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REPRODUCTION

Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce new individuals of the same species. Or Reproduction is the
ability of living organisms to produce new organisms of their kind. Reproduction is one of the important features of
living things. When other living things die, they already have left behind other species of their kind to replace them
However reproduction involves transmission of genetic materials from one generation to another generation,
ensuring that species survive.

IMPORTANCE OF REPRODUCTION
i. It is a means of increasing population size of different species.
ii. It ensures continuity of species.
iii. It brings about variation among living organisms of the same species.
iv. It helps to replace the dead individuals.

TYPES OF REPRODUCTION

There are two types reproduction


i. Sexual reproduction
ii. Asexual reproduction

1. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
This the type of reproduction in which new individuals are reproduced from
a single parent.
- There is no fussion of gametes in sexual reproduction.
- It occurs where a part of an individual (parent) separate itself from the parent and grow into a similar
individual.
- This type of reproduction occurs in lower organisms and some plants.
- There is no formation of gametes in this type of reproduction.

ADVANTAGE OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION


(a) It is certain ( no complicated processes, eg.Mating, fertilization)
(b) It involves only one parent.
(c) It takes a short period of time for new individuals to be produced.
(d) Desirable traits (characters) are inherited from parents to offspring.

DISADVATAGE OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION:


- Undesirable trait can pass from parents to offsprings
- No variation in asexual reproduction.
- New offsprings are not able to adapt the new environmental change quickly
- It leads to competition among offsprings for the limited resources due to overpopulation.

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
- This is the type of reproduction which involves fusion of gametes from two parents ie.
Female produces reproductive cell called an ovum or an egg. And male produces male gamete called sperm
- These two gametes fuse together in the process called fertilitization to form a zygote.
- Therefore, sexual reproduction involves two parents male and female.

ADVATANTAGE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.


- It leads into variation

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- Organisms produced can rapidly adapt the environment change.
- Few individuals are produced after a certain period of time, thus no much competition for the limited
resources.
- Undesirable trails are not passing easily to the offsprings.

DISADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION


- It is not certain since it involves complicated process eg.Mating, fertilization, pollination etc.
- It involves two parents (one parent can not reproduce)
- New individuals produced mature very slowly.
- Few individuals are produced after a long time.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION


SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
i. Two parents are involved ie, i. Only one parent is involved
female and male
ii. It involves production of gametes ii. No production of gametes.
(sperm and an egg or ovarm).

iii. There is formation of zygote iii No formation of zygote


iv. It involves both meiosis and iv. It involves only meiosis
mitosis
v. v. Leads to variation v. It does not involve variation
vi. Offspring produced matures vi. Offspring produced matures very fast
slowly
vii. Population size increases slowly vii Population size increases rapidly.

CELL DIVISION

- Cell division refers to the splitting of a cell into two or more parts where each rise into a cell.
- Simply cell division means the multiplication of cells.
- The process of cell division involves two stages:
i. Nuclear division
ii. Cytoplasm division (cytokinesis)
In the nucleus of the there are threadlike structures called chromosomes. The chromosomes carry the
genetic materials of an organism.

STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOME

- Chromosomes are threadlike structure found in the nucleus of the cell.


- All the cells in a particular species of an organism contain a specific number of chromosomes eg. Human
body cell contain 46 chromosomes
- Each chromosome is made up of two parallels stands known as chromatid
- Each pair of chromatid is joined at one point known as centromere

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- Usually chromosomes occur in pair, a condition known as diploid state.
- The two chromosomes constituting the pair are known as Homologous chromosomes, which are
identical in size and structure although may be different genetically
- One member of the pair contains the genetic materials from male and the other contains the genetic materials
from the female.
- The chromosomes contain small segments called genes.
- The genes carry the genetic materials that dictates the characteristics of the particular living organisms.

TYPES OF CELL DIVISION


There are two types of cell division ie
(i) Meiosis
(ii) Mitosis.

MEIOSIS
This is the type of cell (nuclear ) division which give rise into four daughter cells.
- In meiosis the diploid cells (mother cells) are halfed to haploid cell.ie.The number of chromosomes of the
mother cell (2n) are halfed to make the haploid state of the daughter cells.
- The cells produced are called gametes.
- Each gamete has half number of chromosome compound to their parent cells.
- This ensures that the number of chromosomes in every succeeding generation remains the same (constant)
- Meiosis takes place in the gonads ie tests and ovaries.(Meiosis takes place in reproductive cells).

NOTE.
Diploid number of chromosomes means the total number of chromosomes in a cell which occur in pairs. Denoted as (2n).
Haploid number of chromosomes means the half number of chromosomes of a cell denoted as (n)

ILLUSTRATION OF MEIOSIS

Meiosis comprises of two consecutive cells divisions:


i)Meiosis I
ii) Meiosis II

STAGES OF MEIOSIS
Both meiosis I and II progress though these stages
(a) Interphase
(b) Prophase
(c) Metaphase
(d) Telophase.
(e)
1. INTERPHASE
This is the stage just before meiosis begins.
It involves the following events:
- Cell organelles replicate

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- The cell increase in size
- DNA replicates.
- Chromosomes exist as a pair of chromatid joined by a centromere.
MEIOSIS I
Stage Description
Prophase I Chromosomes shorten and thicken.
Nucleolus disappear
Homologous pair up to form
bivalents.
Adjacent chromatid in the
bivalents cross over each other
forming a chiasma.
Crosing over cause exchange of
genetic materials leading to
variations.

Metaphase I Bivalents arrange themselves at


equator.
Spindle fibers attach each
homologous chromosome in the
bivalent.

Anaphase I Spindle fibers contract, pulling


each homologous apart.
Chromosomes are pulled to
opposite poles separating the
bivalents.

Telophase I Spindle fibres disappear.


New nuclear membranes form to
surround each set of chromosomes.
Cell divides into two cells.
Chromosomes number is halved.

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MEIOSIS II

Stage Description

Prophase II Chromosomes appear replied into


chromatids.
Note: The diagram shows one cell after
telophase I.

Metaphase II .
New spindle is formed in each cell.
Chromosomes (with chromatics) arrange
themselves along the equator of the cell.
Spindle fibres attach to chromosomes at
centrioles.

Anaphase II Chromatics of each chromosome separate


and move to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase II Nuclear membrane and nucleoli form.


Chromatics are new chromosomes.
Spindle fibres disappear.
Cell constrict along the middle.
Four new cell forms.

IMPORTANCE OF MEIOSIS.

- Meiosis leads to the formation of reproductive cells (gametes).eg Eggs and sperm.
- It helps to ensure that the number of chromosomes remains constants (2n) after fertilization of gametes ( n +
n) = (2n) in particular species
- Meiosis is a means of variation in individuals of the same species
\

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DIFFERENT BETWEEN MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS

MEIOSIS MITOSIS
Occur in reproductive cells to form Occur in somatic cells (body cells)
gametes
Variation occurs through of gametes. It results into formation of diploid daughter
cells.
In meiosis four daughter cells are In mitosis two daughter cells are produced.
produced.
Meiosis includes two phases Only one phase is involved.
ie.meiosis I and meiosis II

REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALS

INTRODUCTION
Mammals reproduce sexually. This type of reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
in the process called fertilization. .The male gametes are called sperm or spermatozoa and female the gametes are called
an ovum or an egg. The zygote develops into an individual male or female.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
The reproductive system involves the different organs which are involved in reproduction process.
The reproductive system includes:
i) Female reproductive system
ii) Male reproductive system

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


The female reproductive system is male up of the following parts.
i) Ovaries
ii) Oviducts (fallopian tubes)
iii)Uterus
iv)Cervix
v)Vagina

OVARIES :( OVARY-singular)
- Ovaries are the organs where the ova or female gametes
are produced.
- There is one ovary on their side of the uterus.
- The ovaries bear the follicles in which immature ova are
found.
- A girl is born with up to 400,000 immature ova but
only about 400 mature .The maturity of the ova
follicle begins at puberty. The mature follicles are
called graafian follicles. Matured Graafian follicle rapture
during ovulation to release ovum.

