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Pile Lateral Load Analysis Using Finite Difference Method

LatPile Function
Pile bending moments, forces and deflection due to lateral loads using a finite difference analysis
=LatPile(Segments, Loads, Soil table, Sections table, PY tables, Defaults, Output code, Koption)
Optional input in italics
Input:

Segments 2 column range listing pile length and number of segments


Loads 7 row single column range listing applied loads at head of pile:
See below for details of load input
Soil table Range listing soil properties, 7-9 rows x 1 column for each soil type
Effective depths at the top of each layer may optionally be entered in rows 8 and 9
See SoilProps sheet for further details of how Effective Depths are calculated.
Sections table Range listing pile section properties, 3 to 13 rows x 1 column for each section type
Notes: If the depth specified for Soil types and section types does not extend to the bottom
then the last provided value is applied to nodes to the bottom of the pile
Section stiffness (EI) may be specified as constant in row 3, or calculated for reinfor
piles of circular or rectangular cross section, to Eurocode 2 method.
Optional input:
PY tables Contiguous range with 2 columns for each table: pile deflection(Y) and support force per u
PY curves are used for those soil layers with "PY" in row 2 of the soil table, and Table Num
Defaults Change system defaults; available parameters and default values are shown in the examp
Output Code options 1: Output array includes 6 output columns (see below for details)
2: Output Pile EI and soil stiffness only
3: Output array includes all 11 output columns (see below for details)

KOption 1: initial stiffness (P/Y) for soil type 2 and 3 = Ki * Depth (as COM625 Manual and LPile)
2: initial stiffness (P/Y) for soil type 2 and 3 = Ki * Diam

Sign Convention Assuming a vertical pile, with nodes listed from top to bottom:
Deflections and loads are positive from left to right
Positive bending moments cause compression in the right side of the pile

Units All units are kN and m except:


Reinforcement bar diameter and cover (mm)
Concrete Shrinkage (microstrain)
Any other consistent units may be used if a fixed value is entered for the pile flexural stiffn

Non-linear pile behaviour The calculated pile flexural stiffness takes account of post-cracking behaviour of reinforced
concrete, including tension stiffening and shrinkage effects if a C (circular) or R (rectangul
is entered in row 3 of the Sections Table. If a numerical value is entered in row 3 this is u
fixed stiffness (EI) and the entries below are ignored.
Note that non-linearity due to steel yielding, or concrete crushing is not included in
A separate check must be made of steel and concrete stresses.

Output:
Output is a 6 or 11 column array, enter as an array function:
To enter an array function: Enter the function in the top left cell of the output range
Select the entire output range
Press F2
Press Ctrl-shift-enter
Column 1 Node Position from top, m
Column 2 Deflection, m
Column 3 Bending Moment, kNm
Column 4 Shear force, KN
Column 5 Pile EI, kN/m2
Column 6 Soil spring stiffness, kN/m 2
Column 7 Soil layer number
Column 8 Effective Depth 1, m
Column 9 Effective Depth 2, m
Column 10 Maximum soil force per metre length, kN/m (pf)
Column 11 Soil force/metre length

Other Functions

PY624tab Function
Table of soil stiffness values at a specified effective depth
=PY624tab(Soil data, Pile Sections, Loads, Deflections, Koption)
Optional input in italics
Input:

Soil data As LatPile function, except that rows 8 and 9 are not optional
Pile Sections As LatPile function
Loads As LatPile function
Deflections Single column range listing pile deflection in ascending order

Optional input:

KOption As LatPile function

Output:
Output is a single column array , enter as an array function:
Spring force/m of pile for each input deflection

PfEffDepth Function
Returns the maximum soil resistance per metre due to wedge failure at a specified effective depth
=PfEffDepth(Soil data, Pile EffDepth, PYTabsA)
Optional input in italics
Input:

Soil data As LatPile function, except that row 1 is pile diameter and rows 8 and 9 are not required
Eff Depth Effective depth at which the soil stiffness is required
PYTabsA As LatPile function

Output:
Maximum Spring force/m due to wedge failure
ntered in rows 8 and 9
hs are calculated.
n for each section type
does not extend to the bottom of the pile
bottom of the pile
ow 3, or calculated for reinforced concrete
de 2 method.

ion(Y) and support force per unit length (P).


f the soil table, and Table Number in row 3.
alues are shown in the example.

