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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO.

8, AUGUST 2005 2645

Miniature Wide-Band Half U-Slot and Half E-Shaped


Patch Antennas
Ricky Chair, Member, IEEE, Chi-Lun Mak, Member, IEEE, Kai-Fong Lee, Fellow, IEEE,
Kwai-Man Luk, Fellow, IEEE, and Ahmed A. Kishk, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThe U-slot patch antenna, a single-layer single-patch


antenna on a relatively thick substrate ( 0 08 0 ), is a wide-band
antenna with an impedance bandwidth in a range of 20%30%,
which is about an order of magnitude larger than that of the reg-
ular patch antenna. Recently, it was shown that a half U-slot patch
antenna, with half of one of the dimensions of the U-slot patch,
maintains similar wide-band behavior. The half-structure was
also successfully applied to the U-slot with shorting wall. In this
paper, new results on half structures, not previously published, are
presented. First, the shorting pin technique is used to reduce the
size of the half U-slot patch antenna. By both simulation and ex-
perimental studies, it is concluded that the impedance bandwidths,
radiation patterns, radiation efficiencies and gains of the half-
structures are comparable to the corresponding full structures.
Bandwidth of 28.6% and radiation efficiencies exceeding 90% are
obtained for the half U-slot patch with shorting pin. Radiation
patterns are stable across the matching band. Second, it is shown
that a structure obtained from halving the E-shaped patch, which
is a derivative of the U-slot patch, also maintains its wide-band
behavior.
Index TermsBroadband antennas, microstrip antennas.

I. INTRODUCTION

I N 1997, Huynh and Lee introduced the U-slot patch an-


tenna, a single-layer single-patch antenna which provides
an impedance bandwidth in a range of 25%30% [1], almost
an order of magnitude larger than that of the regular patch. Fig. 1. Geometries of the U-slot patch antennas. (a) Full U-slot. (b) Half
U-slot.
Shortly after, Luk et al. introduced the L-probe fed patch,
another single-layer single-patch wide-band antenna with an
area along the line of symmetry. The result is a half U-slot patch
impedance bandwidth of 30% or more [2]. The substrates of
antenna. It was found that the performances of the half structure
both these antennas are relatively thick, about , com-
are comparable to the full structure. The impedance bandwidths
pared to about for the regular patch antenna. Similar to
are 14.6% and 17.4% for the half U-slot and full U-slot patch
the regular patch antenna, the resonant length of the U-slot and
antennas, respectively. In addition, the half structure design has
L-probe designs is about half wavelength, which is too large
also been successfully applied to the U-slot patch antenna with
for wireless communication portable devices.
shorting wall [9]. The impedance bandwidth can achieve 28.6%
In the last several years, size reduction techniques such as
and 28.1% for the half and full structures, respectively.
using a shorting wall [3] or a shorting pin [4] have been suc-
In this paper, the shorting pin technique is applied to the
cessfully applied to the U-slot patch. A bandwidth of 27% is re-
half U-slot patch antenna. By both simulation and experimental
ported on the U-slot patch with a shorting wall [5], [6] and about
studies, it is concluded that the impedance bandwidths, radia-
25% for the U-slot patch with a shorting pin [6], [7]. Recently,
tion patterns, radiation efficiencies and gains of these antennas
another size reduction technique is proposed in [8]. The size of
are comparable to the full U-slot antennas. Bandwidth of 20%
a U-slot patch antenna is halved by removing half of the patch
is obtained for the half U-slot patch with shorting pin. Radiation
patterns are stable across the matching band.
Manuscript received April 30, 2004; revised November 16, 2004. When the two parallel slots in the U-slot patch are extended
R. Chair, K.-F. Lee, and A. A. Kishik are with the Department of Elec-
trical Engineering, Center for Applied Electromagnetic Systems Research to the edge, the E-shaped patch is obtained [10][12]. As shown
(CAESR), University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 USA (e-mail: by Yang et al. [11], the E-shaped patch also provides wide-band
rchair@ieee.org). characteristics. It is shown in this paper that a structure obtained
C.-L. Mak and K.-M. Luk are with the Department of Electronic Engineering,
City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong. from halving the E-shaped patch also maintains its wide-band
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2005.851852 behavior.
0018-926X/$20.00 2005 IEEE
2646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Fig. 2. Current distributions of the U-slot patch antennas. (a) Half U-slot. (b) Full U-slot.

