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1.

Introduction
Thyristors are semiconductor devices that are specifically
designed for use in high-power switching applications. Thyristors
can operate only in the switching mode, where they act like either
an open or closed switch and once triggered it will remain
conducting.

The turning on process of SCR is known as Triggering. In


other words turning the SCR from forward-blocking state to
forward-conduction state is known as triggering. The various
methods of triggering are discussed here.

SCR triggering methods:


I. Forward Voltage Triggering
II. Thermal or Temperature Triggering
III. Radiation or Light triggering
IV. dv/dt Triggering
V. Gate Triggering

1. Forward Voltage Triggering:-

In this mode, an additional forward voltage is applied


between anode and cathode. When the anode terminal is positive
with respect to cathode (VAK) , Junction J1 and J3 is forward
biased and junction J2 is reverse biased. No current flows due to
depletion region in J2 is reverse biased (except leakage
current).As VAK is further increased, at a voltage VBO (Forward
Break Over Voltage) the junction J2 undergoes avalanche
breakdown and so a current flows and the device tends to turn
ON(even when gate is open)

2. Thermal (or) Temperature Triggering:-

The width of depletion layer of SCR decreases with increase


in junction temperature. Therefore in SCR when VAR is very near
its breakdown voltage, the device is triggered by increasing the
junction temperature. By increasing the junction temperature the
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reverse biased junction collapses thus the device starts to
conduct.

3. Radiation Triggering (or) Light Triggering:-

For light triggered SCRs a special terminal niche is made


inside the inner P layer instead of gate terminal. When light is
allowed to strike this terminal, free charge carriers are generated.
When intensity of light becomes more than a normal value, the
thyristor starts conducting. This type of SCRs are called as LASCR

4. dv/dt Triggering:-

When the device is forward biased, J1 and J3 are forward


biased, J2 is reverse biased. Junction J2 behaves as a capacitor,
due to the charges existing across the junction. If voltage across
the device is V, the charge by Q and capacitance by C then,

IC = dQ/dt
Q = CV
IC = d(CV) / dt = C. dV/dt + V. dC/dt
as dC/dt = 0
IC = C.dV/dt
Therefore when the rate of change of voltage across the
device becomes large, the device may turn ON, even if the
voltage across the device is small.

5. Gate Triggering:-

This is most widely used SCR triggering method. Applying a


positive voltage between gate and cathode can Turn ON a forward
biased thyristor. When a positive voltage is applied at the gate
terminal, charge carriers are injected in the inner P-layer, thereby
reducing the depletion layer thickness. As the applied voltage
increases, the carrier injection increases, therefore the voltage at
which forward break-over occurs decreases. The gate control
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circuit is also called firing, or triggering, circuit. These gating
circuits are usually low-power electronic circuits.

Types of SCR firing:

Generally there are two types of firing:

1. Zero Voltage Cross Over firing: Zero-crossing control


mode (also called fast cycling, integral cycle, or burst firing)
operates by turning the SCRs on only when the
instantaneous value of the sinusoidal voltage is zero.
2. Phase angle control method: The phase angle is varied,
i.e. the application of gate pulses is delayed by certain time
and the conduction is controlled.

Signals used for gate triggering.

Three types of signals are used for gate triggering.

1. DC gate triggering:-

A DC voltage of proper polarity is applied between gate and


cathode (Gate terminal is positive with respect to Cathode).When
applied voltage is sufficient to produce the required gate Current,
the device starts conducting. One drawback of this scheme is that
both power and control circuits are DC and there is no isolation
between the two. Another disadvantages is that a continuous DC
signal has to be applied. So gate power loss is high.

2. AC Gate Triggering:-

Here AC source is used for gate signals. This scheme


provides proper isolation between power and control circuit.
Drawback of this scheme is that a separate transformer is
required to step down ac supply.

