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102 Ansichten8 SeitenINFLUENCE OF PRESSURE IN PIPELINE DESIGN – EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE

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INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE IN PIPELINE DESIGN – EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE

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102 Ansichten8 SeitenINFLUENCE OF PRESSURE IN PIPELINE DESIGN – EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE

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24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2005)

June 12-17, 2005, Halkidiki, Greece

OMAE2005-67502

Det Norske Veritas,

Veritasveien 1,

N-1322 Hvik, Norway

This paper discusses use of the effective axial force axial force. Further it explains how this concept is applied in

concept in offshore pipeline design in general and in DNV modern offshore pipeline design. Finally the background for

codes in particular. using the effective axial force in some of the DNV pipeline

The concept of effective axial force or effective tension has codes is given.

been known and used in the pipeline and riser industry for some

decades. However, recently a discussion about this was Keywords: Pipelines, Effective axial force, Pressure

initiated and doubt on how to treat the internal pressure raised. effects, pipeline codes.

Hopefully this paper will contribute to explain the use of this

concept and remove the doubts in the industry, if it exists at all. INTRODUCTION

The concept of effective axial force allows calculation of The effective axial force is often considered as a virtual

the global behaviour without considering the effects of internal force in contrast to the so-called true axial force given by the

and/or external pressure in detail. In particular, global buckling, integral of stresses over the steel cross-section. It is, however, a

so-called Euler buckling, can be calculated as in air by applying concept used to avoid integration of pressure effects over

the concept of effective axial force. double-curves surfaces like a pipe deformed by bending.

The effective axial force is also used in the DNV-RP-F105 The main problem with the internal and external pressures

Free spanning pipelines to adjust the natural frequencies of is that the effect of these is often the opposite of what one

free spans due to the change in geometrical stiffness caused by instantaneously thinks is correct. Therefore these effects have

the axial force and pressure effects. A recent paper claimed, been sources to misunderstandings and wrong designs.

however, that the effect was the opposite of the one given in the One example, as given by Palmer and Baldry (1974), is a

DNV-RP-F105 and may cause confusion about what is the straight pipeline restrained by rigid anchor blocks in each end.

appropriate way of handling the pressure effects. When this pipe is exposed to internal pressure, a tensile stress

It is generally accepted that global buckling of pipelines is develops in the hoop direction. Due to Poissons effect, this

governed by the effective axial force. However, in the DNV hoop stress will tend to shorten the pipe. Since the shortening is

Pipeline Standard DNV-OS-F101, also the local buckling prevented by the anchor blocks, the stress in the tensile

criterion is expressed by use of the effective axial force concept direction also becomes positive. Despite of this the pipeline

which easily could be misunderstood. Local buckling is, of will buckle when the pressure reach a certain critical level as

course, governed by the local stresses, the true stresses, in the shown in the experiment conducted by the authors.

pipe steel wall. Thus, it seems unreasonable to include the The explanation of this contradiction is of course the

effective axial force and not the true axial force as used in the effective axial force which becomes negative as the pressure

former DNV Pipeline Standard DNV96. The reason for this is builds up. The composite action of the fluid/gas pressure and

explained in detail in this paper. the steel pipe axial force will cause buckling.

As will be shown later, the effective axial force governs area. Other sectional forces like bending moments and shear

the structural response of the pipeline in an overall perspective, forces are omitted for clarity as they will not enter the

influencing on lateral buckling, upheaval buckling, anchor calculation of the effective axial force and the effect of the

forces, end expansion and natural frequencies of free spans. For pressure.

this reason it of outmost importance to understand its effects

and be able to estimate it accurately in order to end up with a

safe and reliable design.

When it comes to local effects like local buckling, steel N

stresses and yielding, the true axial force governs. However, as pe

seen later in this paper, the effective axial force may still be

used to simplify the design criterion.

Even though the effective axial force has been used in

pipeline codes for several decades, see for example DNV76 N

= pe

(1976), it is still misunderstood and misinterpreted when it p eA e

comes to the effect of pressures. The effect of the internal

pressure is treated by for example Palmer and Baldry (1974)

and Sparks (1983, 1984), who seemed to introduce the term +

effective axial force.

Quite recently Galgoul et al (2004) and Carr et al. (2003)

claimed that the expression for the effective axial force and the

way it is applied in some DNV codes like DNV-OS-F101 and

DNV-RP-F105 is wrong. This is not the case as shown in the

following.

