hiflorians hathat they ever fpake any Language at all. ving related fo many extravagant Romances of the Pygmies, as to render their whole Hiftory fufpedted, nay to be utterly denied, that there were ever any fuch Creatures as Pygmies in Nature, both by Strabo of old, and moft of our Learned Men of late, I have endeavoured to aflert the Truth of their being, from a Text in Ariftotle ; which being fo pofitive in affirming their Exigence, creates a difficulty, that can no ways be got over by fuch as are of the contrary Opinion. This Text I have vindicated from the falfe Interpretations and Glofles of feveral Great Men, who had their Minds fo prepoflefled and prejudiced with the Notion of Men Pygrfiies^ that they often would quote it, and mifapply it, tho' it contain'd nothing that any ways favoured their Opinion ; but the contrary rather, that they were Bn/Ze J, and not Me«.

To

ed

it

with,
I

ry.

.

were really Brutes, I think I have plainly proved out of Herodotus and Phileftratus , who reckon them amongft the wild Beafls that breed in thofe Countries ; For tho' by Herodotf0 they are call'd ai'^fS? aye/O'. and Philoflratus CZWS them ai/0pa!7ra$ /xiAaya?, yet both make them Sfyi^cc. or wild Beafls. And I might here add what Paufanias (t) relates from Euphemus Car, who by contrary Winds was driven upon Ibiiie Iflands, where he tells us, q^ g toJtoi? oh^v av^gje; a^g/a;, but when he comes to defcribe them, tells us that they had no Speech 5
that the Pygmies

And

(t

) Paujanias in Att':ck, p.

m. ai.

that

the
that they

T YG MIES
their

of the Jnctents.

3 3;

had Tails on

the

Women

in the Ship.

Rumps 5 and were very lafcivious toward But of thefe more, when we come to dilcourfe

of Satyrs.

fince 'twas

And we may the lefs wonder to find that they call Brutes Men , common for thefe Hijlormns to give the Title of Men^ not ongrown
fo

ly to Brutes^ but they were
defcribe feveral Nations

wanton

in their Inventions, as to

.

of MoKJirous Men, that had never any Being, but in their own Imagination, as I have inftanced in feveral. I therefore excufe Strabo for denying the Pygmies, fince he could not but be convinced, they could not be fuch Men, as thefe Hiftorians have defcribed them. And the better to judge of the Reafons that fome of the Moderns have given to prove the Being of Mf» Pygmies, I have laid down as Pojiulata's, that hereby we muft not under ftand Z)a7<zy/f, nor yet a Nation of Men,tho' fomewhat of a leiTer fize and ftature than ordinary , but we muft obferve thofe two Charafterifticks th-Zt Homer gives of them, that they are
Cnbitales,

and

fight Cranes.

Having premifed this, I have taken into confideration Caj^ar BarthoUne Opufmlum de Pygm£fs, and Jo. Talentonius's Dillertation about them j and upon examination do find, that neither the Humane Authorities, nor Divine that they alledge, do any ways prove , as they pretend, the Being of Men Pjigmks. St. Aujiin, who is like wife quoted ontheir fide, is fo far from favouring this Opinion, that he doubts whether any fuch Creatures exiflr, and if they do, concludes them to be Jpes^ or Monkeys ; and cenfures thofe Indian Hijiorians for impofing fuch Beafts upon us, as diftind Races of Men. Julius C£far Scaliger, and Jfaac Cafanbon, and Adrian Spigeliuf Utterly deny the Being of Pygmies, and look upon them as a Figment only of the Ancients, becaufe fuch little Men as they defcribe them to be,are no where to be met with in all the World.
Senior his

Bochartm, tho' he efteemsthe Geranomachia to be a Fable, and flights it, yet thinks that what might give the occafion to the Story of the Pygmies, might be the NHb£ or Nob£ ^ as Ifaac Vojjius conjedures that it was thofe Djrar/jr beyond the Fountains of the Nile, that Dapper czWs thtMimos, and tells us, they y;\\\ Elephants for to make a TrafBck with their Teeth. But Job Ludol^hus alters the Scene, and inftead of Cranes, fubftitutes his G^/zis^^jri", who do not fight the Pygmies, hut fly away with them, and then devour chera.

The Learned

do no ways account for Homers Pygmies Truth is always they are too much forced and ftrain'd. eafie and plain. In our prefent Cafe therefore I think the Orang-Outang, or wild Man, may exactly fupply the place of the Pygmies, and without: any violence or injury to the Story, fufEciently account for the wholeHiftory of the Pygmies, but what is moft apparently fabulous ^ for what, has been the greateft diflSculty to be folved or fatisfied, was their being
thefe Conjectures
a.nd Cranes,

Now all

Ms.n

,.

34-

A
5

Thiiologkal tf]ay concerning
quoted him ) Sed
ejfe.

Mm

for as Gefner remarks (as I have already

vete-

riim nnlli{s aliter de

Vygmah fcnpft^qnam

Homuncioties

And

the

Mo-

derns too, being byafled and mifguided by this Notion, have either wholly denied ibem, or contented themfelves in offering their ConjeAnd ctures what might give the firft rife to the inventing this Fable. tho' Albert/0, as I find him frequently quoted, thought that the Pjigmks might be only a fort of Jpes, and he is placed in the Head of thofe that efpoufed this Opinion, yet he fpoils all, by his way of reafoning,^ and by making them fpeak^ which was more than he needed to do.
I

cannot

fee therefore

any thing that will fo

fairly folve this

doubt,

that will reconcile all, that will foealily and plainly make out this Story, as by making the Orang-Outang to be the Pygmie of the Ancients 5

For He.-odotus's civ^^i^ Antiquity gave them. ay^.oi, what can they be eUe, than Homwes Sylvejires^ or wild Men And Homers ar^pa 'myoutioi , are no more an as they are now called. Humane Kind, or Men, than Herodotus s av^pa a.ye/01, which he makes to be ,^£Ja, or mid Beafis : And the at'^p^ifMK^l or /wiAai-j; ( as they are Becaufe this fort o'LJpes had fo great often called) were juft the fame. Men,more than other Apes or Monkeys and they going a refemblance to naturally ere6t,and being defigned by Nature to go fo, (as I have (hewn in the Auatoffiy) the Ancients had a very plaufible ground for giving but commonly they them this denomination of av^p^i or a.v%^oo7m /jAX'zvh; or fome /xoc^p; , -jmy^juthi added an Epithet 5 as a^g,/^ , Now the Ancient Greek, and Indian Hijiorians , tho' fuch like. they might know thefe Pygmies to be only Apes like Men, and not to be real Me//, yet being fo extreamly addifted to Mythology, or making Fables, and finding this fo fit a Subjed to engraft upon, and invent Stories about, they have not been wanting in furnilhing us with a great many very Romantick ones on thisoccafion. And the Moderns being impofed upon by them, and mifguided by the Name of av'^pn; or avGp'^TTOf, as if thereby muft be always underftood an Humane Kind, or real Men, they have altogether miftaken the Truth of the Story, and have either wholly denied it, or rendered it as improbable by their ownConfor
'tis

the fame

Name that

.<?

-^

,

,

,

jeftures.

ly

of their being called Men, enough be accounted for by what I have faid. But
This
difficulty therefore

I think,
it

may

fair-

may

be object-

ed

that the Orang-Outang, or thefe wild or favage

Men

are not 'myiuuJ'ot,

or Trij^itham, that is, but two Foot and a quarter high,becaufe by fome Relations that have been given, it appears they have been obferved to be of a higher ftature, and as tall as ordinary Men. Now tho' this may be allowed as -to thefe wild Men that are bred in other places 5 and probably enough likewife, there are fuch in fome Parts of the Continent of Afiica ^ yet 'tis fufficient to our bufinefs if there are any there, that will come within our Dimenfions for our Scene lies in /jr/V^ 5 where Strabo obferves, that generally the Beafts are of a lefs fize than ordinary 3 and
:,

this

TheTYG
this

MI ES of
rife

the Ancients.
of the Pygmies.
Jtj

he thinks might give the

to the Story
Qvlig')

he

(«),

Ta 3 (SocTJc^fAMla
i)

oZtHc,

h) [mk^,

it^Qctlae.
rd^i^a,

auyig,
;^

T

"^^X^^

^

f^X^fMii {ouUvUc, iMZ^)

3

For, faith [jak^) , t8$ TuyjUMtag
it,

wovic,

^

r^-mv fMK^ipvtctg iTnvonanv, -Z, dvi'Ti^sL^ra.v. i.e. That their Beajis arefmall^ as their Sheep^ Goats and Oxen^ and their Dogs are fniall , but hairy and
:

fierce

and

it

may

he (faith

he) from the

fjAK^ipvicc or littlenefs

ture ofthefe Animals^ they have invented

and impofed on us

the

of the JlaPygmies.

to be believed ever fare them j becaufe he others have done, thatthefe Pygmies muft ht real Men, and not a fort of Brutes. fince the other Brutes in this Country are generally of a lefs fize than in other Parts, why may not

And

then adds, That no body fit

fancied, as a great

many

Now

this fort
ftotle

of Jpe , the Orang-Outang, or rpild Man, be fo like wife. fpeaking of the Pygmies, faith, j^j/^L fjM^v /mv it, cwro), tt, ol

AriTTr-aror

That both they and the Horfes there are but fmaJ/. He does not fay their Horfes, for they were never mounted upon Horfes, but only upon Partridges, Goats and Rams. And as the Horfes, and other Beafis are naturally lefs in Jfiica than in other Parts , fo likewife may the OrangOutang be. This that I diffefted, which was brought from Angola ( as I have often mentioned) wanted fomething of the juffc ftature of the Pygr wies 5 but it was young, and I am therefore uncertain to what tallnels it might grow, when at full Age And neither Tulpius, nor Gaffendus, nor any that I have hitherto met with, have adjufted the full ftature of this Animal that is found in thofe Parts from whence ours was brought: But 'tis moft certain, that there are forts of ^/^ej- that are much lefs than the Py^^^/ej- are defcribed to be. And, as other Brw^e/, fo the Ape-h^nd, in different Climates,may be of different Dimenfions 5 and becaufe the other .Srafex here are generally fmall, why may notfAejbe fo likewife, Or if the difference (hould be but little , I fee no great reafon in this cafe, why we (hould be over-nice, or fcrupulous.
:

As to our ApePygmies or Orang-Outang fighting the Cranes,t\]\s, I think, be eafily enough made out, by what I have already obferved ^ for this vpild Man I diffefted was Carnivorous, and it may be Omnivorous, at leaft as much as Man is ; for it would eat any thing that was brought to the Table. And if it was not their Hunger that drove them to it, their Wantonnefs, it may be, would make them apt enough to rob the Cranes Nefts; and if they did fo, no doubt but the Cranes would make noife enough about it, and endeavour what they could to beat them off, which a Poet might eafily make a Fight Tho' Homer only makes ufe

may

:

of it, as a Simile, in comparing the great Shouts of the Trojans to the Noife of the Cranes, and the stlence of the Greeks to that of the Pygmies when they are going to Engage, which is natural enough, and very juft, and contains nothing, but what may eafily be believed 5 the'

(u)

Strah

Geograph.

lib.