3. Pulse Gate Triggering:-

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In this method the gate drive consists of a single pulse
appearing periodically (or) a sequence of high frequency pulses.
This is known as carrier frequency gating. A pulse transformer is
used for isolation. The main advantage is that there is no need of
applying continuous signals, so the gate losses are reduced.
Thyristor Triggering Circuit Design Considerations:

While designing gate thyristor triggering circuit following


points should be kept in mind.

1. When thyristor is turned on the gate signal should be


removed immediately. A continuous application of gate
signal even after the triggering on and thyristor would
increase the power loss in the gate junction.
2. No gate signal should be applied when thyristor is reversed
biased; otherwise thyristor
3. The pulse width of the gate signal should le longer than the
time required for the anode current to rise to the holding
current value IH.

Thyristor cannot be turned off by applied negative gate


signal. To stop the conduction of the thyristor we have to bring
the anode current flowing through the thyristor to a level below
holding current level. Holding current may be defined as the
minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in the
on state without gate signal below which the thyristor stops
conduction.

If we want to turn on the thyristor, the current flowing


through the thyristor must be greater than latching current of the
thyristor. Latching current is the minimum anode current required
to maintain the thyristor in the on state with at gate signal. Here
we should note that even the thyristor anode current falls below
latching current (once it is turned on and gate signal is removed)
thyristor does not stop conduction. But if it falls below holding

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current (Latching current is more than holding current) then
thyristor turn off.

Dynamic Turn ON Switching Characteristics

The dynamic processes of the SCR are turn ON and turn OFF
processes in which both voltage and currents of an SCR vary with
time. The transition from one state to another takes finite time,
but doesnt take place instantaneously. The static or VI
characteristics of the SCR give no indication about the speed at
which the SCR switched into forward conduction mode from
forward blocking mode. Hence the dynamic characteristics are
sometimes more important which gives the switching
characteristics of the SCR.
There will be a finite transition time that SCR takes to reach
the forward conduction mode from blocking mode, which is
termed as turn ON time of SCR. The turn ON time of the SCR Ton
can be subdivided into three distinct intervals namely delay time
td, rise time tr, and spread time ts.

1. Delay Time (td):

The delay time is measured from the instant at which the


gate current reaches 90 percent of its final value to the instant at
which anode current reaches 10 percent of its final value. It can
also define as the time between which anode voltage falls from
initial anode voltage value Va to 0.9Va. Consider the below figure
and observe that, until the time td, the SCR is in forward blocking
mode so the anode current is the small leakage current. When the
gate signal is applied (at 90 percent of Ig) then the gate current is
reached to 0.1 Ia and also correspondingly anode to cathode
voltage falls to 0.9Va.With the gate signal applied, there will be
non-uniform distribution of current over the cathode surface so

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the current density is much higher at gate terminal. And it rapidly
decreases as the distance from gate increases. Hence, the delay
time td is the time during which anode current flows in a narrow
region at which current density (gate current) is highest.

2. Rise Time (tr):

This is the time taken by the anode current to rise from 10


percent to 90 percent of its final value. Also called as the time
required for the forward blocking voltage to fall from 0.9Va
to0.1Va. This rise time is inversely proportional to the gate current
and its rate of building up. Therefore, if high and steep current
pulses are applied at the gate reduces the rise time tr.
Also, if the load is inductive this rise time will be higher and
for resistive and capacitive loads it is low. During this time, turn
ON losses in the SCR are high due to large anode current and high
anode voltage occurs simultaneously. This can result in the
formation of local hot spots.