COM625 Manual and LPile)

side of the pile

ntered for the pile flexural stiffness.

acking behaviour of reinforced


a C (circular) or R (rectangular)
ue is entered in row 3 this is used as a

crushing is not included in the analysis.

cell of the output range


ws 8 and 9 are not required
Examples

Example 1: 20 m pile in a layered soil with one input PY curve and 2 calculated PY Curves
Layers Loads
Length, m Subdivisions Type
10 40 Shear
10 10 Moment
Axial at head
Axial at base
Depth of zero axial
Number of cycles
Water table depth

Shear and moment are specified at the head of the pile. There is currently no provision for
applying loads at other locations.
Axial load is assumed to vary linearly from the head to toe of the pile, or bi-linearly from the
head to the depth of zero axial, and depth of zero axial to the base.
If Depth of zero axial is <=0, >= pile length, or blank, it is ignored.

Soil Tables
Depth of layer base 2
Soil cohesion, Cu; or "PY" to use PY table PY
Soil friction angle, Phi, or PY Table number 1
Soil Density 12.000
Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50
Soil Type
Initial stiffness, ki
Layer top Effective depth for wedge failure (optional)
Layer top Effective depth for initial stiffness (optional)
Soil Type, 0 = "void", 1 = "Soft to firm clay", 2 = "Stiff Clay", 3 = "Sand"

PY Tables

Y P
0.000E+00 0.000E+00
3.000E-03 4.970E+01
6.000E-03 6.270E+01
9.000E-03 7.170E+01
1.200E-02 7.890E+01
1.500E-02 8.500E+01
1.800E-02 9.040E+01
2.100E-02 9.510E+01
2.400E-02 9.950E+01
2.700E-02 1.035E+02
3.000E-02 1.071E+02
3.300E-02 1.106E+02
3.600E-02 1.139E+02
3.900E-02 1.169E+02
4.200E-02 1.199E+02

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Examples

4.500E-02 1.227E+02
4.800E-02 1.253E+02
5.100E-02 1.279E+02
5.400E-02 1.303E+02
5.700E-02 1.327E+02
6.000E-02 1.350E+02
1.200E-01 1.350E+02
1.260E-01 1.350E+02

Sections Table
Depth of base of section m
Pile diam or width m
EI or Section Type (C or R) for RC kNm2
Bar diameter Diat mm
Number of bars* Numt
Bar cover Covt mm
Concrete compressive strength f'c kPa
Steel yield stress fys kPa
E steel Es kPa
E concrete Ec kPa
Concrete flex. tens. strength f'ct kPa
Concrete shrinkage strain Epscs Microstrain
Section depth (rectangular sect.) m
* Total number for circular section, or bars on tensile face for rectangular section

Defaults Table (default values in brackets)


Tension stiffening Beta value (0.5)
Maximum iterations (20)
Tolerance on deflection norm (0.001)
Tolerance on soil stiffness norm (0.001)
Tolerance on section stiffness norm (0.001)

Output

X Deflection Moment
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

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Examples

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!


#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

Soil Resistance
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
12.000

10.000
Depth, m

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000

LatPile

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Examples

Bending Moment

12.000

10.000

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0

LatPile

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Examples

2 calculated PY Curves
Loads
m, kNm
200
50
200
0

1
30

ently no provision for

r bi-linearly from the

20 30
25.00 50.00
0 0
12.000 12.000
0.0200 0.0100
1 2
20000 50000
2.00 20
2.00 20

Y P Y P Y P

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Examples

10.0 20.0
0.6 0.6
C 130,000
20.0 20.0
12.0 6.0
40.0 40.0
30,000 30,000
500,000 500,000
200,000,000 200,000,000
20,000,000 20,000,000
2,000 2,000
600.0 600

0.5
100
0.001
0.001
0.001

Spring
Shear Force Pile EI stiffness layer EffDepth1 EffDepth2
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

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Examples

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!


#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

Deflection
30 35 0.000000 5.000000 10.000000 15.000000 20.000000 25.000000 30.000000 35.00000
12.000

10.000
Depth, m

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000

LatPile

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Examples

Shear Force

12.000

10.000

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000
30.0 35.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0

LatPile

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Examples

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Examples

pf Spring force
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!

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Examples

#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!