Fig. 4. Measured and simulated SWR of the U-slot patch antennas with
shorting pin half U-slot (measured) half U-slot (simulated)
full U-slot (measured) full U-slot (simulated).

II. REVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF PREVIOUS WORK ON THE


HALF U-SLOT PATCH ANTENNA
The full-size U-slot patch is shown in Fig. 1(a). In [8], a re-
duced size patch shown in Fig. 1(b), obtained by removing half
of the U-slot patch, was found to maintain the wide impedance
bandwidth characteristic. The reason for this, not given in [8],
can be found in the current distributions. Using the Zeland IE3D
10.1 simulation software, we obtain the current distributions for
Fig. 3. Geometries of the U-slot patch antennas with shorting pin (units in mm
and not to scale). (a) Half U-slot. (b) Full U-slot. the full U-slot patch and the half U-slot patch shown in Fig. 2(a)
and (b), respectively. It is noted that the current distribution is
The paper is organized into three sections. In Section II, pre- symmetrical along the line of symmetry of the full U-slot patch,
vious work on the half U-slot patch is briefly reviewed and dis- and removing half of the patch does not appreciably affect the
cussed, including current distributions. Section III is concerned current paths and hence the resonant behavior of the structures.
with the half U-slot patch antenna with shorting pin. Section IV However, halving the structure does cause the copolar radia-
studies the half E-shaped patch antenna. Comparison between tion patterns to lose their symmetries. Moreover, the cross-polar
the half and the corresponding full structures are also presented levels in the H-plane are significantly higher than the full U-slot
in each section. In Section V, discussions on performance com- patch antenna.
parison, radiation efficiency and ground plane size effect are In [9], the half structure design was applied to the U-slot patch
presented. Simulation results based on IE3D 10.1 [13] are pre- with shorting wall. Again, due to the symmetry of the current
sented, as well as measured results. Good agreements are ob- distribution, removing half of the patch does not appreciably
tained between the measured and the simulation results. alter the current paths and the resonant behavior. Because of the
CHAIR et al.: HALF U-SLOT AND HALF E-SHAPED PATCH ANTENNAS 2647

Fig. 5. Simulated radiation patterns of the U-slot patch antenna with shorting pin at 0.9 GHz (10 dB/div). (a) Half U-slot. (b) Full U-slot E E.

Fig. 7. Measured and simulated SWR of the E-shaped patch antennas


half E-patch (measured) half E-patch (simulated) full E-patch
(measured) full E-patch (simulated).

III. THE HALF U-SLOT PATCH ANTENNA WITH SHORTING PIN


The use of a shorting pin was found to reduce the size of the
U-slot patch even more than the use of a shorting wall [6]. In
this section, the case of a half U-slot patch with shorting pin is
studied.

A. Antenna Geometry
Fig. 3 shows the geometries of the half and full U-slot patch
Fig. 6. Geometries of the E-shaped patch antennas. (a) Half E-shaped patch. antennas with shorting pin. The full U-slot patch has a length of
(b) Full E-shaped patch.
and a width of ,
where is the free space wavelength at the center frequency
shorting wall, the cross-polar level is high in both the full and 0.86 GHz of the full U-slot patch. The half U-slot patch with
the half structures. shorting pin is formed by cutting away half of the full U-slot
2648 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Fig. 8. Measured radiation patters of the half E-shaped patch antenna at 2.5 GHz (10 dB/div). (a) yz -plane. (b) xz -plane. E E.

Fig. 9. Measured radiation patterns of the full E-shaped patch antenna. (a) yz -plane. (b) xz -plane. E E.

patch along the line of symmetry. The half U-slot patch has the
same length , but half in width
, where is the free space wavelength at the
center frequency 0.9 GHz of the half U-slot patch antenna with
shorting pin. The shorting pin and the probe wire support both
patches in the air. The radius of the shorting pin and the probe
feed are 4.65 and 2 mm, respectively. The shorting pin and the
probe feed are located at the nonradiating edge of the half U-slot
patch. Both antennas are placed on ground plane.
Detailed dimensions are shown in Fig. 3.