The ovary also has cells which secrete the hormones, ostrogen and progesterone for the development of the uterus.

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DIAGRAM OF OVARY

OVIDUCT (FALLOPIAN TUBE)


- This is a tube like structure between the ovary and uterus. The oviduct has funnel on one end that lie next to
released ovum towards the ovary.
- The walls of the oviduct have cilia that assist in the movement of the ovum towards the uterus.
- Fertilization takes place in the oviduct

UTERUS
This is the muscular chamber in which the zygote develops during pregnancy.
Its walls are think and elastic to accommodate the growing foetus .The uterus is made up of two main parts
i. Endometrium
ii. Myometrium.
iii. The Endometrium is the lining of the uterus .This layer thickens every month in the preparation for
pregnancy .If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium peels off. This discharge of the endometrium
tissue accompanied by loss of blood is called menstruation
iv. Myometrium layer is a ,muscular layer which contract during birth process helping to enhance the
deliverance of the baby

CERVIX: Cervix is a muscular ring which acts as a boundary between vagina and uterus. Cervix is narrow to ensure
that the embryo does not leave the uterus before the right time. The cervix also has a mucus plug that seals it to prevent
harmful microorganisms from entering into the vagina.

VAGINA

Vagina is a muscular tube which leads up from the vulva to the uterus. The vagina is about 4 inches (8 10 cm) long. The
wall of the vagina contains elastic tissue, which stretches to allow passage of the baby during child birth .

Sperms are deposited at the vagina during sexual intercourse. The vagina is both a birth canal and a copulatory canal
(tract).

THE VULVA

These are external genital of the female reproductive system. Urethra opens to the outside through these structures.
NOTE. The urethra and vagina are two different canal and they are separate from each other.

The vulva include the following parts


Labia majora
Labia minora
Clitoris

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Mons pubic
Structure and functions of the female reproductive system

Part Adaptation to function


Ovaries Have eggs at various stages of development .This ensures that an egg is
released after every 28 days.
Have cells which secrete oestogen and progesterone hormones.
Have follicle cells which surround the eggs cell to form a graafian
follicle. The graafian follicle forms corpus luteum that secretes
progesterone.
Oviduct(fallopian Has a funnel on one end that lies next to the ovary. The walls of the
tubes) oviduct are lined with ciliated cells.
-Cilia moves the egg in the oviduct to the uterus
-Fertilization takes place in the oviduct.

Uterus (womb) Have thick outer walls. These walls contract strongly to enhance the
process of giving birth.
Inner wall (endomentrium) has dense capillary network. This enhances
implantation and formation of placenta.
The uterus is able to enlarge giving room to the developing foetus during
pregnancy.
The uterus is also able to shrink back to its normal position after birth.

Cervix Has a ring of muscles that remain contracted during pregnancy to keep
the foetus in the uterus
The ring of muscles relax during birth to allow the baby pass through
Has a mucus plug that seals it to prevent harmful micro-organisms from
entering into the uterus.
Vagina Its muscular. The muscles stretch to allow the baby to pass through
during birth.
It receives sperms deposited by the penis during copulation.
THE MALE REPRUDUCTIVE SYSTEM
The male reproductive system consists of the following parts:
i. Testes
ii. Epididymis
iii. Vas deferents
iv. Vas efferentia
v. Penis
vi. Urethra
vii. Scrotum
viii. Accessory gland eg. Prostategland, coupers gland and seminal vesicles.

Diagram of Male Reproductive System

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TESTES
There are two oval shaped structures lying behind the penis covered in a sac called scrotum.The testes hang
outside the body to ensure their temperature is lower than that of the body to provide good (suitable) environment n
for production of sperms which need lower temperature compared to that of the body. In the testes there are coiled tube
called epididymis which function as sperm temporal storage organs. In the testes there are other tubes ie. Vas deferens, vas
efferentia and seminiferous tubule.
-The main role of testes are to Secrete the male sex hormone called testosterone, responsible for secondary sexual
Characteristics in males and production of sperms

DIAGRAM OF TESTIS

Epididymis

sctrotum

PENIS

The penis is a male copulatory organ made up of spongy tissue and blood vessels. The penis is used to introduced
sperm into the vagina during sexual intercourse or copulation. The process by which sperms are realized by the
penis is called ejaculation. The tissues of the penis are richly in blood vessels. Hence the tissues are well supplied with
blood. As the blood accumulates in the tissues erectile tissues, makes the penis firm and is said to be erect and the
male is said to be sexually excited.
-During ejaculation ,contraction of the urethra muscles and vas deferens propels the semen out of the erect penis .

NOTE
Semen is made up of sperms and fluid from various glands in the male reproductive system.

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Some of the muscles found in the penis are corpora cavenosa and corpus spongiosum.-The tip of the penis is enlarged
and is known as glans penis .
-The glans is protected or covered by a fold of skin called prepuce (fore skin) which is removed during circulation in
males.

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE
This is a tube like structure in which sperm are formed. In the somniferous there are cells which develop to sperm.

EPIDIDYMIS

This is a long coiled tube that stores the sperms made in the seminiferous tubules.The lining of the epididymis
contain cilia which propel the sperms forwards.The contraction of the walls of epididymis also aids in the
movement of sperm through the sperm duct during ejaculation.
Sperms in the epididymis may be reabsorbed in the body if ejaculation does not occur within four weeks.

VAS EFFERENTIAL
These are ducts which collect sperm from inside the testis and transfer them to the epididymis.

VAS DEFERENS
This is a straight tube about 40cm long, which carries sperms to urethra.

ACCESSORY GLANDS
The accessory glands include the following
i. Seminal vesicles
ii. Prostate glands
iii. Cowpers gland

The glands produce the fluid which makes 90 percent of the semen
The fluid provides medium for the sperm to swim in .It also Provides nutrients for the sperms.

i. SEMINAL VESICLE .These vesicles found just below the urinary bladder. They secrete a fluid that
provide favourable medium for movement(mobility) of the sperm. Also the fluid contain sucrose and
prostaglands.The sucrose provide energy to the sperm for swimming

ii. PROSTATE GLANDS

This gland secretes mucus and watery fluid which is released during ejaculation. The fluid produced is
alkaline which helps to neutralize the acidic nature of the vagina, hence protecting the sperms from being
affected by acid in the vagina.However the fluid provides nourishment to the sperms.

Structure and functions of the male reproductive system


Part Adaptation to function
1.Testes Are located outside the abdomen. This
is because sperm require low
temperatures for their production
Have interstitial cells that secretes and

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produce testosterone.

2.Scrotum A bag or sac suspended beneath the


penis .It supports and proctets the
testes.
3.Seminiferous tubules Are many and highly coiled.
They have specialized cells that
produce sperms.
Have sertoli cells that provided
nourishment for the sperms.

4.Vas efferentia They direct sperms from seminiferous


tubule to epididymis
5.Epididymis Coiled muscular tubes. Stores sperms
which mature and develop here.
6.Vas deferens Straight muscular tube. It directs
sperms to urethra.

7.Urethra Direct urine from bladder and sperms


from vas deferens out of male body at
different times

8. Penis Has erectile tissue with space that fill


up with blood during sexual
excitement causing the penis to
become rigid and erect.
Glans has sensory nerve endings
stimulated by friction to cause
expulsion of sperms with a fluid
known semen
9.Accessory glands Collectively produce a fluid known as
(a) Prostate glands semen.
Secretes mucus and alikane fluid that
makes sperms active and neutralizes
acidity of vagina.
(b) Cowpers gland Secrets mucus which aids sperms
movement.
( c) Seminal Vesicles Secretes mucus which aids sperm
movement.

