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Suggestions for Teaching

Units 1 - 4
(Specifically Units 3 and 4)

These notes are specifically produced to provide


ideas for those teachers teaching Units 3 and 4 for
the first time. Most ideas can be applied to teaching
Units 1 and 2.

Timetables are given for Units 1 4.

Handbooks are provided for Year 11 and Year 12.

Penny Commons
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TEACHING CHEMISTRY UNITS 1-4

The Chemistry Education Association, CEA, is an association dedicated to assisting chemistry teachers and
students. It has a very useful web site (www.cea.asn.au) and I recommend it to you. The website contains such
things as:
links to the VCAA study design, VCAA resources, past exams, VCAA Sample exams, VCAA FAQs
useful resources and materials for teachers and students
interesting items of news for Chemistry teachers such as up-coming conferences.
Links to the ECCN the Early Careers Chemistry Network

If you wish to join CEA, the cost is $10 for life. Membership forms are available on the website. You can use the
website without being a member of course!

The Early Careers Chemistry Network (ECCN) is a new initiative that has been organised by CEA. The central
objective of the ECCN is to assist Victorian secondary school Chemistry teachers early in their careers. One of
the strategies for achieving this objective is to create a resource website for early careers Chemistry teachers
to improve their ease of transition into teaching Chemistry. This can be easily accessed from the CEA website.

Page references can be found in the Pearson (Heinemann) books, Chemistry One and Chemistry Two, and
the Chemistry 1 Student Workbook and Chemistry 2 Student Workbook . The other text book series
contain similar useful material. The pracs and practical parts of the SACs are from the Heinemann
Chemistry 2 Student Workbook or the Heinemann Teachers Resource and Assessment Book. Reference to
the worksheets are those found in the Student Workbook, Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook 2nd
Edition.

Texts and resources


There are many resources available, but some include:
Chemistry 2 Student Workbook 2nd Edition - Penny Commons, Heinemann, Pearson
Chemistry Two 4th Edition, Heinemann, Pearson
Heinemann Teachers Resource and Assessment Book
Checkpoints by Roger Slade that contains VCAA exam questions and worked solutions
Nelson Chemistry VCE Units 1 and 2 and Units 3 and 4
Study On series, Jacaranda
Chemistry Dimensions, Pearson
Material provided by the VCAA on their website and in FAQ
The Data Booklet to be used in VCAA examinations
The VCAA Sample exam for 2013
CEA web site (www.cea.asn.au) which includes information about CEA, useful material for VCE Chemistry
including exam papers, suggested solutions to VCAA 2008 Sample exam papers, Chemistry resources
including links to useful sites (e.g. VCAA)
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Your Timetable
The timetable and your timing in general are extremely important to enable you to be certain you have taught all
the necessary material before you give the students a SAC. It is important to keep in mind that you are
teaching an exciting and demanding subject.

Chemistry has the wonderful advantage of practical activities and it is important that, in your aim to cover the
course for the exam, that you do not lose that excitement and fun. There will be students who find Chemistry
very difficult, but if you are careful not to reduce the numbers of pracs and demos, they will enjoy the
subject, although their score may not be earth-shattering.

To achieve your teaching goals, it is important to be well prepared for each lesson and to keep to your timetable.
Be sure you have fully considered and planned the way you intend to teach each topic:
the method of questioning,
the answers you might expect (or not!)
the order of the material,
practice the demos and pracs
where the students are coming from and how they might interpret the information
the homework you intend to set that lesson
your intended outcomes for the students.

Writing lesson plans is not just useful during your education degree - they really do make a difference to the
amount of material you cover in each lesson and the success of the lesson from your viewpoint and especially
from the students viewpoint.

Consider ways to catch up if necessary. Some suggested time-savers:


Try not to cut pracs, as this is how Chemistry is best taught. Redesign pracs to fit the time you have.
One way to save time with pracs is to teach theory until 20 minutes before the end of the lesson and then
to do a prac.
Use notes provided in booklets (see later)
Do demos (see later) to emphasise a point.

When designing the timetable allow time for revision, and, if possible, allow catch up time. Schools are notorious
for taking lessons from you unexpectedly! Watch the holidays on a Monday when you may have your double for
the week!
Excursions
There are excellent excursions you could organise and details of these are on the CEA website at
http://www.cea.asn.au/vce-chemistry#classworkshops

U-tube, CDs and Videos


Endless excellent demos etc on U-tube to liven up your lessons
Practical Science Series Number 1: Chemical Analysis. Video Education Australasia, Bendigo.
World of Science: Catalysts old, but short and very good.
A power point on chromatography from a lecture series I went to several years ago. Simple, but well done.
Let me know if you would like this.
The Amazing Mole; there are many others produced by VEA that are most useful.

Talk to other teachers about their favourites. It is important that you have viewed the segment before you
show it in class. These should not be used as time-fillers or baby-sitters. Sometimes you need to have taught a
particular point before the video is useful and then you may only need to show 2-3 minutes of it.
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Risk Assessment
It is important to complete risk assessment forms for each experiment and demonstration. You only need to do
them once and then keep them with the lab notes for that exercise for the following year. They are valid for 5
years. The CEA web site offers suggestions as do text books, in particular the Pearson (Heinemann) Teachers
Resource and Assessment Book (TRAB) has a Risk Assessment proforma and there is also an electronic copy on
the Pearson website.

As part of the present course students have to know how to use MSDS for chemicals and complete a Risk
Assessment for a prac. It is useful to do this as part of an assessment task - maybe completed in 10 minutes in
class on the provided proforma before the actual activity takes place.

Student handouts for Years 11 and 12


Chemistry Handbook
Prac book
Class notes

School Chemistry Handbook


I found it useful to provide Years 11 and 12 students with a dedicated School Chemistry Handbook that contains
useful information regarding errors, significant figures, examination preparation and hints, the timetable for
each unit, the set SCA week dates, the questions they are required to complete and a checklist of the key
knowledge and key skills in each unit from the VCAA Study Design. A suggested copy of this is in this file

Prac Book
A specially designed prac book is useful for you, the lab tech and the students. This contains all the pracs and
demos you intend to do throughout each semester. Provide space for student answers in some cases and in
others provide the aim, materials and method only leaving spare pages for the student to record observations
and results accurately. There are pracs in the Student Workbook set out in a useful way and these could be
used as well. The selected practical activities are useful for helping students to understand the concepts. You
may decide to use these practical activities as part of assessment tasks.

Class Notes
A booklet of your Class Notes is also useful. These booklets take considerable time to produce but are
definitely worthwhile. Leave spaces for the students to add notes from the board or as you speak. This means
the students have an ownership of the booklets and it is not just another text book. If your students have the
Student Workbook you could assist the students to annote their workbook and add comments where necessary
from your teaching notes. They would also need a note book to record your worked examples etc from each
lesson.

It is very important that when they come to revise they have only one set of notes from which they can train
their memory to recall information.

Chapter Questions
These required questions are listed in the Chemistry handbook in a column in the timetable and the students
should submit all essential questions on each topic. This and their pracs form the basis for achieving their
overall S for the Unit.

Correction of chapter questions


In order to reduce your correction time, provide answers to the book questions. The TRAB website is most
useful in this respect. Insist students correct their work before submitting it. I feel that all students can
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benefit from reading what is considered to be the correct answer. It helps them to learn how to use the
language of Chemistry correctly and efficiently.

It makes your life difficult if you attempt to correct all questions for all students. There is no time and you
need a life too! Check that they have done all set questions and that the working is shown and the descriptive
answers are not a direct copy of the provided answers. Ask them to request the questions at the top of their
answers with which they need help and want you to look at carefully. Only give them an S for the questions once
you see evidence that they have corrected their work.

Pracs and Demonstrations


Why use demonstration?
They are quick, fun, help the students remember particular aspects and they create interest in the topics. They
also give your teaching a special flair. It can be difficult to do all the pracs you would like to do as well as the
necessary SACs. Demonstrations fill this gap.

After all, Chemistry is prac and demonstrations really! That is why students love it!
When you do a demo in the last 3 to 5 minutes of a class, your students leave inspired and with a sense of having
enjoyed themselves.

Make sure you have done the demonstration before you perform it in front of the class. With the lab
techs help it will be all organised and take no longer than a few minutes to set up. The lab technician is the
chemistry teachers best friend this is an important relationship to work at. Some of my favourite
demonstrations are listed by the same names in the Teachers Resource and Assessment Book.
The foam column
Various rates demos
Chemical oven
Endothermic reaction between two solids
Carbon pillar

It is also a good idea to get students to help you carry out the demo for the rest of the class, when it is safe to
do so. It can be useful to use a demo as a way of introducing students to equipment they will need to use in a
coming SAC or to introduce a new concept.

The TRAB has the demonstrations listed with the pracs so they are easily found for each topic. Including the
method and questions for each demonstration in the students prac book, ensures that they remember them and
listen and learn appropriately. They have to complete all questions, as they do for all the pracs.

Correction of pracs and demos


I made a point of correcting pracs and demos very carefully. It is the one place you can teach your
students to express themselves and learn to use the chemical language properly. This is important in Year 11
as well to help them develop this knowledge base. Full reports are not always necessary, but it is important
that all results are accurately recorded, all questions fully answered and a conclusion written. Require your
students to resubmit pracs until you feel they have met your requirements.

Method of Delivery in Class


When introducing a new topic request that all students listen. After teaching the concept for about 10 minutes,
add notes to their work book or class notes. This generally means that each topic is covered twice in a lesson.

The plan is that students review their notes each night and read the appropriate section in the text book,
making a note of anything of which they are not sure. (This process should take them about 15 - 20 minutes and
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should be done for all subjects for which they had classes that day.) Any problems should be discussed with
the teacher as soon as possible, preferably before the next lesson. This is an approach that will be successful in
tertiary study and it encourages them to start to take responsibility of their own education.

Aim to finish Unit 4 theory and pracs by the last lesson in Term 3 by carefully planning ahead. Sometimes an
extra class or two may need to be organised to compensate for unavoidable lost school time.