B. Measurement and Simulation Results


Fig. 4 shows the measured and simulated SWRs of the half
and full U-slot patch antennas with shorting pin. The measure-
ment results agree well with the simulation results. The center Fig. 10. Measured and simulated gain of the E-shaped patch antennas
frequency of the half structure is 40 MHz (4.7%) higher than the half E-patch (measured) half E-patch (simulated) full E-patch
full structure. The matching frequency range of the half U-slot (measured) full E-patch (simulated).
CHAIR et al.: HALF U-SLOT AND HALF E-SHAPED PATCH ANTENNAS 2649

TABLE I
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FULL AND HALF STRUCTURES (ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM)

patch antenna is from 0.81 to 0.99 GHz with an impedance


bandwidth of 20%, where the area of the half U-slot patch is
only . The full U-slot patch is matched from 0.75 to
0.97 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 25.6%.
Fig. 5(a) and (b) shows the simulated radiation pattern of
the half and full U-slot patch antenna with shorting pin at
0.9 GHz, respectively. Simulation results are modeled in an
infinite ground environment. The radiation due to the vertical
components (shorting pin and feeding probe) increases the ra-
diation level of the in the -plane. However, two radiating
edges of the half U-slot patch radiate, which give more sym-
metric radiation patterns along the -plane than the half U-slot
patch with shorting wall [9]. In addition, slightly asymmetrical
pattern is obtained in the -plane and the higher level of the
field in the -plane is due to the asymmetrical structure
of the half U-slot antenna. The field is cancelled out in
the -plane of the full U-slot antenna with its symmetrical
geometry.

IV. THE HALF E-SHAPED PATCH ANTENNA


A. Antenna Geometry
Fig. 6 shows the geometries of the half and full E-shaped
patch antennas. The E-shaped patch is formed by adding two
notches on one of the radiating edge of a rectangular patch
antenna. The half E-patch has a length
and a width , where is the free
space wavelength at the center frequency 2.6 GHz of the
half E-shaped patch antenna. The full E-shaped patch an- Fig. 11. Geometries of the U-slot patch antennas with shorting wall (units in
tenna has a width and a length mm and not to scale). (a) Half U-slot. (b) Full U-slot.
, where is the free space wavelength
at the center frequency 2.5 GHz of the full E-shaped patch
E-shaped patch is 2.6 GHz, which is 0.1 GHz higher than the
antenna. Both patches are supported by a foam with a thickness
full E-shaped patch. However, the size of the half E-shaped
of . Both E-shaped patch antennas are
patch is reduced by 49% and is only . The measured
excited by a coaxial feed with radius of 0.5 mm. The size of
frequency range of the half E-shaped patch is from 2.25 to
the half E-shaped patch antenna is reduced by 49% in terms
2.9 GHz, equivalent to an impedance bandwidth of 25.2%,
of wavelength. Detailed dimensions of the E-shaped patch
compared to 24.5% for the full E-shaped patch. Although the
antennas are shown in Fig. 6.
agreement for this geometry is not as good as the U-slot case,
the simulation results also show reasonable agreement to the
B. Simulation and Measurement Results measurement results with less than 3% error in the center
Fig. 7 shows the simulated and measured SWRs of the frequency. The corresponding simulation results for impedance
half E-shaped patch antennas. Full E-shaped patch results are bandwidths are 25.6% and 27% for the half and full E-shaped
also shown for comparison. The center frequency of the half patch antennas, respectively.
2650 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

TABLE II
RADIATION EFFICIENCIES OF THE HALF AND FULL SIZE PATCH ANTENNAS

Fig. 8 shows the measured radiation pattern of the half


E-shaped patch antenna at 2.5 GHz. The radiation pattern
is stable across the matched frequency band. The cross-
polarization level of the half E-shaped patch antenna is about
lower than the co-polarization level in both planes. The
front-to-back ratio is 18 dB when the antenna is mounted on a
ground plane. Fig. 9 shows the measured radiation
pattern of the full E-shaped patch antenna. Comparing with
the radiation pattern of the half E-shaped patch antenna in
Fig. 8, the -plane field is tilted away from the broadside
direction and the -plane field is asymmetrical.
Fig. 10 shows the measured and simulated gains of both
E-shaped patch antennas. The average measured gain of the
half E-shaped patch antenna is around 8 dBi, which is 1 dB
lower than the full E-shaped patch antenna. Stable gains are Fig. 12. Simulated return loss of the half U-slot patch with shorting wall with
measured for both E-shaped patch antennas. different ground plane size 2
25 cm 25 cm 2
28 cm 28 cm
2
30 cm 30 cm 2
32 cm 32 cm.
V. DISCUSSIONS
In this section, we present discussions on performance com- to measure the radiation efficiency. All the antennas achieve
parison, radiation efficiencies, and ground plane size effects. higher than 90% of radiation efficiencies.