3. Spread Time (ts)

This is the time taken by the anode current to rise from 0.9Ia
to Ia. Also the time required for the forward blocking voltage to
fall from o.1Va to its ON-state voltage drop which is the range of 1
to 1.5 volts. During this time anode current spread over the entire
conducting region of an SCR from a narrow conducting region.
After the spreading time, a full anode current flows through the
device with small ON-state voltage drop. Therefore, the total turn
ON time,

Ton = tr + td + ts

The typical value of the turn ON time is in the order of 1 to 4


micro seconds depends on the gate signal wave shapes and
anode circuit parameters. To reduce the turn ON time of the SCR,

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the amplitude of the gate pulse should be in the order of 3 to 5
times the minimum gate current of the SCR.
Fig. Dynamic Turn ON switching Characteristic

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2. Resistance Firing Circuit
The circuit below shows the resistance triggering of SCR
where it is employed to drive the load from the input AC
supply. Resistance and diode combination circuit acts as a
gate control circuitry to switch the SCR in the desired
condition.
As the positive voltage applied, the SCR is forward biased
and doesnt conduct until its gate current is more than
minimum gate current of the SCR.
When the gate current is applied by varying the resistance
R2 such that the gate current should be more than the
minimum value of gate current, the SCR is turned ON. And
hence the load current starts flowing through the SCR.
The SCR remains ON until the anode current is equal to the
holding current of the SCR. And it will switch OFF when the
voltage applied is zero. So the load current is zero as the SCR
acts as open switch.
The diode protects the gate drive circuit from reverse gate
voltage during the negative half cycle of the input. And
Resistance R1 limits the current flowing through the gate
terminal and its value is such that the gate current should
not exceed the maximum gate current.
It is the simplest and economical type of triggering but
limited for few applications due to its disadvantages.
In this, the triggering angle is limited to 90 degrees only.
Because the applied voltage is maximum at 90 degrees so
the gate current has to reach minimum gate current value
somewhere between zero to 90 degrees.

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Fig. R trigger circuit

Fig. Waveforms for R triggering at different firing angles

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3. Resistance Capacitacne (RC) Firing
Circuit
The limitation of resistance firing circuit can be overcome by
the RC triggering circuit which provides the firing angle
control from 0 to 180 degrees. By changing the phase and
amplitude of the gate current, a large variation of firing
angle is obtained using this circuit.
Below figure shows the RC triggering circuit consisting of two
diodes with an RC network connected to turn the SCR.
By varying the variable resistance, triggering or firing angle
is controlled in a full positive half cycle of the input signal.
During the negative half cycle of the input signal, capacitor
charges with lower plate positive through diode D2 up to the
maximum supply voltage Vmax. This voltage remains at
-Vmax across the capacitor till supply voltage attains zero
crossing.
During the positive half cycle of the input, the SCR becomes
forward biased and the capacitor starts charging through
variable resistance to the triggering voltage value of the
SCR.
When the capacitor charging voltage is equal to the gate
trigger voltage, SCR is turned ON and the capacitor holds a
small voltage. Therefore the capacitor voltage is helpful for
triggering the SCR even after 90 degrees of the input
waveform.
In this, diode D1 prevents the negative voltage between the
gate and cathode during the negative half cycle of the input
through diode D2.

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Fig. RC trigger circuit

Fig. Waveforms for RC triggering at different firing angles

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4. UJT based Firing Circuit

It is the most common method of triggering the SCR because


the prolonged pulses at the gate using R and RC triggering
methods cause more power dissipation at the gate so by
using UJT (Uni Junction Transistor) as triggering device the
power loss is limited as it produce a train of pulses.
The RC network is connected to the emitter terminal of the
UJT which forms the timing circuit. The capacitor is fixed
while the resistance is variable and hence the charging rate
of the capacitor depends on the variable resistance means
that the controlling of the RC time constant.
When the voltage is applied, the capacitor starts charging
through the variable resistance. By varying the resistance
value voltage across the capacitor get varied. Once the
capacitor voltage is equal to the peak value of the UJT, it
starts conducting and hence produce a pulse output till the
voltage across the capacitor equal to the valley voltage Vv of
the UJT. This process repeats and produces a train of pulses
at base terminal 1.
The pulse output at the base terminal 1 is used to turn ON
the SCR at predetermined time intervals.

