You are on page 1of 14

Designation: D121 09a

Standard Terminology of
Coal and Coke1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D121; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope D3172 Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke


1.1 This terminology defines the technical terms used in D3173 Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of
standards that are the responsibility of Committee D05 on Coal Coal and Coke
and Coke. The terms are used in: D3174 Test Method for Ash in the Analysis Sample of Coal
1.1.1 The sampling of coal and coke under conditions and Coke from Coal
required for most commercial and technical purposes related to D3175 Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis
coal and coke. Sample of Coal and Coke
1.1.2 Bias and related statistical testing, D3176 Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke
1.1.3 The description of coal, both visually in the field and D3180 Practice for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses
microscopically in the laboratory, from As-Determined to Different Bases
1.1.4 Chemical and physical analyses of coal and coke, D3302 Test Method for Total Moisture in Coal
1.1.5 Classification of coal, and D4371 Test Method for Determining the Washability Char-
1.1.6 Certain other related practices and guides applicable acteristics of Coal
to the coal and coke industries. D4596 Practice for Collection of Channel Samples of Coal
in a Mine
2. Referenced Documents D4749 Test Method for Performing the Sieve Analysis of
2.1 ASTM Standards:2 Coal and Designating Coal Size
D388 Classification of Coals by Rank D4916 Practice for Mechanical Auger Sampling (Withdrawn
D720 Test Method for Free-Swelling Index of Coal 2008)3
D1412 Test Method for Equilibrium Moisture of Coal at 96 D5061 Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the
to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30C Textural Components of Metallurgical Coke
D1857 Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash D5114 Test Method for Laboratory Froth Flotation of Coal
D2013 Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Analysis in a Mechanical Cell
D2234/D2234M Practice for Collection of a Gross Sample D5192 Practice for Collection of Coal Samples from Core
of Coal D5263 Test Method for Determining the Relative Degree of
D2361 Test Method for Chlorine in Coal (Withdrawn 2008)3 Oxidation in Bituminous Coal by Alkali Extraction
D2795 Test Methods for Analysis of Coal and Coke Ash D5515 Test Method for Determination of the Swelling
(Withdrawn 2001)3 Properties of Bituminous Coal Using a Dilatometer
D2798 Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the D5865 Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and
Vitrinite Reflectance of Coal Coke
D2961 Test Method for Single-Stage Total Moisture Less D6316 Test Method for Determination of Total, Combustible
than 15 % in Coal Reduced to 2.36-mm (No. 8 Sieve) and Carbonate Carbon in Solid Residues from Coal and
Topsize Coke
1
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D05 on Coal 3. Terminology
and Coke and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D05.24 on Quality
Assurance. air-dried moisturethis term has been used inappropriately to
Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2009. Published October 2009. Originally
approved in 1921. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as D121 09. DOI: refer to both residual moisture and air-dry loss. Because of
10.1520/D0121-09A. the potential for confusion, this term shall not be used.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM air drying, na process of partial drying of coal to bring its
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on moisture near to equilibrium with the atmosphere in the
the ASTM website.
3
The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on room in which further reduction and division of the sample
www.astm.org. will take place. D2013; D2234/D2234M

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States
Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
1
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
air-dry loss, n in coal, the loss in mass, expressed as a bed moisturesynonym for inherent moisture.
percentage, resulting from each air-drying stage or the sum
of all sequential air-drying stages in which the results from beehive cokeSee beehive coke under coke.
each stage are adjusted to the as-received basis. binder phase, n as used in Test Method D5061, a continuous
DISCUSSIONAir-dry loss is neither a standard state nor a character- solid carbon matrix formed during the thermoplastic defor-
isetic property of a coal. Air drying only removes water that can mation of those coal macerals that become plastic during
evaporate at or near ambient laboratory conditions, leaving in the coal carbonization.
some fraction of the inherent moisture that is more tightly bound in the DISCUSSIONThe binder phase material is formed from the thermo-
pores (residual moisture). Different laboratory environments or differ- plastic deformation of reactive (vitrinite and liptinite) and semi-inert
ent drying temperatures or both will result in significant differences in (semifusinite) coal macerals of metallurgical bituminous coals. During
air-dry loss and residual moisture. D3302 thermoplasticity, the inert coal maceral and mineral are partly or wholly
incorporated into the binder phase. Also, most of the coke pores are
agglomerating, adjas applied to coal, the property of located in the binder phase. D5061
softening when it is heated to above about 400C in a
nonoxidizing atmosphere, and then appearing as a coherent bituminous classSee bituminous class under rank.
mass after cooling to room temperature. boghead coalSee boghead coal under coal.
alginiteSee alginite under maceral. bone coalSee bone coal under coal.
analysis sampleSee analysis sample under sample. borehole, nthe circular hole through soil and rock strata
angle of repose, nthe greatest angle, measured from made by boring.
horizontal, attained by a coal so that material on the sides of bottomsize, nominal for the purpose of Test Method D4749,
top of the inverted cone or trench created in car top sampling the sieve designating the lower limit or bottomsize shall be
remains stable, that is, will not shift or slide. Coal size and that sieve of the series given in the Standard Series of Sieves
moisture content are contributing factors to this angle. In all section with the largest openings through which passes a
cases, the coal shall be dug so that the physical angle is less total of less than 15 % of the sample. This defined bottom-
than the angle of repose. size is not to be confused with the size of the smallest
anisotropic, adjas used in Test Method D5061, exhibiting particles in the lot.
optical properties of different values when viewed with an DISCUSSION(WarningIn the case of a commercial, double-
screened product, for example, 37.5 by 9.5 mm (112 by 38 in.), this
optical microscope having mutually exclusive polarized designation may not be valid. In such commercial or contractual
light, for example, crossed nicols. D5061 situations, the amount of allowable material smaller than the bottom-
size (for example, 9.5 mm) must be specified by the contract under
anthraciteSee anthracite under rank.
which the coal is bought and solid.) D4749
anthracitic classSee anthracitic class under rank.
apparent rank, nof coal, the rank designation obtained on briquette, na cylindrical block composed of granulated coal
samples other than channel samples, but otherwise conform- or coke particles compressed and embedded with an epoxy
ing to procedures of Classification D388. binder.
as-analyzed moisturesynonym for as-determined moisture. by-product cokeSee by-product coke under coke.
as-determined basisSee as-determined basis under report- C test, na standard statistical test for homogeneity of
ing bases. variance.
ash, ninorganic residue remaining after ignition of combus- calorific value, nthe heat of combustion of a unit quantity of
tible substances, determined by definite prescribed methods. a substance.
DISCUSSIONAsh need not be identical, in composition or quantity, DISCUSSIONIt is expressed in ASTM test methods in British thermal
with the inorganic substances present in the material before ignition. units per pound (Btu/lb). Calorific value can also be expressed in
In the case of coal and coke, the methods used shall be those calories per gram (cal/g) or in the International System of Units, joules
prescribed in Test Method D3174.
per gram (J/g), when required. D5865
as-mined coalfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, same
calorimeter, n as used in Test Method D5865, the bomb and
as run-of-mine (ROM) coal. D4749
its contents, the calorimeter vessel with stirrer, the water in
as-received basisSee as-received basis under reporting which the bomb is immersed, and the portions of the
bases. D3180 thermometer and the ignition leads within the calorimeter
as-shipped or produced coalfor the purpose of Test Method vessel. D5865
D4749, raw or prepared coal in any state or condition at
calorimeter jacket, nthe insulating medium surrounding the
which it leaves the mine property or loading facility. D4749
calorimeter.
attrital coalSee attrital coal under coal.
cannel coalSee cannel coal under coal.
auger increment, nthe retained portion of one extraction
operation of the auger. D4916 carbonate carbon, nthe carbon content present in the solid
products derived from the combustion or reaction of coal,
banded coalSee banded coal under coal. coal by-products, or coke as carbonates and which is
basisSee reporting bases. noncombustible in standard industry practice. D6316