VCAA Data Booklet


One of the significant changes to assessment in recent years is the introduction of a Data Booklet for use in
the VCAA examinations. This does not contain equations, but there is considerable information given that
students will need to learn how to access, interpret and use. This booklet should be part of each students
resources and should be constantly used in class whenever data is required (even molar masses or using the
Electrochemical Series in Year 11). It can be downloaded as part of any VCAA Examination 1 or 2, via the
CEA or VCAA websites.

Topic tests
Time can be difficult and the students may not take topic tests as seriously in Year 12 as they should. The SACs
provide an excellent method of keeping the students up to date with their work.
You may decide to give topic tests and answers to the students to do at home on weekends or holidays. It is up
to them to do these in their own time and to see you if they have any questions.

Assessment
I strongly urge you to take the time at the beginning of the year and develop all the SACs for both units. This
will ensure that they are carefully considered. You may make minor alterations closer to the time when you use
them, but at least they will be properly planned. Also be sure to write out the answers and allocate the
marks, carefully developing the marking scheme. This is essential to ensure there are no errors and that you
know exactly what you require them to give as their answers.

Planning ahead of time will allow you to ensure that you have taught the necessary material, given the lab tech
time to order the appropriate chemicals and equipment and given students appropriate time to digest the key
knowledge and skills. It also prevents repetition of topics covered in SACs.

For the Written Report of a Practical Activity, the Extended Experimental Investigation and the Summary
Report it is important that the practical segments do not overrun the time you have allowed.

Where necessary, rewrite pracs so that they will fit.


Ask your lab tech to assist with setting out materials so that as little time as possible is lost by the
students. For example, it is not always necessary that student weigh the starting material. Once they have
perfected this task in earlier pracs, the lab tech can provide weighed samples reducing the time lost at the
balances
Sometimes you might even clean up for them!

The Student Workbook contains suggested SACs to cover your needs as stated by the Study Design. If you
wish, the practical exercises of the assessment task can be completed in the workbook by the students,
collected by you as the log book, and the report section provided separately under test conditions for easy
authentication.

One suggestion is to design the Written Report of a Practical Activity to be all done within the one session in
class, including the report. In such a case the students could use the workbook. It is not really an issue that
they know the prac beforehand because they will have to answer your questions as part of the report.
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For a stimulus material SAC or analysis of second-hand data SAC material can be easily found in such places as:
the websites in the Advice to Teachers at the back of the VCAA Study Design
the textbook action, extension or cutting edge boxes.
from various exercises in the Heinemann TRAB or other texts.

When writing the questions to satisfy the VCAA criteria, it is sometimes useful to include application questions
which ensure that the students study the topic completely. This also allows easier separation of students when
you are ranking them. In the past, my students have requested that the questions cover as much as possible of
the topic.

During the week before the SAC, it can be useful to give the students a list of appropriate pages in the text,
questions and notes for their revision. This Pre-assessment is helpful, particularly if there is more than one
class with different teachers.

Providing an assessment sheet for each SAC that summarises (in simple terms) the VCAA criteria and shows the
students where the marks are to be allocated can be useful also.

(On the Pearson website my thoughts and suggestions about preparing the assessment tasks are provided, as
well as solutions and suggested risk assessments and a grid to satisfy the VCAA criteria. You may find it useful
when planning and developing your assessment tasks.)

Because it is important to be able to authenticate the assessment tasks, the idea of a log book that you collect
is worth considering. Also ensuring the final reports are done under test conditions in the classroom helps in
authentication. This provides a fair assessment of the students and they appreciate the justice.
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I have copied a small section of the eei Hints and comments from the website, for your interest, below.
Hints and comments
After consideration of the particular laboratory environment and school timetable demands, teachers must
decide how to organise their extended experimental investigation. It could be done over a 23-week
period, concentrating specifically on the investigation, or it may be spread over about 5 weeks with
students performing one experiment each week and completing the report in the last week. The extended
experimental investigation can be student designed and/or planned or a teacher-directed task. It is
important that students complete the necessary theory before each part of the task. Students may work in
pairs to perform the practical activities but will need to record their results and progress in their own
logbooks, which will remain with the teacher until it is required for the session when the report will be
completed. The report must be an individual activity completed by each student and readily authenticated
as their own work.
A grid indicating marks for sections of the practical exercises that exemplify particular key skills and
criteria according to the VCAA Assessment Handbook should be developed. As suggested earlier, it is
desirable that students keep a logbook throughout the activity and for safe-keeping and authentication
reasons, the logbook should remain with the teacher. By checking the logbook regularly, discussing issues
and signing off notes in the logbook, a students progress can be carefully monitored.
The last part of the assessment grid would be for the report in the format decided upon. This part of the
investigation should be an individual activity and must be able to be authenticated. One way to do this is
to require that students use their results, under test conditions, to complete a report that is entirely
written in the classroom. Another way is to provide sufficient time, for all the class to give an oral report as
a media/PowerPoint presentation, poster or speech with speaker notes. It is essential that the report
includes a written document that is submitted, with the logbook, to the teacher.
One suggestion for the questions to be addressed by the report is provided at the end of the sample
assessment tasks in the second edition of Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook. Other
approaches are provided by the VCAA.

Changes for 2013


I have included a brief summary of the changes to the VCAA Study Design for 2013 at the end of this file.
These are mainly changes to assessment in Unit 4, although there are some small changes to the content
generally as clarification. It is important to notice that there is very little less content than exists now. Really
only the removal of possible questions specifically about the chemical they studied in Industrial Chemistry. They
sill need to know the general principles involved but not specified details.

Revision
With no June exam, students need careful revision of Unit 3 material and a mid-year exam. They have to
remember all this material for the whole year and there is considerable content in the Chemistry course.

When constructing the mid-year exam make good use of past VCAA Unit 3 exams. It will be essential to finish
the Unit 3 course with about 2 weeks time for careful structured revision in Term 2. Your timetabling will be
important. There is really no less material to teach, so it is important not to run overtime with Unit 3 content.

It is important to provide structured class revision when revising both Unit 3 and Unit 4.

Late in Term 3, start essential Unit 3 revision. Spend time revising the concepts carefully and set homework
exam questions for the Term 3 holidays. In the 2 weeks or so of Term 4, select appropriate exam questions for
each class and go over these, giving the students a little time to try them first.

Prepare these lessons well. Use flow-charts, tables etc to remind the students of the theory. Give out
formulae to assist them memories. (see the Handbook in the electronic version)

The revision they do in class before they finish school is extremely important. As is the revision they do during
the September holidays.
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Remind students that, although old exam questions are the best revision, it is important to read over
their notes after doing every 2 or 3 exams. This ensures that the details remain in their memory.

Trail exams are always useful, as they will provide entire exams that are appropriate. However remember they
are another teachers interpretation of the Study Design that may match the real exams less successfully than
your interpretation. It is still useful to include in your budget the cost of trial exams.

Despite the use of the school intranet some students actually need to have the exam papers as hard copies
before they find the time to use them. Providing a folder of exam papers and charging students a deposit to
borrow the folder works quite well. The deposit is retained if they do not return the folders and it covers the
cost of buying new ones and/or photocopying (depending on the copyright arrangements). Useful trial exams can
be bought from NEAP, STAV, IARTV, Lisachem, Insight.

The old VCAA exams since 2000 have large numbers of questions that will be appropriate. On CEAs website
past examinations and examiners reports can be downloaded back to 2000. There is a list of questions that are
appropriate from old VCAA exams in a table on the CEA website. The book called Checkpoints is a useful revision
source for you and for the students, because it contains real exam questions and worked solutions as well as
other practice questions.

All these exams are designed as two separate exams of 1.5 hours each. The only sample exam of 2.5 hours will
be the VCAA Sample exam which will be produced for 2013 specifically. It is important to look critically at the
Unit 3 and 4 material and design questions may overlap both units.

Year 11
It is useful to use a similar process with class notes, pracs and revision for Year 11 in order to prepare the
students for Year 12. There is a suggested Unit 1 and 2 timetable in a possible Year 11 Chemistry Handbook in
the electronic material.

The assessment tasks are suggested in the Study Design by the VCAA for Year 11. While it is important to
expose the students to the types of assessment tasks that they will encounter in Year 12, they can be a little
less formal and there can be fewer.

In Year 11 topic tests are important, and you may keep the assessment tasks to a minimum, ensuring that they
have adequate introduction to the extended experimental investigation (eei) and a summary report. The test
results could be recorded in their reports ensuring they take them seriously.

Setting tests
Setting Year 11 topic tests is a most important activity and is similar to setting SACs for Year 12. The best way
to find any errors or omissions is to print off the final version of the test or exam paper (or SAC) and to do it
yourself using only the data and information provided. Once you have done the test, make sure that your marks
can be allocated and that the marking scheme and solutions are complete and correct.

When setting Year 11 topic tests, you can use some of the formats and styles that will be part of their
assessment in Year 12 - both in exams and in the assessment tasks. For example:
give them second hand-data and set structured question that requires its use;
make use of the Data booklet in questions where it is relevant to year 11;
provide stimulus material for them to read and then ask structured question that requires their
comprehension and application of some of this material.
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Networking
I feel it is essential to have contact with other Chemistry teachers. This is particularly important if you are in
the country. There are local network groups set up between schools that can be most helpful. CEA is extremely
prepared to provide support. I am always happy to share ideas and materials and would encourage you to email
me, if you wish.

Two specifically Chemistry related professional learning activities are listed below:
The STAV Chemistry Conference is always held in February each year. I wholeheartedly recommend this
to you as a way of learning more about the courses, collecting material for direct use in the classroom,
meeting other teachers and making useful connections.
CEA run the November Lectures in November annually. The idea of this is to extend the teachers
knowledge, rather than specifically provide material that is directly useful in the classroom. It is meant to
empower you so that you have interesting and relevant stories and examples to stimulate your students. The
lectures are given by research chemists about cutting edge chemistry. There are also workshop sessions in
the afternoon that allow you to develop your knowledge skills.
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Assessment for Unit 3
Extended experimental investigation - eei
Written report of a practical activity
Analysis of first or second hand data using structured questions or a response to stimulus material in
written format (slight variations for this last activity in the VCAA produced VCE Assessment Handbook
Chemistry 2008 -2011.)

The VCAA clearly states that the eei must be from one Area of Study and the other two tasks from the
other Area of Study.