This paper will not come up with any new expressions or Figure 1 - Equivalent physical systems external pressure

application for the effective axial force. The intention is solely

to try to give the background for this concept and its application As seen, the section with an axial force, N, and the external

in the pipeline codes. By doing so, it is the hope that the design pressure, pe, (left figure) can be replaced by a section where the

criteria become easier to understand and that it will not be external pressure acts over a closed surface and gives the

misinterpreted in the future. resulting force equal to the weight of the displaced water , the

buoyancy of the pipe section (middle figure), and an axial force

EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE CONCEPT equal to N + peAe.

The concept of effective axial force simplifies the Considering the effect of the external pressure in the way

calculation of how the internal and external pressures influence as shown in fig. 1 does not change the physics or add any

the behaviour of a pipeline. Therefore it is very important for forces to the pipe section. However, it significantly simplifies

the pipeline designer to fully understand this concept. Despite the calculation. The alternative would be to integrate the

of this, the experience of the authors is that the effective axial pressure over the double curved pipe surface. Note also that the

force is quite often misunderstood and applied wrongly. varying pressure due to varying water depth over the pipe

The effective axial force is explained in detail in many surface needs to be accounted for in order to get the effect of

papers, e.g. see Sparks (1983). However, a short description is the displaced water, the buoyancy.

included herein for the sake of completeness. A similar consideration, as for the external pressure, may

The effect of the external pressure is most easily be done for the internal pressure. However, as seen from fig. 2

understood by considering the law of Archimedes: when considering a section of a pipeline with internal pressure,

the external forces acting on this section is the axial force, N,

The effect of the water pressure on a submerged body is and the end cap force, piAi. Again other sectional forces like

an upward directed force equal in size to the weight of the bending moment and shear forces are omitted for clarity. As the

water displaced by the body. pressure acts in all direction in every point in the liquid, the

internal pressure will always act on a closed surface. Further,

Archimedes law is based on the assumption that the the pressure at the cut away section ends will act as an external

pressure acts over a closed surface. Physically, Archimedes law axial load in compression.

can be proved by considering an arbitrary volume inside a From these considerations of the external and internal

larger liquid without any internal flow due to temperature pressures acting on a pipeline section it becomes clear that the

/density differences. Since the effect of the pressure over the effect of these may be accounted for by the so-called effective

surface of this arbitrary volume is an upward force equal to the axial force:

weight of this liquid, the arbitrary volume will be in

equilibrium and will neither move up, down nor to any side. Of S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (1)

course the same conclusion is reached by mathematically

integrating the external pressure over the surface of the volume. In addition the integrated effects of the pressures over

Now, consider a section of a pipeline exposed to external closed surfaces give:

pressure as illustrated in fig. 1. The only sectional force Buoyancy (external pressure)

included is the axial force, N, the so-called true wall force Weight of internal liquid (internal pressure)

found by integrating the steel stress over the steel cross-section

From this it can clearly be stated that the effective axial

force is a real force that can be measured and that have a

pi physical interpretation.

Let us take a look at a few examples where the effective

axial force concept may be used to simplify the calculation of

the pipeline response.

One example is already mentioned in the previous section;

the external force to be applied to lock the pipeline axially or

prevent any end expansion etc, see fig 3. Then any transfer of

pi N shear forces at the bend is neglected.

piAi

Some of the confusion among pipeline designers regarding pi

the effective axial force may be due to the use of the term true

force for the steel wall force, N, and the perception of Figure 3 - Force to prevent any axial expansion at bends

effective axial force as a fictitious, non-physical force. This is etc.

also claimed by Galgoul et al. (2004) stating that the term piAi

is a lateral force and not an axial one. Fig. 4 shows the pipeline during installation using a typical

The question to be answered is really; Is only forces S-lay barge with the pipeline bent over the stinger and in the

causing stresses in the pipe wall real forces? sag bend near the seabed.

Let us consider the same example as Sparks (1983), a

reinforced concrete beam. Since concrete only resist

insignificant tensile stresses, the load-bearing capacity of Flt

concrete elements may be improved by using pre-stressed

(tensile) reinforcement. Without any external loads, the

concrete will be in compression and the reinforcement in

tension. But what is the real axial force in the beam? Is it in

compression due to concrete stresses? It is obvious that an

integration over the total cross-section, including both concrete

and reinforcement stresses gives an axial force equal to zero.

This composite axial force has clear similarities to the effective

S

axial force concept.