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
2
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
carbon form, n as used in Test Method D5061, microscopi- attrital coal, nthe ground mass or matrix of banded coal in
cally distinguishable carbonaceous textural components of which vitrain and, commonly, fusain layers as well, are
coke, but excluding mineral carbonates. embedded or enclosed.
DISCUSSIONCarbon forms are recognized on the basis of their DISCUSSIONLayers in banded coal, often referred to as bands, are
reflectance, anisotropy, and morphology. They are derived from the commonly 1 to 30 mm thick. Attrital coal in banded coal is highly
organic portion of coal and can be anisotropic or isotropic. D5061 varied in composition and appearance, its luster varying from a
brilliance nearly equal to that of the associated vitrain to nearly as dull
caves or washouts, nzones of increased hole diameter as fusain; it exhibits striated, granulose, or rough texture. In a few
caused by rock fragments that fall from the walls of a cases, relatively thick layers of such attrital coal are found that contain
no interbedded vitrain. Nonbanded coal also is attrital coal but is not
borehole and can block the hole or contaminate the cuttings usually referred to as such. In contrast to the coarser and more variable
and which erode or abrade the sidewall of the borehole by texture of attrital coal in banded coal, nonbanded coal is notably
the action of the drilling. These zones can affect the accuracy uniform and fine in texture, being derived from size-sorted plant debris.
of certain geophysical logs (especially density). Corrections The luster of attrital coal, which ranges from bright (but less than that
to other geophysical logs can be made if a caliper log is of associated vitrain) to dull, is commonly used to describe and
available. The most common causes of caves or washouts characterize attrital coal. As an alternative, some petrographers subdi-
vide attrital coal into clarain and durain. Clarain has bright luster and
include soft or fractured lithologies, the presence of water- silky texture, being finely striated parallel to the coal bedding. Durain
producing zones, and the downhole pressure of the drilling has dull luster and sometimes is referred to as dull coal. Similarly, coal
medium (fluid or air) that often causes differential erosion of consisting of vitrain or clarain or a mixture of the two is sometimes
various strata within the borehole. referred to as bright coal.
fusain, ncoal layers composed of chips and other frag-
chance error, nerror that has equal probability of being
ments in which the original form of plant tissue structure is
positive or negative. The mean of the chance errors resulting
preserved; commonly has fibrous texture with a very dull
from a series of observations tends toward zero as the
luster.
number of observations approaches infinity.
DISCUSSIONFusain is very friable and resembles charcoal.
circular anisotropic phase, nas used in Test Method D5061, Commonly, it is concentrated in bedding layers or lenses that form
planes of weakness in coal and thus is often exposed on bedding
a group of binder-phase anisotropic carbon textures that are surfaces of broken coal. The many pores (cell cavities and cracks) of
distinguished by approximately circular domains (that is fusain are sometimes filled with mineral matter.
length equals width) and composed of fine circular (0.5- to
vitrain, nshiny black bands, thicker than 0.5 mm, of
1.0-m), medium circular (1.0- to 1.5-m), and coarse
subbituminous and higher rank banded coal.
circular (1.5- to 2.0-m) size categories. D5061 DISCUSSIONVitrain, attributed to the coalification of relatively large
fragments of wood and bark, may range up to about 30 mm (approxi-
cleat, nthe joint system of coal seams, usually oriented
mately 1 in.) thick in eastern North American coals, but may be much
normal or nearly normal to the bedding. thicker in the younger western deposits. Vitrain is commonly traversed
DISCUSSIONCleat is most commonly found in bituminous coal, by many fine cracks oriented normal to the banding.
being most prominently developed in vitrain bands and bright layers. In lignite, the remains of woody material lack the shiny luster of
Some cleat, especially the more widely separated joints, extend through vitrain in the higher rank coals and may instead be called previtrain. It
all or a large part of the seam. Cleat surfaces are commonly coated with is differentiated from attrital bands of lignite by its smoother texture,
minerals such as calcite, kaolinite, and pyrite. often showing the grain of wood. Previtrain may be several inches
thick.
coal, na brown to black combustible sedimentary rock (in the
nonbanded coal, nconsistently fine-granular coal essen-
geological sense) composed principally of consolidated and
tially devoid of megascopic layers.
chemically altered plant remains.
DISCUSSIONNonbanded coal may be interbedded with common
DISCUSSIONConditions required for formation of coal are believed banded coal, or form a discrete layer at the top or at the bottom of the
to include accumulation of plant remains and their partial decomposi- seam, or may compose the entire seam. It is formed from natural
tion under moist conditions, followed by sedimentary burial and accumulations of finely comminuted plant detritus and commonly
subjection to increased pressure and temperature according to the includes a significant amount and variety of remains of pollen grains,
geological history of the seam. Coals exhibit a wide range of properties spores, planktonic algae, wax and resin granules, as well as other
as a result of differences in the kinds and relative amounts of different fragments of plants. These materials, containing markedly higher
plant materials and intermixed mineral matter, the amount of alteration amounts of volatile matter than vitrain and some other attrital
of the plant remains achieved before burial, and especially the degree components, are more abundant in this variety of coal than they are in
of physical and chemical alteration after burial. See Classification D388 common types of banded coal. Also, nonbanded coal may contain more
for classification of coal in accordance with its degree of alteration or disseminated detrital mineral matter, chiefly clay, than associated
rank. The moisture content and the kind, amount, and mode of banded coals, and in the field it may be difficult to distinguish from
occurrence of mineral matter also vary greatly. bone coal. Nonbanded coal is much less common than banded coal in
North America.
lithotype, n any of the constituents of banded coal: vitrain,
fusain, clarain, durain, or attrital coal or a specific mixture of cannel coal, nnonbanded coal in which the liptinite is
two or more of these. predominantly sporinite.
DISCUSSIONTransitions between cannel and boghead, that is, coals
banded coal, ncoal that is visibly heterogeneous in containing both types of liptinite, are also known. Microscopic exami-
composition, being composed of layers of vitrain and attrital nation is essential for differentiation of the two kinds of nonbanded coal
coal, and, commonly, fusain. and their transitions.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
3
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
boghead coal, nnonbanded coal in which the liptinite (the DISCUSSIONCoke pores are considered to be nearly spherical-
waxy component) is predominantly alginite. shaped voids created by the entrapment of gaseous volatiles during the
solidification of thermoplastic coal. However, other types of voids can
impure coal, ncoal having 25 weight % or more, but less be distinguished in coke that include fractures or cracks, interconnected
than 50 weight %, of ash on the dry basis. and elongated pores, and the open cell lumens of fusinite and
DISCUSSIONBone coal with more than 50 weight % ash is properly semifusinite. The size and shape of the voids are coal rank and grade,
called coaly or carbonaceous shale or siltstone. Types of impure coal and to some degree, process dependent. Pore sizes vary from tens of
other than bone coal and mineralized coal sometimes occur, for angstroms to tens of millimetres in any given coke. D5061
example, sandy coal.
bone coal, nimpure coal that contains much clay or other coke reactivity, nas used in Test Method D5061, a measure
fine-grained detrital mineral matter. of the mass loss when coke, held at a designated
temperature, is contacted with gaseous carbon dioxide over
mineralized coal, nimpure coal that is heavily impregnated
a specific time interval. D5061
with mineral matter, either dispersed or discretely localized
along cleat joints or other fissures. Pyritic or calcareous coke wall, nas used in Test Method D5061, a predominantly
mineralized coal is most common. carbonaceous layer that encloses a coke pore and which is a
coal seam, nthe stratum, layer, or bed of coal that lies structural element and essence of coke. D5061
between two other rock layers whose compositions differ collector, na reagent used in froth flotation to promote
significantly from that of coal. contact and adhesion between particles and air bubbles.
coal washability, nthe determination of the theoretical limits D5114
for the removal of mineral impurities from coal by benefi- combustible carbon, ncarbon content remaining in the solid
ciation processes that rely on specific gravity separations. products derived from the combustion or reaction of coal,
D4371 coal by-products, or coke, exclusive of carbonate in any
coarse coal, nthat portion of a coal sample being subjected form. D6316
to a washability study that is larger than a specific predeter-
mined particle size, generally between 2.36 mm (No. 8 USA combustibles, nthe value obtained by subtracting the dry
Standard Sieve Series) and 9.5 mm (38 in.) round in diameter. weight (in percent) of the ash (as determined in Test Method
DISCUSSIONThis same particle size breakpoint should then be used D3174) from 100 % representing original weight of ana-
in subsequent washability studies of the same material sampled from lyzed sample. D5114
the same location for the same application. This breakpoint is deter-
mined by the analyst or the person designing the test procedure as the concentrate, nthe froth product recovered in coal froth
point that best suits the application. This coarse-coal fraction may be flotation. D5114
further sieved (generally by dry sieving) to produce additional size
fractions, each of which may be processed through the desired specific concretion, nin a geological sense, a mass of mineral matter
gravity solutions. D4371 found in rock of a composition different from its own and
produced by deposition from aqueous solution in the rock.
cokea carbonaceous solid produced from coal, petroleum, or
other materials by thermal decomposition with passage conditioning agents, nall chemicals that enhance the perfor-
through a plastic state. mance of the collectors or frothers. Conditioning agents
beehive coke, ncoke manufactured in beehive, rectangular, change the characteristics of the surface of the minerals or
or similar forms of ovens in a horizontal bed, where heat for the environment. There are many subgroups according to
the coking process is secured by combustion within the oven their function: activators, depressants, emulsifiers,
chamber. dispersants, flocculants, chelating reagents, froth
by-product coke, ncoke manufactured with attendant re- depressants, pH modifiers, etc. D5114
covery of by-products, in ovens that are heated externally. core, nin drilling, a cylindrical section of rock (coal) that is
coke breeze, nthe fine screenings from crushed coke or usually 5 to 10 cm in diameter, taken as part of the interval
from coke as taken from the ovens, of a size varied in local penetrated by a core bit and brought to the surface for
practice but usually passing a 12.7-mm (12-in.) or 19.0-mm geologic examination, representative sampling and labora-
(34-in.) screen opening. tory analyses.
dry coke, na laboratory term applied to coke that has been
core barrels, ntwo nested tubes above the bit of a core drill,
dried to constant weight in accordance with definite prescribed
the outer rotating with the bit, the inner receiving and
methods.
preserving a continuous section or core of the material
DISCUSSIONThe methods used shall be those for the determination
of moisture prescribed in Test Method D3302. In the case of lump coke, penetrated. The following two types of inner barrels are
the temperature shall be not less than 104C nor more than 200C; in commonly used.
the case of coke passing a 250-m (No. 60) sieve, the temperature shall split-tube barrel, na type of inner barrel consisting of two
be not less than 104C nor more than 110C for a period of 1 h.
longitudinal halves of pipe bound together by reinforced tape at
coke pore, nas used in Test Method D5061, a microscopi- intervals along the barrel length that allows easy access to a
cally distinguishable void that is a structural element of relatively intact core (by cutting the tape). (This is the preferred
coke. D5061 barrel type for coal exploration, where available.)