17. p.

m. $6$,

upoa

3^

A

Thilologkai Ejjay concerning

upon this account he is commonly expofed, and derided, as the Inventor of this Fable 5 and that there was nothing of Truth in it, but that 'twas wholly a Fiftion of his own.
Iho^tVygrnksih^tPaulusJovim (w) defcribes, tho' they dwell at a great diftance from Africa, and he calls them Men, yet are fo like Apes, I will give you his own that I cannot think them any thing elle. Aquilowords Vltra Lapones ( faith he ) in Regione inter Corum nem perpetuh opprejfa Caligine Pygma!OS reperiri, aliqui eximis fidei tejies retttlerunt ; qtii poflquam ad fiwiffium adoleverint, nofiratis Pueri demtm garannomm Menfuram vix excedmt. Meticulofum genus hominum, rituSermonem exprimens, adco ut tarn Simia propinqni , quam datura, ac
:

&

&
is

fettfihus abjuflx Proceritatis

homine remoti videantur.
it

Now

there

this

will take in all the Pygmies, in any part Advantage in our HypotheJiT^ of the World, or wherever they are to be met with, without fuppoftng, as fome have done, that 'twas the Cranes that forced them to quit

account feveral Authors have deFor unlefs we fuppofe the Cranes fo fcribed them in different places kind to them, as to waft them over, how came we to find them often in Iflands ? But this is more than can be reafonably expefted from fo
their

Quarters^

and upon

this
:

great Enemies.

conclude by obferving to you, that this having been the ComError of the Age, in believing the Pygmies to be a fort of littk , and it having been handed down from fo great Antiquity, what might contribute farther to the confirming this Miftake , might be, the Impofture of the Navigators, who failing to thefe Parts where thefe Apes are, they have embalmed their Bodies, and brought them home,and then made the People believe that they were the Men of thofe Countries from whence they came. This M. P. Venetus affures us to have been done ; and 'tis not unlikely For,faith he (f ), Aktndat quoque Regio ipfa parvis, hominihus Cy^'.Bafman in Javamajori) diverfis Simifs magnis in hos capiunt Venaiores ©" totos depilant, niji quod in barha fmillimis,
I fhall

mon Men

:

^

loco fecreto Pilos relinqnunt

,

&

^
,

occifos jpeciehus Aromaticjs condiunt

^

venduntque Negociatorihm , qui per diverfas Orbis Partes Corpora ilia deferentes, homines perfuadent Tales Homunciones in Mark Infulk reperiri. Joh. Jonjion ( x ) relates the fame thing , but without quoting the Author^ and as he is very apt to do, commits a great miftake,
pojiea dejiccant,

in telling us, pro
I (hall

Homunculk marink

vendttant.

only add, That the Servile Offices that thefe Creatures are obferved to perform, might formerly, as it does to this very day, impofe upon Mankind to believe, that they were of the fame Species with themf

w)

Paul. Jovi] de Legcttme Mufchowtar.
1

lib.p.

m.4851.

(f)

M.PauU

Venet'i
1

de Kegmibuf

Orkmah
J

lib, 3.

cap.

5. p.

m. 390.

(

x

) Jo. Jonfion. Hifl-

Nat.de Qitadru^ed. p. m.

39.

felves

IheTYG MlESofthe
felves
^

"~
Ancients.

^

but that only out of fullennefs or cunning, they think they will of being made Slaves. Philofiratus (y) tells us,That the Indians make ufe of the Apes in gathering the Pepper ; and for this Reafon they do defend and preferve them from the Lions , who are very greedy of preying upon them: And altho' he calls them Apes^ yet Tie ipeaks of them as Me», and as if they were the Husbandmen of the Pepper Trees, -Z; §iv^^ <3U rmrm^ht;^ Sivyi'jofi'ycil itAwmh. And he calls them the People of Apes ; « Aiytloj -jnOwt-av ok&v ^.ju^ aJc pt^^^yTi tS 0/.8?. Dapper (z, J tells us. That the Indians take the Baris when young, and make themfo tame, that they veill do almoU the work, of a Slave ; for they commonly go ere^ as Men do. They will beat Rice in a Mortar , carry Water in a Pitcher, 8cc. And Gajjendus (a) in the Life of Pieresky , tells us, That they wiU play. upon a Pipe or Cittern, or the like Mnjick, , they ivill fipeep the Houfe, turn the Spit, beat in a Mortar , and do other Offices in a Family, And Acofla, as I find him quoted by GarcilaJJb de la Fega (h) tells us of a Monkey he faw at the Governour's Houfe at Cartagena, ' whom they fent often to the Tavern for Wine, with Money in one ' hand, and a Bottle in the other 5 and that when he came to the Ta* vern, he would not deliver his Money, until he had received his ' Wine. If the Boys met with him by the way, or made a houting ' or noife after him, he would fet down his Bottle, and throw Stones
Tiotjpeak^, for fear

m

at them 5 and having cleared the way , he would take up his Bottle, 'and haften home. And tho'he loved Wine exceffively, yet he would ' not dare to touch it, unlefs his Mafter gave him Licenfe. A great many Inftances of this Nature might be given that are very furprifing. And in another place tells us, That the Natives think that they can fpeak, but will not, for fear of being made to work. And Bontius (c) mentions that the Javans had the fame Opinion concerning the Orang'

Outang, Loqui vera
cogerentur.

eosy

eafqtte

Javani

aiunt,

fed

tion velle^

ne ad labores

(z) Dapper Defcription (y) Philoflratuf in vita ApoUoni'] T)ian<zi, lib. 3. cap. r. p.m. no, &111, (a) Gaffendm in vita Pierskj'], lib.5. p. m. 169. de FAfrique, p. m. 249. (b; Garcilaffo de la VC' go. Royal Cmmentaries oi Peru, lib. 8. cap. 18. p. 1333. Med, lib. 5, CcJ Jac, Bontij Hift. Nat. op. 32. f. m.^s.

^

F2

A

A Thilological Ejfay concerning
A.

Philological Eflay
Concerning the

YNOCEPHALI OF THE ANCIENTS
Of the Cynocephali
of the
any

Ancients,

I S not that I think there are

at prefent fo miftaken,

as to believe the Cymcephali to be a

Race of Me«,

that I

write this EfTay : 'tis fo notorioufly known that they are Monkeys, or rather Baboons^ that 'tis needlefs to go about to prove it, 'tis what even the Ancients themfelves have

That which induces me to mention them, is to fond the Ancients were of inventing Fables 5 and Ctefm^ who hath told us fuch fine Stories of the Vygmles^ whom he makes to be Utile Men, tho' indeed they are only a fort of Apes ^ when he comes to difcourfe of the Cynocephali , which are a fort of Baboons, and far lefs like Men than the Pygmies are, to perfwade us that thefe likewife are a Race of Men ; he is obliged to exercife his Inventive Faculty with more force, to ufe much bolder ftrokes, and by roundly aflerting fo many incredible Things, to amufe our Imaginations, he hopes at leaft to give the Reader Entertainment, tho' he miiTes his Defign of gaining our
fufficiently confeffed.

ftiew

how

belief.

1 will give

you

Cte/ias's

own

vs^ords, that

you may

fee I

do not

abufe

him.

^he
him, hath
as

Cynocepha 11

of the Jncients.

39

he hath done Mankind, in moft of the Natural Hifioy that he left us 5 for as (a) ?hotJus informs us, Ctefias tells us

'El- ToTc,

0io1dJiiv
'Ecd^rcci;

,

2 -mc, KuvU 5

o'pitn

(pmv dv^p'JOTH;
Kiipcl>\Jw.

i^^ovloii

Q

(popSmv ax,

7^ dy^oov

^w,

^oov ;

(pocvlw

SiaAi'^or^) «^,a!av

a/A' wfjov'^ MCun^ Twvic; 3t) ura avvixmv cw-t^ r <piivhM. 'O^vlctg g
f/.^'Qic,
odq,

Degere iifdem h'jfce in niontibm homines memorat canino capita qt{i ferantm fellibus vejiiantur. Sermone hos nuUo riti,, camtm tantum more Utratnm edere, atque ita. jfmtuo fefe intelligere. Dentes illk ejje quam
canihus majores,
ungues,,
res.

i^asi Krzok,

it)

r^i

ovv)^ci<; of.JU)i-

& caninos
, ,

fimiliter

x.itum,

fjux-H-oJli^iic,

3

y^

'^Zsiip-

fed longiores
incolere

ac rotundio-

m 'b^S
^^10
c<?
J

^olipag.

Oi';c2oi

q g> -mg

^pisi,

f^^ej-

Mantes
ufque,,

-TTvliz/xS.

Mi?\ctvi<;

M

dm

:t,

vhim

&

ad Indumflnin-

colore ejfe nigro^

-Tzivu,

00077^^ j^ Of

a?Aoj

'h^l,

fignefqHejufliti<e cultores

ceterorum

f^vm
3
opvyvi

] 'Qn^i-yvitv^. Kau aiwiSai vrnf CM^vm Aiy^fA/cvct , cwiut s^hivav"^ kci,\i-yiS!<zj : dMd r^ [
^9
it,

Indoritm more^ inter quos verfentur. Jntelligere quoque quae ab Indis dicantur,, licet

ipf loqm

minime pojjlnt^
manibus
,

-mii^p^.pm,

ic,

-zth

^zluhoti
J9

ut propterea latratii,

m^vovm^

atqiie

S>i^^

^,^0"^Z)D -^^
'^i^vi^ '^V
"*
,

^

ot ;m.)?5o}

aAaAoj-

digitk ftgna dent^qHemadmodum fcrs
fttrdi ac mitti folent.

'f'-^J'

^A:;?e/o;,

OT^f '6^v aM'xyig;/
ixi

xiujoidpa,^.oi.

To

^^x^

fJAjej.^-

que gentfs capita mimerari ad centum

& viginti

Vocari hos ab I^dis Calyftrios, quod Gneci dicerent JCMJOKApxAni, id eji, Canicipites, [farnibus eofdem vefci crndk} totiufmillia.

And
^^

a little afterwards
ol

he adds,
Narrat infnper hos Cynocephalos in
montibus habitantes iiiiUiim exercere opipcium ; Jed de venatione vivere^
ferifque
rere.
.>

"077
,

KtwoKifaXoi ohavw-nq dv -mi
5

,a„

V'

«

f,»

p-v

^^ w.
"'Or^v[Sf\ '^xlSceaiv
M Aioi'.

ty

^

ctZ-rd,

cMcesi TT^? -r
Tt^^scTo. T^T^x,

Tpi<pHai
oi';.

3

K^

Z)

cSyzi, ly

Hi-

qtm occiderint ad folemtorAlagnam nihilominm pecork co~ piam akre, capraritmqtie oviUm :

&
t

»r-c>./

-^

\

w

\

_r;

gala pro potnillk
^

fit.

Vefci

amen

eti-

Xop^.
'<^'
^

ap
;^

>

3

?

a

\ 7, ^ TO nA^Klesv'.

yAv:^vi^^

^

c^

(ifniiipacborde

vrumt^e

qiia;jiX.\a\ix\xm-

^J^mv-n^i cwt^^ ,^^ amjzAtg^
^

^^^ ^xhor^fHccinum emanat. dnlcem^nim illim ejfe. Bimc item iUos /•«»
^//k/

cryppaW'aoiv,
^cc<piiii.

u>am^Q^ -mq \7^m rfw
nwuoxJtfctXoi

arefadum in corbes conppare.ad

01 ^
Key

^iSlav
dTmyrnn.

"^TTuvicrdfJuivoi,

)(^i'^^3iv1ig,
-ra^

pplov TJira.

%opfv^<; to dv-

paffoi Gr£ci, Eofdemillos Cynocephalos ratem quoq^ exfemporariam conjiruere, qua imp'ofi-

enm modum quo uvas

^g K^^x^v
yi
\
•^
I

1-^1^'

i.oiiozLvU, ii

tS h^klpH
_ri.
.^

tHmhHJmfiuamoni0,nt

& purpurS"
T^

5:-^.

CJedpurgataprius eji^-sflore) itemqm electn^^ad dncenta ^jexagintatalen'

(a) Fboti) Bibliothec. Cod. 72. de Indicif, p.

m. 14P, &c.

-

-

-^

——

'

'

.


additk
,

'

^o
TO pomKizv ^xyTfi^
'W7:e£Tzi..

A

Thilohgical EJJay concerning
ta qtiotamifs avehutit
levfis
5

d'Tuyissi

tS <fz^iuoix.is, mgp: Km h^Ulpa j^/Aix TaAarTx >(^f di'iotuThv -m 'h^v Bz(Ti-

f rf-

totidem

iUitis

Prgjfientr

^na

A&i.
(Ti

Kcu 'i-Tc^
IpLctTiot,.