Choice of Unit 3 Area of Study 1 for eei


The extended experimental investigation can be done in several ways from the first Area of Study. As shown
in the Student Workbook one suggestion is to do several pracs (titrations, gravimetric, chromatography),
investigating the types of techniques that chemists use to obtain analytical information about commercial
products. Another suggestion is to go on an excursion to an institute and enable your students to use
instruments such as an AAS, a UV-Visible spectrophotometer and gas chromatography.

These practical activities could be performed over weeks or all done within 2-3 weeks. A log book must kept
including all the working, results, answers to questions, risk assessment and any other relevant material. The log
book would be collected between practical activities and returned to students for their use when doing the
report at the end.
A suggestion of the Pre-lab and assessment sheets are given below.

Pre-lab for eei:


You will need to have the following key skills.
Apply chemical understandings
Investigate and inquire scientifically
Communicate chemical information and understandings
You will need to understand the following key knowledge.
Text book: Chapters 1 5
Any of the set questions from text book in the following chapters: Chapter 2 5
Pracs and demos: List these
Worksheets in workbook: 1 6

Assessment sheet for eei:


Marks Your
Criteria Marks

Background questions for the 3 pracs 3x2 = 6


Risk assessment and use of MSDS 5
Recording of results and discussion questions for the 3 pracs 3x6 = 18
Laboratory skills (automatic and only lost if irresponsible 2
behaviour occurs)
Evaluation of results for the 3 pracs 3x2 = 6
Overall conclusion that summarises the suitability of different 6
techniques in chemical analysis with reference to the
experiments you have performed
Second-hand data for analysis of ammonia (could be a question 5
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from an old exam or textbook).
Use of scientific language and conventions, chemical equations 2
and units of measurement
Total 50

The other two assessment tasks would be from Unit 3 Area of Study 2.
For the written report of a practical activity you could do The Preparation of Aspirin or Properties and
Reactions of Some Organic Compounds. Many teachers have difficulty buying the necessary chemicals for the
aspirin prac, so Aspirin could be taught as a theoretical exercise and the students could do the reaction prac
which is an excellent way of teaching organic chemistry.

For the second assessment task from the Area of Study 2, the section on DNA provides material for an analysis
of first or second hand data using structured questions or a response to stimulus material in written
format. These two could be combined to produce a test. There is a suggestion in the Workbook and it is
relatively easy to produce a similar, but different, set of questions and stimulus material that is previously
unseen by students.

Alternative choice of eei from Unit 3 Area of Study 2


This requires that you leave this major piece of assessment until second Term. However if this does not stress
you and your students, I think a successful eei could be developed using:
Reactions and properties of some organic compounds
Modelling functional groups and organic reactions.

Once again, these practical activities could be performed over weeks or all done within 2-3 weeks. A log book
must kept including all the working, results, answers to questions, risk assessment and any other relevant
material. The log book would be collected between practical activities and returned to students for their use
when doing the report at the end.
A suggestion of the Pre-lab and assessment sheets are given below.

Pre-lab for eei:


You will need to have the following key skills.
Apply chemical understandings
Investigate and inquire scientifically
Communicate chemical information and understandings
You will need to understand the following key knowledge.
Text book: Chapters 9 - 10
Any of the set questions from text book in the following chapters: Chapter 9 - 10
Pracs and demos: List these
Worksheets in workbook: 14, 15, 16, 21, 24

Assessment sheet for eei:


Marks Your
Criteria Marks

Risk assessment and use of MSDS 5


Recording of results, equations and discussion questions for the 10x2 = 20
2 pracs
Laboratory skills (automatic and only lost if irresponsible 2
behaviour occurs)
13
Evaluation of results for the 2 pracs 2x2 = 4
Overall conclusion that summarises the reactions and properties 6x2 = 12
of the functional groups of the homologous series studied and
the effects that functional groups have on bonding and solubility
of organic compounds.
Second-hand data for analysis of aspirin (could be a question 5
from an old exam or textbook).
Use of scientific language and conventions, chemical equations 2
and units of measurement
Total 50

This would require that the other two assessment tasks will need to come from Unit 3 Area of Study 1.
You could choose one of the four pracs in the workbook in The Analysis of Fertiliser as the written report of a
practical activity.

The spectroscopy and chromatography section would be ideal for analysis of first or second hand data using
structured questions or a response to stimulus material in written format. These two could be combined to
produce a test.

Assessment for Unit 4


Summary report: VCAA has stated that this has to involve pracs concerning the Energy transformations in
chemical reactions.
Written report of a practical activity
Analysis of first or second -order data using structured questions or a response to stimulus material in
written format or a report in written, oral, multimedia or visual format: VCAA has stated that this has to
involve the uses, equilibrium and rate considerations, and safety issues associated with the industrial
production of a selected chemical (NH3, H2SO4 or HNO3) and its associated wastes.

Suggestions are shown in the Student Workbook for the summary report. The pracs could be Fuel cell, Half-cell
and the electrochemical series and Electrolysis of aqueous solutions. For the written report of a practical
activity teachers could use one or two of the pracs that investigate the concept of equilibrium.
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Possible UNIT 3 TIMETABLE
Week Concepts Text Questions from W/s Pracs/Demos SAC Dates &
Chapt text in Details
w/book
bold = essential
Sem 1 Overview of analytical 3 p 38: Analysis of
Intro at techniques - titrations brick cleaner or
end of introduced in Year 11 below in Year
Year 11 12 week 1

Term 1 Overview of analytical 1, 2 Ch 1: 1, 5 6 p 37: Analysis of


1 techniques; stoich of s, l Ch 2: 5 - 8, 9, 10, brick cleaner
and g including gas stoich.; 16, 17, 19,
excess problems; 20,21,24,31,34,35
gravimetric analysis; ,36,41,44,
46,48
2 Revise mole, stoich 1, 2 1 and 3
Conc. (M, %v/v, %m/v); 3 Ch 3: 1c,3,4,5, 6- 5 p 48:
volumetric analysis 8, 11c, 14,15, 16, Gravimetric
17, 18, 19, determination
20,21,23,24,25 of sulphate -
eei
3 Revise acid/base theory; 4 Ch 4: 5,6,7, 2, 4 p 50: Back
pH; indicators; back 8,9,10, 13,15, 16, titration: N2 in
titration; titration curves 18, 20,21, 22- lawn feed
24,25,26, 27,28
4 Redox reactions; oxid. nos.; 5 Ch 5: 1-5,6,7, 6 p 53:
redox titrations; balancing 10,11,15,18,19, Determination
redox eqs. 22, 24,25,26, of Fe(II)
28,29,31,33,34 content of
lawn fertiliser
- eei
5 Chromatography - TLC, 6 Ch 6: 2 - 4,8,10, 8 TRAB p 45:
GLC, HPLC; Rf & Rt; 14, 19, 20, 21 theoretical
calibration; interpreting exercise -
chromatograms; Ethanol content
of wine by gas
chromatography
6 Spectroscopy - o/view 7 Ch 7: 5,7,9,10, 7, 10, TRAB P 56: data p 55:
electromagnetic spectrum; 12,14,15,17,18, 12, 13 analysis - Colorimetric
flame tests; AAS, UV-vis; 20,23,25,29, Interpretation determination
NMR; IR 32,33, 38, 40 of nmr spectra of phosphorus
of a no. of content of
organic lawn fertiliser
compounds
7 Mass spectroscopy; 8 Ch 8: 1,4,5,7,8, 9, 11 TRAB p 58: data eei report
interpreting spectrum 13,16,18,20 analysis - under test
interpretation of conditions
mass spectra
8 Bonding in hydrocarbons; 9 Ch 9: 1-4, 8, 9, 16 Incursion /
homologous series; alkanes 11,12,13,15,16,1 excursion on
and alkenes; isomers and 8,20,22,23,24 instrumentation
naming
9 Functional groups; common 9, 10 Ch 10: 2, 3, 4, 6- 15, 21 p 93: Preparing
organic reactions 9,11,13-17, artificial
21,22,23- fragrances and
15
27,29,30,33,34 flavours
Holidays Area of Study Review; p 124: all
(move as exam revision of this questions;
needed) area of study complete and
revise all AoS 1
Term 2 Organic reaction pathways; 10, 14 Ch 14: 1,5, 9,13 16 (Q1
synthesis of medicines e.g. and 2),
10 aspirin; drug development 24
11 Biochemical fuels 10, 11 Ch 10: 19,20, 31 20 p 95: Reactions
Ch 11: 3, 11, 12, 13 and properties
of some organic
compounds
12 Biomolecules: Fats; 12 Ch 12: 1-3, 7,8, 17 p 98: Modelling
carbohydrates; proteins 10, 29, functional groups
and organic
reactions
13 Proteins; enzymes; 12 Ch 12: 12,13,14, 18, 19, p 101: Written
denaturation 16,17,21,32,33,3 22 report of a
4,41,43,45,46 practical
activity - Prep
of Aspirin
14 DNA function, structure 13 Ch 13: 2,6,7,17, 22, 23
bonding 18
15 Complete all topics; Area p 239: all 14, 16 Stimulus
of Study Review questions (Q3) material -
DNA and
protein
16 Revision of Unit 3
17 Revision of Unit 3
18 Mid-year internal test?
Sem 2
1 (19) Unit 4: Chemical energy; 15 Ch 15: 1,2,4,6,8, 25, 26 p 138: Factors
exo and endothermic r/ns; 9,10,12,15,18,20 affecting rates
H; energy profile of reaction
diagrams; manipulation of Demos: TRAB p
thermochemical equations; 94: Foam column
rates; catalysts; activation TRAB p 128:
energy Chemical Oven
TRAB p 129:
Endothermic
reaction b/w 2
solids
2 (20) Equilibrium law; K; temp 16 Ch 16: 3,5,6,7, 27, 30 TRAB p 96:
effect; Le Chatelier's 8,9,10,11,12,13- Theoretical
principle; calculations 15,17-21,23,25- exercise -
32,36,37 discovering the
equilibrium law.
Holidays Review Ch 15 and 16 Complete rate,
carefully e/brium quest;
Complete AoS
review p360: Q
1-12; 17-21
16
Possible UNIT 4 TIMETABLE
Week Concepts Text Questions from text W/sheet Pracs / Demos SAC Dates &
Chapt in (reference in Details
w/book w/book)
Sem 2 bold = essential
Term 3 Acid/base equilibria 16, 17 Ch 17: 1,2,3,5,6, 28 p 141: Extent of
3 introduction 7,9,10,11,13, hydrolysis of two
14,15,16-22. acids
4 Kw; pH; pKa; 17 29 p 143: P 146: Written
Determination of report of a
2 acidity practical
constants activity: Effect
of changes in
concentration on
equilibrium
5 Chem. Indust; ; OH and 18 Ch 18: 9,13,15,28, 32 31, 34, TRAB p 116
S; Waste management; 35 Demo - Carbon
MSDS; Pillar
TRAB p117:
Sulfuric acid 21 Ch 21: 1,2,5,7,8, Properties of
production 9,13,15,18 sulfuric acid
p 360: Complete all TRAB p 114:
questions in review Flowchart of
of AoS 1 Contact process
(hi.com)
6 P 145: Industrial
production of
sulphuric acid a
report, response
or an analysis
7 Energy sources; energy 23, 24 Ch 23: 4,5,8,9,11 40
converters and
transfers; biochemical Ch 24: 8,12,14, 15,
fuels 18
8 Calorimetry; 25 Ch 25: 2,4,5,6,7, p 187:
calculations; H 10,11,13,21,22,24, Calorimetry and
26,28, 33,34,35,36 enthalpy changes
9 Galvanic cells; 26, 27 Ch 26: 1,4,5,6,7, 38, 39, p 195: Fuel cells
recharging; fuel cells; 8,9,10, 11,13, 14 41
the electrochemical Ch 27: 5, 12,13,
series and Eo 14,19,21,23
10 Electrolysis; 28 Ch 28: 3-7,8,9, 42, 43, Use Worksheet
electrolytic cells 11,12,14,17,18,19, 44, 45 45 (p179) as an
20,23,25,26,29,30,3 exercise;
1, 33 TRAB p 147:
Demo of Tin
crystals by
electrolysis
11 Faraday's Laws; 28 p463: Complete all 46, 47 p 193:
Complete review AoS 2 question in review Determination of
of AoS 2 Faradays
constant and
Avogadros
constant
12 p 195: Summary
report: Fuel
17
cells, Half-cells
and electrolysis
Holiday Complete revision of Exam papers
move Unit 4 including exam
as questions. Aim for
needed 100 hours (20 hours
per subject) during
these holidays on
revision of all subjects
to be examined this
can seriously be
achieved if your
students are
organised! They will
still have the evening
off and some
relaxation periods.
Term 4
13
Revision; Trial exam 1
14 Revision; Trial exam 2
15 Revision
18
Possible UNIT 1 TIMETABLE
Wk Concepts Text Minimum Practical work including SAC Dates &
chapt Chapter Worksheets from Details
Questions W/book and videos
Term 1 Area of Study 1: THE PERIODIC TABLE
1 Elements 1 15, 17, 20, 23 TRB1 p. 13 Changes in
Periodic table chemical reactions
Compounds Video: World of
Chemistry, Periodic
Table. (parts)
P16 worksheet activity 5
- Organising elements
Revision Worksheets 3
&4
2 Development of atomic 2 19, 20, 21, 22, SW1 p. 81 Flame colours
theory 23a,c, 24, 26, of selected metals (an
Nuclear atom 29, ace, 30, 31, experiment for the
Electronic 34 summary report)
configuration