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
4
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
solid-tube barrel, na type of inner barrel consisting of a calorimeter an arbitrary unit. This is the quantity that, when
single solid-walled length of pipe in which removal of the core multiplied by the corrected temperature rise, then adjusted
is accomplished by mechanical or hydraulic pressure at one for extraneous heat effects, and divided by the weight of the
end of the pipe thus extruding the core onto a core tray. (The sample, gives the gross calorific value.
core is likely to be less intact than when a split-tube barrel is DISCUSSIONEnergy units for quantities listed throughout this test
used.) method are such that the number of energy units per gram of sample
corresponds exactly to the number of British thermal units per pound of
core sample, nthat part of a core of rock or coal obtained so sample. For brevity, these are referred to as British thermal units. The
as to represent accurately a thickness of a unit penetrating by actual energies are smaller than those stated by the ratio of the number
drilling. D5192 of pounds per gram (1/453.59). The energy equivalent of the calorim-
eter has the units (British thermal units per pound) times (grams per
corrected temperature rise, nthe temperature of the degree). Time is expressed in minutes. Mass is expressed in grams.
calorimeter, caused by the process that occurs inside the D5865
bomb; that is, the observed temperature change corrected for equilibrium, ncondition reached in air drying in which
various effects. change in weight of the sample, under conditions of ambient
DISCUSSIONTemperature is measured in either degrees Celsius or
degrees Fahrenheit. Thermometer corrections should be applied. Tem-
temperature and humidity, is no more than 0.1 %/h or
peratures may be recorded in ohms or other arbitrary units instead of 0.05 %/12 h. D3302
degrees. Consistent units must be used in standardization and the actual equilibrium moisture basisSee equilibrium moisture basis
calorific value determination. If arbitrary units other than degrees
under reporting bases.
Celsius or Fahrenheit are used, the temperature interval over which all
tests are made must not vary so much that an error greater than 0.001C errordifference of an observation from the best obtainable
would be caused. D5865 estimate of the true value. D2234/D2234M; D4916
excess moisturesynonym for surface moisture.
cutiniteSee cutinite under maceral.
depositional carbon, nas used in Test Method D5061, a exiniteSee exinite under maceral.
group of carbon forms that are formed from cracking and extraneous moisturesynonym for surface moisture.
nucleation of gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules during coal filler phase, n as used in Test Method D5061, a discontinu-
carbonization. D5061 ous solid formed from coal macerals and minerals that do not
pyrolytic carbon, nas used in Test Method D5061, an deform thermoplastically during carbonization. D5061
anisotropic carbon form that is formed by the deposition of DISCUSSIONThe filler phase material is formed from coal macerals
carbon parallel to an inert substrate causing the resulting that are inert with respect to development of thermoplasticity
texture to appear ribbon-like. D5061 (inertinite), the inorganic components of coal (minerals), as well as
normally reactive coal entities that are noncoking or have been
sooty carbon, nas used in Test Method D5061, an isotropic rendered inert by thermal oxidation, natural weathering, or brecciation.
carbon form comprised of approximately spherical particles of These inert materials possess their original morphologies, but their
less than 1-m diameter sometimes referred to as combustion reflectance and chemical properties have been altered prior to or during
black. D5061 carbonization. D5061
spherulitic carbon, nas used in Test Method D5061, a fine coal, nthat portion of a coal sample being subject to a
spherical anisotropic carbon form sometimes referred to as washability study that is smaller than the predetermined
thermal black that is formed by the deposition of carbon particle size, generally between 2.36 mm (No. 8 USA Standard
concentrically around a nucleus. D5061 Sieve Series) and 9.5 mm (38 in.) round in diameter, which is
specified in Test Method D4371.
divided sampleSee divided sample under sample. DISCUSSIONThis same particle size breakpoint should then be used
domain, nas used in Test Method D5061, a region of in subsequent washability studies of the same material samples from
anisotropy in a carbon form that is distinctively marked by the same location for the same application. This breakpoint is deter-
its isochromatic boundary and cleavage. D5061 mined by the analyst or the person designing the test procedure as the
point that best suits the application. This fine-coal fraction may be
dry, ash-free basisSee dry, ash-free basis under reporting further sieved (generally by wet sieving) to produce additional size
bases. fractions, each of which is processed through the desired specific
dry basisSee dry basis under reporting bases. gravity solutions. D4371
dry cokeSee dry coke under coke. fixed carbon, n in the case of coal, coke, and bituminous
dry sievingfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, the test materials, the solid residue other than ash, obtained by
method for the sieving of coal after the sample has been destructive distillation, determined by definite prescribed
airdried under prescribed conditions; this is generally used methods.
when testing with coal particles larger than 600 m (No. 30 DISCUSSIONIt is made up principally of carbon but may contain
U.S.A. Standard Sieve Series.) D4749 appreciable amounts of sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.
In the case of coal and coke, the methods used shall be those
easily oxidized coals, nlow rank coals such as subbitumi- prescribed in Test Method D3172.
nous or lignitic coals. D3302
float/sink, na reference to the physical action that particles
energy equivalent, heat capacity, or water equivalent, undergo when immersed in a liquid of a predetermined
nthe energy required to raise the temperature of the specific gravity.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
5
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
DISCUSSIONA series of float/sink tests is considered as being lithologies within the borehole. Due to the distinctly low
synonymous with a washability analysis. A float fraction or float density of coals, the density log is essential in coal exploration
material is the material or the specific gravity fraction that floats in a for identifying coal seams and coal-seam partings. The bias/
certain solution of specific gravity liquids. A sink fraction or sink
material is the material or the specific gravity fraction that sinks in a
resolution of density logs can be affected by source-detector
certain solution of specific gravity liquids. D4371 spacing (closer spacing increases resolution), borehole size,
and irregularities (see caves or washouts), and the presence of
floor, nthe rock material immediately underlying a coal bed. casing and logging speed.
flotation cell, nthe vessel or compartment in which the natural gamma-ray log, na record of the natural radioac-
flotation test is performed. D5114 tivity of the lithologies encountered in the borehole environ-
ment. During recording of geophysical logs, the amount of
fluid temperature (FT), nin reference to the fusibility of natural radiation is recorded and presented in either counts per
coal and coke ash according to Test Method D1857, the second (CPS) or American Petroleum Institute (API) units.
temperature at which the fused mass has spread out in a Unlike many other log types, a representative natural gamma
nearly flat layer with a maximum height of 1.6 mm (116 in.). log can be obtained where borehole or fluid conditions, or both,
D1857 are not optimal or where casing is present. The natural gamma
free impurity, nthe impurities in a coal that exist as log is most often used in the coal environment for identifying
individual discrete particles that are not a structural part of clastic lithologies and differentiating coal seams and coal-seam
the coal and that can be separated from it by coal preparation partings.
methods. D2234/D2234M resistivity log, na measure of the voltage differential of
free moisturesynonym for surface moisture. strata along the walls of a borehole when electrical current is
passed through the strata. The resistivity log requires a fluid-
froth, na collection of bubbles and particles on the surface of filled hole to provide a conductive medium constantly between
a pulp in a froth flotation cell. D5114 electrodes on the tool. The spacing between the electrodes
determines the precision of the bed boundary relationships in
froth flotation, na process for cleaning fine coal in which
much the same manner as with the density log. The resistivity
hydrophobic particles, generally coal, attach to air bubbles in
log is useful primarily in conjunction with other log types. The
a water medium and rise to the surface to form a froth. The
logs are affected by casing, logging speed, electrode spacing,
hydrophilic particles, generally the ash-forming matter, re-
formation porosity, and resistivity changes in the borehole
main in the water phase. D5114
fluid. D5192
frother, na reagent used in froth flotation to control the size
grade/recovery, nthe relationship between quality and quan-
and stability of the air bubbles, principally by reducing the
tity of the clean coal product. The quality can be defined in
surface tension of water. D5114
terms of ash, sulfur, or Btu content. The quantity can be
fusainSee fusain under coal. designated as yield or heating value recovery (Btu or
fusinitesee fusinite under maceral. combustibles). D5114
funginite, nSee funginite under maceral.
green coke, nas used in Test Method D5061, carbonaceous
geophysical log, na graphic record of the measured or
binder or filler phase material that has exceeded the tem-
computed physical characteristics of the rock section en-
perature of thermoplasticity, but has not obtained the tem-
countered in a borehole, plotted as a continuous function of
perature of metallurgical coke.
depth. Measurements are made by a sonde which contains
DISCUSSIONGreen coke is recognized on the basis of relative
the detectors, as it is withdrawn from the borehole by a wire reflectance in comparison to fully carbonized coke. Green coke exhibits
line. Several measurements are usually made varying degrees of lower reflectance than fully carbonized coke.
simultaneously, and the resulting curves are displayed side D5061
by side on the common depth scale. A common suite of logs
used in coal exploration include caliper, density (gamma- gross calorific value (gross heat of combustion at constant
gamma), natural gamma, and resistivity. volume), Qv(gross) , nthe heat produced by combustion of
caliper log, na continuous mechanical measurement of the unit quantity of a solid or liquid fuel when burned at constant
diameter and thus the rugosity of the borehole. The tool volume in an oxygen bomb calorimeter under specified
identifies zones where swelling or cavings (washouts) have conditions, with the resulting water condensed to a liquid.
DISCUSSIONThe conditions are initial oxygen pressure of 2 and 4
occurred during drilling. The tools value is in allowing
MPa (20 to 40 atm), initial and final temperatures between 20 and 35C
qualitative or quantitative corrections to be made to other (68 to 95F), products in the form of ash, water (aq), and gaseous
geophysical logs which are affected by borehole size (espe- carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen.
cially density). This definition is not applied to gaseous fuels and applies to a volatile
density log (gamma-gamma log), nmeasures electron den- liquid fuel only if it is suitably contained during the measurement so
that the vapor does not mix with the combustion oxygen before
sity within lithologic units which is related to their bulk combustion.
density. The wireline tool records the intensity of gamma The gross calorific value is closely related to the internal energy of
radiation (in counts per second) from a nuclear source within combustion for the same reaction at constant standard temperature and
the tool after it has been attenuated and backscattered by pressure, UC (at tC). It is of opposite sign and differs by a small