^

>(^1a.yovli(; TrinjAg-

7vt<; 'Iv^ti'i,

-TTpJi a.prii<; ti

a,\pi1ct k,
;^ |/?)w,

^u\it'ci.

n*iA8(7f
^/^

3
ilj

«;
It,

y^-if'^
Tt^^.
a'lv
iij

f^^i ^
ctwavlio..

f9>)g,/'a*J'

a.y^,v,
S'i^y'ii

puniceum colorem indncnnt. Ele^lri pr£terea mile talent a quotan',jk ad [ndortim regem advehere. Imffib d^ alia plura devehere ad Indos venalia , fro quibtfs vicijjim panes
hrfiSfores
farinafft^

Tl'ivv

7&

d-

& xylinas

vcjics accipiant.

a.KovTi^^v

iy

TvPi^&iv

'ATToAe/^Ji-

-xt

\'

eriffi,

S'Uci

TD oiK&iy aurhsi of.iz

a

Habere quoque enfss venales^ qiiibus ipji ad venattwi utuntur^ cum arctthus
&JaculfS. Perit'rjjlmos eftim cjfe jacitlandi atqne fagittandi : pr£terca

SxTTz -^ u4iAa. A/^fTt ^ ctuTv^i Six Bx^iAsJi, A' /jap irijut-^'a sTD'j? ^UQ^ fjjj^iz^i;
'm\i^<J'
-ni^Jov^Kj a.K/ivTi'^v •m^iu'ra.e,,
|i?ii

&

etiam^ qu

d monies

habitent altos at-

ptA^a..

3 S^ihxj'' % T8 roi? Tci; 3
Tzi
it)

3

-TnvTafuerHiL

que inaccejjos^
gcfft jpj^s

bello infnperabiles.

Re-

.

Kiuj'^TOipizMi';

pro ff/imere qninto quoque an-

tJoTV oiVlzi,

aX\' G^ amAcooii

Sicifrai'jitj

Gyip^Hsji

c^nfja, 7o^4jovr^i

d^covTi^ovT^i,

hxKovT^i ^j.-m.Xi.fx^cLT-pl;(^<<c7J-^A«5v3)

v^7i' ra-)^

76

Q

^
\'

ytdcSKii
4.

cWT^ liux^ TV

/A^wo?,

07av

lu. y^-7UfjLv.vix ctLrTyic,i\^-

a.77\.0Ti

no praberetrecenta arcuum, totidemqne jaculontm mill'ia jam peltarnm centum viginti^ gladiorum qmnquaginta miUia. NuUas item apud y^ ^^^ domos, fed in anlris degere. Jnvenationejaculk potijJimHmferas^
•,

&

Oi '5 ^ai/^pj; « Ajs'di'^^ //iv, to; Si )^&.p^c,^^v\^ov^. 'EAa/^ <5^^ 5^p»0
-raf

rz/i TV /jc^wk,
ytvo/Avo)
,

^'

TO

yl\xKl^
Sipu^aL
«^2,
c/jjif^.

5 eafdemque perfequendo, quod curfus velocitate praj}g„f^ ^^i^^ afequi. Horum uxores

^g/ fagittis petere

K)

o;c7e/bof2)

j-^^^^i

duntaxatper menfem^cum meni,

TWJ^ £^7k
4(Aw
-m-mv,
r^t^

e^^acnf « &t(T6<ar,

jl^^^^ patiuntur, lavare

alih nun-

fXM^^yt^-mv, ^i ^sf^cw-m)
it,

^;^^w.

iVe^«e viros

v^

cd ymjxrxAZ

/^^^^^^ j-^^
/^^^^^^

nnquam omnino ^^^^^ tantummodo ahf,?/?/e5?<7

0\

^

777^8crj=«7aTO
^

o^T^r

Xivct

?opa-

q;^^ ^^^^^ ^^ /^^^

fer

jTfV Sroj <^ «fl^v

A<>0(.

RA.i'ai J^ 0^-

roTi

aMa r'ooite? "^^'f^i^ OZroiK^^^^ ^^aicTO?^ ro/^CO
ix
G101V,

y-^/^^^ menftbus fmgidis unoi^
libuf

&

pel-

6?)

,

a

av TTk^cx iTPj^a-m.
,

i.'^M
fyj.'ji

i^x

5? :^« ^^ :7ae9i^)i<na. ^Oi;e9tr ^^

-^vTii^

y^
^ovc,
-zztii

V
^

K,

avh^ii

K,

yu^cay^i,

[X^--'^'

otcv-m^ jwcvKa.^
^

deinde abftere^iVefte^d h£c uti, «^« t;;Z/^/rf , fed iglabris maceratifqx, ^^^-^^ ^^^^^ temtijfimfs , z;>/ ^^«^ atque uxores. Exceptk forte ditifi^j^ inter eos, ik quidem pauck,

^

fx^.

q,ti

y

htavmo^v

fuayov^

yu^<^Z,j,1esrrro^^<,

<^^^j ^-

n,. a'AKc,
.^Pjv.
-ruroi

^

lineos geflent amiSius. Nee item leCforum novife ufumeos, qui extern^^^^^^^ .y. ^^^^^ ^xfiruant. Hunc a-

fMy,a^^ c^-roK. 6?tv a..

A^xs^io^^^ ^ai,

K^^K^io:

^^

^^^ ditijfimum Lberi, qui pluri-

^^rwv

a.^pc.-TTc.v

C«^' 7^

^-n,

f K,o. moi d\ cujT^^ K,r.

^^^hSeatfecork, acreliquasopes ^^ propemodum ejfe fimiles. Caudam .^j-^^^^ j^^y^^^ omnes.tam viros quam

mulieres^ fupra clunes^ canina^ fimilem, nift qwad major fit, €^ pilk den^adrupedes item hos, canum more, cum mulieribus congredi aliumfor.
JuJiiJJimos eofdem effe^ Vivere namq-^ ad centejimum ufq-^^ vit£q-^ reliquos inter homines longijfim£. i. fc feptHAgefimnm^ nonnuUofq-^ ad dHcentijfimum quoq^ annum.

que congrediendi

modum omnem pro

turpi habere.

7y:)e

Cynoctphali

of the Jncients.

4.1

In thefe Mountains (faith Ctefias) live certain Men, who have Heads like Dogs, are cloathed with Skins of wild Beafts, fpeak no * Language, but bark like Dogs , and thereby underftand one another. ' They have Teeth larger than Dogs ; and Nails like Dogs , but longer * and rounder. They dwell up in the Mountains , as far as the River ' Indus they are black and very jufl:,as are the other 7»^/<?»i- with whom ' they are mixt ; and they underftand what is faid to them, tho' they * cannot fpeak themfelves. But by their Barkings and their Hands and ' they fignifie their Minds, as Deaf and Dumb Men do. Fingers, They ' are called by the Indians, Calyfirij, which in Greeli is Cynocephali. The ' whole Nation is an hundred and twenty Thoufand in number.
' /.

e.

'

-^

Thefe Cynocephali that inhabit the Mountains, do not work, but live ^ and when they kill any wild Bead, they roft it in the ' Sun. They breed a great many Sheep, Goats and AfTes ^ and drink the ' Milk and Butter-milk of the Sheep. They eat likewife the Fruit of the ' Sipachora. Tree, from whence comes Ambar, the Fruit whereof is fweet, ' which having dried, they put up in Baskets, astheGree4f do Raijtns. ' Thefe Cynocephali having made a Boat, they load it with this Fruit, and ' with Purpura, the Flower being fir ft picked, and with Afnbar, to the * quantity of Two hundred and fixty Talents, which they every Year * (hip off, and as much too of the Drug , with which the Dyers dye ' the Scarlet ; and they carry every Year a Thoufand Talents of Ambar ' to the King oi India ^ and they take with them other Commodities, ' which they fell to the Indians ; for which they receive Bread , and ' Meal,and Cotton Garments. And the Indians fell them likewife Swords, ' which they ufe in taking the wild Beafts 5 and Bows and Darts,for they * are very skilful Archers and Darters. They are invincible, becaufe * they inhabit very high, and inacceffible Mountains. Every fifth year, " the King beftows upon them Three hundred thoufand Bows, and as ' many Darts Alfoan Hundred and twenty thoufand Shields, and Fifty ' thoufand. Swords. They have no Houfes, but live in Caves. In hunt' ing the wild Beafts, they ufe their Bows and Darts, and purfuing ' them, they take them ; for they run very fwift. The Women bathe ' only once a Month, when they have their Catamema, other wife not, ' The Men don't bathe, but only wafti their hands ^ but they anoint * themfelves three times in a Month with Oyl made of Milk, and rub ' themfelves with Hides. The Cloaths both of the Men and VVomen are ' not hairy, but Skins macerated fmooth, and made very thin. The ' richeft of them wear Linnen, but thofe are but few. They have no ' Beds, but lye upon Straw or Leaves. He is efteemed the richeft a-' mongft them, who hath moft Sheep, or fuch like Subftance. They have * all, both Men and Women, Tails on their Rumps, like Dogs, but lar' ger and more hairy ; and,like Dogs too , they !ye with their Woraea* on all four, and they think itunbecoming to dootherwife. They are
'

'

upon Hunting

:

'juf¥

4-2
' '

A Philological Bjfay

concerning
live

juft,

feventy,

and the longeft lived of any Men, for they and fome of them Two hundred years.
Oejias

an Hundred and

Had not
that

made fuch a Solemn Afleveration of the Truth of all he had wrote,that Apology that Strabo(b) makes for the Foets^xxn^t

excufe him, $a/i'e^
i-e. Statim

^ C^ith Strabo) iv^vi on
eos fabulas admifcere^

fjuuSrui Tnto^-^sh-iKHaiv ittovni'

non ob verorum igmratiomm^ fed dzhBationis catifa^ monflra €^ alia, qux ejje non pojjknt , fingentes. For our Hijiorian had as good a Talent at Fiction as any of the Poets. And tho' Mfchylui^ as the fame Strabo there tells us firft invented the Story of the CynocephaU^ or Camdpites , as iikewife the FeBorocuUtl and the Umculi^ as Hejtod and Homer did that of the Pygwks ; yet I can't but think he hath as far out-done the Original in what he relates of the Cjnocephali, as he did in the Account he gives of the Pygmks.
,

enim apparet

gives this Relation

Thefe Cynocephali by (c) JEl/an are called avdpceiroi mjvoiv^mo'iTOi, and he of them, as I find him tranllated by Conrad. Gefner,
is

Ultra Oafm Earn excipit Regio quam Cynoprofopi Homines incolnnt^ in via i^thioplam verfus, Vivunt illi Caprariim ©" Btibalidtim venatit. Dentes AJpe5fm iis niger^ Caput Cank. ^tod Animal^ quum referant^ non abfurda eorum (quamquam Hominum) hoc in loco exijtimanda eji mentio. Nam Sermonis uftt carent^ actito cjHodam firidorefonant. Barbam injra fitpraqiie os germt , Draconum qitadam Jimilitudine. Manm eorum validk acutijjimis unguibuf Corpus omne hirfntum eU , hoc etiam injiar Canum. armantnr. Sunt antem pernicijjimi, <& aquas Regionis fzorunt ; atque earn ob caufam^ difflciles
Pet. Gi/Iius,

who

more

faithful in rendering

him than

M-

gypt?, folitudo

maxima ad feptem

d/eriem iter extenditur.

&

&

&

^

captH.

Now

tho* JEl/an calls

them here Men, yet where he

defcribes

them

before, even out of Oe//r7^, he plainly tells us they are not Me«r, but only Brutes^ becaufe they cannot fpeak, but only bark. I will give you
this Paflage : In eodem Indi£ traUu, ubi Canjofn diSfi, Cynocephali etiam reperiuntur : quibus a facie Car("f") park j^ecie nomen inditnm^ cetera fere hum ana habent : €^ vejiiti pellibiff

(d) Gefner's Tranflation of

thari

^

fcrarum ingrediuntur. Jujiifunt^ Hominum nemini molefti aut injurij^non Sermone fed ululaiufonant. Indorum tamen linguam intelligunt. Venatione Animalium ferortim vivunt^ qttie ut funt celerrimt , facile confecuti inteCaprm etiam eves alnnt, ut rimunt, fiujiatim divifa adfolem ajfunt.

&

&

(c) Milan. Hifl.de Animal.\\h. lo. a-p.i'i. ^.m.6oi. (h) Strabo Oeogi-afh.Yih.i.^.m.ii^. {d) liim.Hifl.de Animal.lih. 4.cap. 40. p. rn. 239. ({) Thefe dntharl are that fort of ScatiMw we call a Lady-Cow, and I have forrnerly given a Figure of, in Phihfoph.Tratifa^. N. 176. p. 1202. from or Chryjalu of wliich , come the Coch'meel^ for dying Scarlet, of which there is a good the

M-

Worm

account here in j^lian out of

Cteftac,

ex

The Cynocephali of the

Ancients,

4.3

ex la6fe potufiuantur. Horum inter Animantes rationis expertes non femere mentjonem feci^ artkulato enim^ difcretoqne^ humn.no Sermone non u~
tuntnr.