Fig. UJT trigger circuit

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Fig. Synchronized UJT trigger circuit

Fig. Waveforms for UJT triggering at different firing angles

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5. Microcontroller Based Trigger Circuit:
It has been established that in analog triggering circuit,
trigger circuit may consist of too many components, which may
lead to debugging issues, as well, uneven spacing of the adjacent
trigger pulses and shifting phase inaccuracies may pose
difficulties, therein. Hence digital trigger mechanism is designed,
which overcomes the limitations of analog trigger circuit. In this
schematic, digital trigger mechanism has been used for the
control of output power. A programmable pulse train is generated
in desired sequence as output of microcontroller, using ATmega-
32 controller. The pulse train manipulations is achieved through
software program, which is then used for controlling converters
output. Through proper isolation these manipulated pulses are
used for triggering SCR gates for power control operations.
Synchronization is achieved using sample from raw AC
signal, by converting AC signal into square wave pulse through
zero crossing detector and using it for the interrupt of MCU.
Variable analog voltage (0-5 V) is utilized through a pot-meter in
an application, so that a user is able to control the firing angle.
ADC port of ATmega-32 converts input variable analog voltage fed
by the user into digital value. By proper mathematical calculation
the digital count can be used to trigger the converter circuit at
desired firing angle, thereby controlling the output voltage.

Hardware and Software Module

1 Microcontroller and Peripheral board


An embedded microcontroller board based on AVR
microcontroller is designed. The microcontroller board
contains sensor units, display circuits in the form of LCD
screen, LEDs, etc. This embedded board performs its
operation using 9V battery or AC adapter.

2 Software Module
The algorithms for implementation of this scheme are
developed using embedded C language in Atmel AVR Studio.
The compilation of executable software code is achieved

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using WinAVR, a development tools for the ATmega AVR
processor, hosted on Windows.

Methodology

The block schematic of this digitally triggered converter


circuit is depicted in Fig. The schematic arrangement consists of
ATMega-32 controller, User controlled DC voltage input (0-5 V),
LCD display for displaying firing angle, Zero Crossing Detector
circuit and Converter Unit. Integration of all these blocks
achieves full controlled converter with advanced performance
over other regular control techniques. Fig. below indicates the
block diagram schematic, the brief description of these blocks is
as given below.

Flowchart & Circuit Description


Flowchart given in Fig. below gives overall idea about the
sequence in which the module works and about their
connectivity.

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1 0-5 V Control Voltage

An user have a control over the output power by changing


the control voltage. A potentiometer arrangement is provided to
change an analog Voltage (0 5 V), used for controlling the
converters output power. Port A is an ADC port of Atmege-32
microcontroller, which is of 10 bit resolution. Channel 2 is used
for accepting input analog voltage, fed by the user. Analog
voltage is provided to a channel of ADC port. The input Analog
Voltage (0-5 V) is converted in to (0-1023) counts. The change in
the input analog voltage shall be proportionately converted to
the change in digital count. This 10-bit internal ADC takes around
250 ms for conversion of analog value to digital value.

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2 Zero Crossing Detector Module

The ZCD module plays an important role for synchronization


of the trigger pulses to power supply mains, for proper control of
output power. The Zero Crossing Detector circuit distinguishes
amongst the start of positive half cycle or negative half cycles. To
have full control over the firing angle of the SCR, it is necessary
to specifically detect the zero crossing of the sinusoidal input.
Fig. depicts a simple circuit which has been designed in this
scheme for proper and accurate zero crossing detector. Here
signal from mains is provided as a input, which is scaled down by
transformer to the alternating voltage of inferior value around
12V. At collector terminal is obtained a square wave with
amplitude of 4.88 volt.

3 Atmega-32 Microcontroller

Microcontroller unit accepts user input through a pot-meter


in the form of an analog controlling voltage for channel 2 of ADC
port, which is converted in to digital value. The digital value is
used for generation of PWM. The output of the ZCD unit is a
square wave signal. This square wave signal from zero crossing
detectors is given at INT0 pin of ATmega-32. Falling edge of the
square wave is detected as the interrupt. In interrupt subroutine
first trigger pulse is produced using the PWM technique, which
controls the magnitude of power delivered.