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
6
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
amount due to energy effects resulting from compression, temperature (L) to width (W) ratio of 2W < L < 4W) and subdivided based
differences from t, and solution effects that vary with combustion on domain widths as fine lenticular (1.0- to 3.0-m), medium
conditions. Because of the variation of conditions allowed in the lenticular (3.0- to 8.0-m), and coarse lenticular (8.0- to
discussion above, the above definition does not lead to a unique value
for any given fuel. However, the specified conditions limit the possible
12.0-m) size categories. D5061
values to a narrow range for which approximate limits can be calculated lignite ASee lignite A under rank.
for a given fuel.
lignite BSee lignite B under rank.
gross sampleSee gross sample under sample. lignitic classSee lignitic class under rank.
heat capacity, nSynonym for energy equivalent. liptiniteSee liptiniteunder macerals.
lithotype, n(1) Rock form defined on the basis of certain
hemispherical temperature (HT), nin reference to the selected physical characteristics. (2) One of the four macro-
fusibility of coal and coke ash according to Test Method scopically recognized constituents of banded coal: vitrain,
D1857, the temperature at which the cone has fused down to clarain, durain and fusain. D4596
a hemispherical lump at which point the height is one half
the width of the base. D1857 lithology(1) Physical character or a rock, generally as
determined megascopically or with the aid of a low power
high volatile A bituminous coalSee high volatile A bitumi- magnifier. (2) The macroscopic study and description of
nous coal under rank. rocks. D5192
high volatile B bituminous coalSee high volatile B bitumi-
nous coal under rank. lot, na discrete quantity of coal for which the overall quality
high volatile C bituminous coalSee high volatile C bitumi- to a particular precision needs to be determined. D2234/
nous coal under rank. D2234M
impure coalSee impure coal under coal.
low volatile bituminous coalSee low volatile bituminous
incipient anisotropic phase, nas used in Test Method coal under rank.
D5061, a binder-phase carbon texture having a domain size
maceral, nan organic substance in coal that is distinguished
(less than 0.5 m) that is near the measuring resolution of the
and classified on the basis of its optical microscopic prop-
light microscope. D5061
erties.
increment, na small portion of a lot collected by one DISCUSSIONMacerals originate from plant tissues, secretions, and
operation of a sampling device and normally combined with exudates that have been altered by geological processes and may
contain up to several weight percent of inorganic elements in micro-
other increments from the lot to make a gross sample.
scopically indistinguishable form.
D2234/D2234M; D4916
alginite, na liptinite maceral that is generally spherical or
inertiniteSee inertinite under maceral. ovoid, frequently having a crenulated border and somewhat
inertodetriniteSee inertodetrinite under maceral. irregular reflectance and sometimes occurring in clusters re-
inherent ash, nthe residue remaining from the inherent flecting an origin from Botryococcus algae.
impurities after ignition under conditions specified for the DISCUSSIONAlginite often occurs as degraded fragments derived
ash determination. D2234/D2234M from colonial or unicellular bodies.