3 The modern periodic 3 16, 18, 19, 20, Video: Bohr atom (parts)
table 22, 25, 26, 27, SW1 p. 28 Period 3
Periodic properties 28, 29 elements
Trends in properties P17 worksheet activity 6
Compounds - Tracking Trends
4 Masses of particles 4 TRB1 p. 26 Mole SW1 p. 34
The mole simulation and Periodic
applications variation of
Video: World of properties
Chemistry, The Mole analysis of
2nd hand data
5 Practice mole concept 21, 22, 23, 24 Worksheets 7-11
calculations and (Homework or class
complete all questions revision)
form chapters in text
book
6 Molar mass 4 26aceg, 27, 28, SW1 p. 31 Chemical
Empirical and 29, 31, 32, 36, composition of a
molecular formulas 37, 38, 40, 32, compound
percentage 45, 48, 50, 51 Prac: Empirical formula
composition determination
Term 1 Area of Study 2: MATERIALS
7 Metals 5 10, 14, 15, 17, SW1 p. 72 Testing
20, 21, 23 materials
TRB1 p. 33 Growing metal
crystals
Prac: Modifying the
properties of metals
8 Ionic compounds 6 17, 19, 21, 22, SW1 p. 82 Solubility of
properties & model 23, 25, 26, 27, compounds in water (an
Electron transfer 29 experiment for the
diagrams summary report)
Chemical formulas SW1 p. 84 Conductivity
of common materials (an
experiment for the
summary report)
19
9 Covalent molecular 7 18, 19, 20, 21, SW1 p. 75 Making
substances 22 molecular models
Shapes of molecules Worksheets No 12, 17
Polarity of molecules

Holiday
move
as
needed
10 Forces between 7 23, 24, 25, 26, TRB1 p. 41 Comparing the
molecules 29, 31, 34, 36 physical properties of
Covalent lattices different covalent
lattices
Worksheet No 18, 19
11 Carbon 8 18, 21, 22, 23, SW1 p. 78 Investigating SW1 p. 81
Hydrocarbons 24 hydrocarbons A summary
Naming hydrocarbons Worksheet No 21 report of
three
practical
activities
12 Properties of alkenes 8 25, 26, 27, 28, Worksheet No 23
and alkenes 29, 30, 32, 34, Demo: Thermosetting and
Polymers 40 Thermoplastic polymers
TRB1 p. 50 Making ghost
buster slime
TRB1 p. 53 Making an
Eastover
13 An overview of bonding 9 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, Prac: Wetting SW1 p. 86
Surfaces 14, 16, 17 Demo: Flotation of Nanotechnolo
Nan particles Mothballs gy and new
TRB1 p. 43 Bucky balls, materials a
annotates and other poster
allotropes of carbon presentation
No. 22 worksheet, p69 (optional for
you not the
students!)
14 Revision
15 Revision
16 Exams
17 Exams
Semester 2: Unit 2: Area of Study 1 Water
1 The water cycle 10 13, 14, 19, 23, Selections from TRB1 p.
Properties of water 24, 31, 32, 34, 61 Properties of water
Water as a solvent 35 WS25: Wonderful
waterstructure and
properties
2 Measuring solubility 11 14. 15, 17, 19, TRB134: Effect of
Concentration of 22ace, 23ace, polarity on solubility
solutions 26, 28, 32, 35, TRB135: Supersaturation
37 TRB136: Stalagmite from
a supersaturated solution
TRB137: Concentrations
of solutions
20
Possible UNIT 2 TIMETABLE
Term 3 Area of Study 1: WATER
Wk Concepts Text Minimum Chapter Practical work School-assessed
chapt Questions including Worksheets Coursework
from W/book and
videos
3 Precipitation reactions 12 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, SW1 p. 115
Ionic equations 14, 15, 17 Precipitation reactions
Maintaining water quality WS26: Solving
solubilitypredicting
precipitation reactions
TRB1 p. 77 Purification
of polluted water
4 Introducing Acids & bases 13 2, 5, 8, 9 TRB1 p. 80 reactions of An extended
Reactions involving acids hydrochloric acid experimental
and bases eei- Use some of the investigation
activities from could be
Experimental developed using
investigation of the acids and bases
properties and and pH pracs
behaviour of acids - and making the
only use as a prac links (It could be
good to do this
at this early
stage of the
semester)
5 Brnsted - Lowry definition 14 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, WS27: Recording
Acid and base strength 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, equationsFull and
pH scale 31, 32 ionic chemical
equations;
WS28: Concentration
and strengthpicturing
acids and bases;
T49: Strong and weak
acids
TRB1 p. 82 Amphiprotic
substances in water
WS31: Acidity of
solutionscalculating
pH
WS24: Crossword
acids and bases
6 Stoichiometry 15 14, 15, 17, 19, 23, SW1 pp. 119 Products
24, 28, 30, 32, 33, of a decomposition
reaction
WS29: Stoichiometry
1: Massmass
calculations
7 Excess reactants 15 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, TRB1 p. 90
Volumetric analysis 43, 45 Determination of the
concentration of a
hydrochloric acid
solution

8 More practice of 15 WS30: Stoichiometry
stoichiometry and catch - 2: Excess reagent
21
up calculations
WS32: Solving complex
calculationsusing
more than one formula
9 Oxidation and reduction 16 22, 25, 27, 29, 30, SW1 p. 121 Corrosion
Redox reactions 31, 32 WS33: Matchmaker
Oxidation numbers redox reactions;
WS34: Metals and
their cationswriting
half equations
10 Galvanic cells 16 36, 38, 40, 42, 43, TRB1 p. 98
The electrochemical series 46, 47, 50 Electrochemical cells
Corrosion and corrosion
WS35: From chemicals
to electricitygalvanic
cells
11 Green Chemistry: Some of 17 3, 4, 5 TRB1 p. 102
the following-Applications Investigating galvanic
of green chemistry; The cells
CFC story; replacement of WS36: Sorting
halogenated solvents with statementsprinciples
supercritical CO2 in of green chemistry
industrial processes or in WS37: Conserving
plant protection. atomsthe green
Area of study review chemistry principle of
atom economy
12 The atmosphere 18 11, 12, 14, 16, 20 SW1 p. 155 Preparation SW1 p. 163
Essential gases 19 12, 14, 15, 21, 22, 24 and properties of Greenhouse and
Acid rain oxygen global warming
Depletion of the ozone WS41: Gases of the a response to
layer atmosphereconcept stimulus material
Smog maps (optional for you
Green house effect WS38: Crosswordthe if time permits)
atmosphere
WS39: Humans doing
damagethe
greenhouse effect and
the ozone layer
Term 4 Area of Study 2 - THE ATMOSPHERE
13 Laboratory and industrial 20 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, SW1 p. 155 Preparation SW1 p. 164
preparation of a gas of 20 and properties of Preparation and
significance to the quality oxygen properties of
of the atmosphere WS40: Cycling carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide mattercarbon and an extended
nitrogen experimental
investigation
(could be done
here but it is
very late in the
year)
14 Kinetic molecular theory 21 33, 34, 36, 40, 41, SW1 p. 157 Volume-
Pressure, volume 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, pressure relationships
relationships 51, 57, 59, 61, 64, of gases
Gas laws 66, 67 SW1 p. 160 Molar
General gas equation volume of hydrogen
Gas stoichiometry WS42: Explaining gas
22
behaviourkinetic
molecular theory
WS44: How humans
breatheBoyles Law
WS45: Charles Law
WS47: Different but
the samemolar
volume of gases
WS43: Equivalent
measuresconverting
units
15 Revision WS46: Changing
conditionseffects of
temperature, volume
and amount on
pressure.
WS48: Putting it all
togetherthe general
gas equation
WS49: Stoichiometry
3: massvolume
16 Revision
17 Exams /Year 12 exams for
those doing a subject

It is worth remembering that many Year 11 students are doing Year 12 subjects and once Week 3 of Term 4
arrives they are thinking mainly of their Year 12 subject. I always tried to complete the Year 11 course by the
end of Week 2, Term 4 and only be doing revision in the Weeks 3, 4, 5 leading up to Year 11 exams. Many of your
students will be missing at different times.