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4 LCD Display
Microcontroller board with 2-line LCD display is used for
showing the ADC value, as well as the corresponding firing angle.
Values on the display are in real time, hence, with the change in
the analog voltage, values of digital count and firing angle
changes.

5 Programming
Embedded C language is used for programming of AVR
microcontroller. Here WinAVR compiler is used. The compiled
executable code in the form of .hex file can be downloaded in the
microcontroller chip. This burning of the chip embeds the
necessary instructions in the chip memory. BSD programmer is
used for the said purpose.

6 Production of Triggering Pulsation.

At any time when zero crossing (falling edge of square wave)


is detected on the AC mains, microcontroller is interrupted and
the latest values of ADC is used to influence firing delay which is
used to determine firing angle with proper mathematical
calculations. According to the firing angle, the triggering pulse is
generated for gate terminal of SCR to trigger the thyristor. On
LCD, ADC output and firing angle which is calculated from ADC

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reading is displayed for the observer (user), who is controlling the
converters output. ADC output ranges between 0-1023 counts
which is used to control firing angle 00-1800. Let Y is the output
from analog to digital converter and a is a firing angle. So the
relationship between firing angle and ADC count is given in
equation below.
a = Y * (180/1023)
Here, it is desirable to estimate the delay as per the firing
angle, whereas the firing angle is based on the ADC count and
ADC count is based on the input fed by the user, which is in the
form of an analog voltage (0-5V). Hence, mathematical
association between delay in the production of firing pulse and
ADC count is established.
The Converter output shall be controlled in the range 0 180 0.
As the AC supply frequency is 50Hz, it has the time period of
20ms, i.e. for positive half cycle time period is 10ms. The ADC of
ATmega32 is of 10-bit resolution, thereby, the maximum value
from the ADC with +5 volts reference will be 1023, for which
10ms delay is required. The ADC reading is converted into a
delay after which firing pulse is to be generated. Connection
among ADC reading and firing angle delay is shown in equation
below.
If Y is output of ADC and d is delay in milliseconds, then,
d = (Y*10/1023)
Here, For ADC count = 1023, the delay d will be 10
milliseconds, which is nothing but time period of half positive
cycle, as mentioned above. MCU generates firing pulses on its
output port with on-time of 100 microseconds.
Trigger pulse is outputted, when there is zero crossing of AC
mains. When user input analog voltage is raised up to 2.5 V, ADC
output will be 512 and delay will be 5ms, triggering pulse is
generated with the firing angle of 900.

7 Isolation circuits

The triggering pulse generated at the port A of AT mega 32


is 4.8V. This pulse is provided to the Pulse Transformer, as the
input signal. we can also
provide electrical isolation between an input source and an

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output load using just light by using a very common and valuable
electronic component called an opto-coupler. Pluse transformer
can also be used for isolation. An optocoupler, also known as an
opto-isolator or photo coupler, is an electronic component that
interconnects two separate electrical circuits by means of a light
sensitive optical interface.To protect the triggering circuit from
high voltage converter circuit isolation is necessary. So opto-
coupler is used here to isolate the triggering circuit from the
converter circuit.
6. HARDWARES

Parts list:

1. R Based Trigger Circuit

Pot - (470k ) 1
Diode - (1N4007) 2
Resistor - (1k ) 1
Resistor - (3.9k ) 1

2. RC Based Trigger Circuit

Pot - (470k ) 1
Diode - (1N4007) 2
Disc Capacitor - (100nF) 1
Resistor - (3.9k ) 1

3. UJT Based Trigger Circuit

Resistor - (3.9k ) 1
Resistor - (10 ) 1
Resistor - (1 ) 1
Disc Capacitor - (100uF) 1
Electrolytic Capacitor - (100uF) 2
Pot - (470k ) 1
Diode - (1N4007) 4
IC 7812 1
UJT - (2N2646) 1
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Transformer - (220/18) 1
Pulse Transformer - (1:1) 1