A. Performance Comparison C. Effect of Ground Plane Size


In Sections III and IV, using the half structure technique Fig. 12 shows the simulated return loss of the half U-slot
reduced the sizes of two different types of patch antennas. patch antenna with shorting pin with four ground plane sizes.
Table I compares the dimensions and performance charac- As shown in the figure, at the center frequency of 0.9 GHz, a
teristics between the various full and half structures. They 28 cm 28 cm ground plane can maintain good matching. How-
include the U-slot patch antenna with shorting wall [9], the ever, the matching deteriorates as the ground plane size becomes
U-slot patch antenna with shorting pin and the E-shaped patch smaller.
antenna. Fig. 11 shows the geometry of the full and half U-slot
patch antennas with shorting wall studied in [9]. In addition
to absolute units, all the dimensions are also given in terms of VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS
the wavelength at the center of the matching band. It is seen Using half structure techniques, the sizes of two different
that, similar to the conventional patch antenna, the patch with small wide-band patch antennas were successfully reduced.
shorting pin gives smallest size, where the resonant length is While their sizes were reduced by half, the performance char-
around . About 50% of size reduction can be found on the acteristics are not appreciably degraded when compared to
patch with shorting wall. their original structures. Bandwidths of 20% and 25.2% were
achieved for half U-slot patch antenna with shorting pin and
B. Radiation Efficiencies half E-shaped patch antenna, respectively. Radiation patterns
Table II summarizes the measured and simulated radiation ef- and radiation efficiencies of the half structure antennas were
ficiencies of the antennas. The Wheeler Cap method [14] is used similar to their full size geometries.
CHAIR et al.: HALF U-SLOT AND HALF E-SHAPED PATCH ANTENNAS 2651

REFERENCES Chi-Lun Mak (M02) was born in Hong Kong. He


received the B.Eng. (first class honors) and Ph.D. de-
[1] T. Huynh and K. F. Lee, Single layer single patch wideband microstrip grees in electronic engineering from the City Univer-
antenna, Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 13101312, Aug. 1995. sity of Hong Kong, in 1997 and 2001, respectively.
[2] C. L. Mak, K. M. Luk, and K. F. Lee, Microstrip line-fed L-strip patch He visited the Department of Electrical Engi-
antenna, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.Microw., Antennas Propag., vol. 146, neering, the University of Missouri-Columbia,
no. 4, pp. 282284, Aug. 1999. USA, in the summer of 1999 as a Visiting Research
[3] S. Pinhas and S. Shtrikman, Comparison between computed and mea- Scholar. He was a Research Assistant/Senior Re-
sured bandwidth of quarter-wave microstrip radiators, IEEE Trans. An- search Assistant with the Wireless Communications
tennas Propag., vol. 36, pp. 16151616, Nov. 1988. Research Centre (RCW), City University of Hong
[4] R. B. Waterhouse, Small microstrip patch antenna, Electron. Lett., vol. Kong, from 2000 to 2001. He joined the Technical
31, pp. 604605, 1995. Services Division (TSD), Hong Kong Police Force, as a Police Inspector
[5] Y. X. Guo, A. Shackelford, K. F. Lee, and K. M. Luk, Broadband (SpecialistRadio Frequency) in 2001. In late 2002, he moved to the Depart-
ment of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, as a Research
quarter-wavelength patch antennas with a U-shaped slot, Microw. Opt.
Fellow. He has been an Antenna Engineer (Member of Professional Staff) with
Tech. Lett., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 328330, Mar. 2001.
the Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute Company
[6] A. K. Shackelford, K. F. Lee, and K. M. Luk, Design of small-size wide-
Limited (ASTRI) since September 2004. He has authored one book chapter
bandwidth microstrip-patch antennas, IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., in Microstrip Antennas, Broadband in an Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave
vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 7583, Feb. 2003. Engineering, edited by K. Chang (Wiley: New York, 2005), 14 journal articles,
[7] A. K. Shackelford, K. F. Lee, K. M. Luk, and R. Chair, U-Slot patch and 15 conference papers. He holds two patents on an invention from two
antenna with shorting pin, Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 729730, countries, including the United States and China. His research interests include
Jun. 2001. design of microstrip and planar antennas, microwave theory, and applied
[8] A. A. Deshmukh and G. Kumar, Half U-slot loaded rectangular mi- electromagnetics.
crostrip antenna, in IEEE AP-S Int. Symp. USNC/CNC/URSI National Dr. Mak currently is the Treasurer and Web Master of IEEE (Hong Kong)
Radio Science Meeting, vol. 2, 2003, pp. 876879. AP/MTT joint chapter. He was the Technical Program Chairman of the
[9] C. L. Mak, R. Chair, K. F. Lee, K. M. Luk, and A. A. Kishk, Half U-slot 4th/5th IEEE (Hong Kong) AP/MTT Post-Graduate Conference in 2003(Hong
patch antenna with shorting wall, Electron. Lett., vol. .39, no. 25, pp. Kong)/2004(Macau). He won two First Prizes including in the IEEE (Region
17791780, Dec. 2003. 10) and the IEEE (Hong Kong) Postgraduate Student Paper Contest for
[10] M. Sanad, Double C-patch antennas having different aperture shaped, 1999. He also received the Sir Edward Youde Memorial Fellowship in 2000,
in Proc. IEEE AP-S Symp., Newport Beach, CA, Jun. 1995, pp. presented by the Sir Edward Youde Memorial Fund Council, Hong Kong. He
21162119. is also listed in Marquis Whos Who in the World since 2004.
[11] F. Yang, Z. Z. Zhang, Z. Ye, and Y. R. Samii, Wide-Band E-shaped
patch antennas for wireless communications, IEEE Trans. Antennas
Propag., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 10491100, Jul. 2001.
[12] K. L. Wong and W. H. Hsu, A broad-band rectangular patch antenna
with a pair of wide slits, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 49, no. 9,
pp. 13451347, Sep. 2001.
[13] IE3D 10.1, Zeland Software Inc., Fremont, CA.
[14] H. A. Wheeler, Small antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol.
23, no. 4, pp. 462469, Jul. 1975.