GAMETES FORMATION (GAMETOGEROESIS)


The process of gamete production is known as Gametogenesis

TYPES OF GAMETOGENESIS:
There are two types of gamentogenesis:
- Spermatogenesis
- Oogenesis.

SPERMATOGENESIS
This is production of sperms in male mammals .It occurs in testis.This process of spermatogenesis occurs as follows:

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This process occurs in the seminiferous tube, the outer layer of the seminiferous tubule is called the germinal
epithelium .The germinal epithellium has sertoli cells at intervals which helps to nourish spermatozoa
The diproid germinal epithelial cells undergo repeated mitotic division to form diploid cells called spermatogonia
The spermatogonia grow and develop to form primary spermatocytes . Each spermacytes divide meiotically ie,
meiosis I to form secondary spermatocytes which are haploid (n).Secondary spermatocy undergo the second meiotic
division to form spermaticds.The spermatids attach to sertoli cells and then undergo differentiation to form
spermatozoa.

DIAGRAM OF SPERAMATOZOA

OOGENESIS:
This is production of ovum (eggs) in female mammals.It occurs in ovaries. The process of cogenesis occurs as follows:

- In the ovaries, there are germinal epithelium cells which undergo repeated mitosis division to form large
diploid Oogonia cells.
- The oogonia grow and develop to primary oocytes.
- The primary oocytes undergo and first polar body.
- With the entry of spermatozoa in the secondary oocytes the secondary meiotic division occur in which the
secondary oocytes and first polar body. Are formed
- With the secondary ooctytes changes to Ootids and finally the Ootid develops to ovum
(eggs).

THE SPERM STRUCTURE


A sperm cell (spermatozoa) is an extremely small compared to an ova in shape .It contain the nucleus, which
contains the hereditary (DNA).The head also contain acrosome in which lysosome is found which help in
penetration of spermatozoa into an ovum at fertilization
The middle piece This pocess numerous mitochondria and is connected with energy production that is
concerned with energy production help spermatozoa to swim .A tail contains structures called microtubes which help
spermatozoa to move.
ADAPTATIONS OF SPERMATOZOA TO ITS FUNCTION.
i. It has a nucleus which carries genetic materials.
ii. It numerous mitochondria which provide energy for swimming
iii. It has acrosome (enzymes) which helps the sperm to penetrate an ovum.
iv. It has tail which helps the sperm to move
AN OVUM (EGG)
An ovum is bigger than sperm. The egg cell contains a nucleus which carries genetic materials.
It is oval in shape, it also contain cytoplasm and granules.
The egg is surrounded by some layer ie.
(a) Zona pellucida
(b) Corona radiate

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(c) Jelly coat.
OVULATION AND FERTILIZATION
Ovulation: This is the process of releazing an egg (ovum) from the ovary .Ovulation process begins when
one reaches puberty stage .No new eggs are produced after birth .The process of ovulation is controlled by
hormones released from the pituitary glands . The hormone involved is lutenizing hormone( LH).
After ovulation , an egg moves to the fallopian tube where it stays for about 36 hours
where it stays for about 36 waiting a sperm for fertilization . I f the ovum is not
fertilized within 36 hours after ovulation an eggs is got destroyed which leads to
menstruation.
NOTE: After ovulation the empty follicle undergo some changes to solid, yellow body called carpus lutuems. If an
egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum persists in the ovary for about 14 days and then changes to corpus albicum
before disitegration.But if fertilization occurs the corpus luteum acts as endocrine gland, secreting the hormones
progesterone and oestrogen.

FERTILIZATION
Fertilization is the fusion of male gamete and female gametes to form a zygote. The process of fertilization takes
place in the oviduct or fallopian tube .

Thus in order for fertilization to occur the male gametes should reach the oviduct where an ovum is found. It takes
less an hour for a sperm to reach the uterus .Therefore the sperms have a journey to travel so that they can reach an
ovum .
The acidic condition of the vagina kills a large number of sperms, not only that but other sperms die on
their way to the oviduct so only a few hundreds sperms out of about four hundred millions reach the
oviduct

An ovum remains in the fallopian tube for about 36 hours from its time of release from
the ovary . when sperm cells comes the nuclei of the sperm and that of the ovum
fuse together, this process is known as fertilization. It should be noted that only one
sperm penetrates the wall of the ovum, and on entering causes the ovum wall to
become impermeable to other sperms. After fusion of male and female gametes the
resulting diploid cell is called zygote. The zygote divides a number of times to becomes
an embryo

FACTORS HINDERING
(AFFECTING ) FERTILIZATION.
Sometimes fertilization does not
take place in a womans womb.There are a number of factors that may hinder which are as follows:
i. Infertile(unhealthy) gametes
ii. Use of contraceptives
iii. Diseases
iv. Small of quantity of sperms (low sperm count)

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v. Premature ejauction( immature sperm and ova)
vi. Blockage of the fallopian tubes.
vii. Hormonal abnormalities.
viii. Abnormal shape of sperm.
ix. Importance.

Unhealthy gametes
Sometimes it may happen that or that one or both the male and female produce unhealthy
gametes that can not be viable to form a zygote. Unhealthy gametes may be caused by poor
healthy due diet or disease. Exposure to strong radiations may also cause production of
unhealthy gamete

Use of contraceptives
Some contraceptives used by women produce thick mucus that prevents sperms from reaching the ovum. Some even
kill the sperm before reaching the ovum .Contraceptives methods like vasecutomy prevents sperm from reaching the
ovum.

Diseases
Some STDs may block the fallopian tube or the epididymis hence blocking the sperms from reaching and
fertilizing an egg. Prostate cancer and inflammation or infection of the prostate gland may also hinder sperm formation
thus no fertilization.

Low sperm count


Sperm count is measures of amount of sperms a man ejaculates. For a man to fertilize an egg, at least 20 million
sperms must be produced where only one will fertilize an egg. When there is a low sperm count the chances of
fertilization become minimal hence infertility. Low sperm count is caused by a number of factors such as excessive
use of alcohol, drugs, smoking, some hormonal abnormalities and sexual transmitted diseases.

Premature ejaculation
Premature ejaculation is a situation whereby a man reaches orgasm before he inserts his penis into a vagina. This prevents
sperms from getting into the female reproductive system for fertilization to occur.

Blockage of the fallopian tubes.


Sometimes it happen that the fallopian tubes get blocked hence sperm do not find their way to the ovum. The blockage
can be caused by factors such as sexually transmitted diseases or some contraceptive methods.

Hormonal abnormalities
Hormonal problems in female may hinder ovulation. When this occurs, fertilization will not have been produced at all
in males, in males, hormonal abnormalities may lead to low sperm count or failure to produce sperms.

Impotence
Impotence is a condition in which a man fails to achieve an erection, achieve it but can not maintain it. Impotence is
caused by number factors such as anxiety, depression and chronic diseases like diabetes and prostate cancer.

MENSTRUAL CYCLE (MENSTRUATION)


Menstrual cycle is a period between one menstruation and another. Menstrual cycle differ from one person to
another. It occurs on average after every 28-32 days in most women

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Menstruation
Is the monthly discharge of endometrial tissues, glands and blood from the uterus through the vagina. This
discharge is also known as menses or menstrual flow. Menstruation occurs incase fertilization fails to occur.
While the follicles and corpus luteum are developing the wall of the uterus prepares itself for receiving
fertilized ovum. The inner layer of the uterus (endometrial) becomes thickened surrounded with numerous
blood vessels and glands. This occurs in order to receive fertilized ovum for implantation. If, however
fertilization does not occur, within 36 hours after ovulation, unfertilized egg dies, and fails to implant in the
uterus. After 12 14 days the thickened lining of the uterus disintegrates, hence the dead ovum glands, lining of
the uterus together with blood are passed out of the body through vagina. Menstruation is hormonal controlled /
process

DIAGRAM SHOWING MENSTRUAL CYCLE

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ONSETAND DURATION OF MENSTRUATION


i. Diseases
ii. Stress
iii. Food (diet)
iv. Drugs

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v. Hormonal contraceptive
vi. Psychological issues

The first menstruation in woman is known as monorche.

