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10th Annual Sucker Rod Pumping

Workshop
Renaissance Hotel
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
September 16 - 19, 2014

Enhanced Pump Card Analysis

Lynn Rowlan
Jim McCoy
Carrie Anne Taylor Echometer Company
Ken Skinner
Introduction
Determining the Amount of Stock Tank Oil and Water
Contained in 1 Pump Stroke Requires the Use of
Enhanced Analysis Techniques
First Step is to Correctly Describe the Existing Wellbore
and Artificial Lift System Configuration.
Accurate and Representative Oil and Water Rates are
used to determine % Oil
Gravities are Used to Calculate Produced Fluid Behavior
Inside the Pump Chamber During a Selected Pump Stroke.
Once Traveling and Standing Valve Opening/Closing
Points are Identified, then the Behavior of the Fluids
Inside the Pump Chamber can be Modeled.
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Introduction (continued)
Tubing Pressure, Tubing Fluid Gradient and Deviation
Survey are Required to Determine the Pump Discharge
Pressure
During the gas compression process no free gas goes
into solution
Fluids inside the pump assumed to remain at pump
depth temperature
Free Gas Inside the Pump at Intake conditions is
Compressed to a Smaller Volume to the Discharge
Pressure to Open the Travelling Valve
Estimate 10% Oil if no Production Rates Entered
SPM and Plunger Diameter are used in Determining BPD
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W.E. Gilbert of Shell an Early Pioneer in the
Interpretation of Pump Dynagraphs (1936)
1. Developed Bottomhole Instrument to Record
Down-hole Action of Pump
2. Interpretation of Dynagraph Cards
3. In Appendix Developed Formulas to Calculate
Intake Liquid and Gas Volumes in Pump
Chamber and Compressed to Discharge

These type of calculations have been published by


Lea, Sandia, TUALP, Gibbs\Nolan and others.
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Walton E. Gilbert Detailed the Calculations of Free Gas Inside
the Pump When the TV Opens. The Concept of Calculating
Free Gas Inside the Pump has Been Known Since 1930s

An Oil-Well Pump Dynagraph, P. 107 W. E. Gilbert, Production Practice, 1936


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Incomplete Pump Fillage
Occurs from SV Close to TV Open
Steps from Top of
Stroke to TV Open
in Pump Operation

Pump acts as
a Compressor at [D]
At [C]
Pb =
Pb = Pintk
PDis - Discharge Pressure Pdis
PB - Pressure in Chamber
Pintk - Intake Pressure

C) Standing Valve closes, when plunger reaches top C-D) Plunger applies
of stroke, rods start to un-stretch to transfer fluid pressure to fluids inside
load, Fo, from rods [C] onto tubing [D]. pump chamber, to
D) Traveling Valve Opens when pressure in pump compress fluids in
chamber >= Pump Discharge Pressure, PDis. Pump chamber and
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Verify Valves Open and Close Correct

SPM = 4.107

SV Open SV Close

TV Close
TV Open

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Determine the Tubing Fluid Gradient

PDis = 0.32 x Pump Depth + Tubing Psig = 0.32x7865+70=2586.8


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Determine PIP from Pump Card

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Why is Pump Displacement 74 BPD and
Only 59 BPD Produced into the Tank

EPT = 38.76 in ~ 74 BPD

Free Gas
in Pump? EPT = Effective Plunger
Travel when TV Opens

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Gas Compression Curve Results
From Compressing the Free Gas
PD
Volume Inside the Pump Chamber

Equivalent Gas
Free Pump Fillage
Line = 35.99 inch
Vint
Liquid
Free Gas

Pint
Compression
Opens TV
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Compress Gas Volume 15.8x From Intake
242 Psig to Discharge 2587 Psig Pressure
Free Gas Determined
when TV Opens at EPT

Compress
to 2.77 @ 79 BPD ~ 41.35 Free
5 BPD Gas Enters Pump Intake
PIVI PDVD
Intake (-----) = (------) Discharge
ZI ZD PD

SV Opens when
Pchamber < Pint

Iso-thermal, No
Change in Rs
Liquid Vint
TV Opens When Free Gas
Pchamber > PD
Pint
Compression
Opens TV
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Using Fluid and Gas Properties at Both Intake and
Discharge Condition, the Amount of Compressed Gas
Filling the Pump Chamber Can Be Determined.