But 'twas for want of Education, it may be, and by their living wild Woods, they loft their Learning and their Speech ; for the Mgyptians in the time of the Ptolomks took more care of them ; and as the fame lElian relates, they taught them Letters, and to Dance, and to play upon Mufick : Nor were they ungrateful to their Mafters 5 for they beg'd a great deal of Money, which they carefully put up into a Bag, to reward them for the pains they had taken with them. For thus , faith (e) JElian, as Gefner tranflates him , Antmdta Difdplzn£ idonea h^c ejfe percept. Regnantibus Ptolomeis Qinocephalos JEgyptij literas , d^ faltare^ Turn vero umifquij^iam Cynocephalorum merpulfare Citharam docebant. cedem ^ Domini nomine fie fciti tanquam peritus aliqtm Mendicus exigebat. Et id quod dabatur in Marfupinm , quod ferebat, appenjum, conin the

&

gerebat.

could not but take the more notice of this palTage in JElian, becaufe the Cynocephali are always reprefented to be of a fierce and untraftable Nature 5 which feems their particular Charader : For faith Arijiotle, as I have quoted him already (fX Ka) of Kituosd^ct^oi Si tUu ofWlw e^act /ico^flw toTt; •m^icoigy 'TJkhu /tt&i(^oi'S? r' ^m, itji^v^n^i, iy to. ir^awTni I^OfTi? khI

i^u^jnpa^.

they are bigger andjironger,

of afiercer ^ fo (gyPliny, Efferacior Cynocephalk Naturaficut Satyrif : And (/j) SolinuSy Cynocephali ipfi funt S numerofimiarum, in JEthiopia parte fiequentijfimi i

The Cynocephali are of the fame fiape with Monkeys, bttp and they have a Face more lik§ a Do£s, and are And Nature.^ and have Teeth more lik^ a Dog's andftronger.
i. e.

&

molenti adfaltum, feri morfu., nunquam ita manfueti^ ut non fint magis rahidi. And ( z ) Diodoruf Siculus defcribes them after the fame manner :

Of ^'
XJHoa-,

ovo/uzi^of/Avoi )ujvoid(pa.?\.oi To<?
TK?.;

fj^Av

aufxciaiv dv^poo7m<;

(pip&i? ela},
iij

1^

<pcieva,T<;

fjuuy/Lii<;

dvQpoD'mvai tt^Vsj'^)"

^imSiai TrapifMd-y^MTula Si mJuTzt -nz.
i^pvocv •7r^(m-^iv cfjugn-

TTVcAlKSic,

dm^zosSjlcL ^j.^gdS'ia.^ rluC ^OTQ
3»Aeia(5 i^ooTttlov
i. e.

t^I"

^TiQgiv

eVw

"ntic, <5^

auju.'^ct.lv^,

70 rlu) iMtQc/iv o/ionx;

tS ow-

iuuxfl@^ tpip&iv aTmvlcc -r }^pmv.

CHntur, Corporis
mujjitatione

(a Canino Capite) di~ aj^eSium Homimtm deformium infiar habent, quorum vocem

^d Cynocephali

tantum exprimunt. Apprimh ferox eji hoc Animal, nee ul/o cicurationem paUo admittit, vultum afuperciliis aujierioribm prafert. Singulare quiddam fsmeUk accidit 5 quod vulvamperpetuo extra Corpus proJeSam habent. And Agatharcides in (k) Photim gives juft the fame defcription of them : "O Si }(.iujoxAipai,?\.@y, (faith he} to fjiAv mfMx, dv^poa-na ^OTiS'a? •vssrs-

&

Jlifl.

(e; Mlian.Hifl, de Anim. lib. 6. cap. lo. p. 331, (f ) Vid.fag.^.fy 7. of the Anatomy, _ (h) Plinij ( i ) Diodari Skuli BiNat. lib. 8. cap.54. p. 243, (h) Solini Polyhilior. cap. 27. p. m. 39.
3.

Miotb.Hiflor.M,

p.m. i58.

(k)

Phdj BihMh^Csip,

38. Cod. 250. p.m. 13^4.

G

7&^

44-

^

Thiloiogkal Efjay concerning^&LC.

i.e.

/« Cynocephalo

Homink

Corpus-^ fpecie

turps

,

aditmbratur.

Canma

ei

Sed immodice ferum fades, vocem Jirtdori Mur'fS non dfjJlviHem exprimit. eji Animdy tiec uUo modo ct curat ur : viiltHmqite a fitperdliis eculk aujierum prodit. Ita Mas comparatJis eji. Fcemineo generi hoc e^ proprUim^ nt

&

'

titer

um

extra Corpus gejiet^ eoqtie hahitn tot am ex/gat

vitatf/.

Salmafus (I) remarks that Jgatharcides borrowed this Pafiage, as he hath fome others likevvife, from Diodorus Sictdus, But that thefe Relations oiCtejias that are fo extravagant and wild, fhould be copied from him, by fo many and noted Authors too, feems fomewhat ftrange. Yet we find Mlian, Pliny, Solhu^, and a great many others have done it tho' they have added by it little Credit to their Hiftories, and no doubt much leffened their own Reputation by tranfcribing the Errors of their Predeceflbrs. In the Hijiory therefore of Nature we mufi: not depend upon the Authority of the Number of thofe that only tranfcribe the fame thing,without duly examining the Matter themfelves ; For the Authority here wholly depends on the veracity of the firft Relator And if what Cfe/^{aiihis falfe, tho' never fo many fay the fame thing from him, they mufl: all be in the wrong. Efpecially in tranfcribing the Anclents.and believing their Reports, we ought to be very cautious,fince 'twas a common Pradice amongft them to difguife and conceal the Truths they would deliver, in JEnigwatkal and Mythological Reprefentations. Many times there is fomething of Truth contained in their Relations, but 'tis under fuch Vails, that you will not difcover it, till you have taken them
:

off.

And

tho' there are

no

fuch Men, as Ctejiass Cynocephali^and Pygmies:,
a

yet there are Apes, for his Invention.

and Monkeys, zndBaboonSfthata^orded him

ground

of Monkey thefe Cynocephali were, I fhall not at prefent enquire ; that they are of the Monkey-kjnd is evident, becaufe they have Tails and Ariflotle tells us, that they are bigger and ftronger, and therefore I make them of the Baboon-kind. But not having feen any of them my felf, I ftiall refer my Reader to the Authors who have wrote about them. 'Tis fufficient to my prefent purpofe that they are a fort of Monkeys, and not Men, as formerly reprefented.
:

Now what fort

(l) SalmafijExercitap. Plinian. Cap,2j.^.267.

A

45

Philological Effay

SATYRS
OF
T H
E

Concerning the

ANCIENTS
Of theS

ATYKS

of the

Ancients.

•^ZJ L P 11^ 5 and BontJm indeed think the Ormg-Otitmg to be the Satyr of the Ancients 5 but if we enquire into their Hiftory, and examine what Opinion the Ancients had concerning them, we (hall find it no lefs involved in Fables, than that of the Pygtfiks , and upon this account feveral of our Learned Men of late, have wholly denied them, and look upon all the Stories concerning them to be only a Fiction of the Poets- and Painters, and that there were never any fuch Beings in Nature. The Learned (<?)Gz/^«W is clearly of this Mind, <^?«V^«i3 £i?e Satyrk kgimus (faith he ) ex Poetarum Pi^oriimque fingendi Licentia Originem dticere. Nihil

hujm r ever a in Reruf^i-NatHra exijiere. So ( ^ ) Ifaac Vojjius fpeaking of th^ JEgipanes ttWs MS, Sane neque in forma hujus monfiri conveniitnt,fi tamen monflris accenfenda fnnt ea qua funt mera Gneculorttm Commenta.
,

And

the Learned (c) Bochartus. faith, Ahfit interim ut ex hk lock ^tifqmm colligat, itllos aut jam exflare, vel unqitam extitijjh in Rernm 'Natnra Saty-

r^j.However,!

do not doubt but

to

make

it

plainly appear, that there were

(a) CafuHbon de Poefi Satyrica,]\h.l. C3ip. 2. (b) Jfyojfi) Comment.ad Pompon. MelamMh.l.cS.p.m. 46^ (c) Eocharti Hkrozok. feu de Animal. Sttcrx. Scripture, part, port, lib, 6, cap. 7. p. 829.

G

2

'

fuch

4^

A Philological Effay concerning

fuch Animals in A^Ica which the Ancients called Satyrs. And tho' they fometimes called themMe», and for the moft part worlhipped them as Gods, yet I (hall (hew, that they were only a fort of Monkey s^ and like wife Evince, that the Orang-Oraang was not this fort o{ Monkey or Satyr of the
Ancients.

Having propofed thefe as the Heads of my enfuing Difcourfe, it will not be expected of me to give an Account of all that has been faid on this Argument. I (hall rather apply ray felf to make out what I have And tho' on this occalion, it may be,the Poets have Emghere aiferted. matically reprefented fome Nobler Secrets of Philofophy^ by what they relate under the Fables they have made of thefe Satyrs^tht Fatmi^the Nymfhce^ Paft, JEgipafT, Sylvanm^ Silenus^ or any other Name they have given of this fort of Animal-^ yet I think my felf no farther concerned at prefent,than to (hew what might give the fir(t rife to and occafion of thefe Inventions : or rather to prove that the Satyrs were neither Men, nor Demi-gods^ nor Dttemons 5 but Monkeys or Baboons^ that in Jfika were worfhipped as the Gods of the Country 5 and being fo , might give the Poets the Subject of the Stories which they have forged about them.

Parts, but

Men in the upper with Horns on their Heads 5 and in their lower Parts or Legs like Goats : hence they are called Capripedes^or Aiyi-TnSii; av^^i?, as Herodotm exprefles it. And Pliny (as I (hall (hew) where he defcribes them as Brutes j and faith, they are fometimes ^tadrupeds , fometimes Bipeds, yet tells us, they are Humana Effigje. Djodorus Skulus (jT) informs us that when Ojtris went into lEwtopia, d-^^vauj Myam n^^ ouutvv to t^ 2aThe
Satyrs therefore are generally reprefented like

•n^ixvyiv^^,

8$

ipaoiv

K^ ttJ?

oa<pii(^

?'^v
ei

itj:ifAa.c,^Q.

1.

e.

T>um

in lEthio-

pia verfatur

(Oprk) Gens Satyrorum
Satyri igitur quia

adducitur

(OJ^hye) habere ferunt.
gaudebat., 8cc.

Rijus enim amatror erat Ojirk

omnemque hilaritatem hifum apti erant^ in partem Militi£ venerunt. He makes them likewife the Companions of B/?cc/j^, and for the fame reafon (e)^ T8? 3 2a7£;f «? "ml^ 7r^\ ^Aa)7a avvi^y^szLic, '^^In^i^ffin ^^ooyAva?, 7m^<nc6L>a,^&iv tsT Aiovvasti liv Iv^iinjovct k^ mt^a^o^ivov iSiov' i. e. Jfa Satyri Indicris ad rifum compojitis gejiibus d^ aStionibus, vitam Dionyfo

&

ad

tripudia,

& Mufica & decantationem Carminnm,
Choreifq:^

,

quas pilos in

lumbk

&

they are always reprefented as Jocofe and Sportful, but Scurrilous and Lafcivious 5 and wonderful Things they relate of their Revellings by Night, their Dancing, Mu(ick, and their wanton Frolicks. For thus Pliny (/) defcribing the Parts about the Mountain Atlas in AJrica, informs us, Incolarum neminem inter" din cerni : filere omnia, non alio quam folitndinnm horrore : fubire tacitam
beatam^ Gratiifque delibutam^ reddunt.

And

(i) DiodoYHf

Skulm

Eibliothec. Hifl.

lib. i.

p.m. I^.

{e)

Dhdorui S'mlHi

ibid.

\xh,^.)^.m. 21^,

( f) Plini) Hift. Nat.

lib. 5,

cap. i. p.

m. 523.

The S
Religionem
anjtftos

ATYKS of

the Jncients.