Kai-Fong Lee (M73SM76F97) received the


Ricky Chair (S98M03) was born in Hong Kong B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Queens University,
in 1975. He received the B.Eng. degree and the Ph.D. Kingston, Ontario, Canada, in 1961 and 1963, respec-
degree in electronic engineering from the Department tively, and the Ph.D. degree from Cornell University,
of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Ithaca, NY, in 1966, all in electrical engineering.
Kong, in 1998 and 2002, respectively. He held research appointments at the University
From 1998 to 2001, he was a Research Assis- of California at San Diego from 1966 to 1967, the
tant and Teaching Assistant in the Department of National Center for Atmospheric Research from
Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong 1968 to 1969, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Kong. He was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Administration from 1972 to 1973, the University of
Department of Electrical Engineering, University California at Los Angeles summer 1975, and NASA
of Missouri-Columbia during summer 2000. After during summer 1986 and 1987. He was an Assistant/Associate Professor at
receiving the Ph.D. degree in 2002, he stayed at the City University of Hong the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., from 1967 to 1972,
Kong, first as a Lecturer in the Department of Electronic Engineering and Lecturer/Senior Lecturer/Reader at The Chinese University of Hong Kong from
then as a Research Fellow from January 2003 to June 2003. He joined the 1973 to 1984, and Professor at The University of Akron, Ohio from 1985 to
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, as a Visiting 1988. He was the founding Head of the Department of Electronic Engineering
Scholar in July 2003. He has authored one book chapter in Microstrip Antennas, at the City University of Hong Kong from 1984 to 1985. He served as Professor
Broadband in an Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering, edited by and Chairman of the Department of Electrical Engineering at The University
K. Chang (Wiley: New York, 2005). He has published over 40 technical papers of Toledo, Toledo, OH, from 1988 to 1995, and Chairman and LaPierre
in international journals and conferences. His research interests include the Professor of the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of
design and analysis of microstrip patch antennas, dielectric resonant antennas, Missouri-Columbia, from January 1996 to December 2000. Since January
slot antennas, feeding methods, wideband techniques, size reduction techniques 2001, he has been Dean of Engineering and Professor of Electrical Engineering
and measurement techniques. at the University of Mississippi, Oxford. He worked on plasma waves and
Dr. Chair received the Certificate of Merit in the 1999 and 2000 Postgrad- instabilities from 1965 to 1980 and on antennas since 1981. His publications
uate Student Paper Contests, presented by the Hong Kong Section of the IEEE. include a textbook Principles of Antenna Theory (New York: Wiley, 1984),
He has served as reviewer of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine an edited book Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas (New York:
and IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. He was a Session Wiley-Interscience, 1997), eight invited book chapters on microstrip antennas,
Chair of the 2001 AP-S International Symposium, Boston, MA. 162 journal articles, and 130 conference papers.
2652 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Kwai-Man Luk (M79SM94F03) was born Ahmed A. Kishk (S84M86SM90F98) re-