0000 30.000000 35.000000

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Examples

25.0 30.0 35.0

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Examples

m 0.600 0.600 0.600 0.600 0.600


kPa PY 25.00 50.00 0.00 0.00
degrees 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
kN/m3 12.00 12.00 12.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
1 to 3 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.00 0.00
KN/m3 0.00 20000.00 50000.00 0.00 0.00

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Examples

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Examples

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Examples

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Examples

0.600
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

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Examples

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Examples

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Examples

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Recommended Typical Soil Properties
Source: COM624 Manual

Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50

Average
Clay Consistency Undrained Shear Eps50
0 Strength, kPa
Soft 10 to 25 0.02
Medium 25 to 50 0.01
Stiff 50 to 100 0.007
100 to 200 0.005
200 to 400 0.004

Initial soil stiffness, Ki


0 100 200
Average Undrained Shear Strength, kPa
50 to 100 100 to 200 200 to 400
Stiff Clay
Static load, kN/m3 140,000 270,000 540,000 140000
Cyclic load, kN/m3 50,000 110,000 220,000 50000

Sand (static or cyclic Loose Medium Dense


Submerged kN/m3 5,000 15,000 35,000
Above water table kN/m3 7,000 25,000 60,000

Unit conversion: 1 ton/ft2 = 95.8 kPa


1 lb/in3 = 272 kN/m3
Effective Depth
When a pile with a layered soil is analysed, the upper soil layers affect the lower layers in three respects:
If the ultimate resistance is controlled by wedge sliding, the resistance at any level is the sum of the
resistances from each layer above.
If the ultimate resistance is controlled by flow with a granular soil the reisitance is related to the vertical
pressure at the level of analysis.
The initial stiffness for type 2 and 3 soils is proportional to the vertical pressure at the level of analysis.
To allow for these effects the LatPile function calculates two effective depths:
1) The effective depth for wedge failure for a point within any layer, L, has two components:
i) The depth of soil with the same properties as Layer L that would have the same wedge sliding
resistance as the actual soil layers above the top of Layer L.
ii) The depth of the point below the top of Layer L
2) The effective depth for vertical pressure for a point within a layer, L, is the depth of material that
would have the same vertical pressure as that due to the actual soils layers above the point.
Depths 1) and 2) are calculated by the LatPile function, or may optionally be specified for the top
of each layer as rows 8 and 9 of the Soil Properties Table.
If effective depths are specified they must be entered for every layer other than the top soil layer

Example PY Curves; Data from Examples sheet

Soil Tables
Depth of point 5 25
Soil cohesion, Cu; or "PY" to use PY table 25.00 50.00
Soil friction angle, Phi, or PY Table number 0 0
Soil Density 12.000 12.000
Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50 0.0200 0.0100
Soil Type 1 2
Initial stiffness, ki 20000 50000
Effective depth for wedge failure 5 25
Effective depth for initial stiffness 5 25

Depth = 5 m below surface PY624tab


Deflection Force
m kN/m
0 #VALUE! 12.0
0.005 #VALUE!
0.01 #VALUE!
10.0
0.015 #VALUE!
0.02 #VALUE!
0.025 #VALUE! 8.0
0.03 #VALUE!
0.035 #VALUE! 6.0
0.04 #VALUE!
0.045 #VALUE! 4.0
0.05 #VALUE!
0.055 #VALUE!
2.0
0.06 #VALUE!
0.065 #VALUE!
0.07 #VALUE! 0.0
0.075 #VALUE! 0 0.01 0.02 0.0
0.08 #VALUE!

Depth = 25 m below surface PY624tab


Deflection Force
m kN/m
0 #VALUE!
0.0025 #VALUE!
0.005 #VALUE!
12.0
0.0075 #VALUE!
0.01 #VALUE!
10.0
0.02 #VALUE!
0.03 #VALUE!
0.04 #VALUE! 8.0
0.05 #VALUE!
0.06 #VALUE! 6.0
0.07 #VALUE!
0.08 #VALUE! 4.0
0.09 #VALUE!
0.1 #VALUE! 2.0
0.11 #VALUE!
0.0
0 0.02 0.0
PT624tab
0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

2.0
PY624Tab

0.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
12

10

6 Colu
mn
AL
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Disclaimer
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,


but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

A copy of the GNU General Public License may be obtained from:


The Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

dougjenkins@interactiveds.com.au
www.interactiveds.com.au
http://newtonexcelbach.wordpress.com/
Copyright 2012 Interactive Design Services Pty Ltd. all rights reserved

Revision History

Current Version 1.04 4-Jul-12

Rev Date By Description

1.00 17-Jul-10 DAJ First release


1.01 ### DAJ Code to read first row in input PY tables corrected (row and column ind
1.02 ### DAJ KOption added; PY624tab function added; PY_624 function modified, e
1.03 ### DAJ PY curve corrected for Soil type 1, 3*Eps50 < Y < 15*Eps50 and Type
1.04 4-Jul-12 DAJ Effective depth calculation code modified so that blank rows 8 and 9 in
cted (row and column indeces reversed)
624 function modified, effective depth input added
Y < 15*Eps50 and Type 2 below water table, As*Y50 < Y < 6*As*Y50
hat blank rows 8 and 9 in the soil table are ignored.