Menopause this is a period in which menstruation becomes irregular and eventually stops. This period occurs
between age of 45 and 55 in most women

IMPLANTATION
This is the period in which the embryo becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
Or
- This is the process by which the embryo is attached to the uterine wall. It takes place six to mine
days after fertilization .The zygote usually undergoes further cell division to form an embryo. The
outer layer of the embryo cells develops finger like projections called villi. These villi extend into the
lining of the uterus and form part of placenta. After eight weeks the embryo is called foetus.

DIAGRAM SHOWING IMPLANTATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOETUS

PLACENTA
Placenta is a temporal organ joining the mother to the foetus in the uterus .Hence placenta is the point at
which close association develops between maternal and foetal circulation.

An embryo (foetus) is connected to the placenta by a tube called umbilical cord. The umbilical cord contains
very important blood vessels that connect the embryo with the placenta.With placenta, a foetal and
maternal blood come into intimate association with each other , but there is no physical contact between
foetus and maternal blood.

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ROLE OF PLACENTA
i. Allow the diffusion of oxygen, water,glucose,amino acids, vitamins and mineral salts from the
mothers blood to the foetus .
ii. Allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes like urea from the blood of the foetus
to the mothers blood .
iii. Allows the passage of antibodies from the mother to the foetus for protection of foetus against
infection.
iv. Prevents some pathogens and other toxing from getting to the foetus .
v. Prevent red blood cells and hormones of the mother from reaching the foetus.

GESTATION PERIOD
This is the period or duration between fertilization and birth in human.
Or
Gestation is the period between fertilization and birth in which the embryo grows and develops into human
being. This is referred as pregnancy .It varies between one specie to the other.

EXTRA EMBRYONIC LAYERS OR MEMBRANES


During embryonic development the following membranes or layer develop around the foetus
(a) Amnion layer
(b) Chorion layer
(c) Allantois layer.

AMNION (AMNIOTIC) LAYER


This is the inner layer (membrane) which surrounds the embryo. The amniotic layer creates a space called
amniotic cavity. The amniotic cavity is filled with the fluid called amniotic fluid which secreted by the
cells of amnion layer.

ROLES OF AMNIOTIC FLUIDI


i) It acts as shock absorber
ii) It protects the embryo against injuring
iii) Keeps the foetus moist
iv) It maintains the temperature of foetus.

CHORION LAYER (CHORIONIC LAYER)


This is the outer most layer of the embryo which surrounds the amnion layer.
This layer develops finger like projections called villi.

ROLES OF CHORION LAYER.


(a) It forms a part of placenta of foetal side.
(b) It absorbs nutrients from the mother to the foetus.
(c) It helps the passge of waste products from to mother.

ALLANTOIS MEMBRANES
This is a sac like outgrowth which develops from the embryonic gut. The allantois later becomes the
umbilical cord.

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BIRTH
This is a process where by a fully developed foetus is delivered after gestation period is over. The onset of
birth is triggered by the foetus itself by secreting a certain hormone and this hormone diffuse to the
mothers circulation system .The foetal hormones in mothers circulation system result into decrease of
progesterone and oestrogen hormones and subsequent release of oxytocin hormone. Oxytocin hormone
causes periodic contractions of the uterine wall. These results into pain called labour pain.

Labour pain is accompanied by the dilation of cervix and rapture of amniotic layer and chorionic layer
releasing amniotic fluid. The baby moves down with the head first, on reaching the cervix, mark the first
stage of birth.

On the second stage of birth, the cervix is fully dilated .A woman can participate actively bearing down
with each contraction to push the baby out of her body. During this stage the contraction of the muscles
become stronger and more frequent, the baby is pushed through the vagina and finally out the body. At
this point, the baby is still tied to the mother by the umbilical cord. Immediately the umbilical cord is
ligatured ( tied) and cut to separate the baby from mother completely. Here is the end of the second stage.
The third stage occurs within the next 15 minutes ,After the baby has been delivered, the uterus continues
to contract and placenta and the membranes are expelled out after birth.

ARTIFICIAL INSERMINATION (AI)


This is the introduction of semen into a female oviduct by artificial means .If semen is introduced during
the time of ovulation fertilization can occur resulting to pregnancy .Artificial can be done by using
syringes and this process is done even three ovulation ,This is based on the life span of reproductive
cells (gametes)ie X and Y.

ADVANTAGE OF ARTICIAL INSERMINATION


i. Enables semen to be stored for long time and be used in future.
ii. Many females can use semen from one male.
iii. A man with terminal illness can produce semen that can be used by his wife especially if such a
man can not perform sexual act due to the illness.
iv. Can be used to help men with the problem of low sperm count
v. Semen (since they are specially stored) about variation.
TEST TUBE BABIES
These are the babies whose fertilization is carried out in the test tube by sucking the ovum from the
woman and sperm from the man by a syringe .After fertilization in the test tube the zygote is transferred
and inserted into the womens womb for more growth and development

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MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES.
This is a situation in which more than one embryos are formed in a single pregnancy after fertilization.
Or Means a women to give to more than one baby .
This situation is common to other mammals, but for the human being (woman) it occurs occasionally. The terms
used to describe multiple pregnancies (birth) are derived from Latin words for number as follows:
Twins - Two offspring.
Triplets - three offspring
Quintuplets - four offspring
Quintuplets - Five offspring
Sextuplets - Seven offspring
Octruplets - Eight offspring

The most common form of multiple pregnancies is the birth of twins.


TYPES OF TWINS
There are two common types of twins
i) Identical twins
ii) Fraternal twins

1. IDENTICAL TWINS
These are twins which have resulted from a single fertilized egg after splitting of the zygote at
some stages during development.
Or These are the twins formed from one zygote after split into two parts and each develop into
a baby .
- The identical twins are genetically similar and they must be of the same sex.
- These twins share the same placenta, identical twins are also called monozygotic twins.

2. FRATERNAL TWINS
These are the twins which result from two different fertilized ova (eggs).Two eggs are produced at
the same time and both are fertilized by two different sperms. These twins are not necessary being

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of the same sex , So they may be of the same sex or not .They unlike and are genetically different.
These twins have separate placenta also known as dizygotic twins.

SIAMESE TWINS
These are identical twins who are attached at one or more parts of their bodies. If the at one or more parts of
their bodies. If the separation of the zygote to form identical twins fails, results into formation of twins
which are attached at some parts of their bodies .These twins which are attached to one another at some
parts of their bodies are known as Siamese twins.

CAUSES OF MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES OR BIRTH.


Multiple birth or multiple pregnancies can be caused by the following
i) More than one ovum being released at ovulation and fertilized separately.
ii) Cleaving or division of only one zygote to form two, three or four parts which develop into new
individual.
iii. Sometimes the use of fertility changes which may cause several eggs to be produced at the same
time.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDENTICAL TWINS AND FRACTERNAL TWINS.


Identical twins Fraternal twins
-Results from the same zygote Results from different zygote.
-Enclosed in the same embryonic membrane Enclosed in different embryonic membrane
-They share common placenta Have different placenta
-They must be of the same sex They are not necessarily being of the same sex.
-They have the same genetic make up They have different genetic make up.

