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Proceedings of OMAE2005

24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2005)
June 12-17, 2005, Halkidiki, Greece



Olav Fyrileiv and Leif Collberg

Det Norske Veritas,
Veritasveien 1,
N-1322 Hvik, Norway

ABSTRACT This paper gives an introduction to the concept of effective

This paper discusses use of the effective axial force axial force. Further it explains how this concept is applied in
concept in offshore pipeline design in general and in DNV modern offshore pipeline design. Finally the background for
codes in particular. using the effective axial force in some of the DNV pipeline
The concept of effective axial force or effective tension has codes is given.
been known and used in the pipeline and riser industry for some
decades. However, recently a discussion about this was Keywords: Pipelines, Effective axial force, Pressure
initiated and doubt on how to treat the internal pressure raised. effects, pipeline codes.
Hopefully this paper will contribute to explain the use of this
concept and remove the doubts in the industry, if it exists at all. INTRODUCTION
The concept of effective axial force allows calculation of The effective axial force is often considered as a virtual
the global behaviour without considering the effects of internal force in contrast to the so-called true axial force given by the
and/or external pressure in detail. In particular, global buckling, integral of stresses over the steel cross-section. It is, however, a
so-called Euler buckling, can be calculated as in air by applying concept used to avoid integration of pressure effects over
the concept of effective axial force. double-curves surfaces like a pipe deformed by bending.
The effective axial force is also used in the DNV-RP-F105 The main problem with the internal and external pressures
Free spanning pipelines to adjust the natural frequencies of is that the effect of these is often the opposite of what one
free spans due to the change in geometrical stiffness caused by instantaneously thinks is correct. Therefore these effects have
the axial force and pressure effects. A recent paper claimed, been sources to misunderstandings and wrong designs.
however, that the effect was the opposite of the one given in the One example, as given by Palmer and Baldry (1974), is a
DNV-RP-F105 and may cause confusion about what is the straight pipeline restrained by rigid anchor blocks in each end.
appropriate way of handling the pressure effects. When this pipe is exposed to internal pressure, a tensile stress
It is generally accepted that global buckling of pipelines is develops in the hoop direction. Due to Poissons effect, this
governed by the effective axial force. However, in the DNV hoop stress will tend to shorten the pipe. Since the shortening is
Pipeline Standard DNV-OS-F101, also the local buckling prevented by the anchor blocks, the stress in the tensile
criterion is expressed by use of the effective axial force concept direction also becomes positive. Despite of this the pipeline
which easily could be misunderstood. Local buckling is, of will buckle when the pressure reach a certain critical level as
course, governed by the local stresses, the true stresses, in the shown in the experiment conducted by the authors.
pipe steel wall. Thus, it seems unreasonable to include the The explanation of this contradiction is of course the
effective axial force and not the true axial force as used in the effective axial force which becomes negative as the pressure
former DNV Pipeline Standard DNV96. The reason for this is builds up. The composite action of the fluid/gas pressure and
explained in detail in this paper. the steel pipe axial force will cause buckling.