inherent impurity, nthe inorganic material in coal that is cutinite, na liptinite maceral in the form of a sheet
structurally part of the coal and cannot be separated from it reflecting its origin from leaf- or twig-covering plant cuticle,
by coal preparation methods. D2234/D2234M frequently exhibiting reticulation in planar section and a
serrated edge in cross section.
inherent moistureSee inherent moisture under moisture. exiniteDeprecated term. Use preferred term liptinite;
initial deformation temperature (IT), nin reference to the sometimes has also been used as a synonym for sporinite.
fusibility of coal and coke ash according to Test Method
D1857, the temperature at which the first rounding of the fusinite, nan inertinite maceral distinguished principally
apex of the cone occurs. Shrinkage or warping of the cone is by the preservation of some feature(s) of the plant cell wall
ignored if the tip remains sharp. structure, and with a particle size greater than 50 m except
when it occurs as a fragment within the binder matrix; see also
isoperibol, adja term used in combustion calorimetry mean- semifusinite.
ing constant temperature jacket (environment). funginite, nan inertinite maceral occurring as round or
isotropic phase, nas used in Test Method D5061, a binder- ovoid bodies, frequently containing voids, reflecting an origin
phase carbon texture that exhibits optical properties that are from fungal sclerotia; also occurs (especially in lower rank
the same in all directions when viewed with an optical coals) as interlaced, stringy materials derived from fungal
microscope having mutually exclusive polarized light, for hyphae.
example, crossed nicols. D5061 inertinite, nmacerals that exhibit higher reflectance than
other organic substances in the coal.
laboratory sampleSee laboratory sample under sample. DISCUSSIONIn any coal ranked lower than anthracitic, inertinite
lenticular anisotropic phase, nas used in Test Method reflectance commonly spans the range from only slightly higher than
D5061, a group of binder-phase anisotropic carbon textures associated vitrinite to very high reflectance (often as high as Ro > 6 %).
distinguished by their lens-shaped domains (that is, length In anthracitic rank coals, inertinite reflectance may be lower than that