4. Micro Controller based Trigger Circuit:

Resistor (470 2
Resistor (3.9k ) 1
Resistor (10k ) 1
Opto coupler (DP 817B) 2
Electrolytic Capacitor (100uF) 2
Pot (470k ) 1
Diode (1N4007) 2
IC 7805 1
Transformer - (9-0-9) 1
Pulse Transformer - (1:1) 1
Micro Controller ( AT Mega 32) 1
LCD - (16x2) 1
LED 1

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AT Mega 32 Microcontroller

Features

High-performance, Low-power AtmelAVR 8-bit


Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
131 Powerful Instructions Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
32 8 General Purpose Working Registers
Fully Static Operation
Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz
On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
32Kbytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program
memory
1024Bytes EEPROM
2Kbytes Internal SRAM
Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
Data retention: 20 years at 85C/100 years at 25C(1)
Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
Programming Lock for Software Security
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
Extensive On-chip Debug Support
Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through
the JTAG Interface
Peripheral Features
Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare
Modes
One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare
Mode, and Capture Mode
Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
Four PWM Channels
8-channel, 10-bit ADC
8 Single-ended Channels
7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only

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2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x,
or 200x
Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
Programmable Serial USART
Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
On-chip Analog Comparator
Special Microcontroller Features
Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
External and Internal Interrupt Sources
Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-
down, Standby and Extended Standby
I/O and Packages
32 Programmable I/O Lines
40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, and 44-pad QFN/MLF
Operating Voltages
2.7V - 5.5V for ATmega32L
4.5V - 5.5V for ATmega32
Speed Grades
0 - 8MHz for ATmega32L
0 - 16MHz for ATmega32
Power Consumption at 1MHz, 3V, 25C
Active: 1.1mA
Idle Mode: 0.35mA
Power-down Mode: < 1A

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Pin Configurations

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Pin Descriptions

VCC- Digital supply voltage.

GND- Ground.

Port A (PA7..PA0)- Port A serves as the analog inputs to


the A/D Converter. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-
directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins
can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).
The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive
characteristics with both high sink and source capability.
When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally
pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not
running.

Port B (PB7..PB0)- Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port


with internal pull up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-
up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when
a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not
running.

Port C (PC7..PC0)- Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port


with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-
up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated
when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is
not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up
resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be
activated even if a reset occurs. The TD0 pin is tri-stated

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unless TAP states that shift out data are entered. Port C also
serves the functions of the JTAG interface.

Port D (PD7..PD0)- Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port


with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-
up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated
when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is
not running.

RESET- Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than
the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the
clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to
generate a reset.

XTAL1- Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input


to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2- Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.

AVCC- AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D
Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if
the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be
connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.

AREF- AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D


Converter.

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7. SOFTWARES:

Proteus:
This software is used for circuit simulation purpose. Before
real time
implementing the circuit, we create it on Proteus and then check
whether it
will correctly or not. This is similar to any other circuit simulator.
In this we
place all the circuit components in the model file and then
connect them
according to the circuit requirements then the by double clicking
on the
microprocessor we embed the HEX file generated by the ATMEL
STUDIO.
Now we run the simulator and check whether the circuit is
working as per
the requirements or not. If it is not working as we have desired
then we need
to check the circuit and make corrections otherwise we ready to
go to the
next step.

General features:
a. Support for both interactive and graph based simulation.
b. CPU Models available for popular microcontrollers such as the
PIC, 8051 and AT Mega series.
c. Interactive peripheral models include LED and LCD displays, a
universal matrix keypad, an RS232 terminal and a whole library
of switches, pots, lamps, LEDs etc.
d. Virtual Instruments include voltmeters, ammeters, a dual beam
oscilloscope and a 24 channel logic analyzer.
e. On-screen graphing - the graphs are placed directly on the
schematic just like any other object. Graphs can be maximized
to a full screen mode for cursor based measurement and so
forth.
f. Graph Based Analysis types include transient, frequency, noise,
distortion, AC and DC sweeps and fourier transform. An Audio
graph allows playback of simulated waveforms.
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g. Direct support for analogue component models in SPICE format.
h. Open architecture for plug in component models coded in C+
+ or other languages. These can be electrical., graphical or a
combination of the two.
i. Digital simulator includes a BASIC-like programming language
for modelling and test vector generation.
j. A design created for simulation can also be used to generate a
netlist for creating a PCB
i. there is no need to enter the design a second time.