1 Copyright 2005 by ASME

As will be shown later, the effective axial force governs area. Other sectional forces like bending moments and shear
the structural response of the pipeline in an overall perspective, forces are omitted for clarity as they will not enter the
influencing on lateral buckling, upheaval buckling, anchor calculation of the effective axial force and the effect of the
forces, end expansion and natural frequencies of free spans. For pressure.
this reason it of outmost importance to understand its effects
and be able to estimate it accurately in order to end up with a
safe and reliable design.
When it comes to local effects like local buckling, steel N
stresses and yielding, the true axial force governs. However, as pe
seen later in this paper, the effective axial force may still be
used to simplify the design criterion.
Even though the effective axial force has been used in
pipeline codes for several decades, see for example DNV76 N
= pe
(1976), it is still misunderstood and misinterpreted when it p eA e
comes to the effect of pressures. The effect of the internal
pressure is treated by for example Palmer and Baldry (1974)
and Sparks (1983, 1984), who seemed to introduce the term +
effective axial force.
Quite recently Galgoul et al (2004) and Carr et al. (2003)
claimed that the expression for the effective axial force and the
way it is applied in some DNV codes like DNV-OS-F101 and
DNV-RP-F105 is wrong. This is not the case as shown in the
This paper will not come up with any new expressions or Figure 1 - Equivalent physical systems external pressure
application for the effective axial force. The intention is solely
to try to give the background for this concept and its application As seen, the section with an axial force, N, and the external
in the pipeline codes. By doing so, it is the hope that the design pressure, pe, (left figure) can be replaced by a section where the
criteria become easier to understand and that it will not be external pressure acts over a closed surface and gives the
misinterpreted in the future. resulting force equal to the weight of the displaced water , the
buoyancy of the pipe section (middle figure), and an axial force
The concept of effective axial force simplifies the Considering the effect of the external pressure in the way
calculation of how the internal and external pressures influence as shown in fig. 1 does not change the physics or add any
the behaviour of a pipeline. Therefore it is very important for forces to the pipe section. However, it significantly simplifies
the pipeline designer to fully understand this concept. Despite the calculation. The alternative would be to integrate the
of this, the experience of the authors is that the effective axial pressure over the double curved pipe surface. Note also that the
force is quite often misunderstood and applied wrongly. varying pressure due to varying water depth over the pipe
The effective axial force is explained in detail in many surface needs to be accounted for in order to get the effect of
papers, e.g. see Sparks (1983). However, a short description is the displaced water, the buoyancy.
included herein for the sake of completeness. A similar consideration, as for the external pressure, may
The effect of the external pressure is most easily be done for the internal pressure. However, as seen from fig. 2
understood by considering the law of Archimedes: when considering a section of a pipeline with internal pressure,
the external forces acting on this section is the axial force, N,
The effect of the water pressure on a submerged body is and the end cap force, piAi. Again other sectional forces like
an upward directed force equal in size to the weight of the bending moment and shear forces are omitted for clarity. As the
water displaced by the body. pressure acts in all direction in every point in the liquid, the
internal pressure will always act on a closed surface. Further,
Archimedes law is based on the assumption that the the pressure at the cut away section ends will act as an external
pressure acts over a closed surface. Physically, Archimedes law axial load in compression.
can be proved by considering an arbitrary volume inside a From these considerations of the external and internal
larger liquid without any internal flow due to temperature pressures acting on a pipeline section it becomes clear that the
/density differences. Since the effect of the pressure over the effect of these may be accounted for by the so-called effective
surface of this arbitrary volume is an upward force equal to the axial force:
weight of this liquid, the arbitrary volume will be in
equilibrium and will neither move up, down nor to any side. Of S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (1)
course the same conclusion is reached by mathematically
integrating the external pressure over the surface of the volume. In addition the integrated effects of the pressures over
Now, consider a section of a pipeline exposed to external closed surfaces give:
pressure as illustrated in fig. 1. The only sectional force Buoyancy (external pressure)
included is the axial force, N, the so-called true wall force Weight of internal liquid (internal pressure)
found by integrating the steel stress over the steel cross-section

2 Copyright 2005 by ASME

From this it can clearly be stated that the effective axial
force is a real force that can be measured and that have a
pi physical interpretation.


Let us take a look at a few examples where the effective
axial force concept may be used to simplify the calculation of
the pipeline response.
One example is already mentioned in the previous section;
the external force to be applied to lock the pipeline axially or
prevent any end expansion etc, see fig 3. Then any transfer of
pi N shear forces at the bend is neglected.