Thus the answer from this is that the effective axial force is

a real force. But how could it be interpreted or measured?

If strain gauges are mounted to the pipeline, the steel strain Figure 4 Pipeline during conventional S-lay installation.

and thus, steel stresses and thereby the steel wall force or true

axial force may be deduced. By simple considerations using the effective axial force

Let us, however, consider a pipeline terminated with a concept, the axial force in the pipeline after installation can be

blind flange which could be the case during the pressure test of estimated.

the pipeline system. If the end is free to move, no external loads Equilibrium of horizontal forces requires that the true axial

act on it (assuming no external pressure, i.e. above sea water). force, N, in the pipeline after installed, i.e. at the seabed, is

When the pipeline is pressurised what will the axial force equal to the barge tension, Flt, in addition to the integrated

become? effect of the external pressure. In addition the horizontal

From simple equilibrium calculations it is obvious that the components of the roller contact forces at the stinger must be

true, steel wall force will be equal to N = piAi (in tension) and accounted for, but these are omitted here for simplicity.

the effective axial force will be Seff = N - piAi = 0. This means As mentioned earlier the integration of the varying external

that the effective axial force is the force one may measure at the pressure over the double-curves pipe is complicated. However,

blind flange. by closing the integration surface, it can easily be shown that

Further it is the effective axial force that must be the effective axial force at bottom must be:

counteracted in case axial expansion of pipeline ends are to be

avoided or the pipeline is to be locked axially with intermittent S = N + p e Ae = Flt (2)

rock berms, e.g. to section a hot pipeline and ensure controlled

lateral buckling. All types of pipeline anchoring and end Accounting for the horizontal force components of the

terminations must consider the effective axial force. rollers and any other relaxation due to axial sliding etc this

leads to the so-called residual lay tension, H. This force is to be At the time when the pipeline is laid down, it does not rely

considered as an effective axial force. on any force transfer between the soil and pipe, hence, the

Now, using H as the effective axial force after installation, effective axial force is equal to the bottom tension force, H

the true axial force becomes: (effective force). The equation can then be re-written as:

N = H p e Ae (3) 1 N pi ,1 Di p e,1 D p i ,1 + p e,1 (12)

l ,1 = + T1

As the pipeline is operated, the true axial force gets into E As 2t 2

compression due to the thermal expansion (-As) and into

1 H p e,1 Ae + p i ,1 Ai

tension due to the hoop stress and Possions effect (hAs) if =

not allowed to slide axially (fully restrained). The true force E As

becomes: p i ,1 Di p e,1 D p i ,1 + p e,1

+ T1

p i Di (4) 2t 2

N = H p e Ae + As As TE

2t

where H is the (effective) bottom tension.

From the definition of the effective axial force, the following is During operation, denoted index 2, the longitudinal strain

deducted: will be, similar to the above:

S = H p i Ai + As

p i Di

As TE 1 S p e, 2 Ae + p i , 2 Ai (13)

2t l ,2 =

E As

H p i Ai [1 2 ] As TE

(5)

p i , 2 Di p e, 2 D pi , 2 + p e, 2

which is the same expression as given in DNV-OS-F101. Note + T2

2t 2

that in DNV-OS-F101, pi is replaced by pi. This does not

mean the differential pressure between the outer and the Since the pipe is axially restrained; l,1=l,2 and S can be

internal pressure, but the change in internal pressure from solved from (setting Eq. (12) equal to Eq.(13)):

installation, accounting for a potential water-filled installation

with a hydrostatic pressure inside the pipe. 1 H p e,1 Ae + p i ,1 Ai

E As

DNV-OS-F101 EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE

An alternative proof of the effective axial force for a fully p i ,1 Di p e,1 D pi ,1 + p e,1

restrained pipeline will be given in the following. This is based + T1 = (14)

on two fundamental expressions; Effective axial force and 2t 2

Hookes law: 1 S p e, 2 Ae + pi , 2 Ai

S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (6) E As

p i , 2 Di p e, 2 D p i , 2 + p e, 2

(7) + T2

l = [ l ( h + r )] + T

1

2t 2

E

Further, the external pressure is the same, i.e. pe,1=pe,2 and

where l is the axial (longitudinal) strain , l, h and r are the

the differential temperature from reference (i.e. T2-T1) can

axial, hoop and radial stresses, is Poissons ratio, is the

be denoted as T and the equation can be simplified as:

thermal expansion coefficient and T is the temperature

difference. H + p i ,1 Ai p i ,1 Di pi ,1

Further, the following relationships apply: =

As 2t 2

(15)

l = N / As (8)