and educated in Hong Kong. He received the B.Sc. ceived the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from
(Eng.) and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1977, the B.S.
from The University of Hong Kong, in 1981 and degree in applied mathematics from Ain Shams
1985, respectively. University, Cairo, in 1980, and the M.Eng. and
From 1985 to 1989, he joined the Department Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical
of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,
Kong, as a Lecturer. Two years later, he moved to the MB, Canada, in 1983 and 1986, respectively.
Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese From 1977 to 1981, he was a Research Assistant
University of Hong Kong, where he spent four years. and an instructor with the Faculty of Engineering,
In 1992, he returned to the City University of Hong Cairo University. From 1981 to 1985, he was a Re-
Kong, where he is currently a Chair Professor of Electronic Engineering. He is search Assistant with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of
the author of one edited book, five research book chapters, and over 200 journal Manitoba. From December 1985 to August 1986, he was a Research Associate
papers and 140 conference papers. He was awarded one U.S. patent and five Fellow with the same department. In 1986, he joined the Department of Elec-
P.R.C. patents on the design of a wide-band patch antenna with an L-shaped trical Engineering, University of Mississippi, as an Assistant Professor. He was
probe. He has successfully supervised over 10 Ph.D. students. Most of them on sabbatical leave at Chalmers University of Technology during the 19941995
have achieved their distinguished careers in Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, and academic year. He has been a Professor at the University of Mississippi since
the United States His recent research interests include design of patch, planar 1995 and was Chair of the Physics and Engineering Division of the Mississippi
and dielectric resonator antennas, microwave and antenna measurements, Academy of Science from 2001 to 2002. His research interest includes the areas
computational electromagnetics. of design of millimeter frequency antennas, feeds for parabolic reflectors, di-
Prof. Luk is a Fellow of the Chinese Institute of Electronics; a Fellow of the electric resonator antennas, microstrip antennas, soft and hard surfaces, phased
Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), U.K.; and a Member of the Electro- array antennas, and computer aided design for antennas. He has published more
magnetics Academy, USA. He received an International Best Paper Award, the than 145 refereed journal articles and book chapters. He is a coauthor of the
Japan Microwave Prize Award at the Asia Pacific Microwave Conference held book Microwave Horns and Feeds (London, UK: IEE, 1994; New York: IEEE,
in Chiba, Japan, in December 1994, the very competitive Croucher Foundation 1994) and a coauthor of Handbook of Microstrip Antennas (London, UK: Peter
Senior Research Fellow in Hong Kong in 2000, and the Applied Research Excel- Peregrinus, ch. 2, edited by J. R. James and P. S. Hall, 1989).
lence Award from City University of Hong Kong in 2001. He was the Technical Dr. Kishk is a Member of Sigma Xi, the Phi Kappa Phi Society, the U.S.
Program Chairperson of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium National Committee of International Union of Radio Science (URSI) Commis-
held in Hong Kong in January 1997, and the General Vice-Chairperson of the sion B, the Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society, the Electromag-
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference held in Hong Kong in December 1997. netic Academy, the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, and Microwave
Theory and Techniques Society. He was an Associate Editor of the IEEE An-
tennas and Propagation Magazine from 1990 to 1993 and is now an Editor. He
received the 1995 Outstanding Paper Award from the Applied Computational
Electromagnetic Society Journal, the 1997 Outstanding Engineering Educator
Award from the Memphis section of the IEEE, the Outstanding Engineering
Faculty Member in 1998, the Award of Distinguished Technical Communica-
tion from the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine in 2001, and the Fac-
ulty Research Award for outstanding performance in research in 2001. He also
received The Valued Contribution Award for outstanding Invited Presentation,
EM Modeling of Surfaces with STOP or GO CharacteristicsArtificial Mag-
netic Conductors and Soft and Hard Surfaces from the Applied Computational
Electromagnetic Society and the Microwave Prize from the Microwave Theory
and Techniques Society in 2004.