Figure 2 - Equivalent physical systems internal pressure


Some of the confusion among pipeline designers regarding pi
the effective axial force may be due to the use of the term true
force for the steel wall force, N, and the perception of Figure 3 - Force to prevent any axial expansion at bends
effective axial force as a fictitious, non-physical force. This is etc.
also claimed by Galgoul et al. (2004) stating that the term piAi
is a lateral force and not an axial one. Fig. 4 shows the pipeline during installation using a typical
The question to be answered is really; Is only forces S-lay barge with the pipeline bent over the stinger and in the
causing stresses in the pipe wall real forces? sag bend near the seabed.
Let us consider the same example as Sparks (1983), a
reinforced concrete beam. Since concrete only resist
insignificant tensile stresses, the load-bearing capacity of Flt
concrete elements may be improved by using pre-stressed
(tensile) reinforcement. Without any external loads, the
concrete will be in compression and the reinforcement in
tension. But what is the real axial force in the beam? Is it in
compression due to concrete stresses? It is obvious that an
integration over the total cross-section, including both concrete
and reinforcement stresses gives an axial force equal to zero.
This composite axial force has clear similarities to the effective
axial force concept.
Thus the answer from this is that the effective axial force is
a real force. But how could it be interpreted or measured?
If strain gauges are mounted to the pipeline, the steel strain Figure 4 Pipeline during conventional S-lay installation.
and thus, steel stresses and thereby the steel wall force or true
axial force may be deduced. By simple considerations using the effective axial force
Let us, however, consider a pipeline terminated with a concept, the axial force in the pipeline after installation can be
blind flange which could be the case during the pressure test of estimated.
the pipeline system. If the end is free to move, no external loads Equilibrium of horizontal forces requires that the true axial
act on it (assuming no external pressure, i.e. above sea water). force, N, in the pipeline after installed, i.e. at the seabed, is
When the pipeline is pressurised what will the axial force equal to the barge tension, Flt, in addition to the integrated
become? effect of the external pressure. In addition the horizontal
From simple equilibrium calculations it is obvious that the components of the roller contact forces at the stinger must be
true, steel wall force will be equal to N = piAi (in tension) and accounted for, but these are omitted here for simplicity.
the effective axial force will be Seff = N - piAi = 0. This means As mentioned earlier the integration of the varying external
that the effective axial force is the force one may measure at the pressure over the double-curves pipe is complicated. However,
blind flange. by closing the integration surface, it can easily be shown that
Further it is the effective axial force that must be the effective axial force at bottom must be:
counteracted in case axial expansion of pipeline ends are to be
avoided or the pipeline is to be locked axially with intermittent S = N + p e Ae = Flt (2)
rock berms, e.g. to section a hot pipeline and ensure controlled
lateral buckling. All types of pipeline anchoring and end Accounting for the horizontal force components of the
terminations must consider the effective axial force. rollers and any other relaxation due to axial sliding etc this

3 Copyright 2005 by ASME

leads to the so-called residual lay tension, H. This force is to be At the time when the pipeline is laid down, it does not rely
considered as an effective axial force. on any force transfer between the soil and pipe, hence, the
Now, using H as the effective axial force after installation, effective axial force is equal to the bottom tension force, H
the true axial force becomes: (effective force). The equation can then be re-written as:
N = H p e Ae (3) 1 N pi ,1 Di p e,1 D p i ,1 + p e,1 (12)
l ,1 = + T1
As the pipeline is operated, the true axial force gets into E As 2t 2
compression due to the thermal expansion (-As) and into
1 H p e,1 Ae + p i ,1 Ai
tension due to the hoop stress and Possions effect (hAs) if =
not allowed to slide axially (fully restrained). The true force E As
becomes: p i ,1 Di p e,1 D p i ,1 + p e,1
+ T1
p i Di (4) 2t 2
N = H p e Ae + As As TE
where H is the (effective) bottom tension.
From the definition of the effective axial force, the following is During operation, denoted index 2, the longitudinal strain
deducted: will be, similar to the above:

S = H p i Ai + As
p i Di
As TE 1 S p e, 2 Ae + p i , 2 Ai (13)
2t l ,2 =
E As
H p i Ai [1 2 ] As TE
p i , 2 Di p e, 2 D pi , 2 + p e, 2
which is the same expression as given in DNV-OS-F101. Note + T2
2t 2
that in DNV-OS-F101, pi is replaced by pi. This does not
mean the differential pressure between the outer and the Since the pipe is axially restrained; l,1=l,2 and S can be
internal pressure, but the change in internal pressure from solved from (setting Eq. (12) equal to Eq.(13)):
installation, accounting for a potential water-filled installation
with a hydrostatic pressure inside the pipe. 1 H p e,1 Ae + p i ,1 Ai

E As
An alternative proof of the effective axial force for a fully p i ,1 Di p e,1 D pi ,1 + p e,1
restrained pipeline will be given in the following. This is based + T1 = (14)
on two fundamental expressions; Effective axial force and 2t 2
Hookes law: 1 S p e, 2 Ae + pi , 2 Ai

S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (6) E As
p i , 2 Di p e, 2 D p i , 2 + p e, 2
(7) + T2
l = [ l ( h + r )] + T
2t 2
Further, the external pressure is the same, i.e. pe,1=pe,2 and
where l is the axial (longitudinal) strain , l, h and r are the
the differential temperature from reference (i.e. T2-T1) can
axial, hoop and radial stresses, is Poissons ratio, is the
be denoted as T and the equation can be simplified as:
thermal expansion coefficient and T is the temperature
difference. H + p i ,1 Ai p i ,1 Di pi ,1
Further, the following relationships apply: =
As 2t 2
l = N / As (8)
S + p i , 2 Ai pi , 2 Di pi , 2
+ TE
As 2t 2
h = ( p i Di p e D) / 2t (9)
Introducing pi as the internal pressure difference from
r ( p i + p e ) / 2 (10) laying (i.e. pi,2-pi,1) the equation reads:
where As is the steel cross sectional area of the pipe, D and Di S H + p i Ai p D p (16)
are the external and internal diameters and t is the nominal 0= i i i + TE
As 2t 2
wall thickness.
Let the as-installed pipeline condition be denoted with an
index 1. The only un-known in this condition is the longitudinal As Di (17)
S = H p i Ai + 2pi 1 AsTE
strain which is given by Hookes law as: 4 t
[ ]
l ,1 = l ,1 ( h,1 + r ,1 ) + T1
1 (11)