4.7

proprius accedentium^ pr£terque horror em dati (fc. MonEundem no&ibus micatis) fuper nubila^ at que in viciniam Lunark circuli. re crebris ignibu^^ j$)gipanum, Satyrorumqtie lafcivia impleri^ Tibiarum ac

FifiuU

Cantii, dJ"

Cymbalorum Sonitufirepere.

brati Authores prodidere.

And then adds, H£c celeAnd (o CgJPomponius Mela, Z)ltra hunc finum

(ut Gr£ci vacant) Qiw t-)(^fxa., perpetnk ignibm flagrat : ultra montera viret CoUk longo tra&u, longis littoribus obdu^us , unde vifuntur patentes magk Campi^ quam ut projpici pojjint, Panum, Satyrorumque. Hinc opinio eafidem cepit, quod cum in hk nihil culti fit, nuUa habitantium Sedes,^

Mons

altui

nulla Vejiigia, falitudo in

micant, pana, audiunturque Tibi£ Sonantes majus humank. Where we may obAnd the ferve that what Pliny calls JEgipanes, Mela calls here Panes. Satyrs being commonly called Fauni, I can't but think, that the idle Stories we have about the Fairies, muft come from hence : For they likewife have their Revellings, Dancing, and Mufick by Night. And as even to this day, to fright Children, they tell them Stories of Fairies and Hobgoblins, fo the Ancients did ufe to call any great fudden Fear, as we do now, a Panicl^Fear, from this Pan. For as (h) Paufanias tells us,
•rat (yx,

^ filentium Vajlius, noUe crebri ignes & veluti Cafira latejacentia oftenduntur^ Crepant Cj/mbala © Tjimdiem Vajia,

rsT»
nulla

(paai ywiSiouj'

i. e.

enim

ex caufa Ortos

EJ no&e Panicm il/os incejjtt terror. ab eo (fc. Pane) immitti aiunt.

Terrores

And

fo>

^i)

Euripides:

Saturnij (Senis)

Tank tremendo flagello

(iGcus }

trepidifs.

And

fo

(10

Tiionyfius Halicarnaffkm fpeaking
-nx.

of the Faunus,
;t(

fays, Tarda
a,

^

avaTVrSsaoi 75? tkifjuovi 'VoefUMt'oi

Tlavi^^

cW

(psco^alct
\.

f^ovlx (i^o^^a?,

el? o^iv a,vQ^MTta>v i'^yov2),

Romani Panicos

terrores adfcribunt,

induentia formas in

Hominum

qu£cunque alia conj^e^um veniunt, d^ Metum

^

^s^iumIo, tpi^vla,"

otz aMo/a§ Huic enim Spe&ra, qu£ varias
e.
ipfis incutiunt-,

And

(I) Ovid

:

'Faunique bicornes

Nttmine conta&as attonuere fuo.

How jolly therefore foever

and merry tht Satyrs xm.y b&^ night amongd: themfelves,with their Dancing and Mufick yet they have been frightful to Men formerly, as the Stories of the Fairies and Hobgoblins are(as I faid before) to Children now jand indeed,the telling. Children Stories of this
:

(g) Pomf. Mela defitu Orbit, lib. 3. cap. 9. p. m. 63, (k) Dionyfij HalicarnaJJ', lib. i-ca^. S' Rhafi.

(h) Paufanias in Phodck.

(i)EHripides Itk:

V} Ovid

in

PMra.
I?ind«

48

A

Thiiological EJfay concerning

kind, is a very mifchievous Cuftom ; for they are thereby imprefTed with But the fuch Fears, as perhaps they cannot conquer all their Life time. thefe PanickMears, I think is natuAccount that (m) ?hurmtm gives of
ral 5 for he tells us
d?\.6yiig,
ri

,

"E?-'
-2)

3

70 Trai/i^ysV A^T^idas/
it}

Ttt^ya-c^

to^ a^wJi'a?,

^

BTZi)

yi^ Tra?

at dyihaif,

to. cliTrnMoc ^o&iraif,

\toipa nv^'; c)^ jJa«;,

7^ Oarai'7^ctiv iy <px^-}(cii^Zv -zinroev dKbaztvIa,' i. e. Nihil prohihet qnin etiam Panicos tutmdtusdicamm, qnifubito d^ fine ratione cert exoriuntur : fie dnm fonus qnidam fubitm e enifn interdnm armenta (& greges terrentur
a.

,

Sylva^ ant ex

Antrk

ant ex Terrte voraginibus affertur.

Now

and Drums,

Lucretius thinks that all this Mufick of Pipes , Flutes, Cymbals that is faid to be made by the Jollity and Revellings of the
Paties,

&c. in this dreadful Mountain by Night, is meer Romance and Fiftion ^ and that 'tis nothing but the Ecchoing of the whiftling boifterous Winds amongft thofe hideous Rocks : For l^eaking of Eccho's^ he tells us («),
Satyrs^ Fannie

Sex

Unam ctwijaceres

etiam, ant feptem loca vidi reddere voces : ita coUes coUibus ipfis

Verba repitlfantes iterabant dii^a refer re. Hiec loca Capripedes Satyros , Nymphafque tenere Faunos ejje loqmntur ; Finitimifingnnt,

&

Sluorum notiivago firepitu, Ludoque jocanti Adfirmant voJgo tacitnrna filentia riampi^
Chordarnmqiie Sana s fieri ^ dulceifque querelas^
"Tibia quasfiindit digitk pidfata

canentum

:

Et genus Agricolum

late fentifcere^

cum Pan

Pifteafe/f/iferi Capitis yela/^/Jna quajjans,

"Vfu-oficpe labro calamos perciirrit hianteis,

Fijlnla Silveflrem ne cefiet fundere

Mufam.

Ccelera de gcnere hoc monfira, ac Portent a. loqmmtnr, Ne loon deferta ab Divis qiioque forte putentur Sola tenere : ideojaolant miracnla diCfis Ant aliqua ralione alia dncuntur^ ut omne Humamim Genus eB avidum nimis auricidarum.

Which

the Ingenious Mr. Creech hath thus rendered

:

And I my felf

have

known

Some Rocks and Hills return/^ words for on^ : The dancing words from Plill to Hill rebound, They all receive^ and all rejiore the found.

The Vulgar^ and
That
verf. 581.

there the

the Neighbours think, and tell, Nymphs^ and Fauns, and Satyrs dwell
C0.
de Fane, p.

5
Iib.4,

(m) PhmmtHi deNatura

Vmum

m. 70.

(n) T. Lucretij de Rerum Natim,

And

TheS
And

JTYRS of
wanton

the Ancients,

4^

loud delight Breaks thro' the quiet filence of the Night :
that their
fport, their

Their Ma/4's fofteft Ayrs fill all the Plains, And mighty Pan delights the liftning Swains; The Goat-fac'd Pan^ whilft Flocks fecurely feed. With long-hung lip he blows his Oaten Reed ; The horn'd, the half-beafc God, when brisk and gay With Pine-leaves crown'd, provokes the Swains to play, Ten thoufand fuch Rom ants the Vulgar tell, Perhaps leaft Men (hould think the Gods will dwell In Tovens alone, and fcorn their Plains and Cell Or fomewhat 5 for Man credulous and vain
Delights to hear ftrange things, delights f^/ez^w.
Lucretius here attributes the Invention of thefe Fables to the fuperftitious Notions Men had of Deities^ and the Itching Ears Mankind generally hath for hearing Novelties and Wonders ; and no doubt,the fatisfying
this Humour put the Ancients upon inventing moft of thefe Stories. But we may take notice that Lucretius places together the Satyrs^ the Nymphs,

the Fauni and Pan ; and generally I obferve, where mention them, feveral are joyned together : As (0) Ovid,

is

made o£

JUum
Et

RuricoliS, Sylvarum

Numna, Fauni
clar us

Satyrijfatres,

d^ tunc qitoque

Olympus

~Et Nymphteflerunt.

The Fauni

therefore 2in^Satyrs I find are near akin.
faith,

And

(/?)

Ovid in

another place

^iid nan

& Satyri Saltatihus apt a juventus
Pinu pr£cinSii Cornua Panes.

Fecere, (^

Silvanufque fuis femper juvenilior annis.

And

elfewhere he tells us Qj),
.

.

Panes

& in Venerem Satyrorum prona juventus.
the.

The

Satyrs therefore and Fauni feem to be young ones, and the eider, Panes and Silvani, according to that of (r) Virgil,

-Deos qui novit agrefles Panaque, Silvanumqtte Senem Nymphafque Sorores.

And (j) Plutarch tells us that what the Greeks called JEgipan^the Romans called Silvamis. And (t) Paufanias exprefly tells us, that when the Satyrs
(oj

OvU. Mitamorpb.

lib.

5. verf.

592.

Faftorum.

(r) Vir^il.Geo)s.l2.ye[i,ii5^,

(q)(?wi. l.i. (p) Ovid, Metamorph.lih. li^.verL 6^7, (t) Pauftn.inAttic^.m.zi, (s) Flutanh.in ParaUdk.

grow

50
grow

A

Thiiologkal Bjfay concerning
Ts; ^ iiXma, r^ :S.cLlvpoev •m^nitov'la.i And by Virgil's Expreffion Nymphafqne Sorores^ 'tis
:

old, they are called Sikni

ovoiuoL^acTi 2&tA?tt/85.

very evident, that the Nymphs likewife were of this Family, and nearly Ovid («) joyns them together. related. Sunt mihi Semidei^ funt
Ruflica.

Faumque,

Satyriqtte,

& monticuls

Nnmina

NyfMphiie,

Silvani.

is amongft all thefe, unlefs as to their Age undertake at prefent to determine. The Poets and and 5ex, I will not the Painters of old, if we nicely enquire into them, have been pleafed, as their fancy govern'd them, to make, or not make a diftindtion between them. Thofe that have a mind to fatisfie their Curiofity farther in this Matter, may confult Salmajius, Bochart^ Gerard^ and Ifaac Vojjius , and I am apt to think feveral others, who have largely wrote about them. that Pan^ JEgipan, Srlvanm and SiUnus , were all the fame ; as were the Satyri and the Fanni ; only thefe were younger than the former 3 and the Nymphs were the Females of the Rind. But 'tis fufficient to?my bufinefs, if I make it appear, notwithftanding all this, that the Satyrs were notMw, nor Demi-Gods^ not Damons^ but only Brutes of the M£?«/^e^kind ; which is plain enough even from the Ancients , who have invented fo many Fables about them.

Now

what

difference there

apt enough oftetimes to be overcredulous,6|t'wl iaav i ini^a. Aiyov1i';,oi}(AHv ra ^piac, diyiTrohtg a.v^^g' for they Satyri de hominibus nihil aliud are neither Men, nor have they fuch Feet.

For

(vp)

Herodotus

tells us,

and he

is

prafemnt qnam figtiram^ faith (jx)Solinuf. Satyrm prater Effigiem nihil humani^ faith (y^Mela. Pliny gives US a larger defcription of them 5 Satyri (faith (z.) he) fubfolanis Indorum mo7ttihus (Catharcludorum Sunt dicitur Regio) perniciojijjimnm Animal : Cum ^ladritpedes turn re£l? incedentes, hi/man^ ^ffig^^t propter velocitatem^ nifi Senes attt agri^ non capinnChoromandarttm Gentem vocat Tauron^ Silvejirem, fine voce^ jlridoris tur.

&

horrendi, hirtis Corporibm^ oculk glaucis^ dentibus canink.

You may here perceive they have fomething of the (hape of Men, but can't fpeak, they are hairy, they go fometimes upon all four, fometimes ere£t, they have
Dogs Teeth, more exprefs
But lElian is a- little they are wild mifchievous Animals. Finitimos Indis montes ( faith ( « ) he ) tranfmittenti, ad intimitm Lit us denjtjjimas convalles videri aiunt, Corudam locum nomitoto Cornari : ubi Bejli£ Satyrorum jimilitudinem formamque gerentes^ Ea quum pore hirfut£^ verfantur : atque Equina Cauda pr adit £ dicuntur.
:

^

&

non a

venatoribtfs agitantur

p-u£libus) vivere.

j^ijjis Sylvk folent ex fiondibus antem VenantiuntjlrepitumfentiHnt^ Ca§luum
,

in opack

^

&

(w) Heiodot. (u) O'J-LAfetamorphAih. i. verf. 195. /yW?. cap. 34. (y) Pomp. Mela de Jit uCrbif, lib. I. cap. (a) ^lian. Hift. Animal. Tib. i6. cap. 2U

in

8. p.