COMPLICATION OF PREGNANCY
Usually pregnancy develops to full term without major complications. However there times when complication
can occur and prevent fullterm development of foetus. Some of the complications are:
i) Abortion
ii) Still birth
iii) Miscarriage
iv) Ectopic pregnancy
v) Premature birth
1. ECTOPIC PREGNACY

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- This is the pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum fails to reach the uterus and instead
implants in the fallopian tube or else where in the reproductive tract. Normally after
fertilization the fertilized egg moves to uterus for implantation. The situation where the fertized
ovum or zygote does not descend to the womb and is otherwise implanted in the fallopian
tube or some where else in reproductive system. An ectopic pregnancy can be caused by
blocked of the fallopian tube due to infections, diseases or other factors.

- If an operation is not done early to remove the embryo an ectopic pregnancy can result into
death of the expectant mother. In very rare cases, ectopic pregnancy has survived to full
term. In such cases, Caesarian section (cs) must be performance .A caesarian is an operations
to remove the baby from the uterus.

2. STILL BIRTH.
Still birth means giving birth to a dead baby .This can be caused by several factors eg. Poisonous
chemical, shock, prolonged period of delivery,, Rhesus diseases bacterial infections etc.

3. MISCARRIAGE ( SPONTANEOUS ABORTION)


Miscarriage means giving birth before six months are over.If the foetus is not fully developed it is
referred to as miscarriage because at this stage the baby can not survive on its own thus pregnancy
is lost.

Miscarriage can occur due to a number of factors such as:


i. Chromosomal abnormalities in developing foetus.
ii. Exposure to chemicals.
iii. Poor nutrition of the mother.

Disorders of the reproductive system


Like any other system, such as digestive, circulatory system, urinary system and other. Reproductive system
faces a number of disorders. Disorders of the male reproductive system include.
1. Impotence
Impotence in the inability to achieve or maintain an erection of the penis.
Causes
1. Importance is usually a physiological disturbance.
2. Other factors such as strong alcohol taking, drugs and disease may cause importance.
Effects
1. Impotence causes failure in performing the sexual act, thus one cannot have children.
2. Impotence may also cause psychological disturbances to the person.
3. If an impotent person is married, impotence may lead or break of marriage.
4. It may also lead to contamination of disease such as HIV AIDS, gonorrhea. When a couple gets out of
the marriage to get sexual satisfaction.
Treatment
1. If the cause of impotence is psychological, counseling may help to cure it.
2. If the cause is biological, one has to attend hospital for medical check up satisfaction.

2. Premature-ejaculation

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Premature-ejaculation is the situation where the man reaches orgasm before penetration of the penis into
the female tract.
Cause
Fear, anxiety and other psychological factors may be involved.

Effects
1. The person fails to satisfy a woman.
2. Failure of satisfaction may lead to other problems as mentioned in one above.

Treatment
1. Counseling may be done to treat the problem.

3. Autoimmunity
This is the situation in which antibodies are made which attack own sperm, thus reducing the number of sperms.

Cause
Reactions of antibodies to ones own sperm. The actual cause for this is unknown.

Effects
1. This problem causes infertility to a person.
2 Other related problem may occur as in one above.

Treatment
This disorder is difficult to treat.

4 Inflammation
This is the condition in which the urethra is blocked.
Cause
1. Inflammation may cause this problem.
2. Related problems as in one above may also occur.
Treatment
One has to seek medical advice or intervention.

Disorders of the Female Reproductive System

1. Damage to the oviducts (inflammation)


Oviducts may be blocked due to different causes.

Cause
Infections due to different disease infections. These infections may cause scaring. Thus leading to partial or
complete blockage of the oviducts.

Effect
The resulting effect of this problem is infertility
.

Treatment

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Surgery is commonly done to unblock the oviducts.
2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
1. This is the pelvic infection causes by bacteria.
2. This condition causes damage to the oviducts.
3. It occurs commonly to women with many sexual partners and women who use the coil contraceptive
method

Effects
This condition may lead to infertility.

3. Congenital Malformation
Some women are born with blocked oviducts or with no uterus (this happens in very few cases).

4. Functional Disorders
This is a condition in which a woman is unable to experience sexual pleasure, during the sexual act.
Cause
The cause may be psychological.
Treatment
Counseling may help to cure the problem.

Sexuality and Sexual Behaviour


Sexuality:
Sexuality includes fondness or readiness for or interest in sexual activity. Sexuality has a social as well
as a physical aspect. Sexuality means more than Sexual intercourse, intimacy, pregnancy and having baby. It
includes other aspects such as sex roles, social roles, feelings about self and others and relationships.

Therefore, sexuality is the function of the whole personality and begins at birth and ends at death. It includes.
1. How you feel about yourself as a person.
2. How you feel being a man or woman.
3. How you get along with members of the same or opposite sex.
4. It is also includes genital and reproductive process such as inter course and child bearing.

Sexual behaviuor (practice): There are different sexual behaviours among people. Some sexual behaviours,
are termed as deviant because they are not acceptable in human societies that has a moral concern for the
betterment of life and dignity of human beings. Heterosexuality is sexual activity between members of different
sex, that is, male and female sexual activity,. Heterosexuality in marriage is the most accepted and encouraged
trend of sexual behavior among human beings.

However, there many other sexual behaviors that are all termed as sexual deviations, because, they are not
acceptable in society, such sexual behaviours include the following:

1. Incest: This is sexual practice between closely related people (relatives), such as father and daughter,
mother and son,. Such cases of incest seldom occur in our societies and they are often (condemned) for they
degrade the moral integrity of human being.

2. Masturbation: This is a form of sexual behavior in which one attains sexual gratification by
stimulating his/her sexual organs. Masturbation is commonly done by males.

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3. Homosexuality: This is a form of sexual behavior in which members of the same sex are attracted to
each other, and develop sexual relationships. There are probably many male homosexuals, than female
homosexuals are known as lesbians and male homosexuals are called gays

4. Bisexuality: This is a form of sexual behavior in which a person is attracted to members of the same
sex and those of opposite sex.

5 Bestiality: This is a brutal form of sexual behavior observed among a few people in some societies. It is
a sexual behavior in which people perform sexual activities with animals, Bestiality is a rare form of sexual
behavior and is the most brutal thing. Bestiality is uncommon practice in our societies.

6 Rape: This is an act of using force to make someone perform sexual intercourse without his or her
consent. Rape is mostly done by men against women and sometimes children. Performance of sexual act
with children is known as pedophilia. All these bad acts sexual practices are seriously punished under the
law in our country.

7 Anal sex: Anal sex is the sexual intercourse with someone in which the penis penetrates into the anus.
Anal sex also referred to as sodomy. It is also another serious deviant form of sexual behaviour. This is
unacceptable brutal form of sexual practice.

8 Prostitution: This is the practice of using ones body as an economic source by doing
sexual intercourse with anyone who pays or able to pay the money. Prostitution is a
serious irresponsible sexual behaviuor, mostly done by women.

Social Culture Factors Which Influence Sexual Behaviourin Different Age Group
The major factors that influence sexual behaviuor in humans include, economic status, anatomy, race, culture,
age, religious beliefs, personal status, education, access to sexual outlets, law of the land, social events,
diseases, and mass media.

Sexual behaviuor in children


1. Sexuality is said to start in infancy. It is usually seen in children showing about their own bodies to those
of children of the opposite sex and in manipulation of genitals.
2. Most children at the early age play with themselves and sometimes acting the fathers and mothers.
3. Children do also learn from their fellow children on different sexual matters.

Education: Children learn about sexual behavior in schools and community environment. In schools, they try
to handle themselves, go to toilet, and guard their private parts and so on. All these teaching have influence on
their sexual behaviour.