At 2587 Psig Discharge


Pressure the 41.35 inch
Free Gas Compressed
to a 2.77 inch height
At 242 Psig Intake Condition
Same Free Gas
41.35 inch Free Gas Fills 79
Molecules, but Smaller
BPD Pump Capacity
Compressed Gas

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Patterson slippage equation
estimates liquid slipping back
into pump chamber BPD Tank = BPD Pump
- Slippage
Slippage, BPD =
1.52
453 0.14 SPM 1
DPC
L
1) Fluid that slips back into
pump between the Plunger OD
and the Barrel ID
2) Slips back into the pump
chamber to reduces pump
capacity
3) When traveling ball is on Seat.
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Patterson
Slippage
11 BPD of
Slippage
Results in 5.6
Inches of
Reduced Pump
Capacity
Input Data:
Clearances,
242
Plunger Length,
Fluid Viscosity
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Effective Plunger Travel Free Gas in
Pump Slippage = Pump Displacement

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Adjust Liquid Volumes for Gas in Solution and
P & T Change from Pump to Surface

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Gas Volumes Produced Up the
Tubing and Casing
Gas Produced Up the Tubing Is Determined
From the Pump Card Calculations
Free Gas Produced Up the Tubing/Casing
Annulus Is Determined Form the Acoustic
Fluid Level Test Performed While Acquiring
the Dynamometer Test Data
Total Gas Produced Can Be Determined
System Gas Separation Efficiency Can Be
Determined By Comparing the Gas
Produced Up the Casing to the Total Gas
Produced.
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Wells System Gas Separation Efficiency is 51.2%
Equal to 9.1/17.8 MscfD
9.1
MscfD

8.7
MscfD

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Summary
Equivalent Gas Free Pump Fillage Line
Represents the Amount Of Liquid Fillage In the
Pump When the Traveling Valve Opens During
the Down Stroke.
Enhanced Analysis Technique Allows
Answering Many Of the Complicated Questions
Concerning Oil, Water And Gas Production With
Respect To the Maximum Plunger Travel, MPT,
and Effective Plunger Travel, EPT.

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Copyright
Rights to this presentation are owned by the company(ies) and/or
author(s) listed on the title page. By submitting this presentation to
the Sucker Rod Pumping Workshop, they grant to the Workshop,
the Artificial Lift Research and Development Council (ALRDC), and
the Southwestern Petroleum Short Course (SWPSC), rights to:
Display the presentation at the Workshop.
Place it on the www.alrdc.com web site, with access to the site to be as
directed by the Workshop Steering Committee.
Place it on a CD for distribution and/or sale as directed by the Workshop
Steering Committee.
Other use of this presentation is prohibited without the expressed
written permission of the author(s). The owner company(ies) and/or
author(s) may publish this material in other journals or magazines if
they refer to the Sucker Rod Pumping Workshop where it was first
presented.

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Disclaimer
The following disclaimer shall be included as the last page of a Technical Presentation or
Continuing Education Course. A similar disclaimer is included on the front page of the Sucker Rod
Pumping Web Site.
The Artificial Lift Research and Development Council and its officers and trustees, and the Sucker
Rod Pumping Workshop Steering Committee members, and their supporting organizations and
companies (here-in-after referred to as the Sponsoring Organizations), and the author(s) of this
Technical Presentation or Continuing Education Training Course and their company(ies), provide
this presentation and/or training material at the Sucker Rod Pumping Workshop "as is" without any
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The Sponsoring Organizations cannot and do not warrant the accuracy of these documents beyond
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