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1. R Triggering :

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2. RC Triggering:

31
3. UJT Trigger:

32
4. Triggering using AT Mega 32 :

33
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Diptrace
This software has been used for PCB designing. PCB Layout
is a high-level engineering tool for board design featuring smart
manual routing with differential pair support, shape-based auto
router, advanced verification, and wide import/export capabilities.
Design requirements are defined by net classes, class-to-class
rules, and detailed settings by object types for each class or layer.
Dip Trace features design process with real-time DRC, which
reports errors on the fly before actually making them. The board
can be previewed in 3D and exported for mechanical CAD
modeling. Design Rule Check with in-depth detailing, Net
Connectivity verification, and comparing to source schematic
ensure maximum quality of the final product.

In this software we search components by their package


name and then by double clicking on any component we sets its
configuration parameters. After adding all components in a model
file we connect these by wiring as in our main circuit diagram and
then auto routing button is clicked then manual routing is done if
there are any sharp edges. After that print out of circuit is taken.
Which is used in fabrication of the PCB.

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Atmel AVR Studio

As we know Microprocessor only understands the HEX codes. But


the HEX codes are very hard to remember. So we use Embedded
C
programming which is relatively simple to understand, learn and
use. This
programming is done by using this software. ATMEL STUDIO 6.1
converts
the written code in HEX code. First we write the whole code which
has to be
used and then run the debug button which identifies if there are
any errors in
the code and then we click build button which converts the code
in HEX
code.
For this purpose we need to select the board after clicking
new file
option and then select executable c file. In this file we write code.
It contains
some header files for the selected board. We can also create our
own HEX
files if necessary. The interface is very simple and language is
similar to C programming language.

Pro-ISP:

ISP stands for In System Programmer. To burn a micro


controller
just the burning Hardware is not enough, it requires software also
that would
download the program present in a computer or memory device
into the micro controller.
Now PONY PROGRAMMER 2.06. is explained which was used
for burn purpose. My circuit is adapted from the website of Pony
Programmer. It uses PC COM PORT to download the program into

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the micro controller. It has a signal amplitude of +5 to +12 volt
representing binary 1 and -5 to -12 representing 0. The micro
controller, ATmega32 is programmed using the pins meant for SPI
communication. To enable programming, the microcontroller must
be taken to the RESET state by pulling its reset pin LOW (Logic 0,
or say 0 V). In this state, microcontroller is programmable in
either mode (Parallel programming or serial programming).
Micro controller always accepts 0 V as logic 0and +5 V as
logic one. The signals transmitted from PC is not in a form that
could be accepted directly by the micro controller. Those signals
from PC should be made suitable for micro controller. In the
programmer, Zener diodes provide necessary conditioning for the
signals. It is wired in such a way that it converts 12 volt signal to
+5 0 volt signal which is suitable for the micro controller. A
resistance is necessary to limit the current in the nodes of Zener
diodes, without which the Zener diode may burn off. And
computer internal circuits may also receive harms.
A high signal (+5V) in the Reset pin of micro controller
brings it into operational state. A low signal (Ground) drives it into
programming mode. Internal pull up resistors are provided at the
reset pins and if nothing is connected to this pin, the micro
controller tries to execute the program written within it. Designers
can provide a resistance capacitance reset circuit, but its not
always necessary. Whatever, a push button is used in most cases
to provide reset facility. Here in the burner circuit an open
collector output is provided to the reset pin and it is driven by the
programmer through the port. This much is enough. The
necessary data transmission and reception work portion is
handled by the pony programmer. Follow the links provided to
download pony programmer. The following burner circuit can burn
ATmega32microcontroller. Connect the derived signals to the
adjacent pins, attach the cable to com port, power up the device
i.e. micro controller, and the micro controller is ready to be
programmed.