Initiation rites: In most African societies children learn about sexual health and education through initial rites.
When taken for circumcision, children learn different things on sexual behavior. They are also taught sexual
roles during such functions.

Religious belief: Religious beliefs play a great role in determining or directing the pattern of sexual behavior
among people. Some religious, teach good moral conducts, and handling of sexual matter among their
followers, Children also learn from their religions on how to behave sexually and morally.

Mass media: Mass media is an important factor in determining and directing the pattern of sexual behavior.
There is so much information on media about sexual health, good and bad sexual behaviors, and other respect

24
of sexuality. Pornographic media has been a bad dangerous aspect, contributing too many sexual problems seen
in our societies. Media censorship may help much to safeguard the behavior of children and adolescents in our
societies.

Economic Status: Economic status whether poor or rich is also an important factor that influences sexual
behavior among children adolescents and even adults in our societies. Some children have been forced to
perform bad sexual behavior because of their poverty. Some adult would take advantage of their economic
status to force poor children in sexual matters. However, in our country, strict laws have been enacted to guard
childrens rights including sexual matters.

Sexual behavior in adolescents: the same factors of age, economic status religious beliefs, education, access to
sexual affecting children sexual activities behavior, do also affect adolescent. However, other cultural values,
such as social, pressure, marriages, drug addictions and parental can also influence sexual behavior among
adolescents.

The following factors contribute in developing sexual behaviors among adolescents.


1. Early marriage: A practice which is common among many tribes in Tanzania such as masai promote
sexual behavior in adolescents.
2. Social pressure (traditions): Sometimes adolescent s are dictated by their traditions to move away from
3. their homes and lead an independent life. This provides them a chance for being free in practicing sexual
matters.
4. Drug addiction: The use of alcohols and other drugs plays a big role among adolescents in pushing
them towards sexual practices. This behavior make an adolescent prove such deviant sexual practices.
One fails to resist the temptation because of addiction.
Other social cultural factors influencing sexual behavior in adolescents include:
Peer pressure
Schools
Initial rites
Social functions.
5. Peer pressure: Peer are people of the same age group and same social. Peer pressure plays a role in
influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Peers teach one another on sexual matters and
sometimes persuade one another to engage I sexual behavior. Parents need to guide these adolescents on
how to handle their lives so that they do not jeopardize their lives.
6. Schools: A school is not only a place where children learn Mathematics, English and other formal
subjects, but it is a place where different matters concerning many aspects of life are learned. There are
different subcultures in school which tend to socialize adolescents in different styles from those they are
used at adolescents. They learn different sexual behaviours when in schools. Probably more than they do
at home or any other area.

7. Social function (ceremonies): Different social functions organized by adult or even youth themselves
influence sexual behaviour in adolescents and children as well. These functions include wedding
ceremonies birthday ceremonies and many others. When Adolescents attend such functions they learn a
lot matters related to sexual behavior among other things.

8. Initiation rite: Initiation rites are special (traditional) function designed to train children or adolescents
in such cases on different matters including sexual behaviours. Initiation rites may promise early
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sexuality among the adolescents but adolescents may also learn many good things from such traditional
ceremonies. Youths and other people find themselves engaging in irresponsible sexual behaviours such
as prostitution because of the influence of peers.
Moral decay : Lack of moral concern among many people in the great cause of people
including in irresponsible sexual behaviuor.
Bad Company. This is so especially among the youth. In bad companies such as gang of
hooligans, Youths find themselves performing bad behaviuor such us sodomy and prostitution,
among others.
Marriage breakdown and Problems: Some people would take advantage of problems in their
marriage to perform irresponsible sexual behavior.
Poverty: Extreme poverty may sometimes make people to engage in bad habits such as
prostitution.
Mass media: Some media provide pornographic films, stories and news and their kind. These
news and film persuade people to engage in bad habits.
Lack of proper guidance and counseling: Lack of guidance and counseling may lead
adolescents and other people to enter into irresponsible sexual behavior.
Drug addiction: Drug addiction and alcoholism are among the great cause of youth indulging in
irresponsible sexual behaviour. A drug addict cannot control his/her mind or make proper
decisions; such people are easily tempted and fall into bad practices.

Effects of Irresponsible Sexual Behaviour


1. To an individual: An individual may suffer the following consequences as a result of irresponsible
sexual behaviour.
Becoming pregnant at tender age, thus losing the opportunity of officially married or
continuing with studies.
Being in a danger of contracting fatal veneral diseases such as syphilis. HIV/AIDS,
gonorrhea.
It may lead to death e.g. when trying to abort the unwanted pregnancy after rape.
Getting a responsibility of caring for a family in case he/she has been forced to marry.
Irresponsible sexual behaviour degrades the penalty of a person. For example prostitutes
have no place to put their faces in some societies.

2. Effects to the family: The family of the person who entertains irresponsible sexual behaviour
suffers in the following ways.
Breakage of marriage: The marriage may break in case of the couples is found entertaining
irresponsible sexual behaviours.
Conflict in the family or marriage: Irresponsible sexual behaviour may lead to conflicts in the
family or marriage.
Loss of the particular relative if he /she contract the disease like HIV/AIDS.
Getting a role in taking care of baby born to their daughter out of marriage. This calla for
using more money in family caring.

Eradicating Irresponsible Sexual Behaviour in the Family and the Community

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Different measures may help to eradicate irresponsible sexual behaviour in the family and community such as:
Abiding by religious principle.
Proper guidance and counseling to the youth and other people.
Provision of education on the side effects of irresponsible sexual behavuior.
Insisting on abstinence as a means to control sexual pressure among the youths.
Practicing self control over temptations.
Avoidance of bad companies such as discus and night clubs.
Avoiding taking of drugs.
Enacting laws and regulations.
Teaching children good manners from their early lives.
Community participation in caring and support of the children and the youth.
Media censorship: The government should take serious measures to censor all the news and films on
different media.
Refuse to accept gifts and offers from people you do not know well or trust.

Maternal and Child Care


Maternal Care: A pregnant mother needs a lot of care and considerations for the best her health and
that of the child. There are basically two types of care given to the pregnant mother. These are prenatal
and care. The care given before to birth is called prenatal care and the care during birth called natal
care.
A pregnant mother also needs care and support after birth of the child. This kind of care and support
provided after birth is called post-natal care.

Maternal Care during Pregnancy (Pre-Natal Care): The care and support to the pregnant before,
during and after birth are very important and essential components of large health for the betterment of
the child, mother and even the community at large. Pre-natal period is the very important period within
the conception and growth of the child. As emphasized earlier an expectant mother needs a lost care,
attention and support.
Good diet, exercise, medical supervision and regular pre-natal care very important aspects of material
care so as to ensure a good pregnancy and healthy baby

The following are essential guidelines on services and care to an expectant (pregnant) mother.
1. An expectant mother needs proper balanced diet during the whole period of conception. This diet is
supposed to include food rich in iron , calcium and other mineral salts .Food which contains the essential
amino acids for insisted that a child obtains his/her nourishment from the mother. So, the need for a
balanced diet to an expectant mother.
2. He needs a cordial. Warm and tender affection and love from the expected father, family and the society
at large.
3. A husband should be more loving and caring this important period.
4. A woman expecting to have a baby should visit her physician (doctor) early during pregnancy for a
through medical check up and other different aspects of her health such as weight, blood group, blood
pressure and medical history.
5. She should pay regular visits to her physician during the whole period of conception sa to monitor her
condition.
6. Light physical exercise s and resting whenever possible is advised during this period of conception. An
expectant mother should avoid doing strong physical exercises and manual work such as farming,
digging, currying heavy, carrying heavy weights and long journeys.