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
7
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
of vitrinite, and is then recognized by its morphology and form of around ten to several hundred micrometres in diameter. Sporinite often
anisotropy. Highly reflecting inertinite commonly exhibits relief on occurs as fragments derived from these initially ovoid bodies.
polished surface. Its name derives from the fact that most varieties vitrinite, nthe predominant maceral in most coals of
behave inertly in the thermoplastic deformation during the coking
process (except in its lowest reflecting manifestation). The volatile
intermediate reflectance occurring as substantial volumes of
matter yield of inertinite is lower than that of other macerals in the same more or less uniformly reflecting material or as a matrix
coal. enclosing particles of other macerals and mineral matter or as
inertodetrinite, nan inertinite maceral occurring as particles or bands intermixed with other maceral fragments.
DISCUSSIONBecause most vitrinite is derived from the cellular,
individual, angular, clastic fragments incorporated within the structural tissues of plants, it may exhibit relict cell structure. The
matrix of other macerals (commonly vitrinite) or minerals, and reflectance of vitrinite is related to the rank of the coal in which it is
in the size range from 2 to 50 m. found. Reflectance increases (from around Ro = 0.3 % in lignitic coals)
in parallel with the increase in fixed carbon yield associated with
liptinite, nmacerals that exhibit lower reflectance than
increasing rank. Because many of the properties of typical coals reflect
other organic substances in a coal, appearing black to dark gray the properties of the dominating vitrinite, it is common practice to
and that fluoresce under blue to ultraviolet light in coals ranked estimate coal properties and process behaviors by measuring the
high volatile bituminous and lower. reflectance of a representative sampling of vitrinite in the specimen
DISCUSSIONThe fluorescence of liptinite distinguishes fine-grained according to procedures described in Test Method D2798.
liptinite from similar sized, low reflectance, nonfluorescing clay min- Pseudovitrinite, a certain variety of vitrinite, is differentiated by some
erals. Liptinite is derived principally from lipid substances forming practitioners. It exhibits slightly higher reflectance than most of the
skins (exines) and resinous secretions or exudates of plants. Liptinite is vitrinite in the coal and is commonly slitted, with indistinct remnant
subclassified on the basis of morphology inherited from plant structure. cell structure and angular or jagged edges. Pseudovitrinite has been
In coals in which vitrinite reflectance exceeds about 1.4 %, liptinite can postulated to be less thermoplastic in the coking process. The term
be indistinguishable from vitrinite. Liptinite has the highest volatile vitrinite is currently used as both a maceral and maceral group.
matter yield of the macerals in a coal.
macriniteSee macrinite under maceral.
macrinite, nan inertinite maceral, generally nonangular, mechanical cell, na type of flotation cell that uses mechani-
exhibiting no relict plant cell wall structure and larger than 10 cal agitation of a pulp by means of an immersed impeller
m. (rotor) and stator stirring mechanism. Aeration to the cell can
micrinite, nan inertinite maceral, generally nonangular, be from an external pressurized air source or self-induced
exhibiting no relict plant cell wall structure, smaller than 10 m air. D5114
and most commonly occurring as particles around 1- to 5-m
medium volatile bituminous coalSee medium volatile bitu-
diameter.
minous coal under rank.
resinite, na liptinite maceral occurring as rounded, ovoid, meta-anthraciteSee meta-anthracite under rank.
or rod-like bodies assuming the shape of an enclosing cell micriniteSee micrinite under maceral.
lumen or as irregular shapes filling cracks in the coal. microprocessor, na central processing chip within the elec-
secretinite, nan inertinite maceral occurring as round, tronic controller section of the apparatus.
ovoid, or oblong bodies, without obvious plant structure, mineralized coalSee mineralized coal under coal.
vesicled to non-vesicled, sometimes containing characteristic mineral matter, n in coal, historically considered to be the
fractures, slits, or a notch. non-organic fraction composed of physically discrete par-
DISCUSSIONSecretinite is considered to be derived by the oxidation ticles of minerals, such as clays, quartz, pyrite, etc., and all
of plant resin secretions or humic gels. Vesicular and non-vesicular
elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and
secretinite was formerly included in sclerotinite of fungal origin.
Secretinite is a common maceral in medium-and high-rank Permian and sulfur in the organic fraction.
Carboniferous coals DISCUSSIONThe mineral matter content is employed in the classi-
fication of coals according to rank (Classification D388). Since it is
semifusinite, nan inertinite maceral with morphology like impractical to directly determine the proportion of mineral matter (for
fusinite sometimes with less distinct evidence of cellular purposes other than scientific study of coals), it is customarily esti-
structure, but with reflectance ranging from slightly greater mated from the ash residue following high-temperature combustion. A
than that of associated vitrinite to some value intermediate to commonly used estimating technique is that attributed to S. W. Parr
that of the brightest fusinite. The particle size is also greater (Classification D388):
Mineral Matter = 1.08 Ash % + 0.55 Sulfur %
than 50 m except when it occurs as a fragment within the In higher-rank coals, the non-organic fraction is composed mainly of
binder matrix. minerals such as those named above. In lower-rank coals it is made up
DISCUSSIONThe precise reflectance boundary between semifusinite of both minerals and non-mineral inorganics (sometimes collectively
and fusinite has not been universally defined, although some practitio- called inorganic matter) such as alkali and alkaline-earth cations bound
ners place the division at Ro = 2.0 %; hence, semifusinite is somewhat to carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups, hydrogen-bonded alkali
vaguely defined as fusinite with low reflectance. metals, and other atomically distributed species. In combustion of both
sporinite, na liptinite maceral exhibiting various lenticular, higher- and lower-rank coals, much of the inorganic matter reports to
the ash residue while many of the decomposition products of some
oval, or round forms that reflect the cross-sectioning of a species such as hydrates, carbonates, and sulfates are lost to the gaseous
flattened, hollow, ovoid body; sometimes exhibits rod-like phase. Note that the terms mineral matter and inorganic matter are often
projections that are small relative to the size of the total body. used interchangeably, although this is technically incorrect since the
DISCUSSIONSporinite originated as a lipid substance that covered, latter is a more-encompassing expression which includes the mineral
as a skin, ovoid spore or pollen grains which commonly ranged from matter.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
8
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
mineral parting, ndiscrete layer of mineral or mineral-rich Some sources of surface moisture are: groundwater, drilling fluids,
sediment interbedded within lower mineral matter content dust-suppressant sprays, preparation plant water, and precipitation.
coal. D388
DISCUSSIONThe term is generally reserved for layers that are total moisture, nall of the moisture in and on a consign-
visually distinct by virtue of their mineral content. Besides their ment or sample of coal.
obvious contribution to the mineral content (and ash yield) of mined DISCUSSIONIn a consignment or sample of coal in which surface
coal, mineral partings frequently serve as planes of weakness upon moisture is present, total moisture is the sum of surface moisture and
which the coal breaks. D388 pore moisture. In consignments or samples of coal in which some
portion of the as-mined moisture may have been removed by partial
moisture, nin coal, that water in and on coal assayed in drying, total moisture may be less than the inherent moisture. Total
accordance with standard test methods in which the final step moisture is commonly determined by quantitatively air drying a sample
is the measurement of mass loss from a coal sample heated and then assaying residual moisture in the air-dried sample; thus, total
to 104 to 110C at specified conditions of residence time, moisture is the sum of the air-dry loss and the residual moisture
atmosphere, sample mass, and equipment configuration. adjusted to the as-received basis. D3302, D2961
DISCUSSIONAll coals are porous and, in their natural state, the pores natural pH, nthe measured pH of the pulp before the
are essentially full of water (inherent moisture). When coal is mined
addition of collector, frother, or any conditioning agents.
and processed, water may also be present on the surface of the pieces
of coal (surface moisture). Water formed by the thermal decomposition D5114
of the organic fraction of coal or associated mineral matter is not net calorific value (net heat of combustion at constant
considered part of the moisture content of coal. In some coals, a very
pressure), nthe heat produced by combustion of unit
small portion of the assayed mass loss may be volatile hydrocarbons
and dissolved or adsorbed gases. ASTM-standardized procedures for quantity of a solid or liquid fuel when burned, at a constant
the determination of moisture in coal are designed for commercial pressure of 1 atm (0.1 MPa), under conditions such that all
purposes to facilitate trade and resource evaluation; they may not be the water in the products remains in the forms of vapor.
adequate for research or other activities with different requirements. DISCUSSIONThe net calorific value is a lower heating value that can
D3302, D3173, D2961 be calculated from the gross calorific value by making a correction for
the difference between a constant volume process and a constant
equilibrium moisture, nthe moisture in a coal sample as pressure process, and a deduction for the vaporization of the water in
determined in accordance with Test Method D1412. D1412 the combustion products, including both the water initially present as
inherent moisture, nin coal, the moisture that exists as an moisture and that formed by combustion. At 20C (68F), the total
deduction is 1030 Btu/lb of water (2.395 MJ/kg) including 1055 Btu/lb
integral part of the coal in its natural state, including water in
of water (2.454 MJ/kg) for the enthalpy of vaporization of water.
pores, but not that present in macroscopically visible fractures. The net calorific value is closely related to the net enthalpy change
DISCUSSIONIn coal as it exists in the ground before it is disturbed, of combustion at standard temperature and pressure, HC (tC). It is of
the pores are essentially filled with water (gases, for example, methane, opposite sign and differs in magnitude by a small amount due to
may occupy a minor proportion of the pore volume in some coals); this enthalpy effects resulting from compression, temperature differences
pore-filling moisture is determined as total moisture and referred to as from t, and solution effects, that vary with the combustion conditions.
inherent moisture in a freshly collected sample that (1) does not exhibit
visible water on fracture surfaces, (2) has not been allowed to dry after nonbanded coalSee nonbanded coal under coal.
collection, and (3) was collected from a fresh coal face that is not dried nonprobability sample, na sample of which the sampling
(see Classification D388). On samples not meeting these criteria, units have not been selected in a manner that satisfies the
inherent moisture may be estimated by determining equilibrium mois- minimum requirements for probability sampling.
ture in accordance with Test Method D1412. D388, D1412 DISCUSSIONNo meaningful statistical inference can be made with
pore moisture, nmoisture in the pores of coal, which may data obtained from a nonprobability sample. No meaningful statement
be quantitavely equivalent to or less than inherent moisture can be made concerning the precision, standard error, or bias of the
sample.
depending upon the state of dryness of the sample.
residual moisture, nthat moisture remaining in the sample openingfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, openings and
after air drying. apertures shall be regarded as synonomous terms. Dimen-
DISCUSSIONResidual moisture is neither a standard state nor a
sions for round and square openings shall be determined as
characteristic property of a coal. Air drying only removes water that can follows: for round holes, dimensions shall refer to the
evaporate at or near ambient laboratory conditions leaving in the coal opening diameter; for square holes, dimensions shall refer to
water that will not evaporate at those conditions. Different laboratory the distance between parallel wires.
environments or different drying temperature or both will produce
significant differences in air-dry loss and residual moisture. Residual oxidized coalsee weathered coal
moisture is assayed by determining the mass lost from drying the prepared coalfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, any
sample at 104 to 110C at specified conditions of residence time,
coal, regardless of its topsize, that has been manually or
atmosphere, particle size, sample mass, and equipment configuration.
D3173, D3302 mechanically cleaned. This includes coal that has been
processed over a picking table or air tables through a
surface moisture, nthat portion of total moisture in a coal breaker, jig, or other device which segregates according to
lot or sample collected from a lot, core face channel, or other size or density (specific gravity).
source that is in excess of inherent moisture.
DISCUSSIONSurface moisture is not to be equated with mass loss proximate analysis, nin the case of coal and coke, the
upon air dryinga practice in some countries. Operationally, surface determination, by prescribed methods, of moisture, volatile
moisture is the difference between total moisture and inherent moisture. matter, fixed carbon (by difference), and ash.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
9
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
DISCUSSIONUnless otherwise specified, the term proximate analysis lignitic class, na class of rank consisting of lignite A and
does not include determinations of sulfur or phosphorus or any lignite B.
determinations other than those named.
low volatile bituminous coal, nthe rank of coal, within the
pulp, na fluid mixture of solids and water, also known as bituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the dry
slurry. D5114 and mineral-matter-free basis, the volatile matter content of the
random variance of increment collection (unit variance)See coal is greater than 14 % but equal to or less than 22 % (or the
random variance of increment collection (unit variance) fixed carbon content is equal to or greater than 78 % but less
under variance. than 86 %), and the coal commonly agglomerates.
rank, nof coal, a classification designation that indicates the medium volatile bituminous coal, nthe rank of coal, within
degree of metamorphism, or progressive alteration, from the bituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the
lignite to anthracite. dry and mineral-matter-free basis, the volatile matter content of
anthracite, nthe rank of coal, within the anthracitic class of the coal is greater than 22 % but equal to or less than 31 % (or
Classification D388, such that on the dry and mineral-matter- the fixed carbon content is equal to or greater than 69 % but
free basis, the volatile matter content of the coal is greater than less than 78 %), and the coal commonly agglomerates.
2 % but equal to or less than 8 % (or the fixed carbon content meta-anthracite, nthe rank of coal, within the anthracite
is equal to or greater than 92 % but less than 98 %), and the class of Classification D388, such that, on the dry and
coal is nonagglomerating. mineral-matter-free basis, the volatile matter content of the
anthracitic class, na class of rank consisting of coal is equal to or less than 2 % (or the fixed carbon is equal to
semianthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite. or greater than 98 %), and the coal is nonagglomerating.
bituminous class, na class of rank consisting of high semianthracite, nthe rank of coal, within the anthracitic
volatile C bituminous coal, high volatile B bituminous coal, class of Classification D388, such that, on the dry and
high volatile A bituminous coal, medium volatile bituminous mineral-matter-free basis, the volatile matter content of the
coal, and low volatile bituminous coal. coal is greater than 8 % but equal to or less than 14 % (or the
high volatile A bituminous coal, nthe rank of coal, within fixed carbon content is equal to or greater than 86 % but less
the bituminous class of the Classification D388, such that on than 92 %), and the coal is nonagglomerating.
the dry and mineral-matter-free basis, the volatile matter subbituminous class, na class of rank consisting of subbi-
content of the coal is greater than 31 % (or the fixed carbon tuminous C coal, subbituminous B coal, and subbituminous A
content is less than 69 %), and its gross calorific value is equal coal.
to or greater than 14 000 Btu/lb (32.65 Mj/kg) of coal on the
moist, mineral-matter-free basis, and the coal is commonly subbituminous C coal, nthe rank of coal, within the
agglomerating. subbituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the
moist, mineral-matter-free basis, the gross calorific value of the
high volatile B bituminous coal, nthe rank of coal, within coal in British thermal units per pound is equal to greater than
the bituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the 8300 (19.31 Mj/kg) but less than 9500 (22.10 Mj/kg), and the
moist, mineral-matter-free basis, the gross calorific value of the coal is nonagglomerating.
coal in British thermal units per pound is equal to greater than
13 000 (30.24 Mj/kg) but less than 14 000 (32.54 Mj/kg) and subbituminous B coal, nthe rank of coal, within the
the coal commonly agglomerates. subbituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the
moist, mineral-matter-free basis, the gross calorific value of the
high volatile C bituminous coal, nthe rank of coal, within
coal in British thermal units per pound is equal to greater than
the bituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the
9500 (22.10 Mj/kg) but less than 10 500 (24.42 Mj/kg) and the
moist, mineral-matter-free basis, the gross calorific value of the
coal is nonagglomerating.
coal in British thermal units per pound is equal to or greater
than 11 500 (26.75 Mj/kg) but less than 13 000 (30.24 Mj/kg) subbituminous A coal, nthe rank of coal, within the
and the coal commonly agglomerates, or equal to or greater subbituminous class of Classification D388, such that, on the
than 10 500 (24.42 Mj/kg) but less than 11 500 (26.75 Mj/kg) moist, mineral-matter-free basis, the gross calorific value of the
and the coal agglomerates. coal in British thermal units per pound is equal to greater than
lignite A, nthe rank of coal, within the lignitic class of 10 500 (24.42 Mj/kg) but less than 11 500 (26.75 Mj/kg) and
Classification D388, such that, on the moist, mineral-matter- the coal is nonagglomerating.
free basis, the gross calorific value of the coal in British raw coalfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, any coal,
thermal units per pound is equal to greater than 6300 (14.65 regardless of its topsize, that has not been manually or
Mj/kg) but less than 8300 (19.31 Mj/kg), and the coal is mechanically cleaned. Crushed coal that has not been
nonagglomerating. mechanically cleaned (including coal that has not been
lignite B, nthe rank of coal, within the lignitic class of through a breaker which normally rejects oversize) is con-
Classification D388, such that, on the moist, mineral-matter- sidered to be raw coal. Coal delivered to the surface from an
free basis, the gross calorific value of the coal in British underground mine is considered to be raw coal even when
thermal units per pound is less than 6300 (14.65 Mj/kg), and crushing and grinding is done underground. Coal removed
the coal is nonagglomerating. from the pit of a surface mine is considered to be raw coal