For this reason I would not recommend doing the eei or summary report in Term 4 on the material in The
Atmosphere. It will be treated more seriously if it is done in Term 3 and therefore on the Area of Study 1,
Water. There are plenty of pracs that could be appropriate stoichiometry (titrations etc) redox reactions as
well as my suggestion of acids and bases.
23

STUDENT NAME ____________________

YEAR 12 CHEMISTRY

HANDBOOK

2013

Contents

Errors
Significant figures
States of matter in equations
Revision Hints
Equations
VCAA Key Skills
Unit 3 VCAA Study Design
Unit 3 Timetable
Unit 4 VCAA Study Design
Unit 4 Timetable
24
ERRORS
When instruments are manufactured, there is a specified uncertainty within which the instrument is designed to
deliver accurate results. You do not need to remember the various uncertainties of instruments exactly,
however you are required to know the probable range (to within a power of 10) within which an instrument should
operate. Typical uncertainties are:
pipette 0.02 mL
burette 0.02 mL
top loading balances 0.005 g
10 mL measuring cylinders 0.1 mL
100 mL measuring cylinders 1 mL
250 mL standard flasks 0.2 mL

Errors in experimental work can be classified in three categories:


Gross Errors or Mistakes
These are due to careless work or apparatus that is temporarily faulty. By being careful and repeating the
experiment several times these errors are easily detected and eliminated.
Systematic Errors
These result from an error in the equipment. They can be eliminated by careful calibration of the instrument.
Random Errors
These errors arise from random variations. They cannot be eliminated, but are reduced by repeating the
experiment several times and averaging the results.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
All of your numeric answers in the examination must be calculated to the correct number of significant figures.
Generally you will lose one mark once only on your paper if your answers are incorrect to more one significant
figure. Whilst one mark may not seem especially large, it is easy to express answers correctly.

The following rules will allow you to determine the correct number of significant figures.
A significant figure is either an integer or a zero that follows an integer. For example:
0.0100 has three significant figures; 100 has three significant figures; 0.001 has one significant figure;
1001.0 has five significant figures; 0.0040 has two significant figures.
For addition and subtraction:
When determining the number of significant figures for your answer, use the smaller number of decimal places
present in the values you used for the calculations.
Example: Use the Law of Conservation of Mass to calculate the mass of product formed when 1.00 g C6H12
reacts completely with 0.0442 g H2 gas.
Solution: 1.00 + 0.0442 = 1.0442 = 1.04 (2 decimal places)
For multiplication and division:
When determining the number of significant figures for your answer, use the smallest number of significant
figures present in the values you used for the calculation.
Example: How many mole of hydrogen gas is present in a 5000 litre container at a pressure of 101.325 kPa and a
temperature of 300 oC?
Solution: Because the temperature is given to three significant figures, your answer can only be correct to
three significant figures, despite the four for the volume and the six for the pressure.

STATES OF MATTER IN EQUATIONS


All reactants and products in equations should have their states correctly included. This means you must use the
terms (aq), (g), (s) and (l) properly. You lose one mark once only on your paper for incorrect states in equations.
25
REVISION HINTS

YOUR REVISION PROGRAM


As part of your revision program, you should:
Memorise all the key ideas including definitions, important equations, and details of instruments,
industrial processes and cells.
Go over the outcome statements in the Study Design.
Go over questions you have done during the term from your text book. You should be able to do this quite
quickly. There is no need to do them all again; just select typical examples of each type. Try working out
the main steps in your head to save time. Particularly select the questions with which you previously had
difficulty or needed someone to show you.
Complete past VCAA exam papers. Because this is a relatively new course, the old papers (pre-2008) are
not entirely relevant. However large sections are still appropriate and your teacher will be able to tell you
what you can omit. The VCAA produced a Sample Exam for use in 2013 that is entirely relevant is 2.5
hours long. It is most important that you complete these papers for each Unit and check the answers
that can be found on the CEA website.
The Sample Exams can be found via the CEA website, under VCE Chemistry,
All papers can be downloaded from the VCAA or CEA websites: www.cea.asn.au .
The more past examinations you do, the better your marks will be. It is not necessary to do them as
complete exams. As you revise topics, you can complete the appropriate questions, being careful to keep
to the time suggested for each question. At other times you may decide that you need practice in doing
multiple choice questions - 20 in 20 minutes is a good idea.
Mark your exams carefully from the answers provided. If you were incorrect, look at the appropriate
section in your notes to assist your memory. Even if you are correct, it is important to read the
correct answer fully, especially as it is written by the examiners. Whenever the examiners report
states that this question was badly done, you can almost guarantee that the topic will be examined
again in a very similar manner.
Make sure you speak to your teacher about the problems you are constantly finding.
When you complete 2 or 3 papers, read your notes completely to remind yourself regularly of the
details of the course. During the weeks before the exams in June and November, this should occur at
least twice a week until the exam. You should have one complete set of notes. Amalgamate all revision
notes, class notes and summaries.

YOUR REVISION TIMETABLE


You should make up a revision timetable. Work backwards from your examinations. Naturally you will revise for a
specific exam the night before. Be careful to allocate equal time during the prior weekend to all subjects in
which you have an exam. Work backwards through the weeks before the exams.

IN THE EXAM
During the reading time read the whole paper slowly and carefully. Do not flip back and forward. During the
reading time you will slow down your pulse rate and allow your thoughts to begin to work in an ordered way. Take
some deep breaths and consciously regain your full composure. By reading with understanding your mind will
start to work on the problems. During this time you may also find material in one section of the paper that will
assist you with a different question!

Decide whether you are doing the multiple-choice or structured questions first.

When completing the multiple choice questions do all questions. Do not leave any blank, even if you have to guess.
Before you hand in your paper, double check that you have answered all questions. Be careful to write the
correct answer in the correct box. In case you misalign your answers, circle the correct letter in the exam
booklet, allowing a quick check if needed at the end.
26
In the extended answer section, do the question of which you are most certain first.
Check the time at the end of each question.
Reread each question when you finished it and check you have answered all parts, balanced all equations, and
included all states and units.
If you complete your answer away from the expected section, clearly direct the marker to follow your working.
Set out your answers clearly, stating the formulae you intend to use, as this often earns marks.
e.g. n (NaOH) = c x V
pH = - log10 [H3O+]

FORMULAE
Formulae must be memorised because no information can be taken in to the examination in your calculator
memory. Your calculator must not be programmable.

n=m/M n = number of particles


NA
+
n = cV pH = log10 [H3O ]
pV = nRT [H3O+] = 10-pH
+
n = V / Vm [H3O ] [OH-] = 10-14 at 25oC
Q =It E = 4.184 m T
Q = n(electrons) F E =VIt
C.F.= (V I t) / T
Ar = (relative isotopic mass x relative abundance) / total relative abundance

n amount in moles
m mass in grams
M molar mass in grams per mole
NA Avogadros Number = 6.023 1023
c concentration in moles per litre (M)
V volume in litres
P pressure in kilopascals (kPa)
T temperature in Kelvin
R general gas constant = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1
Vm molar volume in litres at specified conditions; commonly used conditions are SLC (25oC, 1 atm) or STP
(0oC,1 atm)
Q charge in Coulomb
I current in amps
t time in s
V voltage in volts
F Faraday = 96500 C.
S.H.C of water = 4.184 J oC-1 g-1 in the Data Book
C.F. calibration factor
27
VCAA KEY SKILLS for UNITS 1 - 4

Investigate and inquire scientifically


work independently and collaboratively as required to develop and apply safe and responsible work practices
when completing all practical investigations including the appropriate disposal of wastes;
conduct investigations that include collecting, processing, recording and analysing qualitative and quantitative
data; draw conclusions consistent with the question under investigation and the information collected; evaluate
procedures and reliability of data;
construct questions (and hypotheses); plan and/or design, and conduct investigations; identify and address
possible sources of uncertainty;
apply ethics of scientific research when conducting and reporting on investigations.

Apply chemical understandings


make connections between concepts; process information; apply understandings to familiar and new contexts;
use first and second-hand data and evidence to demonstrate how chemical concepts and theories have
developed and been modified over time;
analyse issues and implications relating to scientific and technological developments;
analyse and evaluate the reliability of chemistry related information and opinions presented in the public
domain.