27
7. On paying visits to pre-natal clinics, on expectant mother needs not to take it as a fashion, but should
strictly follow the advice given to her by the physician.
8. In care of any difficult related to her pregnancy she has to report it to her physician or a neighbouring
health Centre or hospital as immediately health centre or hospital as immediately as possible for
remedial assistance.

An expectant mother has to avoid things that pose risk to her healthy and that of the inborn child
such things include the following:
1. She should avoid smoking, taking alcohol and drug. These affect her health and that of the inborn child.
Alcohol taking to such people leads to fatal-alcoholic syndrome. This disorder is characterized with
mental and emotional problem to the child. Drug should only be taken under strict medical supervision.
2. She should avoid wearing tight clothes, tight heeled shoes or any other material that may be detrimental
to her health and or that of the child.
3. She should avoid all risks of contracting disease such as rubella. HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis and
others that have effects to her health and that of the baby.

Services and Care during Natal Period


Natal period: This is the period when a pregnant mother gives birth to the child she has been carrying in her
womb for about nine months. A number of thing need to be considered during this period.
1. An expectant mother need to undergo the labor services under supervision of a trained nurse or trained
birth attendant whenever this is possible.
2. If any difficult that can not be solved by either a trained nurse or a trained birth attendant arises, an
expectant mother should be referred to the health centre or hospital medical assistance.
3. Most births are perfectly normal but problems can and do occur. When problems arise, modern delivery
facilities or techniques such as caesarian section, and vacuum extraction are used. Care should be taken
not to damage any organ of the baby or the mother.
4. In case a newly born baby is premature appropriate services should be given to it so to help it
accomplish pattern of growth and development.

Post-Natal Serves to the Mother and the Child


These are services provided to the mother and the new born child after the birth of the child. After birth a
mother has another big responsibility and role of breast feeding the child.
After birth of the body of the mother returns to normal remarkably quickly. But initially for about 10
days, there is a steady loss of bloody substance called lochia from the vagina as the placental site and uterine
lining break down. It also takes about six weeks for the wounds in the uterus, cervix beak down. It also about
six weeks for the wounds in the uterus, cervix and female tract to heal. Post natal exercises help to heal the
stretched muscles.
Regular bathing is also essential to keep reproductive pasts clean during this initial period.
Depression which be caused by hormonal imbalance does occur in women after birth. Therefore, support
and tender treatment from families and friends is very important during such a period. A mother should also
attend post-natal clinic for medical checking and immunization of the child.
Balance diet should be supplied to a locating mother so as to ensure that she gets enough nutrition for
her benefit and ultimately that of the child.
1. Proper nutrition will help her to restore worn cut tissues during the labor period and natal period; this
helps also the newly born baby to have enough milk from its mother.
2. The health of both the mother and her child should be seriously taken care of
Child Health Care and Services
These include the following:

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1. Mother should breast feed the child whenever possible. Mothers milk is better than any other food
because of the following:
It contains antibodies that are much need to the child.
In case the mother has no health problems, such milk, is not free from contamination. Bottle milk
or any other milk should be provided.
Mothers milk also contains much proteins and vitamins which are very important for the childs
growth.
Breast milk is early digested than other milk (e.g. bottle milk). Therefore children who take milk
from their mother rarely suffer from constipation.
Mothers milk is said to contain some chemicals which help in development of the nervous
system of the child.

2. Regular attendance to post natal clinic for the child is very important. The child should also get
immunized against different infections and diseases such as polio, measles and other diseases.
3. The mother should follow the medical advice on to handle the child and in case of any problem report it
to the personnel concerned.

Social-Culture Factors Affecting Material and Child Care in the Family and Community
Factory Affecting Maternal Care
Female genital mutilation ((FGM): This is practice of circumcising women. It is said to have effects
during reproduction (birth) it causes women to experience pain, bleeding, shock and may lead to
infection.
Alcohol: In most cultural practices, taking alcohol is considered as a normal pattern of behavior. Alcohol
taking during pregnancy affects both the health of the mother and that of the child.
Beating of women: Among many societies in Africa, beating of health of the mother and that of the
child.
Working especially hard works such as cultivation. These hard works may cause several problems to the
pregnant woman such as miscarriage or pains.
Local belief: There are certain local beliefs and taboos such banning women to eat certain types of foods
such as proteineous food which could help to build their health and that of the child.

Family Planning and Contraception


In the past few decades, the idea of family planning involved as a result of number of factors. Control of
human fertility (birth control) has become a very sensitive issue in our word today. The question whether to
control human fertility and how is to be controlled is one of the most volatile issue of our time.

When reproduction is not the desired result of sex some conscious regulations is done. This is commonly
referred to as birth control. People go for family control for a number of reasons. Among the reasons are:

Economic purposes:
1. Couples decide to do child spacing so that they can cater for their children,
2. Family planning is also done for reasons of ensuring medical and educational purpose.
3. Other do it for fear of not being able to cater for the needs of many children.

Means of Birth Control


At present, approaches to birth control fall into three categories:

29
1. Fertility control (physical, chemical, surgical or behavioral interventions that disrupt reproductive
function or effect gamete survival.
2. Implantation control (physical or chemical interference with the blast cysts ability to invade the uterine
wall).

The term contraception refers to prevention of conception, that is, preventing the fusion of the male gamete
with the female games. The term birth control is broader it includes measures taken to prevent birth after
fertilization. There are both natural and artificial methods of birth control. Each one of these has been
discussed below

A Natural methods
Natural methods are also referred to as behavioral methods. These methods include the following:

1. Abstinence
Abstinence refers to avoidance of sexual intercourse or, can be defined as refused by sexually active male and
female to have sexual intercourse.

Advantages
1. It is most effective method of preventing conception.
2. The approximated rate of failure of this method is zero percentage.
Disadvantages
It is said to be unrealistic for many to practice to this method.

2. Rhythm method
1. It is modified form of abstinence.
2. This method is based on the rhythm of the woman menstrual cycles.
3. No intercourse is done during the fertile period. These days can be identified by counting the days
between menstrual period and also by observing certain associated physical changes such as small
changes in body temperature.
Rhythm method is also referred as calendar method. A woman may also keep written chart of her
menstrual cycle for certain months and is taught how to determine the number of days each months
when sexual intercourse must be avoided. Total abstinence is about 7 days.
Advantages
1. The method is said to be natural and widely acceptable.
2. It has no cost.
3. It is said to be 79-87% effective.
Disadvantages
1. The approximate failure rate is 20%
2. It requires good knowledge and good record keeping
3. It also requires a period of abstinence.
4. Irregularity of the menstrual period (cycle).

3. Temperature method

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This method is based on the change of womans bodys temperature due to her menstrual cycle. The
temperature is said to drop during the menstrual period and remains low until the release of an ovum. A rise in
temperature is noted at ovulation, and sexual intercourse.

Advantages
1. the method is to be 76-80% effective
2. it costs nothing
3. it does not require fitting and regular checkups.
Disadvantages
1. the approximate failure is said to be 20-24%
2. sperms released to a female tract a few days before ovulation, may suvive until ovulation
3. Irregularity of the ovulation may fluctuation of temperature.

4. Billing methods (Ovulation method)


This method is based on the fact that the normal secretion from the womens female tract changes noticeably
during the course of her menstrual cycle. The appearance of clear thin mucus in female tract secretions at
ovulation is noted and sexual intercourse is avoided during these times.
Advantages
1. It said to be 76-80% effective.
2. It costs nothing (it is cheap.
3. It does not require fitting and regular checkups.
Disadvantages
1. Regularity of ovulation may cause fluctuation of temperature.