S + p i , 2 Ai pi , 2 Di pi , 2

+ TE

As 2t 2

h = ( p i Di p e D) / 2t (9)

Introducing pi as the internal pressure difference from

r ( p i + p e ) / 2 (10) laying (i.e. pi,2-pi,1) the equation reads:

where As is the steel cross sectional area of the pipe, D and Di S H + p i Ai p D p (16)

are the external and internal diameters and t is the nominal 0= i i i + TE

As 2t 2

wall thickness.

Let the as-installed pipeline condition be denoted with an

index 1. The only un-known in this condition is the longitudinal As Di (17)

S = H p i Ai + 2pi 1 AsTE

strain which is given by Hookes law as: 4 t

[ ]

l ,1 = l ,1 ( h,1 + r ,1 ) + T1

1 (11)

E

The external pressure will not affect the effective axial

D + Di Di (18)

force in the operational condition.

t 1

S = H p i Ai 2

2 t A TE

4 s Both Palmer and Baldry (1974) and Hobbs (1984) are

correct and according to the DNV formulae when it comes to

internal pressure.

D D

1 3 DNV-OS-F101 LOCAL BUCKLING

= H p i Ai 1 2 t A TE

t The local buckling criterion in DNV96 for internal over

D

2 s

pressure is based on a pure von Mises calculation, considering

2 the two dimensional stress stage in the pipe wall. In general

t terms this becomes:

(21)

3 h

2

To this point, the only simplification is that the radial stress M c = M p f M = SMYS D 2 t 1

is assumed constant across the wall thickness. 4 SMYS

However, the above equation can be approximated with:

N 1 h

S H pi Ai [1 2 ] AsTE (19)

2 SMYS D t 2 SMYS

Cos

The order of error introduced (of the pressure contribution) 3 h

2

1

by this simplification is: 4 SMYS

D D (20)

1 3 Concentrating on the bracket in the nominator of the

1 2

t t Cosine term, this has been split up into functional and

D

2 environmental loads in DNV96 as:

2

e= t F N F + E N E 1 F h (22)

1 2 SMYS D t 2 SMYS

and it is plotted in fig 5. The error of the simplification is less This can be re-written by including the definition of the

than 1% for D/t larger than 15!. Note that the error is valid for effective force, defined as:

the internal pressure term only and is really negligible. It is also

worth to mention that in most HTHP cases, it is the thermal S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (23)

expansion term that dominates the effective axial force.

Split into functional and environmental parts this becomes

New S F = N F p i Ai + p e Ae (24)

1.1 SE = NE

Including these definitions into the inner bracket of the

cosine term, it becomes:

1.05

F (S F + p i Ai p e Ae ) + E S E 1 F h (25)

Relative error

SMYS D t 2 SMYS

1

Assuming thin walled pipe this can be re-written as

F S F + E S E F ( p i p e ) Ae 1 F h (26)

0.95 + =

SMYS D t SMYS D t 2 SMYS

F ( p i p e ) Ae 2 D 1 F h

= ..... + =

0.9

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

SMYS D t 2 D 2 SMYS

D2

D/t

( pi pe ) D 2

4 1 h

= ... + F F =

Figure 5 - Estimate of error due to simplification of axially t2 SMYS D D 2 SMYS

restrained pipe stress formula 1 1 h

= ... + F h F =

2 SMYS 2 SMYS

The conclusions from this deduction are: S + E SE

The given formula, Eq. 5.4 in DNV-OS-F101 is = F F

SMYS D t

correct if the pipe can be considered as a thin walled

pipe- the error due to this simplification can be seen in

Hence, the bracket in the nominator can be simplified by

Figure 5.

using the effective force. This local buckling formulation has

been further developed by Taylor expansion, including strain

hardening and other minor adjustments to fit with FE analyses By considering equilibrium of lateral forces and the

in DNV-OS-F101 based on the same principles as explained bending moment acting on the beam section shown in fig. 6, the

above. dynamic equation of motion for the beam section exposed to an

Hence, the local buckling formula has been derived at by axial tensile force, P, and a distributed lateral force, q, reads:

use of the true pipe wall force. However, the result turns out

to be simpler if converted to effective force. 4v 2v 2v (27)

EI P 2 + m 2 = q ( x, t )

The following comments apply: x 4

x t

The new format is simpler to use and understand. It

is well suited for performing design checks (g(x)<1) in where v is the lateral displacement, x the axial co-ordinate, t is

connection with global analyses. time and EI and m the bending stiffness and dynamic mass per

unit length, respectively.