Communicate chemical information and understandings


interpret, explain and communicate chemical information and ideas accurately and effectively;
use communication methods suitable for different audiences and purposes;
use scientific language and conventions correctly, including chemical equations and units of measurement.
28
UNIT 3 VCAA STUDY DESIGN

Chemical pathways

AREA OF STUDY 1: Chemical analysis


Key knowledge
volumetric analysis including determination of excess and limiting reagents and titration curves: simple
and back titrations, acid-base and redox titrations
gravimetric analysis
calculations including amount of solids, liquids and gases; concentration; volume, pressure and
temperature of gases
the writing of balanced chemical equations, including the use of oxidation numbers to write redox
equations, and the application of chemical equations to volumetric and gravimetric analyses
principles and applications of chromatographic techniques (excluding features of instrumentation
and operation), and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data from:
thin layer chromatography (TLC), including calculation of Rf
high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) including Rt
and the use of a calibration graph to determine amount of analyte
principles and applications of spectroscopic techniques (excluding features of instrumentation and
operation), and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data from:
atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) including electron transitions and use of calibration graph
to determine amount of analyte
infrared spectroscopy (IR) including use of characteristic absorption bands to identify bonds
proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) including spin, the
application of carbon-13 to determine number of equivalent carbon environments; and application of
proton NMR to determine structure: chemical shift, areas under peak and peak splitting patterns
(excluding coupling constants), and application of n+1 rule to simple compounds
visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy (visible-UV) including electron transitions and use of
calibration graph to determine amount of analyte
mass spectroscopy including determination of molecular ion peak and relative molecular mass, and
identification of simple fragments
matching analytical technique/s to a particular task: single and combined techniques.
29

AREA OF STUDY 2: Organic chemical pathways


Key knowledge
structure including molecular, structural and semi-structural formulae, and International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature of alkanes, alkenes, amines, haloalkanes, alkanols
(CnH2n+1OH), alkanoic acids (CnH2n+1COOH) and esters up to C10
common reactions of organic compounds including equations: addition reactions of alkenes (addition of
hydrogen halides and water limited to symmetrical alkenes), substitution reactions of alkanes and
primary haloalkanes, oxidation of primary alkanols, and esterification
chemical bonding:
primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins
the role of the tertiary structure of proteins in enzyme action
denaturing of proteins: effect of changes in pH and temperature on bonding
primary and secondary structure of DNA
organic reaction pathways including appropriate equations and reagents:
production of esters from alkenes
condensation reactions that produce lipids (limited to triglycerides)
condensation and polymerisation reactions that produce large biomolecules including
carbohydrates, proteins and DNA
production of biochemical fuels including the fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol
function of organic molecules in the design and synthesis of medicines including the production of
aspirin from salicylic acid.
30

Possible UNIT 3 TIMETABLE


Week Concepts Text Questions from W/s Pracs/Demos SAC Dates &
Chapt text in Details
w/book
bold = essential
Sem 1 Overview of analytical 3 p 38: Analysis of
Intro at techniques - titrations brick cleaner or
end of introduced in Year 11 below in Year
Year 11 12 week 1

Term 1 Overview of analytical 1, 2 Ch 1: 1, 5 6 p 37: Analysis of


1 techniques; stoich of s, l Ch 2: 5 - 8, 9, 10, brick cleaner
and g including gas stoich.; 16, 17, 19,
excess problems; 20,21,24,31,34,35
gravimetric analysis; ,36,41,44,
46,48
2 Revise mole, stoich 1, 2 1 and 3
Conc. (M, %v/v, %m/v); 3 Ch 3: 1c,3,4,5, 6- 5 p 48:
volumetric analysis 8, 11c, 14,15, 16, Gravimetric
17, 18, 19, determination
20,21,23,24,25 of sulphate -
eei
3 Revise acid/base theory; 4 Ch 4: 5,6,7, 2, 4 p 50: Back
pH; indicators; back 8,9,10, 13,15, 16, titration: N2 in
titration; titrations curves 18, 20,21, 22- lawn feed
24,25,26, 27,28
4 Redox reactions; oxid. nos.; 5 Ch 5: 1-5,6,7, 6 p 53:
redox titrations; balancing 10,11,15,18,19, Determination
redox eqs. 22, 24,25,26, of Fe(II)
28,29,31,33,34 content of
lawn fertiliser
- eei
5 Chromatography - TLC, 6 Ch 6: 2 - 4,8,10, 8 TRAB p 45:
GLC, HPLC; Rf & Rt; 14, 19, 20, 21 theoretical
calibration; interpreting exercise -
chromatograms; Ethanol content
of wine by gas
chromatography
6 Spectroscopy - o/view 7 Ch 7: 5,7,9,10, 7, 10, TRAB P 56: data p 55:
electromagnetic spectrum; 12,14,15,17,18, 12, 13 analysis - Colorimetric
flame tests; AAS, UV-vis; 20,23,25,29, Interpretation determination
NMR; IR 32,33, 38, 40 of nmr spectra of phosphorus
of a no. of content of
organic lawn fertiliser
compounds
7 Mass spectroscopy; 8 Ch 8: 1,4,5,7,8, 9, 11 TRAB p 58: data eei report
interpreting spectrum 13,16,18,20 analysis - under test
interpretation of conditions
mass spectra
8 Bonding in hydrocarbons; 9 Ch 9: 1-4, 8, 9, 16 Incursion /
homologous series; alkanes 11,12,13,15,16,1 excursion on
and alkenes; isomers and 8,20,22,23,24 instrumentation
naming
9 Functional groups; common 9, 10 Ch 10: 2, 3, 4, 6- 15, 21 p 93: Preparing
organic reactions 9,11,13-17, artificial
31
21,22,23- fragrances and
27,29,30,33,34 flavours
Holidays Area of Study Review; p 124: all
(move as exam revision of this questions;
needed) area of study complete and
revise all AoS 1
Term 2 Organic reaction pathways; 10, 14 Ch 14: 1,5, 9,13 16 (Q1
synthesis of medicines e.g. and 2),
10 aspirin; drug development 24
11 Biochemical fuels 10, 11 Ch 10: 19,20, 31 20 p 95: Reactions
Ch 11: 3, 11, 12, 13 and properties
of some organic
compounds
12 Biomolecules: Fats; 12 Ch 12: 1-3, 7,8, 17 p 98: Modelling
carbohydrates; proteins 10, 29, functional groups
and organic
reactions
13 Proteins; enzymes; 12 Ch 12: 12,13,14, 18, 19, p 101: Written
denaturation 16,17,21,32,33,3 22 report of a
4,41,43,45,46 practical
activity - Prep
of Aspirin
14 DNA function, structure 13 Ch 13: 2,6,7,17, 22, 23
bonding 18
15 Complete all topics; Area p 239: all 14, 16 Stimulus
of Study Review questions (Q3) material -
DNA and
protein
16 Revision of Unit 3
17 Revision of Unit 3
18 Mid-year internal exams
Sem 2
1 (19) Unit 4: Chemical energy; 15 Ch 15: 1,2,4,6,8, 25, 26 p 138: Factors
exo and endothermic r/ns; 9,10,12,15,18,20 affecting rates
H; energy profile of reaction
diagrams; manipulation of Demos: TRAB p
thermochemical equations; 94: Foam column
rates; catalysts; activation TRAB p 128:
energy Chemical Oven
TRAB p 129:
Endothermic
reaction b/w 2
solids
2 (20) Equilibrium law; K; temp 16 Ch 16: 3,5,6,7, 27, 30 TRAB p 96:
effect; Le Chatelier's 8,9,10,11,12,13- Theoretical
principle; calculations 15,17-21,23,25- exercise -
32,36,37 discovering the
equilibrium law.
Holidays Review Ch 15 and 16 Complete rate,
carefully e/brium quest;
Complete AoS
review p360: Q
1-12; 17-21
32
UNIT 4 VCAA STUDY DESIGN

Unit 4: Chemistry at work


AREA OF STUDY 1: Industrial chemistry
Key knowledge
collision theory and factors that affect the rate of a reaction including temperature, pressure,
concentration and use of catalysts, excluding: a formal treatment of the Maxwell-Boltzmann
distribution, reaction mechanisms and rate laws
energy profile diagrams and the use of H notation including: activation energy; alternative reaction
pathways for catalysed reactions; and deduction of H for an overall reaction given energy profiles or
H of two related reactions
equilibrium: representation of reversible and non-reversible reactions: homogeneous equilibria and the
equilibrium law (equilibrium expressions restricted to use of concentrations), Le Chateliers Principle and
factors which affect the position of equilibrium
pH as a measure of strength of acids and bases; Kw, Ka for weak acids
application of equilibrium and rate principles to the industrial production of one of ammonia,
sulfuric acid, nitric acid:
factors affecting the production of the selected chemical
waste management including generation, treatment and reduction
health and safety considerations
uses of the selected chemical.