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
10
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
even when breaking and crushing facilities are provided in or off-the-road haul truck, dump hopper which feeds a
the pit. D4749 pit-to-plant conveyor, and so forth. For both underground
and surface mines, ROM coal is as-mined and has not been
recovery, nthe percent of the valuable component (that is,
exposed to any treatment such as breaking, crushing, or
Btu or combustible) from the feed that reports to the froth
cleaning except for that done by the normal operations used
concentrate product. D5114
to extract the coal from the ground, that is, blasting, ripping,
reporting bases: loading, cutting, and so forth.
as-determined basis, nanalytical data obtained from the sample, na quantity of material taken from a larger quantity
analysis sample of coal or coke after conditioning and prepa- for the purpose of estimating properties or composition of
ration to No. 60 (250-m) sieve in accordance with Practice the larger quantity. D2234/D2234M
D2013. As-determined data represents the numerical values
obtained at the particular moisture level in the sample at the analysis sample, nfinal subsample prepared from the
time of analysis. These are normally converted, according to original gross sample but reduced to 100 % through No. 60
formulae contained in Practice D3180, to conventional report- (250-m) sieve and divided to not less than 50 g. D2013;
ing bases. D2234/D2234M
as-received basis, nanalytical data calculated to the mois- divided sample, nSee subsample.
ture condition of the sample as it arrived at the laboratory and gross sample, na sample representing one lot of coal and
before any processing or conditioning. If the sample has been composed of a number of increments on which neither reduc-
maintained in a sealed state so that there has been no gain or tion nor division has been performed. D2013; D2234/D2234M
loss, the as-received basis is equivalent to the moisture basis as laboratory sample, nthe sample, not less than the permis-
sampled. sible weight delivered to the laboratory for further preparation
dry, ash-free basis, ndata calculated to a theoretical base of and analysis. D2013
no moisture or ash associated with the sample. Numerical representative sample, na sample collected in such a
values as established by Test Methods D3173 and D3174 are manner that every particle in the lot to be sampled is equally
used for converting the as-determined data to a moisture- and represented in the gross or divided sample. D2013;D2234/
ash-free basis. D2234M; D4916
dry basis, ndata calculated to a theoretical base of no subsample, na sample taken from another sample. D2013;
moisture associated with the sample. The numerical value as D2234/D2234M; D4916
established by Test Method D3173 is used for converting the
as-determined data to a dry basis. unbiased sample (representative sample)a sample free of
bias. D2013; D2234/D2234M; D4916
equilibrium moisture basis, ndata calculated to the mois-
ture level established as the equilibrium moisture. Numerical sample division, nthe process whereby a sample is reduced
values as established by Test Method D1412 are used for the in weight without change in particle size. D2013;D2234/
calculation. D3180 D2234M; D4916
representative sampleSee representative sample under sample reduction, nthe process whereby a sample is re-
sample. duced in particle size by crushing or grinding without
residual moistureSee residual moisture under moisture. significant change. D2013
resiniteSee resinite under maceral. sample preparation, nthe process that may include air
ribbon anisotropic phase, nas used in Test Method D5061, drying, crushing, division, and mixing of a gross sample for
a group of binder-phase anisotropic carbon textures distin- the purpose of obtaining an unbiased analysis sample.
guished by their ribbon-like domains (that is, length (L) to D2013
width (W) ratio of L > 4W), and subdivided based on domain
width as fine ribbon (2.0- to 12.0-m), medium ribbon (12.0- seam moisture, nsynonym for inherent moisture.
to 25.0-m), and coarse ribbon (>25.0-m) size categories.
semianthraciteSee semianthracite under rank.
D5061
semifusiniteSee semifusinite under maceral.
riffle, na hand-fed sample divider device that divides the secretinite, nSee secretinite under maceral.
sample into two parts of approximately the same weight. significant loss, nany loss that introduces a bias in final
D2013 results that is of appreciable economic importance to the
concerned parties. D2013; D2234/D2234M; D4916
roof, nthe rock material immediately overlying a coal bed.
size consist, nthe particle size distribution of a coal. D2013;
run-of-mine (ROM) coalfor the purpose of Test Method D2234/D2234M; D4916
D4749, (1) in the case of an underground mine, it is that coal
delivered to the surface by a slope belt, hoist, and so forth. softening temperature (ST), nin reference to the fusibility
(2) in the case of a surface mine, it is that coal as it exists of coal and coke ash according to Test Method D1857, the
after it has been removed from the pit and placed into the temperature at which the cone has fused down to a spherical
initial means of transportation whether it be an on-the-road lump in which the height is equal to the width at the base.