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The external pressure will not affect the effective axial
D + Di Di (18)
force in the operational condition.
t 1
S = H p i Ai 2
2 t A TE
4 s Both Palmer and Baldry (1974) and Hobbs (1984) are
correct and according to the DNV formulae when it comes to
internal pressure.
= H p i Ai 1 2 t A TE
t The local buckling criterion in DNV96 for internal over
2 s
pressure is based on a pure von Mises calculation, considering
2 the two dimensional stress stage in the pipe wall. In general
t terms this becomes:
3 h
To this point, the only simplification is that the radial stress M c = M p f M = SMYS D 2 t 1
is assumed constant across the wall thickness. 4 SMYS
However, the above equation can be approximated with:
N 1 h
S H pi Ai [1 2 ] AsTE (19)
The order of error introduced (of the pressure contribution) 3 h

by this simplification is: 4 SMYS

D D (20)
1 3 Concentrating on the bracket in the nominator of the
1 2
t t Cosine term, this has been split up into functional and
2 environmental loads in DNV96 as:
e= t F N F + E N E 1 F h (22)

1 2 SMYS D t 2 SMYS
and it is plotted in fig 5. The error of the simplification is less This can be re-written by including the definition of the
than 1% for D/t larger than 15!. Note that the error is valid for effective force, defined as:
the internal pressure term only and is really negligible. It is also
worth to mention that in most HTHP cases, it is the thermal S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (23)
expansion term that dominates the effective axial force.
Split into functional and environmental parts this becomes

New S F = N F p i Ai + p e Ae (24)

1.1 SE = NE
Including these definitions into the inner bracket of the
cosine term, it becomes:
F (S F + p i Ai p e Ae ) + E S E 1 F h (25)

Relative error

Assuming thin walled pipe this can be re-written as
F S F + E S E F ( p i p e ) Ae 1 F h (26)
0.95 + =

F ( p i p e ) Ae 2 D 1 F h
= ..... + =
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
( pi pe ) D 2
4 1 h
= ... + F F =
Figure 5 - Estimate of error due to simplification of axially t2 SMYS D D 2 SMYS
restrained pipe stress formula 1 1 h
= ... + F h F =
The conclusions from this deduction are: S + E SE
The given formula, Eq. 5.4 in DNV-OS-F101 is = F F
correct if the pipe can be considered as a thin walled
pipe- the error due to this simplification can be seen in
Hence, the bracket in the nominator can be simplified by
Figure 5.
using the effective force. This local buckling formulation has

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been further developed by Taylor expansion, including strain
hardening and other minor adjustments to fit with FE analyses By considering equilibrium of lateral forces and the
in DNV-OS-F101 based on the same principles as explained bending moment acting on the beam section shown in fig. 6, the
above. dynamic equation of motion for the beam section exposed to an
Hence, the local buckling formula has been derived at by axial tensile force, P, and a distributed lateral force, q, reads:
use of the true pipe wall force. However, the result turns out
to be simpler if converted to effective force. 4v 2v 2v (27)
EI P 2 + m 2 = q ( x, t )
The following comments apply: x 4
x t
The new format is simpler to use and understand. It
is well suited for performing design checks (g(x)<1) in where v is the lateral displacement, x the axial co-ordinate, t is
connection with global analyses. time and EI and m the bending stiffness and dynamic mass per
unit length, respectively.
Compared to the original formulation, the utilisation is
The classical solution to this differential equation without
unaltered for bending dominant cases.
any lateral force (free vibrations) gives the following
The limit state is now applicable also in case of axial fundamental vibration frequency:
force and pressure only. The format and axial force
utilisation is consistent with traditional stress-based (28)
von Mises criteria. f 0 = C1 1