5. Coitus interruption (withdrawal)


Coitus interruption or withdrawal is another natural method of birth control in which a male withdraws a
penis from a female tract before ejaculation. This method is one of the oldest methods of birth control.
Coitus interruption requires unusual degree of will power.
Advantages
1. The method is costless.
2. It is reliable for 76-80% when fully practiced.
Disadvantages
1. The method requires unusual degree of will power.
2. It has high failure rate in case fluid released from the penis just before ejaculation may contain viable
sperm.
3. Sperm may leak from penis before is withdrawn even without ejaculation.

B Artificial methods
There are many artificial methods used for birth control, among them include the following:

1. Barrier methods
These methods prevent sperms from entering the female tract:

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Male Condom: this is a thin rubber sheath which prevents sperms entering into the female tract. Male
condom is worn over an erected penis during intercourse and prevents the sperm from being released
into the female tract thus preventing union of sperm and ovum.

Advantages of Using Condom


1. Condoms are said to be 85% to 93% reliable when used properly (handled with care)
2. They may help prevention of sexually transmitted disease.
3. They are cheap and easily obtained.

Disadvantages
1. Condoms can tear, and leak in which they become useless in such cases.
2. It may slip after climax
3. The condoms may disrupt the act of love making (reducing sensation).

Female condoms
Female condoms are equivalent to male condoms.
- It is a thin rubber or tube with a close end which fits inside the female tract.
- Female condoms are relatively new so no much is known about it. They give a woman
some control and are said to have the same advantages like those to the male condoms.

Diaphragm; This is another barrier method that prevents entering of sperms into the female tract.
A diaphragm is a flexible rubber which fits over the cervix and prevents entry of sperm to uterus. It is applied
with contraceptive jelly (cream) spermicidal, chemical) which kill sperms. This method must be prescribed by a
doctor.

Advantages
The methods is said to be cheap.
1. It can be inserted a few hours before sexual act.
2. It is 83-97% chance of success.

Disadvantages
1. The diaphragm must be fitted by a doctor and training is required for the woman to fit t.
2. It disrupts spontaneity
3. It occasionally causes pain in the abdomen.
4. It needs cheek up after every 6 months.
5. It should be left in place six hours after intercourse.
6. It needs reapplication of jelly with each intercourse.

Spermicidal
These are chemical which kill sperms. Spermicidal foam or spermicidal is placed in an applicant which is
inserted and emptied into the female tract just before sexual intercourse. These kill sperms and block cervix.

Advantages
1. it is Cheap
2. It is effective for about one hour.

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3. The method is not always reliable unless used with another device such as diaphragm or condom.

Disadvantages
1. It is a messy.
2. It has high failure rate if used on its own.

Douching; This is the process of rising out the female tract with a chemical right before sexual
intercourse. This method is said be almost useless because sperms can move past the cervix and out of
the douche within 90 seconds after ejaculation.

Sponge; This is a disposable polystyrene sponge impregnated with spermicide. It is fit over the cervix. It
is fit in place 24 hours (a day) before sexual intercourse. It is left in place 6 hours after sexual
intercourse. Sponge can be used with spermicidal.
Advantages
1. The method can be combined with other chemical such as spermicides giving 83% of success.
2. It is easy to follow and requires no fitting.
Disadvantages
1. It has a high failure rate.

2 Hormonal methods
Hormonal intervention reproductive cycle is another method used to control birth. The methods uses synthetic
hormones such as oestrogens and progesterones which suppress the hormones released by the pituitary gland.
Hormone methods include the following:

The pill
This is one of the most widely used contraceptive methods. The pill is an oral contraceptive of synthetic
oestrogen and progesterons take daily by the female.

It functions by suppressing the normal release of gonadotropins from the pituitary. These synthetic hormones
prevent the ovulations process, thus hindering fertilization.

The pills are taken orally as tablets and need prescription by the doctor.Formulations differ and are selected to
match the individual patients needs. That is why a woman is not supposed to borrow the pill from someone
else. One pill is taken each day during first3 weeks of womans cycle.
Advantages
1. The pill is said to be very effective having about 98% of success.
2. A woman has control over the method.
3. It has no interference with (sexual intercourse)
4. It is said to correct erratic menstrual cycles and decreases menstrual cramping.

Disadvantages
1. It is not suitable for all women. Increased risk of blood clotting may occur in some women.
2. It is not recommended for older women or women who smoke.

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3. Short term side effects of the pill including, nausea, weight gain, tissue swelling, fluid retention and
minor headaches.
4. It elevates blood pressure and some abnormalities in metabolism that might be linked to gall bladder
disorders
5. Possible longer term effects are said to be difficult to assess.

Minipill ; This is another hormonal contraceptive pill, which contains synthetic


progesterone hormone only. It functions by thickening the cervical mucus, preventing
entry of sperm. But ovulation may occur ever with the use of minipill. It also blocks
implantation and reactive the sperm.
Advantages
1. It is said to be effective for about 91-100%
2. It has lower dose of hormone than the pill therefore less risk to older women.
Disadvantages
1. It causes light bleeding between periods.
2. It may cause headaches.
3. It also causes weight gain.

Depo-Provera (injections)
This hormonal method of contraception works by preventing ovulation and altering uterine.

Advantages.
1. It is easy to use
2. It lasts for three months
3. It is said to be 99% effective.

Disadvantages
1. It changes the menstrual cycle
2. It causes increase in weight.

Norplant (implants)
1. It is a hormonal control method which works by preventing ovulation.
2. It also functions thickening cervical mucus.
Advantages
1. It easy to use.
2. It last for 5 years.
3. It has 99.8%e of success
Disadvantages
1. It causes menstrual change.
2. It needs a doctor to implant.

3 Surgical method (sterilization)


Other contraceptive methods involve surgical intervention in the reproductive tract. These are permanent birth
control methods which involve sterilizing the person for the rest of his / her reproductive life. Surgical

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sterilizations are done to prevent fertilization by making a small operation on womens oviduct or mans sperm
duct. There are two surgical sterilization done on man or woman. These are vasectomy and tubal ligation:

Vasectomy (male sterilization)


In vasectomy a tiny incision (cut) is made in the scrotum and each vas deference is severed and tied off, by
cutting off the supply of sperm and preventing the fluids from mixing with it.

Simple operation of vasectomy can be done in a few minutes. Sperms present in the duct regions below the
surgical cut can be present in the ejaculation for several weeks after operation. Therefore, a person could still
get a female pregnant.

Vasectomy is said to have no effects on sexual intercourse and ejaculation, nor does it affect the male hormone
system.

Advantages
1. Vasectomy has 99% chance success.
Disadvantages
1. It is very difficult to reverse.
2. Half of the men who have undergone surgery develop antibodies against sperm and some
of those may not be able to regain fertility.
Tubal ligation (female fertilization)
This is the surgical sterilization method in which the oviducts (fallopian tubes) are cut and tied off. Tubal
ligation is considered to be permanent. It is a more complex surgical sterilization, than vasectomy. When the
oviducts are tied off, the eggs cannot descend into the uterus. Tubal ligation is considered to have no side effects
on the menses and sexual intercourse.

Advantages
1. It is permanent
2. It does not interact spontaneity.
3. It has less than one per cent approximate failure.

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Disadvantages
1. It requires surgery.
2. There is a risk of infection.
3. It is very difficult to reverse.
4. It causes recurring bots of pain in a region where the surgery was performed.

14. Other methods


Intra-uterine devices (IUD) are small plastic coils or metal loops are inserted into the uterus by a doctor and left
in place for year to prevent pregnancy. These devices work by preventing the ovum from implanting in the
lining of the uterus.

Advantages
1. It has a low approximately failure rate that is high chance of success 95%.
2. It can be left in the uterus for long periods
3. It is easier to fit.

Disadvantages.
1. IUDs may cause bleeding and discomfort.
2. Sometimes IUDs may come out.
3. Women using IUDs run a greater risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.

NB; The risk of infection is high during the first four months after IUD insertion.

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