Compared to the original formulation, the utilisation is

The classical solution to this differential equation without

unaltered for bending dominant cases.

any lateral force (free vibrations) gives the following

The limit state is now applicable also in case of axial fundamental vibration frequency:

force and pressure only. The format and axial force

utilisation is consistent with traditional stress-based (28)

EI P

von Mises criteria. f 0 = C1 1

Note that the pressure terms are not factorised. mL4 Pcr

Extreme pressure cases are handled in the (system)

burst check. where L is the span length and Pcr is the critical buckling axial

force where the span buckles. Note that P and Pcr are positive in

DNV-RP-F105 FREE SPAN RESPONSE tension, and that Pcr and that the constant C1 depends on the

The most important parameter when it comes to structural boundary conditions of the span, for more specific guidance see

response of free spans is the natural frequency. This parameter DNV-RP-F105 or Fyrileiv and Mrk (2002).

enters the reduced velocity and thereby governs whether vortex The Pcr term may be replaced by the Euler buckling force

induced vibrations will occur or not, given the pipe outer for a pinned-pinned span, PE = 2EI/L2 (positive in

diameter and the flow velocity normal to the span. By changing compression) and a second boundary condition constant, C2:

the natural frequency, e.g. by introducing additional span (29)

EI P

supports or reducing the span length, the VIV response may be f 0 = C1 1 + C 2

mitigated. mL4 PE

From textbooks like Clough and Penzien (1975), it is

obvious how the axial force influence on the dynamics and

frequencies of a free spanning pipeline. However, there have What happens when the beam or pipe is put in water and

been a lot of mistakes when it comes to the effect of the internal subjected to external and internal pressures in addition to the

pressure in various papers and reports. The latest example is the axial force?

paper by Galgoul et al. (2004) where it is claimed that the Looking at the governing differential equation it is obvious

internal pressure will increase the frequency. that most of the terms remain the same; the effects of the

Since the discussion is about how the pressure effects bending and axial force do not change. Note that the axial

influence on the frequencies or more precisely if the internal force, P, is strictly speaking the so-called true axial force, N,

pressure tends to increase or decrease the frequencies, it is of given in DNV-OS-F101 and DNV-RP-F105. This force is the

outmost importance to get the signs right, considering the integrated axial stresses over the steel cross-section and

governing equations of dynamics for the beam. contains terms from residual lay tension, temperature expansion

effects, Poisson effects from hoop stresses and any axial

expansion/sliding effects.

R For this case with the pipe in water and exposed to internal

v q and external pressures, the vibrating mass will also involve the

mass of the pipe content and the hydrodynamic added mass (the

effect of moving the pipe through water and creating pressure

M+dM effects around the circumference).

M P

4v 2v 2v (30)

EI N + m eff = q ( x, t )

P Q+dQ x 4 x 2 t 2

Q As mentioned, the external and internal pressure will have

an indirect effect on this equation through the hoop stress and

the Poisson effect on the true axial force.

x However, as shown by Galgoul et al. (2004), the effect of

dx the internal pressure can be seen as a lateral force, q. Consider

the infinitesimal length of the pipe as shown in fig. 6 which is

Figure 6 Forces acting on an infinitesimal length of a deformed with a radius R = 2v/x2. Due to the deformation,

beam. the pipe fibres at the compression side become shorter than the

ones at the tensile side. The relative shortening becomes (R- of the axial force, P, from the beginning. Then the cumbersome

rsin)/R where is defined in fig. 7. integration of double-curves surfaces would have been avoided.

Let us consider eq. (27) without the dynamic term (inertia

term). Having no external distributed load but including

R=1/d2v/dx2 external and internal pressures will lead to an equation similar

to eq. (32) but without the inertia term:

4v 2v (35)

EI ( N p A

i i + p A

e e ) =0

x 4 x 2

Solving this equation gives the following critical load,

buckling load, for a pinned-pinned boundary condition:

q 2 EI (36)

S cr = N cr p i Ai + p e Ae =

L2

This shows that there is a clear relationship between how

the internal (and external) pressure affects both global buckling

and the natural frequencies of a span.