Melpomeni, p.m. 229. fx) Solirm Pa(z) Plm) H'ift.Nat.lib.-j.cip.2. 11,

Hum

The S
mtM
rutit :

ATYK S of
MoNtium
de

the Ancients,

$ff

latratus exandhint, in

vertices jncredtbili

celeritate excur-

nam

per monies Her conficere ajfueta fiwt.
,

qtiuntur pugnant

fummk

Contra eos qui fe infe^ montihus faxa devolventes , qnortim impetii

Jiepe mitlti deprehenjt pereunt.

Et ex iis nonnimirum^ aut gravida comprenuUiB^ fed £gerriwe tatidem^ ant agrotantes hendunlur. haver)) ob gravitates. Capta Ilia quidem propter morbum aiitem ad Prajios deferuntur. JElian here tells us that they have Tails like Horfes, therefore they muft be of the Monkey ox Baboon VSnd. And Patifanias^ who made it his Bufinefs to enquire more particularly about them, informs us they have fuch Tails, but can't fpeak, but are very Lafcivious and Luftful, as they are obferved to be to this day. I will give you Panfanias's words 5 Tli^ 3 :E(zlfjpu)v (faith (/>) he) ol-nvo; siotk, i-Aps
Itaqtte difficiUime capitrntar :
'^

TiXiov

i3i?i<jt>v

'^^^a;Qaj,

7n>?^oT<;
ic,

abu'^ r^Tzev

&ivi>(^

Ic,

Ao-yag mA^oi".

Efn ^
}t)

Evpy]//,@K,

Kaf

dvyi^ zjkioev

'IruXlctv ajLtupldv 'Jsni' ilvifxwv

tS '^»,

ii r^-to

d*

2

rcfji/raa ojzbv

av^^c,

o.'^^ihc;

ciT^ctii;

'^

hk

i^sAe-ii'

vnTini;

ir^nri^&ii/ ra?
'Bia.Qljuuct^

vdjuTctg,

oix -zsr^Jn^v

n

ar^^ovla.i^^C)

7^^^ (IfOiKUiV Sx. <z7r&ipu)i

i^ovla^.

kSvIcli;

iij '3T^c'|:8$,

^

ln'iiuiv

i -ttvXv fji^aq e^ei^

^^

tc?? i'%iO($ agjt?.

TaVy;

oei

'^^^&ip&iv

ra.T<;

a*

t>?

vm.
'E?

Tt A.^

j)

^^<^^v1ct(;

rng vavrxq^
'Zce.1v^^<;,

^d^Ca^v
s fxcvzv
1
vi

yu/jctrxefi
)iaf.%icn-

dx.Sah4iv I? rlto
Kiv,

vriunv.

rxvrlw

Sv

v^^^&iv T8?

aMa rai

70 ttuv o/uxiioegazoiiA^.
;

Which

(c) Conrad. Gefner.

find hath

Cxtentm de Satyrk^ qttinaw fnt, cum pliira qiiam alij fcire cnm mtdtk ea de re fum coUoattm : Dixit autem Euphemus Car^ fe ad mare extiqimm in Italiam navigaret cnrfu ejfe exctiffnm vi ventorum, »/Hm^ qitod navigari non item foleat portatum. Infulas autem ibi multas ejfe AC d.efertai, virk agrejlibus incoli. Ad alias vero aiebat nautas defle^ere recufaffe^ quod antea quoque eg appulf, Incolarum Jnhumanitatem ejfent ex'
thus tranflated
laborem,

&

&

perti.

Tempejiatfs denique violentia eo pervenijfe.
Incolas inejfe rubicundos

Infults eas h

Nautk vo^

(^ caudas imo dorfo habere^ Equi^ , nk non multo minores. Hos, ubi fenferant, ad navigium accurriffe. nuUant'que vocem edidiffe , fed mulierihus ISlavi una adve^lk manus injeciffe. Nautas vera timore correptos, Barbaram Mulierem in Infulam tandem projeciffe^ Earn Satjros, nonfolum qua parte confuetudo permittat, veritm etiam toto
cart Satyrias.

corpore libidinosi violhffe, referebat.

appears therefore plainly that the Satyrs have Tails. But that there might not the leafl: Scruple remain what fort of Animals thefe Satyrs were,
It

I fhall produce a Paflage out of (d?) Philojlorgim which is very exprefs, and comes fully up to our Bufinefs : For he tells us , "E<^i 3 sl^ tSto ( f*:.

Satyrus)
\.

-OTrSDJc©^,

l^tj9^V tb Tr^aairov

,

;t,

ycpyk

Tk/a

Tflvmiv^

iij

i^v

^)(M>>

e.

That a Satyr

k

a fort of Ape with a red face,

fwft

of motion,

and ha-

(b) Paufanias
ftaftic, lib, 3.

in Atticif, p.
1 1.

m. 21.

(c; Gefver. de Animal.

p.S4$.

(d)

Thihjiorgi] Hifi.

Ecck-

cap.

p. 41.

H

v^»g

52
vmga
agree,
Tail.

A

Tbilological Efjay concerning
obfervethat Phllojiorgiufzud Paufanras both

Where you may

that they have a red Face,

which may be fome mark

,

by which

again. And (e) Galen hath given us another , viz. that their Rojlrum or Chin is longer than an A^es^ but not fo long as that of the Cynocephalus^ as appears in that Paffage I have already quoted (/), VIZ. That a Man in proportion to hk Body hath theporteB Chin of any Animal next to a Man, an Ape 5 then the Lynx and Satyrs ; and after thefe the Cynocephali. Now none of thefe Marks agree to the Orang-Outang ^ for it had no Tail^ it had not a red Face^ and his Chin was JJjorter than any other fort of Apes. So that Bontius was miftaken in calling it a Satyr. And Tulpim was too hafty in laying down this Coriclufion, Infumrf7a (faith (^) he) vel NuUus eff in Rerum Naiura Satyrus : autjtquk cjl^ erit proculdubio illud Animal^ quod in Tabel/a hie a nobk depi&um. Had Tulpim a mind to have made his Orang-Outang a Satyr, he fhould not have compared him to a Courtier, nor inftanced in fuch Niceties as he obferves, of his drinking, and going to bed For, Efferatior Cynocephalk Natura.ficut Satyrk, faith (/j) VlJny.knA in another place he tells us.Satyrk pr£ter Jigur am nihil morkhumantQi). But the Orang-Outang )\2iA very tender Paffions,and was very gentle and loving. Another very remarkable difference that I find between the Satyrs and the Orang-Outang, is, that the Satyrs have Pouches in their Chops as Monkeyshz\t 5 but the OrangOutang, as I have (hewn in the Anatomy, had none, Condit (faith ( 4) J liny) in tThefauros Maxillarum Cihum Sphingiorum Satyrorum genus : tnox inde jenfim ad mandendam, manihus expromit : qitod formicis in annum folenne e/?, hk in dies vel horas. The Orang-Outang therefore cannot be the Satyrs of the Ancients, as Tidpim^ and Bonfire, and Dapperimigined.
f,

to

know them

:

^ &

were fuch^«7and that they were a fort of Monkeys ; or Apes with Tails And this Account that I have given of them, will very well make out thofe Texts in Ifaiah-^ as Chapter i^. verfe 7i. But wild Beafls of the Defart fial/ lye there, and their Hotifes fiiall be full of doleful Creatures, and Owls jhall dvf>eU there, and Satyrs fliall dance there. And Chapter 34. verf. 14. The wild Beafls of the Defart Jhall alfo meet with the wild Beafis of the Jfland ; and the Satyr fi all cry to hk Fellow^ the SchrichOwl alfo fiiall refl there, andfndfor her felfa place- of reU. For fince the Text calls them wild Beafls, I lee no reafon why we (bould fancy the Satyrs here to ht Daemons, as the Learned StJc/wr/^i- and others feem to do. I agree with Bochart, that what is told us in the Life of St. Paul the HermitQby St. Jerome , and in that of St. Anthony by St. Anaftafus of a Satyr meeting St. Anthony in the Defart,and difcourfing with him, may be
faid,I think
it

By what has been
:

fully appears that there

ffjals

as the Ancients called Satyrs

(e) Galen.

Admmftr. Anat.

lib. 4.

cap. 3. p.

(g) Nk. Tulpij Obferv. Med.

lib.

4. cap. 56. p.

(i ) Pirn} ibid. lib. 5. cap, 8. p.

m. 549.

Anat. of the Orang.Outatig , pag, 94. (b) Pliny Nat. Hift. lib. 8. cap. 54. p. 243. (k) Flini] Nat. Hijl. lib, lo- cap. 72. p. Hi. 46^.
( f ) Vid.

m. 94. m. 274.

fabulous

the S

ATYRS of
Non

the Ancients,

53

fabulous or a Delufion.

ajjentwr (faith

f/J Bochartm) narrationi

Magni Scrfptork, in qua. Satyrus introdncitur Anton'min in Eremo rogans^ ut profe communem Denm deprecetur, tanqnam Salutis in Chrijioparticeps fuiurus. Non alios fervat Chrijim, qtuim quos affnmpjit. At non ajjkmpfit Angelas^ midio minus Dsmones ant Satyr os qui mtfqiiam funt^ fed femen Abrahic: And tho' St. Jerome^ to confirm this Relation adds, That in
,

Alexandria in JEgypt, and after it's Death, it's Carcafs was embalmed and fent to Antioch for the Emperor to fee it^ Yet I (hall plainly prove that this Satyr was nothing elfe but that fort o^ Monkey I am now difcourfing about.
Conflantine's time
at

one of

thefe Monfters^was feen alive

This Story

I

find often- mentioned

5

but

(m)

P/jiloJiorgj;^ gives us

the
5

moil: particular

Account of

it,

and therefore

i^ihall infert his

own words

^Q^, og

-rhju KA^ct?\ljuu

auyoTr^fftoTzvi

'6^i,

ilj

cayotoipceg,

K) tw4

^ictyovoov to. f(J.rM

auyo<nti'\ri';,

y^

rtw ^ itoi?\.ia.v }y to gipvov }y Tag /^Aoc/iq >(cfJia.^c, rn^K'^, ov il, o TSto ^ ro ^dov i^y\ f/Av (fi^fx^vov 'Iv^v BxaiAljg KSvgctvTKfi dyngd^KSi.
IS/

a^^nvoi;
gctv-n-va

tivi TiXiTiuctlt

Slz tu 3m£/<>)^; dpfjodvov, STTSig dyriQc^vi, tcl^-^Aj'

aztvlii; ctuTL of ico^iZ^avTici;,

hiawcptvlo

'zriAiceg.

.^diuccl©^ TrziQ^^&v dawurl^ac, ^iU)va.,fA.i-^^ liji; KmvKa; /uu>] S'oaSai to ^ciJov tStd "ETT^nvit; ymAuj t^&iv,
-r 'S.drw.^v.
i.

^^^a,

^OTTOi&iv.

''Clmz^

sc,

e.

Tfjis

Ape-form

is

mixt with
x,

other Species of Animals ^ and this is plain^ fevcral beittg fent over to ut as that which is called Pan, which in its Head had a Goat's face and Goafs

horns ^ from

it's Loins downwards Goat's Legs ; but in it's Belly Breafs-^ and Hands was a pure Ape. Such an one the King of Ind'is. fent to Conftantius. This Animal lived for fome time^ and was carried about inclofed
^

in a Cage, being very wild.

When
of

it

died, thofc that looked after

embalmed

it to

make a

jJiew

this nnufual jight^fent it to

Greeks had feen this furprifedat thejirangenefr of the fght, fancied it to be a God , it being ufual for them to make a God of any thing that they admired or wondered at : as
they

Now L am apt to believe the ancient
did

it, having Conftantinople. Animal, and being

the Satyr.

Monkey-l^nd

Ti3 evident therefore by this Relation, that the Satyr is of the Ape or and includes both. But : For tA^k'^ here is generical
,

of them,they received a denomination according to the refemblance they had to other Animals ; as in Fhilofiorgim are mentioned before, the Leontopithecus, the Ar5fopithecus, the Cynocephalus and Aegopithecus,v/h.ich laft feems to be our Satyr^from the refemblance it hath in it's Head and Legs to a Goat. That their Legs and Face are like a Goat'Sjis eafie enough to be believed but the Horns that they clap upon his Head, feem to me as an addition of the Poets^ot the Painters^ov both. But what gave a foundation to this Invention^ poffibly may be the largethere being feveral Species
:

(1)

Socharp. Hieroa^ok, part. pjler.]xb,^. cap. 7. p. 825.