Program:

#include <avr/io.h>//header to enable data flow control over pins


#include <util/delay.h> //header to enable delay function in

37
program
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>//header to enable interrupt service

#define F_CPU 8000000


#define EN PB6
#define RS PB7

volatile uint16_t ADCValue;

void send_a_command(unsigned char command);


void send_a_character(unsigned char character);
void send_a_string(char *string_of_characters);

//program for interrupt

ISR(INT0_vect)
{
int i;
int t = (int) (ADCValue*10/1023); // Relation between delay time
and ADC value
for(i=1;i<=t;i++)
{
_delay_ms(1); //Set delay
}
PORTB |= (1<<1); //Set PB1 high
_delay_us(100); //Width of the triggering pulse
PORTB &= ~(1<<1); //Set PB1 low
}

int main(void)
{

float angle = 0;
char showangle [5];
float adc_value;

_delay_ms(5000);

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DDRB = 0xFF; //PORTD is set as output
DDRC = 0xFF; //PORTC is set as output
DDRA = 0; //PORTA is set as input
DDRD = 0; //PORTD is set as input
DDRD &= ~(1<<PD2); //PD2(INT0 Pin) is now an input
PORTD |= (1<<PD2); //INT0 Pin is now an input with pull-
up enabled
GIFR |= (1<<INT0); //Enable INT0
GIMSK |= 1<<INT0; //Enable INT0 external interrupt
MCUCR |= (1<<ISC01); //Trigger INT0 on falling edge
MCUCR &= ~(1<<ISC00); //Trigger INT0 on falling edge
sei(); //Enable Global Interrupt

ADMUX = 0x02; //Use ADC2


ADMUX |= (1<<REFS0); //Use AVcc as the reference
ADMUX &= ~(1<<REFS1);
ADMUX &= ~(1 << ADLAR); //Right adjust for 8 bit resolution
ADCSRA |= (1 << ADATE); //for ATMega32 Set ADC Auto
Trigger Enable
ADCSRA |= (1<<ADPS2)|(1<<ADPS1)|(1<<ADPS0); //128
prescale for 8Mhz
ADCSRA |= (1 << ADEN);//Enable the ADC

send_a_command(0x01);
_delay_ms(1);
send_a_command(0x38);
_delay_ms(1);
send_a_command(0b00001111);
_delay_ms(1);

send_a_string ("FIRING ANGLE"); //Print Firing Angle on lcd


send_a_command(0x80 + 0x40 + 0);
send_a_string ("DEGREE ="); //Print Degree on lcd
send_a_command(0x80 + 0x40 + 8);

while(1)
{
ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC); //Start the ADC conversion
adc_value = ADCW; //store ADC value
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ADCValue=(int) adc_value;

angle = adc_value*180/1023 ; //Relation between ADC Value and


Firing Angle
dtostrf(angle, 3, 0, showangle); //convert firing angle from
digit to string
send_a_string(showangle); //print firing angle on lcd
_delay_ms(10);
send_a_command(0x80 + 0x40 + 8);
}
return 0;
}

//program for lcd

void send_a_command(unsigned char command)


{
PORTC = command;
PORTB &= ~(1<<RS);
PORTB |= 1<<EN;
_delay_ms(10);
PORTB &= ~(1<<EN);
PORTC = 0;
}

void send_a_character(unsigned char character)


{
PORTC = character;
PORTB |= 1<<RS;
PORTB |= 1<<EN;
_delay_ms(10);
PORTB &= ~(1<<EN);
PORTC = 0;
}

void send_a_string(char *string_of_characters)


{
while(*string_of_characters > 0)
{

40
send_a_character(*string_of_characters++);
}
}

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