AREA OF STUDY 2: Supplying and using energy

Key knowledge
comparison of the renewability of energy sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels and
biochemical fuels
application of calorimetry to measure energy changes in chemical reactions in solution calorimetry and
bomb calorimetry, including calibration of a calorimeter and the effects of heat loss
use of the electrochemical series in predicting the products of redox reactions and deducing overall
equations from redox half equations
limitations of predictions made using the electrochemical series, including the determination of maximum
cell voltage under standard conditions
the chemical principles, half-equations and overall equations of simple primary and secondary galvanic
cells
the chemical principles, half-equations and overall equations of fuel cells; advantages and disadvantages
of fuel cells compared to conventional energy sources
the chemical principles, half-equations and overall equations of simple electrolytic cells; comparison of
electrolytic cells using molten and aqueous electrolytes, and inert and non-inert electrodes
application of Faradays laws in electrochemistry.
33
Possible UNIT 4 TIMETABLE
Week Concepts Text Questions from text W/sheet Pracs / Demos SAC Dates &
Chapt in (reference in Details
w/book w/book)
Sem 2 bold = essential
Term 3 Acid/base equilibria 16, 17 Ch 17: 1,2,3,5,6, 28 p 141: Extent of
3 introduction 7,9,10,11,13, hydrolysis of two
14,15,16-22. acids
4 Kw; pH; pKa; 17 29 p 143: P 146: Written
Determination of report of a
2 acidity practical
constants activity: Effect
of changes in
concentration on
equilibrium
5 Chem. Indust; ; OH and 18 Ch 18: 9,13,15,28, 32 31, 34, TRAB p 116
S; Waste management; 35 Demo - Carbon
MSDS; Pillar
TRAB p117:
Sulfuric acid 21 Ch 21: 1,2,5,7,8, Properties of
production 9,13,15,18 sulfuric acid
p 360: Complete all TRAB p 114:
questions in review Flowchart of
of AoS 1 Contact process
(hi.com)
6 P 145: Industrial
production of
sulphuric acid a
report, response
or an analysis
7 Energy sources; energy 23, 24 Ch 23: 4,5,8,9,11 40
converters and
transfers; biochemical Ch 24: 8,12,14, 15,
fuels 18
8 Calorimetry; 25 Ch 25: 2,4,5,6,7, p 187:
calculations; H 10,11,13,21,22,24, Calorimetry and
26,28, 33,34,35,36 enthalpy changes
9 Galvanic cells; 26, 27 Ch 26: 1,4,5,6,7, 38, 39, p 195: Fuel cells
recharging; fuel cells; 8,9,10, 11,13, 14 41
the electrochemical Ch 27: 5, 12,13,
series and Eo 14,19,21,23
10 Electrolysis; 28 Ch 28: 3-7,8,9, 42, 43, Use Worksheet
electrolytic cells 11,12,14,17,18,19, 44, 45 45 (p179) as an
20,23,25,26,29,30,3 exercise;
1, 33 TRAB p 147:
Demo of Tin
crystals by
electrolysis
11 Faraday's Laws; 28 p463: Complete all 46, 47 p 193:
Complete review AoS 2 question in review Determination of
of AoS 2 Faradays
constant and
Avogadros
constant
12 p 195: Summary
report: Fuel
34
cells, Half-cells
and electrolysis
Holiday Complete revision of Exam papers
move Unit 4 including exam
as questions. Aim for
needed 100 hours (20 hours
per subject) during
these holidays on
revision of all subjects
to be examined this
can seriously be
achieved if your
students are
organised! They will
still have the evening
off and some
relaxation periods.
Term 4
13
Revision; Trial exam 1
14 Revision; Trial exam 2
15 Revision
35
Examples of suitable exam questions from previous VCAA exams for the final exam in November
(Please note that these suggestions are not endorsed by the VCAA)

Relevant questions from old Unit 3 exams Relevant questions from old Unit 4 exams
2000 Section A 1 - 18, 20 2000 Section A 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 -12, 14, 15, 16
Section B 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 Section B 1, 2, 4
2001 Section A 1 - 4, 8 12, 16 - 22 2001 Section A 1, 2, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15
Section B 1- 5 (treat Q 3 as TLC) Section B 1 4, 7
2002 Section A 1 -15, 17,19, 20 2002 Section A 7 9, 11, 13 15, 18, 19, 20
Section B 1b, 1c, 2 6, 7c Section B 3, 4b, 5b, 6
2003 Section A 1 10, 12 - 20 2003 Section A 1 -9, 17, 18, 19,
Section B 1-7 Section B 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
2004 Section A 1 - 20 2004 Section A 2 9, 16 - 18
Section B 1 4, 6 Section B 3, 4, 5, 8a, 8b
2005 Section A 1 20 2005 Section A 1, 2, 5 11
Section B 1 4, 6 -8 Section B 2a, 2b, 3, 4, 5, 6b, 7, 8,
2006 Section A 2 - 20 2006 Section A 2 8, 12, 14,15
Section B 1-6 Section B 4, 5, 8, 9a-c
2007 Section A 1 8, 10 - 20 2007 Section A 4, 7, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
Section B 1-3, 4a, 4b, 5c, 5d, 6, 7 Section B 4a-c, 5, 6, 7, 8
2008 Section A 1 10, 12 - 19 2008 Section A all
Section B 1-7 Section B 1 4, 6 - 9
2009 Section A 1 - 18 2009 Section A all
Section B 1 - 10 Section B 1 6a, 6b, 7
2010 Section A 1 - 20 2010 Section A all
Section B 1-8 Section B 1 4, 6 -8
2011 Section A all 2011 Section A all
Section B all Section B 2-8
2012 Section A All 2012 Section A all
Section B all Section B 1 4, 6 -8
36

STUDENT NAME ____________________

YEAR 11 CHEMISTRY

HANDBOOK

2013

Contents

Units 1 and 2 VCAA Study Design


VCAA Key Skills
Unit 1 Timetable
Revision for Unit 1 Exam
Unit 2 Timetable
Revision for Unit 2 Exam
37
VCAA CHEMISTRY STUDY DESIGN

Unit 1: The big ideas of chemistry


AREA OF STUDY 1
The Periodic Table
Key knowledge
This knowledge includes
The Periodic Table
historical development from Mendeleev to Seaborg
trends and patterns of properties within The Periodic Table: atomic number, types of compounds formed,
metallic/non-metallic character, chemical reactivity of elements;
atomic theory
historical development of the model of atomic theory with contributions from Dalton to
Chadwick
limitations of the model of atomic theory
mass number, isotopes, calculation of relative atomic mass, electronic configuration including subshells;
the mole concept including empirical and molecular formulas, percentage composition, Avogadros constant;
interpretation of data from mass spectrometry.

AREA OF STUDY 2
Materials
Key knowledge
This knowledge includes
models of bonding to explain observed properties including melting temperature, electrical conductivity,
chemical reactivity, shape, polarity of bonds, intermolecular forces
metals
ionic compounds
molecular substances, network lattices, layer lattices;
limitations of the bonding models;
properties and systematic naming of alkanes and alkenes up to C6;
structural isomers of C4H10;
behaviour of surfaces and the application of surface chemistry in nanotechnology;
addition polymers
relationship between structure, properties and applications,
synthesis, cross-linking
development of customised polymers.
38
Unit 2: Environmental chemistry
AREA OF STUDY 1
Water
Key knowledge
This knowledge includes
role of water in maintaining life in the environment
unique properties of water: relationship between structure and bonding, and properties and uses
including solubility and conductivity
ways in which substances behave in water: the dissociation of soluble ionic solutes; the
ionisation of polar molecules such as acids; the separation of non-ionising polar molecules such as ethanol
maintaining water quality: solubility, precipitation reactions, pH
desalination, including the principles of distillation;
acids and bases: proton transfer; common reactions of acids; strong and weak acids and bases; polyprotic acids;
amphiprotic substances;
calculations including mass-mass stoichiometry and concentration and volume of solutions; pH of strong acids
and of strong bases;
redox reactions in aqueous solution including writing balanced equations for oxidation and reduction reactions,
for example metal displacement reactions, corrosion of iron;
application of the principles of green chemistry; for example, replacement of halogenated solvents with
supercritical carbon dioxide in industrial processes or in plant crop protection.

AREA OF STUDY 2
The atmosphere
Key knowledge
This knowledge includes
role of the atmosphere in maintaining life in the environment
effects of human activities, such as agriculture, industry, transport, energy production, on the
atmosphere
chemical reactions and processes of acid rain
qualitative effects of ozone depletion and photochemical smog
role of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in maintaining life on earth
the laboratory and industrial preparation of one gas of signifi cance to the quality of the atmosphere;
the major contributing gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect and at least one of the associated
local, state, national or international protocols;
kinetic molecular theory and its use in explaining properties of gases;
calculations including those involving gas laws, molar volume (VM) at STP and SLC, the General Gas Equation,
volume-volume and mass-volume stoichiometry.
39
VCAA KEY SKILLS for UNITS 1 - 4

Investigate and inquire scientifically


work independently and collaboratively as required to develop and apply safe and responsible work practices
when completing all practical investigations including the appropriate disposal of wastes;
conduct investigations that include collecting, processing, recording and analysing qualitative and quantitative
data; draw conclusions consistent with the question under investigation and the information collected; evaluate
procedures and reliability of data;
construct questions (and hypotheses); plan and/or design, and conduct investigations; identify and address
possible sources of uncertainty;
apply ethics of scientific research when conducting and reporting on investigations.

Apply chemical understandings


make connections between concepts; process information; apply understandings to familiar and new contexts;
use first and second-hand data and evidence to demonstrate how chemical concepts and theories have
developed and been modified over time;
analyse issues and implications relating to scientific and technological developments;
analyse and evaluate the reliability of chemistry related information and opinions presented in the public
domain.

Communicate chemical information and understandings


interpret, explain and communicate chemical information and ideas accurately and effectively;
use communication methods suitable for different audiences and purposes;
use scientific language and conventions correctly, including chemical equations and units of measurement.
40
UNIT 1 TIMETABLE
Wk Concepts Text Minimum Practical work including SAC Dates &
chapt Chapter Worksheets from Details
Questions W/book and videos
Term 1 Area of Study 1: THE PERIODIC TABLE
1 Elements 1 15, 17, 20, 23 TRB1 p. 13 Changes in
Periodic table chemical reactions
Compounds Video: World of
Chemistry, Periodic
Table. (parts)
P16 worksheet activity 5
- Organising elements
Revision Worksheets 3
&4
2 Development of atomic 2 19, 20, 21, 22, SW1 p. 81 Flame colours
theory 23a,c, 24, 26, of selected metals (an
Nuclear atom 29, ace, 30, 31, experiment for the
Electronic 34 summary report)
configuration

3 The modern periodic 3 16, 18, 19, 20, Video: Bohr atom (parts)
table 22, 25, 26, 27, SW1 p. 28 Period 3
Periodic properties 28, 29 elements
Trends in properties P17 worksheet activity 6
Compounds - Tracking Trends
4 Masses of particles 4 TRB1 p. 26 Mole SW1 p. 34
The mole simulation and Periodic
applications variation of
Video: World of properties
Chemistry, The Mole analysis of
2nd hand data
5 Practice mole concept 21, 22, 23, 24 Worksheets 7-11
calculations and (Homework or class
complete all questions revision)
form chapters in text
book
6 Molar mass 4 26aceg, 27, 28, SW1 p. 31 Chemical
Empirical and 29, 31, 32, 36, composition of a
molecular formulas 37, 38, 40, 32, compound
percentage 45, 48, 50, 51 Prac: Empirical formula
composition determination
Term 1 Area of Study 2: MATERIALS
7 Metals 5 10, 14, 15, 17, SW1 p. 72 Testing
20, 21, 23 materials
TRB1 p. 33 Growing metal
crystals
Prac: Modifying the
properties of metals
8 Ionic compounds 6 17, 19, 21, 22, SW1 p. 82 Solubility of
properties & model 23, 25, 26, 27, compounds in water (an
Electron transfer 29 experiment for the
diagrams summary report)
Chemical formulas SW1 p. 84 Conductivity
of common materials (an
experiment for the
summary report)
41
9 Covalent molecular 7 18, 19, 20, 21, SW1 p. 75 Making
substances 22 molecular models
Shapes of molecules Worksheets No 12, 17
Polarity of molecules