(m)

FhikJlor^.NiJl, Ecdef:aJUc,hh.'}.ciip.ii.

H

2

"

nefs

54
nefs

-^ Philological Effay concerning
of their Ears {landing off from their Head, and which are very reAnd this l^hnrmitm (jt) gives as the reafon of it. Horace
takes notice

markable.
(
(7

J

of

their Ears, but

ill

defcribes

them

in

making them

Iharp pointed, whereas they are round.

— £J^
But by
this

attres

Capripedum Satyrorum aaitas.

Account it likewife'appears, that Van was a Name of this fort of Monkey 5 and Plydojlorgiusi Remark at the Conclufion of this Paffage, I think is very jufl: ; for'iis certain that this Animal was worl¥ipped and 'twas Death in India as a Deity ^ as a Dog was by the /Egyptians For thus faith ()?) Diodori^ Siculus , for any Body to kill one of them
t,

:

^o/LUvoi, >(^Qci7n^ -Tizi^ klyjTniQiq

01

K^viq' ik tz

t^

7nt^i(ntAjx^tv'j)v

<Cf

7o?5

tk-

cmyo^xg. \' iTj^Jcnxf ^^orst; txh"? Toi's yra^' rfjiv ^Tn.T^f 3^£v.
^ij-st,
f^c-t.

-Trutai

f^id
(5^ ;t,

to

Tik&.'^ov

^wo 7-^ -Tn^KUV,
oei

aoaxn^
jjJt/jt.i-

^

"ix^Kl&ivxsi

tSto to

^sSoy,

hnon-rton to.

^oxolKB^ cS^g'o it^gii^jcv. A»o

JTagp:

tzoiv o^i^vff^v

d* Tra^ifAxi

'^^ T^^ dvxI&tvo/ji/ivcDV, on 'm^KH. nim domus Simie quas Honiines fieqaentant ;
?\.iyiiJL&vov

xifjuc 'Trolta&ixv. i.e.

Eafdem

e~

^

pro Diis habentur apnd

i'llos^'

nt apiid JEgyptios Canes
7j.emine prohibente,

5

paratas etiam in Cellk penariis cibos, qitando

lihet^

htc bejiitefnmunt^

nominaqne ut plurin/um a Simik, ut

apud nos k Dih^
cerint^ in eos^
tit

Parentes Liberkfitis imponnnt.
nefari<e

^d

Impietatk reos^ fupplicio

Animal hoc interfecapitk anim advertit ttr.

Ideo apnd nonnnllos Proverbij vlcem

obtinitit, quod in magnificefe efferentes And in another place (^) Diodorus tells Simi£ Cniorem bihijii. ; us, that Pan was in the greateft Veneration amongft the /Egyptians^ and. And (r) Juvenal remarks, bis Statue was irr every Temple.

dkitur

Effigies Sucri nitet aurea Cercopithecr.^

The

mongft what (s) Johannes Linfchoten
*^

Superftition -of worfhipping this ^«i/»(?/ obtained not only athe Ancients, but there are Inftances likewifeof a later date, and
relates, is

'
'

'
' '

'
*•

'

very remarkable. ' How that in; the Year 1554. the Portiiguefe having taken the Ifland of Cej//(7«,they propofed to rob a Temple on the top oi Adam's Pik§ 5 but they found nothing there,but a little Cabinet adorned with Gold and Jewels,in which was kept the Tooth of an Ape^ which they took away, to the great grief of the Kings of that Place ; who fent AmbafTadors to the Ptfr?i(/:^«e/e,and offered them Seventy thoufand Ducats for the Tooth ; which the PortHgtiefe were willing enough to take, but were diflwaded from it by their Bifhop GaJ^ar, who told them, that it was a Crime, thus to encourage the Idolatry of the Indians 5 whereupon he burnt the Tooth, and
flung the Afliesinto the River.
Joh. Eufeb. Nierembergim (f) hath the

'

fn) de Nat. Veorum. Cap. de Pane. p. m. yr. ( o) Horace Odarum , Lib. 2. Ode 19. (r) Juven. Sntyr. I <,. v. 4. (p) Diodor.Skul.Biblktb.Hili.\.2o.^.m.-jg-^. (q) Diador.Sicul.ibid.ti.'^.m.iS. Q,)J.Lin[chten apnd Theod.ds Bry Ind'm 0Ajt.part,2.ctp./^6.^.va,iii. (t)J-.En[.Nkremberg,Hifi.'SatA.9.
<:/«j>.45.p.i8o.

Phwmm

faixie

The S

ATYKS of

the Jncients.
'

55

fame Story, but varies in the Account of feme Particulars. And Jah. Relation of one of their Temples,vvhich for Petruf Mafehfs (u) gives us a Magnificence, mightvie withany atfi(7/«e.- His words arethefe^ Sanefa.num eU S)mi£ dhatum : Cnjut dtmtaxat Pecori in viStimarHm tifitm cujiodiendo^ Porticus miram in longiUidimm excitrrit^ Cohtffinarum SeptitigentarHm e Mczrmore, tant£ magnitudink^ ut Agripp£ Coliir/inas^ qH£ in ccleberrimo quondam omnium Deorum Templo Rom£ vifitntur^ fine duhio ad^quent. Now thefe Animals being worfhipped by the Indians as Godt, 'tis natural to
believe (as Lucretius fuggefts) that they

%

would invent and

relate prodigi--

; and no doubt this gave the occafion to the and Hijiorians of making fuch fabulous Reprefentations of them: How far the latter might be concerned in the addition of Horns to the ^^/jrx Heads, I (hall not at prefent enquire I call it an Addition, becaufe there is no Account from any credible Author, that there were ever obferved any of the Ape-kind to have Horns. Poffibly fome ancient Statues or Paintings might give fome light into this matter for the ancient Statua^ r/e and Prfw/er/ were curious in reprefenting them , and Pliny recommends, as excellent in this kind, the Satyr oiMylo^ oi Lucippm^ Jntiphalus^ Protogenes, Arijion, and Nicomachus^ as Pieces admired in thofe days.

ous things concerning them
Poets

:

:

J-

Albertus Magnus (vp) who was happier in gueffing , than in proving or defcribing what he meant ; tells us indeed, that the Satyr (whom he calls Pilofffi) was of the Ape-kind , but he makes~ fuch an odd Compofition of him, that one would take it to be rather a Chimera , than a real Being : You may fee his words in the Citations.

Filofifi eft

(a) Jih.Pet-.MaMj Hifi.IndkXib.i.'p.m.'SiS, Atiimd Compofmmi ex homine fuperins,

(wj
(fy-

Capra

Albert, Mdgnui de Animallb. lib, 22. p. inferitti i fed Cornua habet in fimte ;

m. fy

225-,
efi

de

genere Stmiarum ; fed muhiim monllriioftm ; 1^ diqmtiens incedit erellum, iy effidtur dimhum. Hoc afferunt in Vifertii habitare /Ethiopia; ify- aliquotiens captum fy in Alexandriam dedHilum-i^ mortmm fale infufum

^

in Confttintinopolin delatum.

^^

A
Of
the

Philological Ejjay concerning

WE
boutthem
^

STHl'NGES

of the

/Ancients,

come now in the lafl: place to difcourfe of the Sphinges of the Ancients jwhtxt I (hall not relate all that is faid of them 5 nor concern my felf with the Mythology or Inter-

pretation of the feveral F^Wej that have been invented abut I propofe rather to (hew, that there were indeed fuch A'

nimals \\\\ic\\i\\t Ancient sCdiXV 6. Sphinges •^2iX\6ith.^X they were not Me,-?, but Brutes ; and that they were of the Ape or Monkey-kind.

If we confult the fabulous Defcriptions that are given of the Sphinx^wt fball find it a very monftrous Com^o^\t\on.ApoUodorus (<?) tells us/We^^b
fAv yiwca-^isn'^^^ 3^ Bzaiv h^ s^vMovl^.it, "Mipvyzi; cpw6^^* T;6rf^ Sphinx roas the daughter of ^c\i\d.nd. andTy^ho, pe had the face of a Woman, the BreaJl,Feet,and Tail of a Lion, and the I'Vings of a Bird. And (b) Atifonius^
Terruit Aoniam, Volncrk, Leo, Virgo triformk

Sphinx,

voliicris

pennk, pedibuf fera^ fronte

Pitella.

govern'd them, fo they made their defcription. Clearchuf (as I find him quoted in (f) ISfatalfs Comes) has out-done them all 5 Manus Puel/a, Corpus Canis , vocem HoAt Clearchus (faith he) Caput minis, Caiidam Draconk^ Leonk ungues, Alas Avk, illam habuiffe fcripjit. PaUphat!^ (d) is fomewhat different in his Account, where he tells us, riiei 'mi Kce.^/A.dxi ^Sipl'yoi Xiy^mv 00 ^ ^'^lov iyivilo, awpux, fXAv i^^-pv ceg jcmjo^, iOi:px?Jjuu 3, >(j^i 'rr^azv'Tiov wpng, ^i^vya<; Epvi!d@^, fonvlw 3 av^polntis' i. e. Thej fay that tlie Cadmean Sphynx was a mid Beaji, having the Body of a Dog^ the Head and Face of a Virgin, the Wings of a Bird, and the Voice of a Man. But for the raoft part they make xht Sphinx Biformk with a Maiden's Face and Lion's Feet^ as the Scholiaft upon (e) Euripides gives \t,iTPJrm)-jTOv Tmp^va. g-jiO^. 3 it, mhtc, Xiw-mt;. So the Scholiaji Upon (f) Arijiophanes, 01 '^ '^p-^^i 'TTD^t; ?\iovTzij^&ii%a7tv' And Euripides himfelf , as he is quoted by (g) JElian, makes her to have the Tail and Feet of a Lion, in that Verfe,

But

as their Fanfies

&

Caudam remulcens ad Leoninos

pedes.

Where we may

obferve

t\\^t

JElian

tells

us here that the JEgyptian Statua-^

ries, and the Thehan Fables, made the Sphinx to be only Biformk : Biformem nobk conantur reprefentare,ipfam ex Corpore Virgink Leonk cumgramtate compofttam architeh antes, ^.'Gefner there tranflateshim:But the Greeks Teprefented the Sphynx with wings^ for as (h) JElian in another place tells

^

(h) Aitjoniui in Grypho Ternari]. (c) Natalk Comes (a) /l^ol/orforf B;Wrof/jff.I.;.c.3.§ 8. p.m.i 70. (e) Eimp. in Phaniffis(d) PaUfhatm de inaed'ibUibm Hijlorm Cap.de Sphwge.<p.m. 1 4. thohg. I.p.e. 18. (h) Mlian.de Ammal. lii.cnip.-jB. {i) AMQlhin.ln Kms. (g) jElian.de Animal, l.iz.cj.

My

US,

The S
us,
folent.

THINGE

S of the

Ancients,

57

SphJngem qu'iawqne vel P0itr£ vel Plaflica operam dant, fingcrc alatam

But our chief Bufinefs is to enquire, how Nature hath formed them ; and not how the P<?e/j' , Painters ^ ox Statu arks have, according to the Luxuriancy of their Fancie/eigned or figured them ^ to (hew what they really are in themfelves, and not whit Hkroglj/phical/y the Ancients might intend or underftand by them^ and we fhall find, that they are only a fort of Jpe or Monkey, that is bred in JEthiopla and amongft the Troglodytes^ of a comely Face, with long Breads, thence up to their Neck not fo hairy as on the reft of their Body 5 and are of a mild and gentle Nature. For thus (/) Pliny Lyncas vidgo frequentes, <&• Sphinges^ fnfco Pilo, mammk in PeBore gemink Ethiopia generat. And fo (4) Solinus, Inter
^

Sifaias habentnr (^ Sphinges ^villof^ comis (Salmafiu^ reads

it

viUof<e omttes)

mammis prominnlk

ac profandk^ dociles

(I) places them amongft the wild Beafts turali quodam Ingenio d^ Pritdentia valent etiani apnd nos Animalia , non totidem tamen, quotfunt in India : illic enim hnjufmodi Jiint, Elephantm^ Indie a Formica. nuncupati Satyri, And ArtemiPfittacm, Sphinges

ad feritatk ohlivionem. lElian of India, where he tells us , Na-

&

&

dorm in

(m)

amongft us this Account of them At a^r/i<; k^ olKvu/oHApxAoi K) Knpoi yraQ^i'Tnjut'TTQv^) Q^i rlvo 'AAi^atv^p&ixv m. ^ 'V(iocy'\oh/limi;, it, -^ Ai'^jOthz?' dai'^) ai juuiv 'S.^r/i<;
:;

Strabo tells us, that the Sphinges, Cynocephali and Cepi are bred the Troglodytes. Agatharchides (n) confirms the fame,and gives

"^^^i
it)

y^pO/XiVXl^
Kst!