It is also quite obvious that the natural frequency will

decrease as the internal pressure increases. Finally, as the

effective axial force approaches the critical buckling load, the

frequency approaches zero, 0. However, this occurs for the

theoretical case with pinned-pinned support conditions. In

pi reality, a pipeline span will experience a gradual deflection or

sagging that will give raise to non-linear effects not accounted

for in the expressions above. By this reason, the natural

frequency of free spans should be estimated by use of other

tools, e.g. non-linear FE analysis, when the effective axial force

Figure 7 Deformed pipe cross section with internal reaches a certain value and non-linear effects become

pressure and with a bending radius R. significant, as recommended in the DNV-RP-F105.

Another comment to be given to eq. (36) is that this

The net effect of the internal pressure will be similar to a expression gives the critical buckling force for a pinned-pinned

distributed load, q. The integrated effect becomes: span. For more realistic boundary conditions, DNV-RP-F105

2 gives some advice for a single span supported on soil (flexible

R ri sin 2 v (31)

q = pi

0

R

ri sin d = p i Ai / R = p i Ai 2

x

span shoulders). In this case, a C2 coefficient equal to 0.25 is

used in combination with an effective length of the span longer

than the appearing span length. However, the intention of the

expressions for the structural response given in the DNV-RP-

where ri denotes the internal pipe radius. The governing F105 is to support calculation of VIV and fatigue and not to

equation of motion now becomes: give exact guidance on span buckling.

For most real spans, the span deflection will gradually

4v 2v 2v (32)

increase as the effective axial force tends towards the critical

EI ( N p A

i i ) + m eff =0

x 4 x 2 t 2 buckling value as correctly stated by Palmer and Kaye (1991)

and Galgoul et al (2004). This deflection will release some of

and the fundamental frequency: the axial force and may also cause the span to vanish as the

(33) span height is limited. Anyway, as the effective axial force

EI ( N p i Ai )

f 0 = C1 1 + C 2 increases in compression and approaches the theoretical

m e L4 PE buckling limit, the pipeline response becomes complicated and

highly non-linear. Therefore, expressions based on linear beam

In the same way the effect of the external pressure can be theory can not be applied and must be replaced by for example

incorporated. It is seen that by using the definition of the non-linear FE analysis.

effective axial force: Due to this, the range of applicability for the expressions

based on beam theory in DNV RP-F105 is limited to short and

S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (34)

moderate span lengths L/D < 140, moderate deflections /D <

both the governing differential equation and the expression for 2.5 and moderate geometrical stiffness effects C2Seff/PE < 0.5-

the frequency are simplified. This is explained in more detail in the paper by Fyrileiv and

Of course the same expressions would have been deducted Mrk, 2002.

if the concept of effective axial forces has been applied in stead

CONCLUSIVE SUMMARY DNV-OS-F101, DNV Offshore Standard Submarine Pipeline

The following comments can be used to summarise the Systems, Det Norske Veritas, January 2003.

discussion within this paper: DNV-RP-F105, DNV Recommended Practice, Free Spanning

Effective axial force is a very simple and efficient concept Pipelines, Det Norske Veritas, March 2002.

to account for pressure effects. Fyrileiv, O. and Mrk, K., Structural Response of Pipeline

The expression for the effective axial force in the DNV Free Spans based on Beam Theory, Proceedings of

code is correct although some simplifications have been OMAE2002, Oslo, Norway, 2002.

made. Galgoul, N.S., de Barros, J.C.P. and Ferreira, R.P., The

The local buckling is influenced by the true steel wall force Interaction of Free Span and Lateral Buckling Problems,

and the hoop stress. Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada, 2004.

The DNV-OS-F101 local buckling criterion is based on the Galgoul, N.S., Massa, A.L.L. and Claro, C.A., A Discussion

effective axial force. In this way the criterion is simplified on How Internal Pressure is Treated in Offshore Pipeline

compared to the alternative using the true axial force. Design, Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada,

2004.

The natural frequency will drop as the internal pressure

Hobbs, R.E.., In-Service Buckling of Heated Pipelines,

increases.

Journal of Transportation Engineering, vol. 110, No 2,

The pressure effect on the frequency of a span is accounted March 1984.

for by the effective axial force concept. Palmer, A.C. and Baldry, J.A.S., In-Service Buckling of

Heated Pipelines, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp.

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Pipeline Walking, a Challenge for Hot Pipelines, conference, 1991.

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