Holiday
move
as
needed
10 Forces between 7 23, 24, 25, 26, TRB1 p. 41 Comparing the
molecules 29, 31, 34, 36 physical properties of
Covalent lattices different covalent
lattices
Worksheet No 18, 19
11 Carbon 8 18, 21, 22, 23, SW1 p. 78 Investigating SW1 p. 81
Hydrocarbons 24 hydrocarbons A summary
Naming hydrocarbons Worksheet No 21 report of
three
practical
activities
12 Properties of alkenes 8 25, 26, 27, 28, Worksheet No 23
and alkenes 29, 30, 32, 34, Demo: Thermosetting and
Polymers 40 Thermoplastic polymers
TRB1 p. 50 Making ghost
buster slime
TRB1 p. 53 Making an
Eastover
13 An overview of bonding 9 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, Prac: Wetting SW1 p. 86
Surfaces 14, 16, 17 Demo: Flotation of Nanotechnolo
Nan particles Mothballs gy and new
TRB1 p. 43 Bucky balls, materials a
annotates and other poster
allotropes of carbon presentation
No. 22 worksheet, p69 (optional for
you not the
students!)
14 Revision
15 Revision
16 Exams
17 Exams
Semester 2: Unit 2: Area of Study 1 Water
1 The water cycle 10 13, 14, 19, 23, Selections from TRB1 p.
Properties of water 24, 31, 32, 34, 61 Properties of water
Water as a solvent 35 WS25: Wonderful
waterstructure and
properties
2 Measuring solubility 11 14. 15, 17, 19, TRB134: Effect of
Concentration of 22ace, 23ace, polarity on solubility
solutions 26, 28, 32, 35, TRB135: Supersaturation
37 TRB136: Stalagmite from
a supersaturated solution
TRB137: Concentrations
of solutions
42

REVISION FOR UNIT 1 EXAMINATION


FORMULAE
n = m / Mr where n amount in moles
m mass in grams
Mr molar mass in gram per mole
n = no. of particles / N where N = 6 x 1023 which is called Avogadro's constant
A A

PRACS
The equations and information in all pracs in your prac book is examinable material.
43
UNIT 2 TIMETABLE
Term 3 Area of Study 1: WATER
Wk Concepts Text Minimum Chapter Practical work School-assessed
chapt Questions including Worksheets Coursework
from W/book and
videos
3 Precipitation reactions 12 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, SW1 p. 115
Ionic equations 14, 15, 17 Precipitation reactions
Maintaining water quality WS26: Solving
solubilitypredicting
precipitation reactions
TRB1 p. 77 Purification
of polluted water
4 Introducing Acids & bases 13 2, 5, 8, 9 TRB1 p. 80 reactions of An extended
Reactions involving acids hydrochloric acid experimental
and bases eei- Use some of the investigation
activities from could be
Experimental developed using
investigation of the acids and bases
properties and and pH pracs
behaviour of acids - and making the
only use as a prac links (It could be
good to do this
at this early
stage of the
semester)
5 Brnsted - Lowry definition 14 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, WS27: Recording
Acid and base strength 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, equationsFull and
pH scale 31, 32 ionic chemical
equations;
WS28: Concentration
and strengthpicturing
acids and bases;
T49: Strong and weak
acids
TRB1 p. 82 Amphiprotic
substances in water
WS31: Acidity of
solutionscalculating
pH
WS24: Crossword
acids and bases
6 Stoichiometry 15 14, 15, 17, 19, 23, SW1 pp. 119 Products
24, 28, 30, 32, 33, of a decomposition
reaction
WS29: Stoichiometry
1: Massmass
calculations
7 Excess reactants 15 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, TRB1 p. 90
Volumetric analysis 43, 45 Determination of the
concentration of a
hydrochloric acid
solution

8 More practice of 15 WS30: Stoichiometry
stoichiometry and catch - 2: Excess reagent
44
up calculations
WS32: Solving complex
calculationsusing
more than one formula
9 Oxidation and reduction 16 22, 25, 27, 29, 30, SW1 p. 121 Corrosion
Redox reactions 31, 32 WS33: Matchmaker
Oxidation numbers redox reactions;
WS34: Metals and
their cationswriting
half equations
10 Galvanic cells 16 36, 38, 40, 42, 43, TRB1 p. 98
The electrochemical series 46, 47, 50 Electrochemical cells
Corrosion and corrosion
WS35: From chemicals
to electricitygalvanic
cells
11 Green Chemistry: Some of 17 3, 4, 5 TRB1 p. 102
the following-Applications Investigating galvanic
of green chemistry; The cells
CFC story; replacement of WS36: Sorting
halogenated solvents with statementsprinciples
supercritical CO2 in of green chemistry
industrial processes or in WS37: Conserving
plant protection. atomsthe green
Area of study review chemistry principle of
atom economy
12 The atmosphere 18 11, 12, 14, 16, 20 SW1 p. 155 Preparation SW1 p. 163
Essential gases 19 12, 14, 15, 21, 22, 24 and properties of Greenhouse and
Acid rain oxygen global warming
Depletion of the ozone WS41: Gases of the a response to
layer atmosphereconcept stimulus material
Smog maps (optional for you
Green house effect WS38: Crosswordthe if time permits)
atmosphere
WS39: Humans doing
damagethe
greenhouse effect and
the ozone layer
Term 3 Area of Study 2 - THE ATMOSPHERE
13 Laboratory and industrial 20 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, SW1 p. 155 Preparation SW1 p. 164
preparation of a gas of 20 and properties of Preparation and
significance to the quality oxygen properties of
of the atmosphere WS40: Cycling carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide mattercarbon and an extended
nitrogen experimental
investigation
(could be done
here but it is
very late in the
year)
14 Kinetic molecular theory 21 33, 34, 36, 40, 41, SW1 p. 157 Volume-
Pressure, volume 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, pressure relationships
relationships 51, 57, 59, 61, 64, of gases
Gas laws 66, 67 SW1 p. 160 Molar
General gas equation volume of hydrogen
Gas stoichiometry WS42: Explaining gas
45
behaviourkinetic
molecular theory
WS44: How humans
breatheBoyles Law
WS45: Charles Law
WS47: Different but
the samemolar
volume of gases
WS43: Equivalent
measuresconverting
units
15 Revision WS46: Changing
conditionseffects of
temperature, volume
and amount on
pressure.
WS48: Putting it all
togetherthe general
gas equation
WS49: Stoichiometry
3: massvolume
16 Revision
17 Exams /Year 12 exams for
those doing a subject
46
REVISION FOR UNIT 2 EXAMINATION
FORMULAE
n = m / Mr where n amount in moles
m mass in grams
Mr molar mass in gram per mole
n = cxV where c concentration in mol / L
V volume in litres
pV = nRT where R = 8.31 if P is in kPa
T is in K
V is in L
n = V / Vm where Vm molar volume
o
SLC Standard Lab Conditions:101.325 kPa and 25 C
o
STP Standard Temp and Pressure:101.325 kPa and 0 C
n = no. of particles / N where N = 6 x 1023 which is called Avogadro's constant
A A
+
[H3O ] [OH -] = 10-14 where [] concentration in mol / L
+
pH = - log10 [H3O ]
+
[H3O ] = 10-pH
P V /T = P V /T
1 1 1 2 2 2
RAM = Ar = (isotopic mass relative abundance)
(total relative abundance)
PRACS
The equations and information in all pracs in your prac book is examinable material.

RULES FOR ANY STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEM


1. Write a balanced equation
2. Write given and required information under the appropriate species in the equation.
3. When necessary, determine which reactant is in excess and then use the limiting reactant to calculate
amounts of product formed.
n (reactant 1) = n (reactant 2)
coefficient of reactant 1 coefficient of reactant 2
4. Set up mole ratio between n (unknown) = coefficient of unknown
n ( known) coefficient of known
5. Use appropriate equation from the list above to calculate the required n(unknown).

RULES FOR DETERMINING SPONTANEOUS REDOX REACTIONS


A spontaneous reaction will occur when the strongest oxidant is HIGHER in the table than the strongest
reductant.
When more than one reductant or oxidant is present, the strongest reductant always reacts with the
strongest oxidant.
The rule for predicting that a reaction will occur when using the electrochemical table is
stongest oxidant (is higher than)

strongest reductant

Oxidation: always occurs at the anode, produces electrons, increases the oxidation number.
47
VCAA Changes in 2013

The VCAA has rewritten the Essential Knowledge and the Assessment for the Units 3 and 4
Chemistry course. The changes to the Chemistry course are briefly summarized below.

Key Knowledge
Unit 3
No reference to Green Chemistry;
Inclusion of titration curves;
Details of the instrumentation and operation of chromatographic and spectroscopic
instruments are excluded;
More details about the level of interpretation of IR and NMR spectra is provided;
More details of the required knowledge for protein and enzyme structure and effects are
listed.

Unit 4
Energy efficiencies of a range of energy resources are to be considered;
Ethene cannot be chosen as a chemical to study in detail;
Deduction of H from energy profile diagrams is required;
Inclusion of the determination of a cell Eo under standard conditions;

Assessment
Unit 3 School assessment
No changes to assessment, except to more clearly state that the extended experimental
investigation must be chosen from a different Area of Study to the other two assessment
tasks.

Unit 4 School assessment


The two assessment tasks from Area of Study 1 must be a written report of a practical
activity AND a report / response / analysis of uses, equilibrium and rate considerations,
safety aspects and associated wastes of a chemical selected from ammonia, sulfuric acid
or nitric acid;
A summary report must be produced for Area of Study 2 involving annotations of three
practical activities relating to energy transformations in chemical reactions.

External Examination
One 2.5 hour examination in November (no external mid-year examination);
All listed essential knowledge will be assessed in the examination, except for the specific
details of the selected chemical.