TTZt^JIUUOiCtj.

Yl^JjUU 077

7ZVL(JCtJI

^aiiaLf, iy TOtq \v)(cuq niMo^pi

it^Oi.

'TTdvap-yici.t; >coivoevS<!i

tjAsij'h?,

JlSbtroaAia? t5
i.

7tO(TDv cLyrfov^),

S>s'i

rtw

ivfiV^fActv

e^

yraa-i S'cuif/A^&iv.

e.

f/A^^&^limi ^^ The Sphinges,

Cynocephali and Cepi are fent to Alexandria_^<?z?ir the Country of the Troglodytes and ^Ethiopia. The Sphinges are like to what they are painted^only they are all hairy, and mild and gentle in their Nature : they have a great deal of Cunning, and a Method of Learning vphat they attain to, that one veould wonder at their aptnefs to any thing. Diodorus Siculm ( } gives US much the fame Relation, and 'tis likely Agatharchides borrowed his from him fur he tells us, Al 3 ^(pr/ii ^ipof^ /jdv Titg/' tb rlw T^oiyXo^liKto), h^
<? :

TztTq

^aVTHm

Jja/vVaTfaai.

Ta? 5 "i^X^^

fi/>tif «4

iyamit

y^ nctv^pyisi,

'^^

Tih^iiv

fjn^^xkv '^^^yov'^. i. e. Sphinges circa Troglodyticam JEthiopiam exiftunt, formk hk non abjimiles, qua Arte Pi&orum exhibentur, niji qH)}d hirfutiatantummod)) differ unt. Placidi iUk funt Animi, verfuti, artifque qua compendia tradi filet, admodum capaces. But Philojior-gius (p) is fo particular in his Defcription, and he is the more to be credited, becaufe he declares he had feen them himfelf, that I think I need
iy §iSitm.a/\ict.v

@

&

H) P/fw; ^(/?. 2V/«^lib.8.cap.2i.p.m.i58. (k) SoUmis Polyhifl.cap.iy.p.m.^p. (\) j^li an.de An'i' wj/. lib.16.cap.15. (m) Strabo Geograph.\\b.\6.'^.$3,i. (n) Agatharchides apud Photi] Biblioth.p. m.
1352. cap, 38.
p.41.
(0) bkdorui Siculm Biblhth. lib.s.p.m.i^y.

(p) Philojhrgm Hift.Ecc!efiaii.l^.c.\

i,

no

58
no more

J

Thiioiogical Ejfay concerning^dlC.

Authorities to prove what T have here laid down, that thefe Sphinges were only a fort of Ape or MonkeyI vvill therefore give you own words, which are thefe ^ Ka; (mv « 1^]y^-^v@K. '^ -m^Mov (cmu-nx; his
Simii?' TV
gifivov a;j^£/ yi.

'2)

o^tS tS
li,

t^-^X^
«;

l-^tyvjo^^

w-ct^a^
<l»

3 J'^^ai'to?

I^&j.

'Ep'j^pS 77^0? ^oqt.-vi@^ Kifypj&i^iii lirxva^^jUctli^ anvav
/aIj'OI'
oi'Ti

vjuhXoo to ^^yttyc*;-

tS

azo^tux.1'^
ytte(T(i)

-m^^ovK^,

iroT^'^juj

nvcc WTrpi-7ni(2.v at'BpiiTropay&t

toT e^
;^ &i?

yp-Jiiucx,1t a-iwct.^Trx^ojuu'H.'To ^- rrrpj/miTrov <ii'i^^-)(v\'Jt)2)
/Ltopp^jju.

fxoLKoral'

Aoy,

^ttf zmar sAxei

""H t5 ^a)^«
?t,

^^&iK&^
ot^

aj'BpaiTr&ict,

yrk^w

8x

e?$

apQg^i ^dipufA-ivn,
^6iv£i to

dMz
,3>)£/ci',

TJfi 7zr;^£jt)?,

/x^to ti^i^

ofj^i? th K)

d^^n-

Siv@^ cimvut

'vj?yo;p94)fo/x{fii? irpca^'^iitYix
;t,

0xpvli^
k^

n

ilvuT^ov '6^v o^uvoju-ivx'
n^xosivOiUHPOv.
all the reft

ay^ov
i.

TE

'6iri

Trxvapyoro-lovy

SS^ pctMuii

Sphinx k a fort of Ape (^I fiall write ivhdt Ifavp my filf) But 7^'/ Sternum or Breaft ofvphofe Body is hairy like other Apes.
e.

A

k fmoeth
Woman
-^

without hair up to theThroat.
little reddi/J)

It has

Mamma;

or

Breaf's

lil^e

a

Pimples
:,

that is hare

Millet Seeds ^ running round that part of the very prettily fuiting with the FleJI) colour in the middle.
lik^

Body
It's

Face

is

roundijh^

and

refembles a

Woman's.

It's
^

Voice

k

very

much

like the

Humane^

only

it

k

not articulate^ hut precipitate

and

Anger and Indignation. When 'tis deeper. Thk Animal k very wild, and crafty, and not eajily tamed. And Pieri/0, as I find him quoted by (^) Philip Camerari/0, gives us much the kmt defcription of one he faw at Ferona. Harum ego unam ( faith he ) Glabrk Candidk , a Pe^ore Verons quum ejfem vidi ; Mammk illi Grcumducehat earn circulator quidam Qallus, ex ignotk propendentihus. And a little after adds , Ipfa vero Sphinx antea Infulk recens adve^am.
unintelligibly thro'

one that Jpeak/ incenfed^ it's Voice k
likg

'

©

^

fupra modum, fnfco & oblongo

toto erat

pe&ore

glahello, facie

& aurihus humank propriorihus
Pilo, eoque denfjjimo.

,

dorfo hijpida

think fully makes out, that the Sphinx is not a an Animal bred in Africa, of the Ape or 'Tis different from our Orang-Ontang in the colour of it's Monkey-kind. -Hair^ in the roundnefs and comelinefs of it's Face; in it's Breafts, being pendulous and long ; and the red Pimples it hath on the naked part of Pliny ttWsns (as I have el fewhere remarked) that the Sphinit's Body.
faid,
I

What has been

meer Figment of the

Poets, but

ges have Pouches in their
/'(jefj

Chops

as Satyrs
,

defcribing

them with

a Lion's Tail

make me apt

and Monkeys have ; and the to think, that

they are of the Monkpy-kjnd.

(q) Phil. Camerm'i Opera [Hbcifivxfiv: Meditat,

H'lft.

Cent. i. Cap. ji. p.

m. 325.

FINIS.

An
by
Dr.

Advertifement
and where publiihed.

Of fomeDifeourfes and Obfervations made
Edi^. Tyfon^

PHO

CJE NA, or the Anatomy of a Porpefs, difleded at Grefiam^CoUedge j with a Pralzminarj/ Difcourfe concerning Anatomy ^ and a Natural Hifiory of Animals^ L<>»(^.Printed for Benj, Tooke at the Ship in St. Pad's Church-yard, 1680. in 4'^ Viper a Caitdifona Americana 5 or the Anatomy of a Rattle Snake difjRtf/^/ 5"<?«Vjf;', Jan. 1 62:1^. vide Philofoph. fected at the Repofitory of the TranfaUions N° 144. p. 25. Lumbricm Latm^ or a Difcourfe read before the Royal Society of the Wherein a great many Miftakes of former Writers conJoynted Worm. cerning it, are remarked : it's Natural Hiftory from more Exad Obfervations is attempted : and the whole urged, as a Difficulty, againft the ° Vide Philofoph. Tranfaciions Doftrine of Univocal Generation. 1 46. pag. 146. Lumbrictfs Teres^or fome Anatomical Obfervations on the Round Worm^ bred in Humane Bodies. Vide Philofoph. TranfaUions 147. pag. 1 54. Aper Mexicanus Mofchiferus , or the Anatomy of the Mexico TajaCH.,Jive MmkcHog. Vide Philofoph. TranfaB. N** 153. pag. 559. Lumbricus Hydropicuf, or an Eflay to prove, that Hydatides often met with in Morbid Bodies, are a Species of Wormr^ or imperfect Animals. Vide Philofoph. Tranfa£{. N" 193. pag. 506. Carigueya, feu Marfupiale Americanum ; or the Anatomy of an Opojfum , diflefted Sit Grefiam-Col/edge. Vide Philofoph.Tranfail. N° 239. pag. 105,. Ephemeri Vita, or the Natural Hiftory and Anatomy of the Ephemeron 5 a Fly that lives but five hours. Written originally in Low-Dutch, by Jo. Swammerdam M. D. oi Amfierdam\ and publiihed in Englilh by E. Tyfon M. D. Lond. Printed for Henry Faithorne and John Kerfey at the Rofe in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1681. in 4'°. Embrionk Galei lavis Anatome. Vide Franc. Wi//oughb£i Hiji. Pifcium. Edit, h Jo. Raio in Appendic. pag. 13. Lumpi Anglorum Anatome. ibid. pag. 25. The Scent-Bags in PoU-Cats, and feveral other Animals firH difcovered. Vide Dr. Plot's Natural Hiftory o( Oxford/hire^ pag. 305. Vide Thorn. Bartholin} A^a Medica df Philofophica Hafnienfia^ Vol. 5-,.
5,

N

W

ubi,

Obferv. 26. Vomica, Pulmonis.
I
ObferVo.

drfficultaikj^irandirara Caufa. Obferv. 27. Hydrops Thoracis^ Empyema a duobus claviculk^ Obferv. 28. Heffioptoe^ TMJjis^Pkimtis delap/is. fortiiito in Pulmones Obferv. 2 9. Polype omnes Corporis toiuffi Venas (^ Arterias occupans.

^

&

Obferv. go. Volypm Bronchiarum d^ Trache£. Vide ejufd. Obferv. 1 01. Obferv. 107. Obferv. lo8.-

,

Some Anatomical Obfervations of Hair found in feveral Body 5 as alfo Teeih^ Bones, &c. with Parallel Hiftories of
ferved by others.
II.

Vide

of the the fame obDr. Hooks Philofophical CoUe^ions N° 2. pag.
Parts

Anatomical Obfervations of an Abfcefs in the Liver ; a great number of Stones, in the Gall-bag and Bilious Veffels ; an unufual Conformation of the Emulgents and Pelvis. A ftrange ConjunUion of both Kidneys^^nd Vide Philofoph. Tranfa^. N° 142. great Dilatation of the Fena Cava. p.iog5. An Anatomical Obfervation of four Ureters in an Infant ; and fome Remarks on thtGlandtd^ Renales. ibid. pag. 1059. An Abftradt of two Letters from Mr. Sampfon Birch an Alderman and Apothecary in Stafford^ concerning an Extraordinary Birth; with ReVide Philofoph. Tranfadf. N° 150. pag. 281. and fiedions thereon. Dr. Plot's Natural Hiflory of Stafordfiire, pag. 272. The Figure of the Cochineal Fly. Vide Philofoph. Tranfa^. N° 176. pag. 1202. An Obfervation of Hydatides found in the Ve/ca Urinaria o(Mr.Smth. Vide Philofoph. Tranfa£t. N° 187. pag. 532. An Obfervation of an Infant, where the Brain was depreffed into the Hollow of the Vertebra of the '^tck.Vide Philofoph. Tranfa^. N° 228.
pag. 555. An Obfervation of one Hemifphere of the Brain fphacelated 5 and of Vide Philofoph. Tranfa^. a Stone found in the Subftance of the Brain.

228. pag. 555.

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