Note that the pressure terms are not factorised. mL4 Pcr
Extreme pressure cases are handled in the (system)
burst check. where L is the span length and Pcr is the critical buckling axial
force where the span buckles. Note that P and Pcr are positive in
DNV-RP-F105 FREE SPAN RESPONSE tension, and that Pcr and that the constant C1 depends on the
The most important parameter when it comes to structural boundary conditions of the span, for more specific guidance see
response of free spans is the natural frequency. This parameter DNV-RP-F105 or Fyrileiv and Mrk (2002).
enters the reduced velocity and thereby governs whether vortex The Pcr term may be replaced by the Euler buckling force
induced vibrations will occur or not, given the pipe outer for a pinned-pinned span, PE = 2EI/L2 (positive in
diameter and the flow velocity normal to the span. By changing compression) and a second boundary condition constant, C2:
the natural frequency, e.g. by introducing additional span (29)
supports or reducing the span length, the VIV response may be f 0 = C1 1 + C 2
mitigated. mL4 PE
From textbooks like Clough and Penzien (1975), it is
obvious how the axial force influence on the dynamics and
frequencies of a free spanning pipeline. However, there have What happens when the beam or pipe is put in water and
been a lot of mistakes when it comes to the effect of the internal subjected to external and internal pressures in addition to the
pressure in various papers and reports. The latest example is the axial force?
paper by Galgoul et al. (2004) where it is claimed that the Looking at the governing differential equation it is obvious
internal pressure will increase the frequency. that most of the terms remain the same; the effects of the
Since the discussion is about how the pressure effects bending and axial force do not change. Note that the axial
influence on the frequencies or more precisely if the internal force, P, is strictly speaking the so-called true axial force, N,
pressure tends to increase or decrease the frequencies, it is of given in DNV-OS-F101 and DNV-RP-F105. This force is the
outmost importance to get the signs right, considering the integrated axial stresses over the steel cross-section and
governing equations of dynamics for the beam. contains terms from residual lay tension, temperature expansion
effects, Poisson effects from hoop stresses and any axial
expansion/sliding effects.
R For this case with the pipe in water and exposed to internal
v q and external pressures, the vibrating mass will also involve the
mass of the pipe content and the hydrodynamic added mass (the
effect of moving the pipe through water and creating pressure
M+dM effects around the circumference).
4v 2v 2v (30)
EI N + m eff = q ( x, t )
P Q+dQ x 4 x 2 t 2
Q As mentioned, the external and internal pressure will have
an indirect effect on this equation through the hoop stress and
the Poisson effect on the true axial force.
x However, as shown by Galgoul et al. (2004), the effect of
dx the internal pressure can be seen as a lateral force, q. Consider
the infinitesimal length of the pipe as shown in fig. 6 which is
Figure 6 Forces acting on an infinitesimal length of a deformed with a radius R = 2v/x2. Due to the deformation,
beam. the pipe fibres at the compression side become shorter than the

6 Copyright 2005 by ASME

ones at the tensile side. The relative shortening becomes (R- of the axial force, P, from the beginning. Then the cumbersome
rsin)/R where is defined in fig. 7. integration of double-curves surfaces would have been avoided.
Let us consider eq. (27) without the dynamic term (inertia
term). Having no external distributed load but including
R=1/d2v/dx2 external and internal pressures will lead to an equation similar
to eq. (32) but without the inertia term:
4v 2v (35)
EI ( N p A
i i + p A
e e ) =0
x 4 x 2
Solving this equation gives the following critical load,
buckling load, for a pinned-pinned boundary condition:

q 2 EI (36)
S cr = N cr p i Ai + p e Ae =
This shows that there is a clear relationship between how
the internal (and external) pressure affects both global buckling
and the natural frequencies of a span.
It is also quite obvious that the natural frequency will
decrease as the internal pressure increases. Finally, as the
effective axial force approaches the critical buckling load, the
frequency approaches zero, 0. However, this occurs for the
theoretical case with pinned-pinned support conditions. In
pi reality, a pipeline span will experience a gradual deflection or
sagging that will give raise to non-linear effects not accounted
for in the expressions above. By this reason, the natural
frequency of free spans should be estimated by use of other
tools, e.g. non-linear FE analysis, when the effective axial force
Figure 7 Deformed pipe cross section with internal reaches a certain value and non-linear effects become
pressure and with a bending radius R. significant, as recommended in the DNV-RP-F105.
Another comment to be given to eq. (36) is that this
The net effect of the internal pressure will be similar to a expression gives the critical buckling force for a pinned-pinned
distributed load, q. The integrated effect becomes: span. For more realistic boundary conditions, DNV-RP-F105
2 gives some advice for a single span supported on soil (flexible
R ri sin 2 v (31)
q = pi
ri sin d = p i Ai / R = p i Ai 2
span shoulders). In this case, a C2 coefficient equal to 0.25 is
used in combination with an effective length of the span longer
than the appearing span length. However, the intention of the
expressions for the structural response given in the DNV-RP-
where ri denotes the internal pipe radius. The governing F105 is to support calculation of VIV and fatigue and not to
equation of motion now becomes: give exact guidance on span buckling.
For most real spans, the span deflection will gradually
4v 2v 2v (32)
increase as the effective axial force tends towards the critical
EI ( N p A
i i ) + m eff =0
x 4 x 2 t 2 buckling value as correctly stated by Palmer and Kaye (1991)
and Galgoul et al (2004). This deflection will release some of
and the fundamental frequency: the axial force and may also cause the span to vanish as the
(33) span height is limited. Anyway, as the effective axial force
EI ( N p i Ai )
f 0 = C1 1 + C 2 increases in compression and approaches the theoretical
m e L4 PE buckling limit, the pipeline response becomes complicated and
highly non-linear. Therefore, expressions based on linear beam
In the same way the effect of the external pressure can be theory can not be applied and must be replaced by for example
incorporated. It is seen that by using the definition of the non-linear FE analysis.
effective axial force: Due to this, the range of applicability for the expressions
based on beam theory in DNV RP-F105 is limited to short and
S = N p i Ai + p e Ae (34)
moderate span lengths L/D < 140, moderate deflections /D <
both the governing differential equation and the expression for 2.5 and moderate geometrical stiffness effects C2Seff/PE < 0.5-
the frequency are simplified. This is explained in more detail in the paper by Fyrileiv and
Of course the same expressions would have been deducted Mrk, 2002.
if the concept of effective axial forces has been applied in stead

7 Copyright 2005 by ASME

CONCLUSIVE SUMMARY DNV-OS-F101, DNV Offshore Standard Submarine Pipeline
The following comments can be used to summarise the Systems, Det Norske Veritas, January 2003.
discussion within this paper: DNV-RP-F105, DNV Recommended Practice, Free Spanning
Effective axial force is a very simple and efficient concept Pipelines, Det Norske Veritas, March 2002.
to account for pressure effects. Fyrileiv, O. and Mrk, K., Structural Response of Pipeline
The expression for the effective axial force in the DNV Free Spans based on Beam Theory, Proceedings of
code is correct although some simplifications have been OMAE2002, Oslo, Norway, 2002.
made. Galgoul, N.S., de Barros, J.C.P. and Ferreira, R.P., The
The local buckling is influenced by the true steel wall force Interaction of Free Span and Lateral Buckling Problems,
and the hoop stress. Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada, 2004.
The DNV-OS-F101 local buckling criterion is based on the Galgoul, N.S., Massa, A.L.L. and Claro, C.A., A Discussion
effective axial force. In this way the criterion is simplified on How Internal Pressure is Treated in Offshore Pipeline
compared to the alternative using the true axial force. Design, Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada,
The natural frequency will drop as the internal pressure
Hobbs, R.E.., In-Service Buckling of Heated Pipelines,
Journal of Transportation Engineering, vol. 110, No 2,
The pressure effect on the frequency of a span is accounted March 1984.
for by the effective axial force concept. Palmer, A.C. and Baldry, J.A.S., In-Service Buckling of
Heated Pipelines, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp.
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Palmer, A.C. and Kaye, D., Rational Assessment Criteria for
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Pipeline Walking, a Challenge for Hot Pipelines, conference, 1991.
OPT2003, Offshore Pipeline Technology conference, Sparks, C.P., The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2003. on Pipe and Riser Deformations and Stresses,
Bruschi, R., Spinazze, M., Vitali, L. And Verley, R., Lateral Proceedings of OMAE, 1983.
Snaking of Hot Pressurized Pipelines Mitigation for Sparks, C.P., The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight
Troll Oil Pipeline, Proceedings of OMAE1996, 1996. on Pipe and Riser Deformations and Stresses, ASME
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Submarine Pipelines and Pipeline Risers, Det Norske
Veritas January 1976.
DNV96, Rules for Submarine Pipelines systems, Det Norske
Veritas, December 1996.

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