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
11
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
solids concentration, nthe ratio, expressed as a percent, of by-products, or coke, inclusive of carbonate in any form.
the weight (mass) of solids to the sum of the weight of solids D6316
plus water. D5114
total moistureSee total moisture under moisture.
sonde, nan elongate cylindrical tool assembly used in a total varianceSee total variance under variance.
borehole to acquire a geophysical log. ultimate analysis, nin the case of coal and coke, the
spacing of increments, npertains to the kind of intervals determination of carbon and hydrogen in the material, as
between increments. Two spacing methods are recognized: found in the gaseous products of its complete combustion,
systematic and random. Systematic spacing is usually pref- the determinations of sulfur, nitrogen, and ash in the material
erable. as a whole, and the calculation of oxygen by difference.
DISCUSSIONThe determination of phosphorus or chlorine is not by
systematic spacing 1, nin which the movements of indi- definition a part of the ultimate analysis of coal or coke. See Test
vidual increment collection are spaced evenly in time or in Method D2361 for the determination of chlorine and Test Methods
position over the lot. D2795 for the determination of phosphorus.
Moisture is not by definition a part of the ultimate analysis of coal or
random spacing 2, nin which the increments are spaced at coke but must be determined so that analytical data may be converted
random in time or in position over the lot. D4916 to bases other than that of the analysis sample.
Inasmuch as some coals contain mineral carbonates, and practically
sparking fuels, nwithin the context of Test Method D3175, all contain clay or shale containing combined water, a part of the
fuels that do not yield a coherent cake as residue in the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found in the products of combustion
volatile matter determination but do evolve gaseous products may arise from these mineral components. D3176
at a rate sufficient to mechanically carry solid particles out of
the crucible when heated at the standard rate. Such coals unbiased sampleSee unbiased sample under sample.
normally include all low-rank noncaking coals and lignites variance, nthe mean square of deviations (or errors) of a set
but may also include those anthracites, semianthracites, of observations; the sum of squared deviations (or errors) of
bituminous, chars, and cokes that lose solid particles as individual observations with respect to their arithmetic mean
described above. These are defined as sparking fuels because divided by the number of observations less one (degrees of
particles escaping at the higher temperatures may become freedom); the square of the standard deviation (or standard
incandescent and spark as they are emitted. error). D2013; D2234/D2234M
random variance of increment collection (unit variance), Sr2,
sporiniteSee sporinite under maceral.
nthe theoretical variance calculated for a uniformly mixed lot
standard deviation, nthe most usual measure of the disper- and extrapolated to 0.5-kg (1-lb) increment size.
sion of observed values or results expressed as the positive D2234/D2234M
square root of the variance. D2013; D2234/D2234M
segregation variance of increment collection, Ss2, nthe
subbituminous A coalSee subbituminous A coal under rank. variance caused by nonrandom distribution of ash content or
subbituminous B coalSee subbituminous B coal under rank. other constituent in the lot. For a method of estimating this
subbituminous C coalSee subbituminous C coal under rank. variance, see Annex A1 of Test Methods D2234/D2234M.
subbituminous classSee subbituminous class under rank. D2234/D2234M
subsampleSee subsample under sample. total variance, So2, nthe overall variance resulting from
tailings, nthe underflow product from coal froth flotation. collecting single increments and including division and analy-
D5114 sis of the single increments. D2013; D2234/D2234M
textural component, nas used in Test Method D5061, the variance of analysis, Sa2, nthe variance caused by chance
collective term used to describe carbon forms and recogniz- errors (deviations) of analysis. D2013
able coal- and process-derived components (binder-phase, variance of division, Sd2, nthe variance caused by chance
filler-phase, and miscellaneous material), in coke. D5061 errors (deviations) of sample division. D2013
topsize, nthe opening of the smallest screen in the series variance of division and analysis, Sda2, nthe variance
upon which is retained less than 5 % of the sample (see Test caused by the combined chance errors of division and analysis.
Method D4749). D2013; D2234/D2234M; D4916 D2013
topsize, nominalfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, the vitrainSee vitrain under coal.
sieve designating the upper limit or topsize shall be that vitriniteSee vitrinite under maceral.
sieve of the series given in the Standard Series of Sieves vitrinite type, nas used in Test Method D5061, reflectance
section with the smallest openings upon which is cumula- classes of vitrinite which span 0.1 % reflectance intervals.
tively retained a total of less than 5 % of the sample. This DISCUSSIONThis term is commonly referred to as V-type. For
defined topsize is not to be confused with the size of the example, V-type 6 includes vitrinite reflectance values from 0.6 through
largest particle in the lot. D4749 0.69 %. D5061
total carbon, ncarbon content remaining in the solid prod- volatile matter, nthose products, exclusive of moisture,
ucts derived from the combustion or reaction of coal, coal given off by a material such as gas or vapor, determined by

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
12
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
definite prescribed methods which may vary according to the 4.2 Terms Used in Megascopic Descriptions of Coal Seams
nature of the material. and Hand Specimens of Coal:
DISCUSSIONIn the case of coal and coke, the methods used shall be 4.2.1 Some relationships of terms are shown in outline form
those prescribed in Test Method D3175. below. Defined terms are indicated by bold type. Coal:
washability analysis of coal, nthe analysis of the specific banded coal:
gravity distribution of chemical and physical characteristics attrital coal
of coal. fusain
DISCUSSIONThe specific gravity fractions are obtained by subject- vitrain
ing the material being studied to a series of solutions, each with a nonbanded coal:
discrete specific gravity, that cover the range of specific gravities in cannel or boghead or transition between these varieties
question. In the case of the washability analysis of coal, these solutions impure coal:
are obtained by the mixing of various organic liquids that are relatively bone coal
inert toward the majority of coal types. The distribution, as determined
by the analysis, is affected by the physical condition of the sample
mineralized coal
subjected to the washability analysis, for example, the moisture content other impure coal
and the size content of the material. D4371 4.3 Terms Used in Microscopical Description and Analysis
water equivalent, nSynonym for energy equivalent. of Coal:
4.3.1 ClassificationThe classification of the microscopic
weathered coal, ncoal that has been exposed to climatic constituents into groups of similar properties in a given coal is
conditions (precipitation, sunlight, wind, temperature as follows:
variations, etc.) and sometimes ground water, such that its Maceral Group Maceral
properties are altered compared to those in coal from the
same seam that has not be so exposed. Vitrinite vitrinite
DISCUSSIONWeathering is always accompanied by oxidation of the Liptinite alginite
organic material, commonly resulting in an increased concentration of cutinite
oxygenated functional groups (for example OH and COOH). More resinite
pronounced weathering is accompanied by cracking and frequently, by sporinite
mineral efflorescence. Milder weathering may not be detectable by
Inertinite fusinite
visual inspection, but all weathering is manifest by increased solubility
funginite
in alkalis (see Test Method D5263), reduced calorific value, and, for inertodetrinite
bituminous coals reduced agglutinating or agglomerating properties macrinite
upon heating. D388, D720D720, D5515 micrinite
secretinite
wet sievingfor the purpose of Test Method D4749, the test semifusinite
method for the sieving of coal that uses water as a medium
for facilitating the segregation of the sample into particle
size; this is generally used when testing coal particles 600
m (No. 30 U.S.A. Standard Series) or smaller. D4749
yield, nthe weight percent of the feed that reports to the
concentrate. D5114

4. Classification and Relationship of Terms


4.1 Terms Used to Classify Coal by Rank:
4.1.1 ClassificationThe classification of terms used to
classify coal by rank in accordance with Classification D388
are as follows:
Class Group

Anthracitic meta-anthracite
anthracite
semianthracite

Bituminous low volatile bituminous coal


medium volatile bituminous coal
high volatile A bituminous coal
high volatile B bituminous coal
high volatile C bituminous coal

Subbituminous subbituminous A coal


subbituminous B coal
subbituminous C coal

Lignitic lignite A
lignite B

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
13
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
D121 09a
5. Keywords
5.1 analysis; coal; coke; definitions; sampling; terminology;
terms

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.astm.org/
COPYRIGHT/).

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Nov 18 15:29:27 EST 2014
14
Downloaded/printed by
Universidad Nacional De Colombia pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.